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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(5): 784-794, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394377

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hypothesis: Nomogram can be built to predict the pathological T3a upstaging from clinical T1a in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma before surgery. Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with clinical T1a (cT1a) disease who are upstaged to pathological T3a (pT3a) have reduced survivals after partial nephrectomy. We aimed to develop a nomogram-based model predicting pT3a upstaging in RCC patients with preoperative cT1a based on multiple preoperative blood indexes and oncological characteristics. Materials and Methods: Between 2010 and 2019, 510 patients with cT1a RCC were individually matched according to pT3a upstaging and pathological T1a (pT1a) at a 1:4 ratio using clinicopathologic features. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis was used to identify the most important risk factor from 40 peripheral blood indicators, and a predictive model was established. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with the screened blood parameters and clinical data to identify significant variables. Harrell's concordance index (C-index) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of the model for predicting pT3a upstaging in patients with cT1a RCC. Results: Out of 40 blood indexes, the top ranked predictor was fibrinogen (FIB). Age, the ratio of the tumor maximum and minimum diameter (ROD), FIB, and tumor size were all independent risk factors for pT3a upstaging in multivariate analysis. A predictive ARFS model (Age, ROD, FIB, tumor Size) was established, and the C-index was 0.756 (95% CI, 0.681-0.831) and 0.712 (95% CI, 0.638-0.785) in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Conclusions: Older age, higher ROD, increased FIB level, and larger tumor size were independent risk factors for upstaging. The ARFS model has a high prediction efficiency for pT3a upstaging in patients with cT1a RCC.

2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(4): 588-596, 20220906. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396345

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La incidencia del carcinoma de tiroides ha aumentado a nivel mundial, probablemente relacionado con el sobre diagnóstico de nódulos tiroideos asintomáticos. La alta sobrevida del carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides ha permitido posibilidades de manejo quirúrgico menos radicales, o inclusive, la vigilancia activa de tumores seleccionados. Existen reportes de características clínico-patológicas del carcinoma de tiroides de nuestro país distintas a las reportadas en la literatura internacional. Métodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con carcinoma de tiroides atendidos en un hospital universitario entre 2015 y 2020. Resultados. Se identificaron 634 pacientes, el 83,4 % de sexo femenino. La tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento central fue el procedimiento más realizado (86,7 %). De 613 carcinomas diferenciados de tiroides, el 94,2 % corresponden al tipo papilar, seguido por el carcinoma de células de Hürtle (1,6 %); el 26,2 % presentaron subtipos histológicos agresivos y el 28,4 % compromiso tumoral bilateral. En los vaciamientos centrales se encontró 58,7 % de enfermedad metastásica; que fue de 49 % en los pacientes con microcarcinomas papilares (19 %). De las 68 lesiones del nervio laríngeo recurrente, 47 % fueron por secciones oncológicas. Discusión. En nuestra serie, la proporción de pacientes con carcinoma papilar de tiroides y de sus variantes histológicas agresivas, así como el compromiso tumoral bilateral es mayor a lo reportado en la literatura científica. Conclusión. El comportamiento biológico del carcinoma de tiroides es variable y puede tener características diferentes entre regiones; el manejo en nuestro medio debería considerar las características propias de nuestra población.


Introduction. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma has increased worldwide, probably related to the overdiagnosis of asymptomatic thyroid nodules. The high survival of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has allowed less radical surgical resection or even active surveillance for selected tumors. There are reports of clinicopathological features of thyroid carcinoma in our country that are different from those reported in the international literature. Methods. Retrospective observational study of a cohort of patients with thyroid carcinoma treated at a university hospital between 2015 and 2020. Results. 634 patients were identified; 83.4% were female. Total thyroidectomy with central dissection was the most performed procedure (86.7%). Of the 613 differentiated thyroid carcinomas, 94.2% were papillary type, followed by Hürtle cell carcinoma with 1.6%; 26.2% presented aggressive histological subtypes and 28.4% had bilateral tumor involvement. Metastatic disease was found in 58.7% of the central dissections performed, which was 49% in patients with papillary microcarcinomas (19%). Of the 68 recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries, 47% were due to oncological involvement. Discussion. In our series, the rate of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and its aggressive histological subtypes as well as bilateral tumor involvement is higher than that reported in the scientific literature. Conclusion: The biological behavior of thyroid carcinoma is variable and may have different characteristics between regions; the management in our country should consider our population's characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(4): 523-528, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394145

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia and its incidence has tripled over the past 35years. Although papillary thyroid carcinoma carries a good prognosis, 10%-30% of patients still develop recurrence and metastasis. Some clinical and genetic features are associated with worse prognosis. The most frequent mutation is the BRAF p.V600E, which has been associated with many clinical features of poor prognosis. However, many studies have produced controversial results without any association between BRAF mutation and clinicopathological features of poor prognosis. Objective: Since the prognostic value of BRAF mutations remains controversial, this study aims to investigate the importance of this mutation in therapeutic decisions for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Therefore, we evaluated whether the presence of BRAF mutation is associated with features of poor prognosis in 85 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma older than 45years treated at A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, from 1980 to 2007. BRAF mutation was evaluated by pyrosequencing. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: The mean age of patients was 54 years (range: 45 - 77 years), 73 were women (85.8%) and 12 were men (14.2%). Among them, 39 cases (45.9%) presented extrathyroidal extension and 11 cases had recurrent disease. BRAF mutation was detected in 57 (67%) patients. No significant association was observed between BRAF mutation and gender (p =0.743), age (p = 0.236), N-stage (p =0.423), vascular and perineural infiltration (p =0.085 or multifocality (p = 1.0). Although not statistically significant, the majority of patients with recurrent disease were BRAF positive (9 out of 11) (p =0.325). Patients affected by BRAF mutation are associated with tumors larger than 1 cm (p =0.034) and with extrathyroidal extension (p =0.033). Conclusion: Although BRAF testing is widely available, there are no consistent data to support improvement in outcomes from incorporating it into therapeutic decision for thyroid cancer.


Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma papilífero de tireoide é a neoplasia endócrina mais frequente e sua incidência triplicou nos últimos 35 anos. Embora o carcinoma papilífero de tireoide tenha um bom prognóstico, 1% a 30% dos pacientes desenvolvem recorrência e metástase. Algumas características clínicas e genéticas estão associadas a um pior prognóstico. A mutação mais frequente é a BRAF p.V600E, a qual tem sido associada a muitas características clínicas de pior prognóstico. No entanto, muitos estudos apresentam resultados controversos, sem qualquer associação entre a mutação em BRAF e características clinicopatológicas de pior prognóstico. Objetivo: Uma vez que o valor prognóstico das mutações em BRAF permanece controverso, investigar a importância dessa mutação em decisões terapêuticas para o carcinoma papilífero de tireoide. Método: Foi avaliada a associação da mutação em BRAF com características de pior prognóstico em 85 pacientes com carcinoma papilífero de tireoide acima de 45 anos tratados no A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, de 1980 a 2007. A mutação em BRAF foi avaliada por pirossequenciamento. A análise estatística foi feita com o software SPSS. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 54 anos (variação de 45 - 77), 73 eram mulheres (85,8%) e 12 eram homens (14,2%). Entre eles, 39 casos (45,9%) apresentaram extensão extratireoidiana e 11, doença recorrente. A mutação em BRAF foi detectada em 57 (67%) pacientes. Não foi observada associação significante entre mutação em BRAF e sexo (p = 0,743), idade (p = 0,236), estágio N (p = 0,423), infiltração vascular e perineural (p = 0,085) ou multi-focalidade (p = 1,0). Apesar de não apresentar associação estatística, a maioria dos pacientes com doença recorrente foi positiva para BRAF (9 em 11) (p = 0,325). Os pacientes afetados pela mutação em BRAF estão associados a tumores maiores do que 1 cm (p = 0,034) e com extensão extratireoidiana (p = 0,033). Conclusão: Embora a mutação em BRAF seja amplamente avaliada, não há dados consistentes que demonstrem uma melhor sobrevida ou benefício clínico ao incorporá-la à decisão terapêutica para o câncer de tireoide.

4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(3): 351-360, ago. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394451

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones por hantavirus, ocurren a través de la inhalación de aerosoles provenientes de excretas de roedores infectados. Estos virus causan síndrome cardiopulmonar en el caso de la variante Andes Sur, con una mortalidad que puede alcanzar el 50%. Se presenta como casos esporádicos o en pequeños conglomerados, en los que predomina el contagio interhumano. En este estudio observacional de tipo cohorte histórica, en personas infectadas con hantavirus Andes Sur durante los años 2009 a 2019 que fueron asistidas en el subsector público de salud de San Carlos de Bariloche(Argentina), se buscó identificar factores que pudieran predecir mala evolución (síndrome cardiopulmonar y muerte). Para ello se caracterizó el riesgo para cada una de las variables y, para obtener información clave sobre las relaciones entre las mismas, se aplicó además un análisis de correspondencias múltiples. Durante el período de estudio, 38 personas fueron incluidas. La edad media fue de 35 años. Se sospechó contagio de persona a persona en 10/38 (26.8%) casos. El 21.1% (8/28) tuvo al momento del diagnóstico un síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus. Mientras que, 55.3% (21/38) lo desarrolló durante su evolución y 44.7% (17/38) de los infectados fallecieron durante la internación. La edad mayor a 15 años y la plaquetopenia, se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de progresión clínica, mientras que las formas de leves o las personas asintomáticas, el contagio persona a persona o durante un brote epidemiológico, se asociaron con un menor riesgo de muerte.


Abstract Hantavirus infections occur through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of infected rodents. These viruses cause a cardiopulmonary syn drome in the case of the Andes Sur variant, with a mortality that can reach 50%. It occurs in sporadic cases or in small clusters, in which interhuman contagion predominates. In this historical cohort-type observational study, in people infected with Andes Sur hantavirus during the years 2009 to 2019 who was assisted in the public health subsector of San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina), it was sought to identify factors that could predict poor evolution (cardiopulmonary syndrome and death). For this, the risk for each of the variables was characterized and, to obtain key information about the relationships between them, a multiple correspondence analysis was also applied. During the study period, 38 people were included. The mean age was 35 years. Person-to-person contagion was suspected in 10/38 (26.8%) cases. 21.1% (8/28) presented a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome at the time of diagnosis, while 55.3% (21/38) developed it during their evolution, and 44.7% (17/38) of those infected died during hospitalization. Age over 15 years and thrombocytopenia were associated with a higher risk of clinical progression, while mild forms or asymptomatic people, person-to-person transmission, or during an epidemiological outbreak, were associated with a lower risk of death.

5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(3): 406-455, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385126

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: There is an ongoing need to identify various pathological factors that can predict various survival parameters in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). With this review, we aim to scrutinize the impact of several pathological factors on recurrence free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with UTUC. Materials and Methods: Systematic electronic literature search of various databases was conducted for this review. Studies providing multivariate hazard ratios (HR) for various pathological factors such as tumor margin, necrosis, stage, grade, location, architecture, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), carcinoma in situ (CIS), multifocality and variant histology as predictor of survival parameters were included and pooled analysis of HR was performed. Results: In this review, 63 studies with 35.714 patients were included. For RFS, all except tumor location (HR 0.94, p=0.60) and necrosis (HR 1.00, p=0.98) were associated with worst survival. All the pathological variables except tumor location (HR 0.95, p=0.66) were associated with worst CSS. For OS, only presence of CIS (HR 1.03, p=0.73) and tumor location (HR 1.05, p=0.74) were not predictor of survival. Conclusions: We noted tumor grade, stage, presence of LVI, lymph node metastasis, hydronephrosis, variant histology, sessile architecture, margin positivity and multifocality were associated with poor RFS, CSS and OS. Presence of CIS was associated with poor RFS and CSS but not OS. Tumor necrosis was associated with worst CSS and OS but not RFS. Tumor location was not a predictor of any of the survival parameters.

6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(2): 262-271, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394918

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a síndrome do doente eutireóideo como fator prognóstico em pacientes na unidade de terapia intensiva, detectar fatores que possam influenciar a mortalidade e desenvolver uma equação para calcular a probabilidade de morte. Métodos: Este foi um estudo de coorte longitudinal, observacional e não concorrente realizado na unidade de terapia intensiva da Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Realizou-se coleta de 20mL de sangue em 100 adultos sem endocrinopatia previamente documentada para a dosagem do hormônio estimulante da tireoide, da tetraiodotironina livre, da tri-iodotironina livre e da tri-iodotironina reversa. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 29 anos. A maioria dos pacientes que morreram era mais velha (idade mediana de 48 anos), e 97,5% deles possuíam a síndrome do doente eutireóideo. A síndrome do doente eutireóideo esteve relacionada à morte, às comorbidades, à idade e ao tempo de internação (mediana de 7,5 dias) na unidade de terapia intensiva. A baixa dosagem de hormônio estimulante da tireoide estava associada à morte. Os pacientes com dosagem da tri-iodotironina livre menor que 2,9pg/mL tinham maior probabilidade de morrer e, naqueles que morreram, a dosagem de tri-iodotironina reversa era maior que 0,2ng/mL. A tri-iodotironina livre apresentou maior sensibilidade e acurácia, e a tri-iodotironina reversa teve maior especificidade para prever a mortalidade. Com base nos resultados e pontos de corte, desenvolveu-se uma fórmula de regressão logística múltipla para calcular a probabilidade de morte. Conclusão: Sugere-se verificar oportunamente a dosagem da triiodotironina livre e reversa em pacientes graves e aplicar a equação proposta.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess euthyroid sick syndrome as a prognostic factor in patients in the intensive care unit; to detect factors that may affect mortality; and to develop an equation to calculate death probability. Methods: This was a longitudinal, observational, nonconcurrent cohort study developed in the intensive care unit of Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. One hundred adults with no prior documented endocrinopathy were submitted to a 20mL blood sample collection for the measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone, free tetraiodothyronine, free triiodothyronine and reverse triiodothyronine. Results: Most patients were female, aged 20 to 29 years. Most patients who died were older (median age of 48 years), and euthyroid sick syndrome was present in 97.5% of them. Euthyroid sick syndrome was related to death, comorbidities, age and length of stay in the intensive care unit (median of 7.5 days). There was an association between lower thyroid stimulating hormone and death. Patients with free triiodothyronine levels below 2.9pg/mL were more likely to die; reverse triiodothyronine rates were above 0.2ng/mL in those who died. Free triiodothyronine had greater sensitivity and accuracy, and reverse triiodothyronine had greater specificity to predict mortality. Based on the results and cutoff points, a multiple logistic regression formula was developed to calculate the probability of death. Conclusion: The main limitation of this study is the fact that it was conducted in a reference hospital for maternal and child care; therefore, there was a greater number of female patients and, consequently, a sampling bias existed. However, opportune measurement of free and reverse triiodothyronine levels in critical patients and application of the proposed equation are suggested.

7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(2): 220-226, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394920

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho preditivo de residentes, médicos seniores de unidades de terapia intensiva e decisores substitutos dos pacientes logo no início da internação na unidade de terapia intensiva e avaliar se diferentes apresentações de prognóstico (probabilidade de sobrevida versus probabilidade de óbito) influenciaram seus desempenhos. Métodos: Os decisores substitutos e os médicos responsáveis pelos pacientes críticos foram questionados durante as primeiras 48 horas de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva sobre a probabilidade do desfecho hospitalar do paciente. O enquadramento da pergunta (isto é, a probabilidade de sobrevida versus a probabilidade de óbito durante a internação) foi randomizado. Para avaliar o desempenho preditivo, comparou-se a área sob a curva ROC para desfecho hospitalar entre as categorias decisores substitutos e médicos. Também estratificaram-se os resultados de acordo com o enquadramento da pergunta randomizado. Resultados: Entrevistaram-se decisores substitutos e médicos sobre os desfechos hospitalares de 118 pacientes. O desempenho preditivo dos decisores substitutos foi significativamente inferior ao dos médicos (área sob a curva de 0,63 para decisores substitutos, 0,82 para residentes, 0,80 para residentes de medicina intensiva e 0,81 para médicos seniores de unidade de terapia intensiva). Não houve aumento no desempenho preditivo quanto à experiência dos médicos (ou seja, médicos seniores não previram desfechos melhor que médicos juniores). Os decisores substitutos pioraram seu desempenho de previsão quando perguntados sobre a probabilidade de óbito ao invés da probabilidade de sobrevida, mas não houve diferença entre os médicos. Conclusão: Observou-se desempenho preditivo diferente ao comparar decisores substitutos e médicos, sem qualquer efeito da experiência no prognóstico dos profissionais de saúde. O enquadramento da pergunta afetou o desempenho preditivo dos substitutos, mas não o dos médicos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the predictive performance of residents, senior intensive care unit physicians and surrogates early during intensive care unit stays and to evaluate whether different presentations of prognostic data (probability of survival versus probability of death) influenced their performance. Methods: We questioned surrogates and physicians in charge of critically ill patients during the first 48 hours of intensive care unit admission on the patient's probability of hospital outcome. The question framing (i.e., probability of survival versus probability of death during hospitalization) was randomized. To evaluate the predictive performance, we compared the areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for hospital outcome between surrogates and physicians' categories. We also stratified the results according to randomized question framing. Results: We interviewed surrogates and physicians on the hospital outcomes of 118 patients. The predictive performance of surrogate decisionmakers was significantly lower than that of physicians (AUC of 0.63 for surrogates, 0.82 for residents, 0.80 for intensive care unit fellows and 0.81 for intensive care unit senior physicians). There was no increase in predictive performance related to physicians' experience (i.e., senior physicians did not predict outcomes better than junior physicians). Surrogate decisionmakers worsened their prediction performance when they were asked about probability of death instead of probability of survival, but there was no difference for physicians. Conclusion: Different predictive performance was observed when comparing surrogate decision-makers and physicians, with no effect of experience on health care professionals' prediction. Question framing affected the predictive performance of surrogates but not of physicians.

8.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385896

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The most widely used method to classify prognostic factors in cancers today is TNM. However, Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) often demonstrates different behaviors in relation to aggressiveness and therapeutic response at the same TNM stage. So, in such cases biomarkers can be used to identify the biological diversity of these tumors more reliably, leading to better therapeutic strategies and disease management. The presence of inflammatory immune cells in the tumor microenvironment can have pro or antitumor effects and the investigation of the expression of inflammatory markers in OSSC can be usefulto design immunotherapeutic interventions. The Transforming Growth Factor alpha is a potent stimulator of cell migration that acts on cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis of cancer, as well as immune suppression and angiogenesis. Inflammatory cytokines, such as Interferon-gamma, mediate macrophage differentiation. Macrophages are an important component of the OSCC microenvironment. The greater amount of tumor-associated macrophages, especially the M2 phenotype, may be associated with a more aggressive biological behavior of the OSCC and, consequently, with reduced survival.


RESUMEN: El método más utilizado para clasificar los factores de pronóstico en los cánceres en la actualidad es TNM. Sin embargo, el carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE) a menudo muestra diferentes comportamientos en relación con la agresividad y la respuesta terapéutica en la misma etapa TNM. Entonces, en tales casos, los biomarcadores pueden usarse para identificar la diversidad biológica de estos tumores de manera más confiable, lo que lleva a mejores estrategias terapéuticas y manejo de la enfermedad. La presencia de células inmunes inflamatorias en el microambiente tumoral puede tener efectos pro o antitumorales y la investigación de la expresión de marcadores inflamatorios en COCE puede ser útil para diseñar intervenciones inmunoterapéuticas. El factor de crecimiento transformante α es un potente estimulador de la migración celular que actúa sobre la proliferación celular, la invasión y metástasis del cáncer, así como la inmunosupresión y la angiogénesis. Las citocinas inflamatorias, como el IFN-γ, median en la diferenciación de macrófagos. Los macrófagos son un componente importante del microambiente COCE. La mayor cantidad de macrófagos asociados a tumores, especialmente el fenotipo M2, puede estar asociada a un comportamiento biológico más agresivo del COCE y, en consecuencia, a una menor supervivencia.

9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 579-585, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376175

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Severe inflammation is reportedly associated with subsequent cardiovascular events, including in patients with coronary artery disease. This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of systemic immune-inflammation index and determine mortality and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic coronary total occlusion. METHODS: Our study evaluated 366 consecutive coronary total occlusion patients. The clinical end points were all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, which include target vessel revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular events during 105 months follow-up. RESULTS: The study findings showed 59 (16.1%) all-cause death, 22 (6%) target vessel revascularization cases, 32 (8.7%) myocardial infarction cases, and 13 (3.6%) cerebrovascular events cases, with a median follow-up of 49 months (26-74). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that systemic immune-inflammation index was not associated with target vessel revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis found systemic immune-inflammation index to be associated with all-cause death. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a lower survival rate and myocardial infarction-free survival time in patients with higher systemic immune-inflammation index scores. CONCLUSION: Although systemic immune-inflammation index is a preferable tool for the detection of mortality, it failed to give adverse outcomes. Larger multicenter studies are thus warranted to investigate the effect of systemic immune-inflammation index on clinical outcomes.

10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 664-669, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376200

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the prognostic effect of the tumor-stroma ratio, which has been shown to have prognostic value in various cancers, in patients with gallbladder cancer who have undergone curative resection. METHODS: The records of gallbladder cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment in our clinic between December 2005 and March 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections representing the tumors were evaluated under light microscopy to determine tumor-stroma ratio, and based on the results, <50% was defined as the stroma-rich and ≥50% as the stroma-poor groups. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients, including 20 females and 8 males, with a mean age of 64.6 years, were included in this study. Stroma-poor and stroma-rich tumors were detected in 15 and 13 patients, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship identified between tumor-stroma ratio and advanced age, gender, serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen, incidental or nonincidental diagnosis, jaundice, adjacent organ or structure resection, tumor location, grades 1-2 or 3, T1/T2 or T3/T4, N0 or N1/N2, M stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion. The stroma-poor and stroma-rich groups had a 5-year survival rate of 30% and 19.2% and a median overall survival of 25.7 and 15.1 months, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.526). CONCLUSIONS: A low tumor-stroma ratio tended to be a poor prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer, although not to a statistically significant degree. This can be considered one of the preliminary studies, as further studies involving larger groups are needed.

11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(6): 1118-1123, Maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383691

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A classificação funcional da New York Heart Association (NYHA) é o sistema de classificação mais utilizado para a insuficiência cardíaca (IC), enquanto o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar (TECP) é o padrão ouro para a avaliação do estado funcional na IC. Objetivo Analisar a correlação e a concordância entre as classes da NYHA e as variáveis do TECP. Métodos Foram selecionados pacientes com IC com indicação clínica para TECP e fração de ejeção (FE) < 50%. A correlação (coeficiente de Spearman) e a concordância (kappa) entre a classificação da NYHA e as classificações baseadas no TECP foram analisadas. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados No total, foram incluídos 244 pacientes no estudo. A idade média foi de 56±14 anos, e a FE média foi de 35,5%±10%. A distribuição de pacientes de acordo com a classificação da NYHA foi a seguinte: classe I (31,2%), classe II (48,3%), classe III (19,2%) e classe IV (1,3%). A correlação (r) entre as classes da NYHA e de Weber foi de 0,489 (p < 0,001), e a concordância foi de 0,231 (p < 0,001). A correlação (r) entre as classes da NYHA e ventilatórias (inclinação da ventilação minuto/produção de dióxido de carbono [VE/VCO2]) foi de 0,218 (p < 0,001), e a concordância foi de 0,002 (p = 0,959). A correlação de Spearman entre as classes da NYHA e do escore TECP foi de 0,223 (p = 0,004), e a concordância kappa foi de 0,027 (p = 0,606). Conclusão Foi identificada uma associação moderada entre as classes da NYHA e de Webber, embora a concordância tenha sido baixa. As classes ventilatórias (inclinação VE/VCO2) e do escore TECP apresentaram uma associação fraca e uma baixa concordância com as classes da NYHA.


Abstract Background The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification is the most commonly used classification system for heart failure (HF), whereas cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard for functional status evaluation in HF. Objective This study aimed to analyze correlation and concordance between NYHA classes and CPET variables. Methods HF patients with clinical indication for CPET and ejection fraction (EF) < 50% were selected. Correlation (Spearman coefficient) and concordance (kappa) between NYHA classification and CPET-based classifications were analyzed. A p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results In total, 244 patients were included. Mean age was 56 ± 14 years, and mean EF was 35.5% ± 10%. Distribution of patients according to NYHA classification was 31.2%% class I, 48.3% class II, 19.2% class III, and 1.3% class IV. Correlation (r) between NYHA and Weber classes was 0.489 (p < 0.001), and concordance was 0.231 (p < 0.001). Correlation (r) between NYHA and ventilatory classes (minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production [VE/VCO2] slope) was 0.218 (p < 0.001), and concordance was 0.002 (p = 0.959). Spearman correlation between NYHA and CPET score classes was 0.223 (p = 0.004), and kappa concordance was 0.027 (p = 0.606). Conclusion There was a moderate association between NYHA and Weber classes, although concordance was low. Ventilatory (VE/VCO2slope) and CPET score classes had a weak association and a low concordance with NYHA classes.

14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(6): 1108-1115, Maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383708

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A disfunção hepática é uma variável postulada de prognóstico desfavorável na cardiomiopatia dilatada (CMD). Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o valor prognóstico do escore albumina-bilirrubina (ALBI), um modelo relativamente novo para a avaliação da função hepática, em pacientes com CMD idiopática. Métodos: Um total de 1.025 pacientes com CMD idiopática foram incluídos retrospectivamente e divididos em três grupos com base nos escores de ALBI: grau 1 (≤ −2,60, n = 113), grau 2 (−2,60 a −1,39, n = 835) e grau 3 (> −1,39, n = 77). Foi analisada a associação do escore ALBI com eventos clínicos adversos maiores (ECAM) intra-hospitalares e mortalidade a longo prazo. Valor de p inferior a 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: A taxa de ECAM intra-hospitalares foi significativamente maior nos pacientes com grau 3 (2,7% versus 7,1% versus 24,7%, p < 0,001). A análise multivariada mostrou que o escore ALBI foi um preditor independente para ECAM intra-hospitalares (odds ratio ajustada = 2,80, IC 95%: 1,63 - 4,80, p < 0,001). Após seguimento mediano de 27 meses, 146 (14,2%) pacientes morreram. A curva de Kaplan-Meier indicou que a taxa cumulativa de sobrevida a longo prazo foi significativamente menor em pacientes com grau mais alto de ALBI (log-rank = 45,50, p < 0,001). O escore ALBI foi independentemente associado à mortalidade a longo prazo (hazard ratio ajustada = 2,84, IC 95%: 1,95 - 4,13, p < 0,001). Conclusão: O escore ALBI, como modelo de risco simples, pode ser considerado uma ferramenta de estratificação de risco para pacientes com CMD idiopática.


Abstract Background: Liver dysfunction is a postulated variable for poor prognosis in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score, a relatively new model for evaluating liver function, in patients with idiopathic DCM. Methods: A total of 1025 patients with idiopathic DCM were retrospectively included and divided into three groups based on ALBI scores: grade 1 (≤ −2.60, n = 113), grade 2 (−2.60 to −1.39, n = 835), and grade 3 (> −1.39, n = 77). The association of ALBI score with in-hospital major adverse clinical events (MACEs) and long-term mortality was analyzed. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The in-hospital MACEs rate was significantly higher in the grade 3 patients (2.7% versus 7.1% versus 24.7%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that ALBI score was an independent predictor for in-hospital MACEs (adjusted odds ratio = 2.80, 95%CI: 1.63 - 4.80, p < 0.001). After a median 27-month follow-up, 146 (14.2%) patients died. The Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that the cumulative rate of long-term survival was significantly lower in patients with higher ALBI grade (log-rank = 45.50, p < 0.001). ALBI score was independently associated with long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.95 - 4.13, p < 0.001). Conclusion: ALBI score as a simple risk model could be considered a risk-stratifying tool for patients with idiopathic DCM.

15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(5): 961-971, maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374359

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A rigidez aórtica é considerada um marcador de doença cardiovascular. A ressonância magnética cardiovascular (RMC) permite realizar uma avaliação abrangente da rigidez aórtica e da isquemia miocárdica em um único exame. Entretanto, dados prognósticos relacionados à rigidez aórtica em pacientes idosos permanecem limitados. Objetivo Determinar o valor prognóstico da rigidez aórtica usando a velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP) baseada em RMC em pacientes idosos com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Métodos Foram cadastrados pacientes consecutivos com idade >70 com indicação para RMC com perfusão de estresse com adenosina incluindo VOP, entre 2010 e 2014. Os pacientes foram acompanhados para verificar a ocorrência de eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (MACE), incluindo mortalidade cardíaca, infarto do miocárdio não fatal, hospitalização por insuficiência cardíaca, revascularização tardia (>180 dias após a RMC), e acidente vascular isquêmico. Foram realizadas análises univariadas e multivariadas para determinar os preditores de MACE. Um p-valor <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados A VOP média foi 13,98±9,00 m/s. Depois de um período mediano de acompanhamento de 59,6 meses em 263 pacientes (55% do sexo feminino, 77±5 anos), ocorreram 61 MACE. Pacientes com VOP elevada (>13,98 m/s) tiveram índices de MACE significativamente mais altos (FC 1,75; IC 95% 1,05-2,94; p=0,03) que os dos pacientes com VOP não elevada (<13,98 m/s). A análise multivariada demonstrou que pressão arterial diastólica, fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda (FEVE), isquemia miocárdica, e VOP elevada são preditores independentes de MACE (p<0,05 para todos). A VOP apresentou um valor prognóstico incremental em relação a dados clínicos, FEVE e isquemia (qui-quadrado global aumentado = 7,25, p=0,01). Conclusão A rigidez aórtica, usando-se a RMC, é um preditor independente forte de eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes idosos com suspeita de DAC ou DAC confirmada.


Abstract Background Aortic stiffness is established as a marker of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides a comprehensive assessment of aortic stiffness and myocardial ischemia in a single examination. However, prognostic data concerning aortic stiffness in elderly patients remain limited. Objective To determine the prognostic value of aortic stiffness using CMR-based pulse wave velocity (PWV) in elderly patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods This study enrolled consecutive patients aged >70 referred for adenosine stress perfusion CMR including PWV between 2010 and 2014. Patients were followed up for occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiac mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, late revascularization (>180 days after CMR), and ischemic stroke. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the predictors of MACE. A p-value of <0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results Mean PWV was 13.98±9.00 m/s. After a median follow-up period of 59.6 months in 263 patients (55% female, 77±5 years), 61 MACE occurred. Patients with elevated PWV (>13.98 m/s) had significantly higher rates of MACE (HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.05-2.94; p=0.03) than those with non-elevated PWV (<13.98 m/s). Multivariate analysis demonstrated diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), myocardial ischemia, and elevated PWV as independent predictors for MACE (p<0.05 for all). PWV provided an incremental prognostic value over clinical data, LVEF, and ischemia (increased global chi-square=7.25, p=0.01). Conclusion Aortic stiffness using CMR is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events in elderly patients with known or suspected CAD.

17.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 142-148, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367399

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la mortalidad asociada a infarto del miocardio (IM) no solo se debe a complicaciones cardiovasculares, sino también a complicaciones intrahospitalarias no cardiovasculares (CIHNC). El índice leuco-glucémico (ILG) se ha utilizado como un marcador pronóstico para el desarrollo de complicaciones cardiovasculares en el IM. Centramos este estudio en identificar el punto de corte de ILG para el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con infarto de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST). Material y métodos: en este diseño de un solo centro y transversal, incluimos pacientes con IAMCEST. El análisis bioquímico incluyó glucosa y leucocitos; se calculó ILG. Se realizaron análisis univariados y bivariados, curva ROC y análisis multivariado para el desarrollo de IAMCEST. Resultados: incluimos 1294 pacientes, 79.8% hombres y 20.2% mujeres. Las principales comorbilidades fueron: hipertensión arterial sistémica, diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia. Seiscientos cuarenta y cuatro pacientes (49.8%) presentaron CIHNC. El ILG > 1200 con área bajo la curva (AUC) 0.817 predice el desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST. Las variables que aumentaron el desarrollo de CIHNC fueron: ILG > 1200, creatinina > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus y edad > 65 años. La neumonía intrahospitalaria y las complicaciones cardiovasculares aumentaron el riesgo de muerte entre los pacientes con IAMCEST. Conclusión: un LGI > 1200 aumentó más de nueve veces el riesgo de desarrollo de CIHNC en pacientes con IAMCEST.


Background: The myocardial infarction-associated (MI) mortality is not only due cardiovascular complications, but intrahospital non-cardiovascular complications (IHnCVCs). The leuko-glycemic index (LGI) has been used as a prognostic marker for the development of cardiovascular complications in MI. We focused this study on identifying the cut-off point of LGI for the IHnCVCs development in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Material and methods: In this single-center and cross-sectional design, we included patients with STEMI. The biochemical analysis included glucose and leucocytes; with them we calculated the LGI. Receiver operating characteristic curve, univariate and bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis for IHnCVCs development were performed. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We included 1294 patients, 79.8% were men and 20.2% women. The main comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Six hundred forty-four (49.8%) patients presented IHNCVCs. The LGI > 1200 (AUC 0.817) predict the IHNCVCs development in STEMI patients. The variables that increased the IHNCVCs development were LGI > 1200, creatinine > 0.91 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus and age > 65 years. Hospital acquired pneumonia and cardiovascular complications increase the risk of death among STEMI patients. Conclusion: A LGI > 1200 increased, just over nine times, the risk of IHnCVC development in STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Glycemic Index , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Prognosis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Nonagenarians , Mexico/epidemiology
19.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 212-219, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374718

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has the highest metastatic potential of all head and neck cancers. The survival time of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma has improved significantly in the last decades due to the use of combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as advances in radiotherapy techniques. However, appropriately 30% of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma suffer a poor prognosis, mainly due to distant metastasis. Objective: The study aimed to identify the survival and prognostic factors in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in patients treated for synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma or metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma for 14years (2003-2016). Overall survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test for the whole population and both groups of patients. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox model; p-values < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: One hundred and twelve patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included (51 patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and 61 patients with metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma). In the whole population, the median overall survival was 10 months (1-156 months). In the multivariate analysis, female gender, poor performance status (WHO > 1) and metachronous metastasis were independent prognostic factors. In the metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, the median overall survival was 13 months (1-156 months). In multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were non-oligometastatic disease, severe (G3-G4) chemotherapy toxicity and the lack of nasopharyngeal and metastatic site irradiation. In the metachronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, the median overall survival was 7 months (1-41 months). In multivariate analysis, the poor performance status (WHO > 1) was an independent metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognostic factor. Conclusion: Oligometastatic patients with synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma had better survival. The locoregional treatment of primitive nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved survival in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma who responded to induction chemotherapy. Local irradiation of metastatic sites improved survival of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy toxicity altered survival among patients with synchronous metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma nasofaríngeo tem o maior potencial metastático de todos os tipos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. O tempo de sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo melhorou significativamente nas últimas décadas devido ao uso combinado de quimioterapia e radioterapia e os avanços nas técnicas de radioterapia. No entanto, aproximadamente 30% dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo têm um prognóstico ruim, principalmente devido a metástases a distância. Objetivo: Identificar a sobrevida e os fatores prognósticos no carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático. Método: Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes tratados por carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico ou carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico por 14 anos (2003-2016). A sobrevida global foi analisada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e comparada pelo teste de log-rank para toda a população e ambos os grupos de pacientes. A análise multivariada foi feita com o modelo de Cox; valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados como significância estatística. Resultados: Foram incluídos 112 pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático (51 com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico e 61 com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico). Em toda a população, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 10 meses (1-156 meses). Na análise multivariada, sexo feminino, baixo status de desempenho (OMS > 1) e metástase metacrônica foram fatores prognósticos independentes. Nos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 13 meses (1-156 meses). Na análise multivariada, os fatores prognósticos independentes foram doença não oli-gometastática, toxicidade grave à quimioterapia (G3 - G4) e falta de irradiação nasofaríngea e do sítio metastático. Nos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático metacrônico, a mediana da sobrevida global foi de 7 meses (1-41 meses). Na análise multivariada, o baixo status de desempenho (OMS > 1) foi um fator prognóstico independente. Conclusão: Pacientes oligometastáticos com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico tiveram melhor sobrevida. O tratamento locorregional do carcinoma nasofaríngeo primário melhorou a sobrevida em pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico que responderam à quimioterapia de indução. A irradiação local dos locais metastáticos melhorou a sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático. A toxicidade de quimioterapia de grau 3 ou 4 alterou a sobrevida entre pacientes com carcinoma nasofaríngeo metastático sincrônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(2): 237-246, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Cytological analysis and Bethesda classification of thyroid nodules is the standard method of diagnosing differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, even for nodules with a non-malignant cytological diagnosis, there is a not insignificant risk of cancer. There are doubts whether this lack of certainty would influence patient prognosis. Our aim was to compare patients with DTC, classified according to the preoperative cytological diagnosis, regarding their evolution. Subjects and methods: A retrospective study was carried out with 108 DTC patients submitted to total thyroidectomy (TT) between 2009 and 2015, divided into three groups according to preoperative cytological diagnosis (Bethesda classification): classes I/II, III/IV, and V/VI. Groups were compared for evolution considering response to treatment at last evaluation as well as time disease free. Statistical analysis used ANOVA, chi squared, and Kaplan-Meier curves with p<0.05 considered significant. Results: Groups differed for time between nodule puncture and TT [in months; V/VI (2.35 ± 2.48) < III/IV (7.32 ± 6.34) < I/II (13.36 ± 8.9); p < 0.0001]. There was no significant difference between groups for evolution at final evaluation (disease free status; classes I/II: 71.4%; classes III/IV: 60%; classes V/VI: 66.6%; p = 0.7433), as well as time disease free (in months; classes I/II: 34.57 ± 25.82; classes III/IV: 38.04 ± 26.66; classes V/VI: 30.84 ± 26.34; p = 0.3841). Conclusions: DTC patients classified according to preoperative cytological diagnosis did not differ for evolution. Although patients with non-malignant cytological diagnoses were submitted to TT later, this did not affect the evolution of the cases.

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