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1.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 58441, Jan.-Jun. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550242

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução: A gestação configura-se como um acontecimento único e memorável para a vida de uma mulher. A gravidez de alto risco é uma experiência estressante em razão dos riscos a que estão submetidos a mãe e o bebê e devido às mudanças que afetam negativamente o seu equilíbrio emocional. Objetivo: Identificar os sentimentos vivenciados pela gestante frente à gravidez de alto risco. Método: Descritivo e exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, com amostra por conveniência composta por mulheres com gestação de alto risco, selecionadas de acordo com a disponibilidade do serviço de internamento, até a saturação das entrevistas. A coleta dos dados foi realizada em um período de dois meses através de entrevistas guiadas por um roteiro. Os dados foram analisados por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo segundo Minayo. Resultados: Fizeram parte 37 mulheres. Os resultados foram oeganizados nas categorias: Como se deu o diagnóstico de alto risco; Sentimentos ao descobrir que a gestação é/era de risco; Sentimentos em relação ao apoio familiar acerca da gestação de alto risco. Os sentimentos relatados pelas gestantes e puérperas que conviveram com a gravidez de alto risco, deixam evidentes os impactos que este evento traz não somente na saúde física sobretudo para a emocional, deixando as gestantes fragilizadas. Conclusão: Assim, o estudo nos permitiu perceber que os sentimentos vivenciados nesse processo podem interfir na vida dessas mulheres, e de forma negativa. Mas, que apesar dessa situação, estas expressam sentimentos ambíguos, pois mesmo com o risco gestacional, muitas mostram-se felizes pela dádiva de ser mãe.


Resumen Introducción: El embarazo se considera un evento único y memorable en la vida de una mujer. El embarazo de alto riesgo es una experiencia estresante debido a los riesgos a los que están expuestas tanto la madre como su bebé y a los cambios que afectan negativamente su equilibrio emocional. Objetivo: Identificar los sentimientos experimentados por las mujeres embarazadas frente a un embarazo de alto riesgo. Metodología: Descriptivo y exploratorio con enfoque cualitativo, con una muestra a conveniencia compuesta por mujeres con embarazos de alto riesgo, seleccionadas según la disponibilidad del servicio de hospitalización, hasta la saturación de las entrevistas. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo durante un período de dos meses a través de entrevistas guiadas. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido según Minayo. Resultados: Participaron 37 mujeres y los resultados se organizaron en las siguientes categorías: cómo se realizó el diagnóstico de alto riesgo; sentimientos al descubrir que el embarazo era de riesgo; sentimientos con respecto al apoyo familiar en relación con el embarazo de alto riesgo. Los sentimientos relatados por las mujeres embarazadas y posparto que vivieron un embarazo de alto riesgo evidencian los impactos que tiene este evento no solo en la salud física sino, especialmente, en el bienestar emocional, pues deja a las mujeres embarazadas en un estado de vulnerabilidad. Conclusión: El estudio nos permitió darnos cuenta de que los sentimientos experimentados en este proceso pueden interferir en la vida de estas mujeres de manera negativa. Sin embargo, a pesar de esta situación, muchas de ellas expresan sentimientos ambiguos, porque, incluso con el riesgo gestacional, están agradecidas por el regalo de la maternidad.


Abstract Introduction: Pregnancy is considered a unique and memorable event in a woman's life. High-risk pregnancy is a stressful experience due to the risks to which the mother and the baby are exposed, and due to the changes that negatively affect their emotional balance. Objective: To identify the feelings experienced by pregnant women facing high-risk pregnancy. Method: Descriptive and exploratory, employing a qualitative approach, the study featured a convenience sample of women with high-risk pregnancies, selected based on inpatient service availability, until interview saturation was achieved. Data collection was conducted over a two-month period through scripted interviews. Data analysis was performed utilizing Minayo's content analysis technique. Results: Thirty-seven women participated in the study. The results were categorized as follows: How the high-risk diagnosis was determined; Feelings upon discovering the pregnancy was high-risk; Feelings regarding family support regarding the high-risk pregnancy. The feelings reported by pregnant and postpartum women who experienced high-risk pregnancies clearly reveal the impacts this event has, not only on physical health, but especially on emotional well-being, leaving the pregnant women in a vulnerable state. Conclusion: The study allowed us to realize that the feelings experienced in this process can negatively interfere in the lives of these women. However, despite this situation, many of them express mixed feelings, because even with the gestational risk, they are grateful for the gift of motherhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/psychology , Women's Health , Pregnancy, High-Risk/psychology
2.
J. bras. nefrol ; 46(2): e20230061, Apr.-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550490

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Kidney transplantation (KT) improves quality of life, including fertility recovery. Objective: to describe outcomes of post-KT pregnancy and long-term patient and graft survival compared to a matched control group of female KT recipients who did not conceive. Methods: retrospective single-center case-control study with female KT recipients from 1977 to 2016, followed-up until 2019. Results: there were 1,253 female KT patients of childbearing age in the study period: 78 (6.2%) pregnant women (cases), with a total of 97 gestations. The median time from KT to conception was 53.0 (21.5 - 91.0) months. Abortion rate was 41% (spontaneous 21.6%, therapeutic 19.6%), preterm delivery, 32%, and at term delivery, 24%. Pre-eclampsia (PE) occurred in 42% of pregnancies that reached at least 20 weeks. The presence of 2 or more risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes was significantly associated with abortions [OR 3.33 (95%CI 1.43 - 7.75), p = 0.007] and with kidney graft loss in 2 years. The matched control group of 78 female KT patients was comparable on baseline creatinine [1.2 (1.0 - 1.5) mg/dL in both groups, p = 0.95] and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) [0.27 (0.15 - 0.44) vs. 0.24 (0.02 - 0.30), p = 0.06]. Graft survival was higher in cases than in controls in 5 years (85.6% vs 71.5%, p = 0.012) and 10 years (71.9% vs 55.0%, p = 0.012) of follow-up. Conclusion: pregnancy can be successful after KT, but there are high rates of abortions and preterm deliveries. Pre-conception counseling is necessary, and should include ethical aspects.


Resumo Histórico: Transplante renal (TR) melhora qualidade de vida, incluindo recuperação da fertilidade. Objetivo: descrever desfechos gestacionais pós-TR e sobrevida de longo prazo da paciente e do enxerto renal comparada a um grupo controle pareado de receptoras de TR que não conceberam. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo caso-controle com receptoras de TR de 1977 a 2016, acompanhadas até 2019. Resultados: foram identificadas 1.253 receptoras de TR em idade fértil no período do estudo: 78 (6,2%) gestantes (casos), total de 97 gestações. Tempo mediano entre TR até concepção foi 53,0 (21,5 - 91,0) meses. Taxa de aborto foi 41% (espontâneo 21,6%, terapêutico 19,6%), parto prematuro, 32%, e a termo, 24%. Pré-eclâmpsia (PE) ocorreu em 42% das gestações que alcançaram pelo menos 20 semanas. Presença de 2 ou mais fatores de risco para desfechos gestacionais desfavoráveis foi significativamente associada a abortos [OR 3,33 (IC95% 1,43 - 7,75), p = 0,007] e perda de enxerto renal em 2 anos. O grupo controle de 78 mulheres com TR foi comparável na creatinina basal [1,2 (1,0 - 1,5) mg/dL nos dois grupos, p = 0,95] e na relação proteína/creatinina urinária (RPCU) [0,27 (0,15 - 0,44) vs. 0,24 (0,02 - 0,30), p = 0,06]. Sobrevida do enxerto foi maior nos casos que nos controles em 5 anos (85,6% vs. 71,5%, p = 0,012) e 10 anos (71,9% vs. 55,0%, p = 0,012) de acompanhamento. Conclusão: a gestação pode ser bem-sucedida após TR, mas existem altas taxas de abortos e partos prematuros. Aconselhamento pré-concepção é necessário e deve incluir aspectos éticos.

3.
Med. clín. soc ; 8(1)abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550529

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La sífilis en embarazadas, sigue siendo un gran problema de salud pública en todo el mundo, y en Paraguay, no es la excepción. La sífilis congénita puede provocar abortos, muertes fetales y neonatales, peso bajo al nacer, prematuridad y otras anomalías congénitas, el conocimiento general de la población en edad fértil es fundamental. Objetivo: Analizar los conocimientos y prácticas sobre sífilis materna y sífilis congénita en adolescentes embarazadas en un Hospital General de Paraguay. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo, fenomenológico descriptivo. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó la entrevista, simple que fue grabada con previa autorización del participante, la conclusión y recomendación serán entregados a la institución y a las adolescentes embarazadas. Resultados: Participaron diez adolescentes, en su mayoría de 19 años de edad, cinco conocen que la sífilis se transmite a través de las relaciones sexuales, sin embargo, desconocen acerca de cómo se transmite la sífilis congénita. Cinco de las adolescentes menciona haber iniciado las relaciones sexuales a los 16 años. Dos adolescentes a los 15 años, dos a los 14 años y una a los 17 años, nueve de las adolescentes embarazadas mencionan acudir a sus controles prenatales de forma periódica. Dos aún no se han realizado el test de VDRL. Discusión: Se concluye en cuanto al conocimiento, que solo cinco de diez adolescentes conocen acerca de la sífilis, sin embargo, no conocen sobre la sífilis congénita. En cuanto a las prácticas preventivas, 10 acuden de forma periódica a sus controles prenatales.


Introduction: Syphilis in pregnant women continues to be a major public health problem throughout the world, and in Paraguay, it is no exception. Congenital syphilis can cause abortions, fetal and neonatal deaths, low birth weight, prematurity, and other congenital anomalies; general knowledge of the population of childbearing age is essential. Objective: To analyze the knowledge and practices about maternal syphilis and congenital syphilis in pregnant adolescents in a General Hospital in Paraguay. Methodology: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological study was carried out. A simple interview was used to collect data, which was recorded with prior authorization from the participant. The conclusion and recommendation will be delivered to the institution and to the pregnant adolescents. Results: Ten adolescents participated, mostly 19 years of age, five know that syphilis is transmitted through sexual relations, however, they do not know how congenital syphilis is transmitted. Five of the adolescent's mention having started sexual relations at the age of 16. Two adolescents at 15 years old, two at 14 years old and one at 17 years old, nine of the pregnant adolescent's mention attending their prenatal check-ups periodically. Two have not yet been tested for VDRL. Discussion: It is concluded in terms of knowledge that only five out of ten adolescents know about syphilis; however, they do not know about congenital syphilis. Regarding preventive practices, 10 attend their prenatal check-ups periodically.

4.
Rev. Baiana Saúde Pública (Online) ; 47(4): 11-21, 20240131.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537624

ABSTRACT

A pandemia do novo coronavírus (covid-19) é um grave problema de saúde pública. Adicionalmente, a hiperglicemia na gestação (diabetes preexistente, diabetes diagnosticado pela primeira vez na gestação e diabetes mellitus gestacional) é uma das complicações maternas mais frequentes na população obstétrica. A sobreposição desses problemas pode refletir na saúde materna e fetal. Desse modo, o objetivo deste estudo é reunir evidências acerca da saúde materna de mulheres com hiperglicemia na gestação durante a pandemia de covid-19 no Brasil. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa, em que a fonte de dados compreendeu artigos publicados até maio de 2023 nas bases de dados Medline, via PubMed, Lilacs e WHO COVID-19 Research Database. Foram listados 167 artigos e, após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade, cinco estudos foram incluídos, compreendendo 1.469 gestantes e puérperas com diabetes mellitus gestacional ou diabetes preexistente. Quanto à saúde materna, os principais desfechos foram relacionados à infecção por covid-19, como gravidade da doença e risco de morte. Além disso, foi observada maior prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns, como ansiedade e depressão. Portanto, a saúde materna de mulheres com hiperglicemia na gestação foi impactada negativamente durante a pandemia de covid-19 no país.


The new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health issue. Hyperglycemia during pregnancy (pre-existing diabetes, diabetes first diagnosed in pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus) is a frequent maternal complication in the obstetric population. Their overlap may impact maternal and fetal health. Thus, this narrative review gathered evidence on the maternal health of women with gestational hyperglycemia during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Articles published until May 2023 in the Medline (via PubMed), Lilacs and WHO COVID-19 Research Database online databases were eligible. Bibliographic search retrieved a total of 167 articles, of which five remained after applying the inclusion criteria, resulting in a sample of 1,469 pregnant and postpartum women with gestational diabetes or pre-existing diabetes. Regarding maternal health, the main outcomes were related to COVID-19 infection, such as disease severity and risk of death. Additionally, results showed a higher prevalence of common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression. In conclusion, the maternal health of women with gestational hyperglycemia was negatively impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic.


La pandemia del nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) es un grave problema de salud pública. Además, la hiperglucemia durante el embarazo (diabetes preexistente, diabetes diagnosticada por primera vez durante el embarazo y diabetes mellitus gestacional) es una de las complicaciones maternas más frecuentes en la población obstétrica. La superposición de estos problemas puede afectar la salud materna y fetal. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio es recopilar evidencia sobre la salud materna de las mujeres con hiperglucemia en el embarazo durante la pandemia de la COVID-19 en Brasil. Se trata de una revisión narrativa, y la fuente de datos comprendió artículos publicados hasta mayo de 2023 en las bases de datos MEDLINE vía PubMed, LILACS y WHO COVID-19 Research Database. Se enumeró un total de 167 artículos y, después de aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad, se incluyeron cinco estudios con 1.469 mujeres embarazadas y puérperas con diabetes gestacional o diabetes preexistente. En cuanto a la salud materna, los principales resultados se relacionaron con el contagio por COVID-19, como la gravedad de la enfermedad y el riesgo de muerte. Además, se observó una mayor prevalencia de trastornos mentales comunes, como la ansiedad y la depresión. Por lo tanto, la salud materna de las mujeres con hiperglucemia durante el embarazo se ha visto afectada negativamente durante la pandemia de la COVID-19 en Brasil.

5.
Rev. Baiana Saúde Pública (Online) ; 47(4): 284-293, 20240131.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537859

ABSTRACT

Este relato apresenta a experiência do acompanhamento do pré-natal durante a pandemia em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família (USF), campo prático no desenvolvimento das funções laborais dos alunos/residentes num município do estado da Bahia. Quanto ao método, é um relato de experiência que utiliza a técnica da observação para descrição dessas vivências no período entre março/2020 e março/2021. O relato evidencia o desempenho do acompanhamento do pré-natal durante o período supracitado, e as modificações frequentes perante as recomendações sanitárias acerca da institucionalização de fluxogramas e protocolos clínicos para uma assistência integral. O cenário pandêmico colocou em evidência a necessidade primordial de investimentos na assistência, principalmente na linha de frente, para evitar um colapso na atenção terciária. O acompanhamento integral das gestantes, por exemplo, evitou complicações para a saúde da mulher e do bebê.


This experience report focus on prenatal care offered by a Family Health Unit (USF) in a municipality in Bahia, Brazil, during the pandemic. Based on observations of the experiences in prenatal care between March/2020 and March/2021, the report discusses the prenatal care performed during this period and the frequent changes following health recommendations regarding the institutionalization of flowcharts and clinical protocols for comprehensive care. The pandemic highlighted the primordial need for investments in health care, especially front line, to avoid a collapse in tertiary care. Comprehensive monitoring of pregnant women, for example, avoided complications for the woman and the infant's health.


Este reporte presenta la experiencia de seguimiento prenatal durante la pandemia en una Unidad de Salud Familiar (USF), un campo de prácticas para los estudiantes/residentes en un municipio del estado de Bahía (Brasil). El método utilizado se basa en un reporte de experiencia, que aplicó la observación como técnica para describir las vivencias en el período comprendido entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2021. El reporte destaca el desempeño del seguimiento prenatal durante el período mencionado, y los cambios frecuentes frente a las recomendaciones de salud sobre la institucionalización de diagramas de flujo y los protocolos clínicos para una asistencia integral. El contexto de la pandemia reveló la necesidad primordial de invertir en asistencia sanitaria, especialmente en la primera línea, para evitar el colapso en el tercer nivel de atención. El seguimiento integral a las embarazadas, por ejemplo, evitó complicaciones para la salud de la mujer y del bebé.

6.
Med. U.P.B ; 43(1): 56-64, ene.-jun. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1531501

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: la ferritina es importante en el almacenamiento de hierro intracelular, en una forma soluble no tóxica. Sus niveles en la gestación se la relacionan con la salud de la madre y con su descendencia. El objetivo es escribir los niveles séricos de ferritina y prevalencia de déficit de ferritina, así como los factores sociodemográficos asociados en gestantes de Colombia. Metodología: estudio transversal; análisis secundario de la Encuesta de Situación Nutricional de Colombia, 2015. Se evaluaron en 1.234 embarazadas con edades entre 12 y 48 años: sus características sociodemográficas y antropométricas, la distribución de los niveles séricos y la prevalencia de déficit de ferritina. Para estimar la asociación entre las diferentes variables sociodemográficas y los niveles séricos, o la prevalencia de déficit de ferritina, se utilizaron modelos de regresión multivariables. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de ferritina fue de 44.5 % (IC 95 % 40.1 % a 49.0 %), los niveles séricos de ferritina oscilaron entre 4 µg/L y 295,7 µg/L, con un promedio de 29.3 µg/L (IC 95 % 26,5 µg/L-32.2 µg/L). Las gestantes del segundo (OR (OR 2.19 IC 95 % 1.50 a 3.19) y tercer trimestre (OR 3.84 IC 95 % 2.68 a 5.50), aquellas que residen en la región Atlántica (OR 2.18 IC 95 % 1.25 a 3.82) y en la región Orinoquia (OR 2.41 IC 95 %1.19 a 4.88), mostraron asociación con el déficit de ferritina. Conclusión: se halló alta prevalencia en el déficit de ferritina en gestantes colombianas.


Introduction: Ferritin is important in the storage of intracellular iron, in a non-toxic soluble form. Its levels during pregnancy are related to the health of the mother and her offspring. Objective: To describe the serum ferritin levels and the prevalence of ferritin deficiency, and the associated sociodemographic factors in pregnant women in Colombia. Methodology: Cross-sectional study; secondary analysis of the Nutritional Situation Survey of Colombia, 2015. The following were evaluated in 1,234 pregnant women aged between 12 and 48 years: their sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, the distribution of serum levels, and the prevalence of ferritin deficiency. To estimate the association between the different sociodemographic variables and serum levels, or the prevalence of ferritin deficiency, multivariate regression models were used. Results: The prevalence of ferritin deficiency was 44.5% (95% CI 40.1% to 49.0%), serum ferritin levels ranged from 4 µg/L to 295.7 µg/L, with a average of 29.3 µg/L (95% CI 26.5 µg/L - 32.2 µg/L). Pregnant women in the second (OR (OR 2.19 95% CI 1.50 to 3.19) and third trimester (OR 3.84 95% CI 2.68 to 5.50), those residing in the Atlantic region ( OR 2.18 95% CI 1.25 to 3.82) and in the Orinoquia region (OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19 to 4.88), showed an association with ferritin deficiency. Conclusion: A high prevalence of ferritin deficiency was found in Colombian pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy
7.
Med. U.P.B ; 43(1): 65-74, ene.-jun. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1531505

ABSTRACT

Durante el embarazo la mujer experimenta muchos cambios, no solo físicos, también mentales, por eso la salud mental perinatal es de gran importancia en esta etapa. La mayoría de las mujeres en embarazo que desarrollan alguna enfermedad mental durante la gestación, como depresión o ansiedad, no son diagnosticadas, lo que puede generar efectos adversos para la madre y el bebé. En ese sentido, es de gran importancia el tamizaje, diagnóstico, manejo y seguimiento de este grupo. Gracias a los avances tecnológicos podemos contar con las tecnologías de la Información y la comunicación (TIC) para buscar maneras cómo aproximarse a las mujeres en etapa perinatal para el tamizaje y hacer el seguimiento de su salud mental. Así que este artículo de revisión se enfoca en ver su aceptabilidad, la percepción, las barreras al acceso y nuevos desarrollos enfocados en mejorar la salud mental en las mujeres en etapa perinatal.


During pregnancy, a woman experiences many changes, not only physical, but also mental, which is why perinatal mental health is of great importance at this stage. The majority of pregnant women who develop a mental illness during pregnancy, such as depression or anxiety, are not diagnosed, which can cause adverse effects for the mother and baby. In this sense, the screening, diagnosis, management and follow-up of this group is of great importance. Thanks to technological advances, we can count on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to find ways to approach women in the perinatal stage for screening and monitoring their mental health. So this review article focuses on seeing its acceptability, perception, barriers to access and new developments focused on improving mental health in perinatal women.


Durante el embarazo la mujer experimenta muchos cambios, no solo físicos, también mentales, por eso la salud mental perinatal es de gran importancia en esta etapa. La mayoría de las mujeres en embarazo que desarrollan alguna enfermedad mental durante la gestación, como depresión o ansiedad, no son diagnosticadas, lo que puede generar efectos adversos para la madre y el bebé. En ese sentido, es de gran importancia el tamizaje, diagnóstico, manejo y seguimiento de este grupo. Gracias a los avances tecnológicos podemos contar con las tecnologías de la Información y la comunicación (TIC) para buscar maneras cómo aproximarse a las mujeres en etapa perinatal para el tamizaje y hacer el seguimiento de su salud mental. Así que este artículo de revisión se enfoca en ver su aceptabilidad, la percepción, las barreras al acceso y nuevos desarrollos enfocados en mejorar la salud mental en las mujeres en etapa perinatal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1553376

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis persists as a neglected disease and poses a challenge to public health, especially due to the risk of vertical transmission, which can lead to countless biological complications for the newborn and to psychological and emotional repercussions for the mother. Objective: To understand the perceptions and feelings of pregnant women affected by toxoplasmosis undergoing outpatient follow-up. Materials and Methods: A qualitative and exploratory study developed with 12 women with gestational toxoplasmosis undergoing specialized outpatient follow-up in a municipality from the state of Paraná, Brazil. The data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews and subjected to content analysis, supported by descending hierarchical classification. Results: The pregnant women experienced situations ranging from diagnosis and treatment to preventing the disease in the child and family. These experiences generated fear, distress and uncertainty about the disease, which were not adequately addressed during prenatal assistance in primary care. However, the pregnant women emphasized the importance of the multiprofessional team at the secondary level in monitoring and health education. Discussion: Although the pregnant women felt confident about the treatment and its implications for the child's health, discovering the diagnosis impacted their everyday lives and those of their families, especially due to lack of reliable information about toxoplasmosis and to the absence of emotional support at the primary level. Conclusions: There was a temporary scenario of disinformation among these women, who were not properly guided and supported. However, the guidelines offered in secondary health care were essential for improving knowledge and practices in health.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Toxoplasmosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Delivery of Health Care
9.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1551650

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite measures put in place to combat teenage pregnancy, the rate remains high. Community health workers (CHWs) are a cadre of health workers that can help put measures in place to reduce teenage pregnancy in the communities in which they live and work. Aim: This article aims to gain a deeper understanding of CHWs' perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy in the rural districts of Limpopo province. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study approach was employed to collect data from CHWs in two rural districts of Limpopo. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used to choose 81 CHWs. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were organised, and audio recorded to collect data from participants. The discussions were 2­3 h long and conducted in English, and data saturation was attained by the fifth FGDs. Results: An eight-step tech's content analysis approach was employed to deductively code, analyse and summarise data into themes. Three themes emerged: the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in rural villages, factors contributing to teenage pregnancy and challenges faced by CHWs when dealing with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: The study's findings revealed that CHWs face challenges in their communities when offering appropriate teen pregnancy services and CHWs believe that teen pregnancy numbers remain high. There is a significant barrier in combating teenage pregnancy; if contraceptives are not acceptable to the community, the only solution and option for combating teenage pregnancy is abstinence. Contribution: The CHWs presented their insights of teenage pregnancy in rural communities. The outcomes of this study could help clinical practise, schools, communities, youth-friendly services, policymakers and other non-governmental organisations reduce teenage pregnancy.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Community Health Workers , Pregnancy in Adolescence
10.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1551641

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite measures put in place to combat teenage pregnancy, the rate remains high. Community health workers (CHWs) are a cadre of health workers that can help put measures in place to reduce teenage pregnancy in the communities in which they live and work. Aim: This article aims to gain a deeper understanding of CHWs' perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy in the rural districts of Limpopo province. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study approach was employed to collect data from CHWs in two rural districts of Limpopo. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used to choose 81 CHWs. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were organised, and audio recorded to collect data from participants. The discussions were 2­3 h long and conducted in English, and data saturation was attained by the fifth FGDs. Results: An eight-step tech's content analysis approach was employed to deductively code, analyse and summarise data into themes. Three themes emerged: the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in rural villages, factors contributing to teenage pregnancy and challenges faced by CHWs when dealing with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: The study's findings revealed that CHWs face challenges in their communities when offering appropriate teen pregnancy services and CHWs believe that teen pregnancy numbers remain high. There is a significant barrier in combating teenage pregnancy; if contraceptives are not acceptable to the community, the only solution and option for combating teenage pregnancy is abstinence. Contribution: The CHWs presented their insights of teenage pregnancy in rural communities. The outcomes of this study could help clinical practise, schools, communities, youth-friendly services, policymakers and other non-governmental organisations reduce teenage pregnancy

11.
AlQalam Journal of Medical and Applied Sciences ; 7(2): 242-248, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1552712

ABSTRACT

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) accounts for 18% of maternal deaths worldwide, with an estimated number of about 62, 000­77, 000 deaths occur each year. The current study aimed to assess maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by hypertension in Aljala Maternity Hospital. A retrospective, descriptive, case series analysis for four hundred patients was done on the outcome of hypertensive disorder among pregnant women who admitted and were managed at Aljala teaching hospital with preeclampsia during the years 2019 and 2020. Demographic data involving age, parity, gestational week, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded from the medical files. Additionally, delivery route, indications of cesarean section, fetal and maternal complications were determined. The current finding reported high prevalence of perinatal and maternal mortality among pregnant women with preeclampsia. Moreover, other severe maternal and perinatal complications such as Hemolysis Elevated Liver Enzyme Platelet (HELLP) syndrome, placental abruption, eclamptic fits, as well as low birth weight were also commonly reported. The current study showed early onset of preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of developing adverse maternal-fetal/neonatal outcomes compared to lateonset after 36 weeks. Our findings call for special consideration and close surveillance of those women with early-onset diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications , Risk Factors , Perinatal Death
12.
Curationis ; 47(1): 1-8, 2024.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1554037

ABSTRACT

Background: The Department of Health in South Africa has reported an alarming total of 90 037 teenage girls between the ages of 10 years and 19 years who gave birth from March 2021 to April 2022, across all provinces and districts. The rise in teenage pregnancy is of serious concern as adolescents girls are more likely to experience difficult pregnancies and deliveries which could lead to detrimental effects on their health. Objectives: The study aimed to explore and describe factors contributing to the increase in teenage pregnancy in the Sekhukhune district of Limpopo. Method: The study was conducted in the healthcare facilities of Sekhukhune area. A qualitative, exploratory design was followed. Participants were purposively selected, and data were gathered through face-to-face individual interviews. Data analysis employed Tesch's inductive, descriptive coding method. Results: Negligence, peer pressure, ambiguity, choice, lack of contraceptive use, and lack of family attachment were identified as exacerbating factors in the district's surge in teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: To reduce teen pregnancy, it is crucial to promote contraception, enhance cooperation between schools and the government, involve families in sexual and reproductive health discussions, prioritise a supportive home environment, advocate for child support grants, revitalise school health services, and empower teenagers to make informed choices and resist peer pressure. Contribution: The study will provide guidance to policy makers and other stakeholders in developing appropriate programmes to address the problem and improve the health and socioeconomic status of adolescents in rural areas. This will reduce healthcare costs associated with complications and premature birth. Keywords: factors; teenager; pregnancy; tee


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy in Adolescence , Adolescent , National Health Programs
13.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE01381, 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1519812

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Identificar o perfil de nascimentos das gestações de mulheres com acesso à internet que cursaram com a infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 e seus desfechos. Métodos Estudo transversal integrado a uma coorte prospectiva, com coleta entre agosto de 2021 e fevereiro de 2022, baseado nas respostas de 304 mulheres que tiveram gestações e/ou partos durante o período pandêmico. Resultados Do total, 25,7% das entrevistadas tiveram COVID-19, com predomínio de diagnósticos no terceiro trimestre. Queixas de anosmia, fadiga e cefaleia prevaleceram como relacionados à infecção. As variáveis: utilizar o Sistema Único de Saúde para atendimento (p = 0,084); diabetes gestacional (p = 0,141); baixo peso de nascimento (p = 0,117); necessidade de internação em unidade neonatal (p = 0,120) foram inseridas no modelo de regressão por terem valores de p inferiores a 0,20. A variável referente ao tipo de parto (p=1,000) foi inserida no modelo por se tratar de uma variável de interesse e com descrição de relevância na literatura. A prematuridade foi a única variável que apresentou associação estatística com a infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 durante a gestação (p = 0,008) na análise bivariada, explicando o desfecho da infecção na gestação (<0,001), comprovado no modelo de Regressão Robusta de Poisson. Conclusão Observou-se alta prevalência de COVID-19 na amostra, com variação de sintomas e predomínio de partos operatórios. No entanto, a infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 explicou apenas a maior ocorrência de nascimentos prematuros.


Resumen Objetivo Identificar el perfil de nacimientos de los embarazos de mujeres con acceso a internet que lo cursaron con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y sus desenlaces. Métodos Estudio transversal integrado a una cohorte prospectiva, con recopilación entre agosto de 2021 y febrero de 2022, basado en las respuestas de 304 mujeres que tuvieron embarazos o partos durante el período pandémico. Resultados Del total, el 25,7 % de las entrevistadas tuvieron COVID-19, con predominio de diagnósticos en el tercer trimestre. Prevalecieron quejas de anosmia, fatiga y cefalea como relacionadas a la infección. Las variables utilización del Sistema Único de Salud para atención (p = 0,084), diabetes gestacional (p = 0,141), bajo peso de nacimiento (p = 0,117), necesidad de internación en unidad neonatal (p = 0,120) se introdujeron en el modelo de regresión por tener valores de p inferiores a 0,20. Se introdujo la variable relacionada al tipo de parto (p = 1,000) en el modelo por tratarse de una variable de interés y con descripción de relevancia en la literatura. La prematuridad fue la única variable que presentó asociación estadística con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 durante el embarazo (p = 0,008) en el análisis bivariado, lo que explica el desenlace de la infección en el embarazo (>0,001), comprobado en el modelo de regresión robusta de Poisson. Conclusión Se observó alta prevalencia de COVID-19 en la muestra, con variación de síntomas y predominio de partos operatorios. Sin embargo, la infección por SARS-CoV-2 explicó solamente la mayor incidencia de nacimientos prematuros.


Abstract Objective Identify the profile of births of pregnancies of women with internet access who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and their outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional study integrated into a prospective cohort, with collection between August 2021 and February 2022, based on the responses of 304 women who had pregnancies and/or deliveries during the pandemic period. Results Of the total, 25.7% of the interviewees had COVID-19, with a predominance of diagnoses in the third quarter. Complaints of anosmia, fatigue and headache prevailed as related to the infection. The variables using the Unified Health System for care (p = 0.084); gestational diabetes (p = 0.141); low birth weight (p = 0.117); need for admission to a neonatal unit (p = 0.120) were included in the regression model because they had p values lower than 0.20. The variable referring to the type of delivery (p=1.000) was inserted in the model because it is a variable of interest and with a description of relevance in the literature. Prematurity was the only variable that was statistically associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy (p = 0.008) in the bivariate analysis, explaining the outcome of infection during pregnancy (<0.001), confirmed in the Poisson Robust Regression model. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of COVID-19 in the sample, with varying symptoms and a predominance of operative deliveries. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection only explained the higher occurrence of premature births.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Maternal Mortality , Postpartum Period , Internet Access , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Internet
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(2): e20230827, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535082

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of permanent placental injury due to a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy on feto-placental circulation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 83 pregnant women with planned deliveries were divided into two groups according to their severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection statuses during pregnancy. Their demographic parameters, obstetric histories, and prenatal risks were evaluated. A prenatal fetal Doppler ultrasound examination was performed for all participants, and umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery Doppler parameters were obtained. Postpartum placentas were examined for pathological findings under appropriate conditions. All placentas were evaluated according to the Amsterdam consensus criteria. Mann-Whitney U test, Student's t-test, and chi-square test were used for comparisons. RESULTS: Demographic parameters were statistically similar, except that they were borderline significant for gestational weeks at delivery (p=0.044). In the pathological examination of the placenta, regardless of the trimester of exposure to viral infection, perivillous fibrin deposition and villus dystrophic calcification were more common in group 2 (p=0.016 and p=0.048, respectively) than in group 1. In the prenatal Doppler examination between the groups, no statistically significant difference was found for all of the umbilical artery pulsatile index, middle cerebral artery pulsatile index, and cerebro-placental ratio values. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy causes an increase in perivillous fibrin deposition and villus dystrophic calcification in the placenta. Placental injury caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus does not affect fetal Doppler parameters.

15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(2): e20230922, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535092

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anxiety and depression on pregnancy outcome in couples receiving in vitro fertilization treatment. METHODS: A total of 102 couples (102 females and 102 males) with unexplained infertility were included in the study. Personal Information Form was used to collect data, Case Follow-up Form to record the treatment process, and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory to measure the anxiety and depression levels of couples. Couples were measured twice: before treatment and on oocyte pickup day. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the anxiety and depression levels and oocyte count of women (p>0.05). There were statistically significant differences between State-Trait Anxiety Inventory level and sperm count and between BID level and sperm motility (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the anxiety and depression levels and pregnancy outcomes of women (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression had no effect on pregnancy outcome. More studies are needed to investigate the effect of anxiety and depression on pregnancy outcome in unexplained infertility.

16.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE01901, 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1519820

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a estrutura e o fluxo assistencial do acolhimento - classificação de risco e emergência obstétrica em uma maternidade pública no contexto da COVID-19. Métodos Estudo do tipo avaliação normativa e observacional nos setores de Acolhimento (Classificação de Risco e Emergência Obstétrica) de uma maternidade pública no Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi realizada de junho a agosto de 2020 por 480 horas de observação direta não participante, com registros sistematizados em checklist contendo variáveis relacionadas à disponibilidade e conformidade dos recursos estruturais, e à conformidade do fluxo assistencial. Os dados foram organizados em planilhas (Microsoft Excel® 2010) e analisados usando a estatística descritiva. Resultados A avaliação da estrutura obteve 80,3% de disponibilidade, resultando em classificação de alta disponibilidade e 91,1% de conformidade, obtendo conformidade adequada. O fluxo assistencial mostrou 72,7% de conformidade total; 9,1% de conformidade parcial e 18,2% de não cumprimento, configurando-se como alta conformidade. Conclusão A avaliação normativa indicou altas disponibilidade e conformidade em estrutura e fluxo assistencial nos cenários estudados.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la estructura y el flujo de asistencia de recepción, clasificación de riesgo y emergencia obstétrica, en una maternidad pública en el contexto del COVID-19. Métodos Estudio tipo evaluación normativa y observacional en los sectores de Recepción (clasificación de riesgo y emergencia obstétrica) de una maternidad pública en Rio de Janeiro. La recopilación de datos se realizó de junio a agosto de 2020 durante 480 de observación directa no participante, con registros sistematizados en una checklist con variables relacionadas con la disponibilidad y conformidad de los recursos estructurales y con la conformidad del flujo de asistencia. Los datos se organizaron en planillas (Microsoft Excel® 2010) y se analizaron usando la estadística descriptiva. Resultados La evaluación de la estructura obtuvo un 80,3 % de disponibilidad, que tuvo como resultado una clasificación de alta disponibilidad, y un 91,1 % de conformidad, con una conformidad adecuada. El flujo de asistencia mostró un 72,7 % de conformidad total, un 9,1 % de conformidad parcial y un 18,2 % de no cumplimiento, lo que se configura como alta conformidad. Conclusión La evaluación normativa indicó alta disponibilidad y alta conformidad en estructura y flujo de asistencia en los escenarios estudiados.


Abstract Objective Evaluate the structure and care flow - risk classification and obstetric emergency in a public maternity hospital in the context of COVID-19. Methods Normative and observational evaluation study in the Care sectors (Risk Classification and Obstetric Emergency) of a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data collection was carried out from June to August 2020 for 480 hours of non-participant direct observation, with records systematized in a checklist containing variables related to the availability and compliance of structural resources, and the compliance of the care flow. Data were organized into spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel® 2010) and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results The framework assessment scored 80.3% availability, resulting in a high availability rating, and 91.1% compliance, achieving adequate compliance. The care flow showed 72.7% of total compliance; 9.1% of partial compliance and 18.2% of non-compliance, configuring high compliance. Conclusion Normative evaluation indicated high availability and compliance in structure and care flow in the studied scenarios.

17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(3): e2022, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 7-week-old male delivered by cesarean section presented with a positive serology for dengue along with preretinal and retinal hemorrhages, vitreous opacities and cotton wool spots. The patient and his mother had positive serologies for Non Structural Protein 1 (NS1) by ELISA. Retinal and vitreous findings improved over a sixteen-week period. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed preserved macular architecture. In this case report, we suggest that retinal and vitreous changes may be the ocular presenting features of vertically transmitted dengue in newborns, and that those findings may resolve with no major structural sequelae.


RESUMO Neonato de 7 semanas, do sexo masculino, nascido de parto cesárea, apresentou sorologia positiva para dengue com hemorragias retinianas e pré-retinianas, opacidades vítreas e manchas algodonosas. O paciente e sua mãe haviam apresentado sorologias positivas para Non Structural Protein 1 através de ELISA. Achados na retina e no vítreo melhoraram em um período de dezesseis semanas. O exame de tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral demonstrou arquitetura macular preservada. Neste relato de caso, sugerimos que alterações na retina e no vítreo podem ser os achados oculares aparentes em neonatos com infecção vertical por dengue, e que estes podem se resolver sem maiores sequelas estruturais.

18.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(3): e2022647, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months, and mother's age impact early weaning. Educational support and relevant information can increase breastfeeding rates. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antenatal education enhances the maintenance, intention, and confidence in breastfeeding among adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective cohort study involving primiparous adolescents who gave birth at the Woman's Hospital (CAISM), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: Adolescent mothers were categorized into two groups based on the location of prenatal care: those at the Woman's Hospital (WH) who received antenatal education, and at the Primary Care (PC) who did not receive antenatal education. All adolescents received breastfeeding orientation during their postpartum hospital stay. The groups were compared using the Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-squared test. Log-binomial models were used to compare the groups at different time intervals. RESULTS: The study included 132 adolescents: 59 in the WH group and 73 in the PC group. Six months postpartum, adolescents in the WH group demonstrated higher engagement in breastfeeding (P < 0.005) and exclusive breastfeeding (P = 0.04) than PC group. PC group showed greater lack of confidence in breastfeeding (P = 0.02) and felt less prepared (P = 0.01). Notably, all WH adolescents reported a stronger desire to breastfeed after antenatal education. CONCLUSION: Antenatal education significantly improves the maintenance, intention, and confidence of breastfeeding among adolescents. This education approach can be implemented across all healthcare levels and should be made accessible to all women throughout the pregnancy and postpartum period.

19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 38: e013, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1528146

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to develop and validate a self-administered questionnaire in Brazilian Portuguese to verify the level of knowledge of orthodontists in the care of pregnant, lactating, and postmenopausal women, named "Considerations on Orthodontic Treatment during Pregnancy, Lactation, and Postmenopausal Periods." The development and validation of the questionnaire consisted of the following steps: a) item generation; b) item reduction; c) questionnaire design; and d) validity and reliability tests in a cross-sectional study with 258 orthodontists working in the field from different Brazilian states. A total of 60 orthodontists participated in test-retest over a mean period of 45 days. The preliminary questionnaire consisted of a total of 60 questions. After item reduction, 40 questions were selected for the final version of the questionnaire, with eight questions about pregnant women; six about lactating women; 18 about postmenopausal women, and eight about general knowledge in dentistry. Each item had three response options in the Likert scale format. Face and content validity analysis, reliability assessment through internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega), and test-retest reliability through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Spearman's correlation coefficient were performed. Face and content validity indicated that the questionnaire was considered valid, objective, and easily understandable. The questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77; McDonald's omega = 0.78) and good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.71; Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.51). The questionnaire was considered valid and reliable to assess the level of knowledge of orthodontists in the care of pregnant, lactating, and postmenopausal women.

20.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 40(1): e00097323, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528212

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the beliefs and perceptions of pregnant women and healthcare providers about physical activity during pregnancy. Using a qualitative approach, 30 pregnant women and the 14 healthcare providers caring for them were interviewed in the second trimester of pregnancy. We included women who maintained, decreased, or stopped physical activity since becoming pregnant. They were divided into low (≤ 8 years) and high schooling (> 8 years). Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted and guided by three key questions: (1) When does physical activity during pregnancy start to be considered a wrong behavior?; (2) What are the main barriers (biological or others) to physical activity?; and (3) Do the actions of healthcare providers and people close to pregnant women reinforce barriers? Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed based on recurring themes. All women changed their physical activity behavior (decreased or stopped) when they discovered their pregnancy. Fear of miscarriage, contractions, bleeding, and of causing malformations in the baby were the most reported reasons for decreasing or stopping physical activity. Participants also lacked access to consistent information and healthcare providers' support on the benefits of physical activity. Despite the current international recommendations to regular physical activity during pregnancy, uncertainty regarding its benefits remains. Interventions to promote physical activity during this period should include the training of healthcare providers so they can advise and discard ideas contrary to mother-child health benefits.


Este estudo objetivou descrever as crenças e percepções de gestantes e profissionais de saúde em relação a prática de atividade física durante a gestação. Usando uma abordagem qualitativa, 30 gestantes e 14 profissionais de saúde que atendiam essas mulheres foram entrevistados durante o segundo trimestre de gravidez. Foram incluídas mulheres que mantiveram, diminuíram ou pararam de praticar atividade física desde o início gravidez. Elas foram divididas em baixa (≤ 8 anos) e alta escolaridade (> 8 anos). Foram conduzidas entrevistas semiestruturadas e aprofundadas, orientadas por três perguntas-chave: (1) Quando a atividade física durante a gestação passa a ser considerada um comportamento errado? (2) Quais as principais barreiras (biológicas ou outras) para a prática de atividade física? (3) Estas barreiras são reforçadas pelas ações dos profissionais de saúde e das pessoas próximas à gestante? As entrevistas foram gravadas em áudio, transcritas e analisadas a partir de temas recorrentes. Todas as mulheres mudaram a prática de atividade física (diminuíram ou pararam) quando souberam da gravidez. O medo de aborto espontâneo, contrações e/ou sangramento e o medo de causar malformações no bebê foram os motivos mais relatados para diminuir ou parar a atividade física. Os participantes também não tiveram acesso a informações confiáveis e apoio dos profissionais de saúde sobre os benefícios da atividade física. Apesar das recomendações internacionais atuais para a prática regular de atividade física durante a gestação, a incerteza quanto aos seus benefícios continua sendo comum. As intervenções para promover a atividade física durante esse período devem incluir o treinamento de profissionais de saúde para que eles possam aconselhar e descartar ideias contrárias aos benefícios para a saúde materna e infantil.


El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las creencias y percepciones de mujeres embarazadas y profesionales de la salud con respecto a la práctica de actividad física durante el embarazo. Utilizando un enfoque cualitativo, se entrevistaron 30 mujeres embarazadas y 14 profesionales de salud que cuidaban a estas mujeres durante el segundo trimestre del embarazo. Se incluyeron mujeres que mantuvieron, redujeron o dejaron de practicar actividad física desde el inicio del embarazo. Ellas se dividieron en baja (≤ 8 años) y alta escolaridad (> 8 años). Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y en profundidad, guiadas por tres preguntas clave: (1) ¿Cuándo se considera que la actividad física durante el embarazo es un comportamiento incorrecto? (2) ¿Cuáles son las barreras (biológicas u otras) principales para la práctica de actividad física? (3) ¿Estas barreras se refuerzan por las acciones de los profesionales de salud y de las personas cercanas a la mujer embarazada? Las entrevistas fueron grabadas en audio, transcritas y analizadas a partir de temas recurrentes. Todas las mujeres cambiaron la práctica de actividad física (redujeron o dejaron de practicarla) cuando descubrieron el embarazo. El miedo a sufrir un aborto espontáneo, contracciones y/o sangrado y el miedo a provocar malformaciones en el bebé fueron los motivos más relatados para reducir o dejar de practicar la actividad física. Los participantes también no han tenido acceso a informaciones confiables ni apoyo de los profesionales de salud sobre los beneficios de la actividad física. A pesar de las recomendaciones internacionales actuales para la práctica regular de actividad física durante el embarazo, la incertidumbre cuanto a sus beneficios sigue siendo común. Las intervenciones para promover la actividad física durante este periodo deben incluir la capacitación de profesionales de salud para que puedan aconsejar y descartar ideas contrarias a los beneficios para la salud materna e infantil.

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