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1.
Rev. ADM ; 78(5): 275-279, sept.-oct. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348224

ABSTRACT

El SARS-CoV-2, causante de que estemos viviendo una pandemia mundial, tuvo sus orígenes en China, desde donde ha traspasado fronteras rápidamente, llegando a todos los rincones del mundo. Muchos han sido los equipos de investigación que se enfrentan el reto de conseguir una vacuna que logre combatir este mortal virus. Es por este motivo que en esta investigación se pretendió analizar la bibliografía referida a la vacuna Johnson & Johnson (J&J) contra COVID-19: distribución mundial de la vacuna, mecanismo de acción, indicaciones, contraindicaciones y efectos secundarios. Varios estudios demuestran que su eficacia varía de acuerdo con la edad y género de cada individuo; sin embargo, esta vacuna alcanzó un grado de certeza moderada. Los efectos adversos en su mayoría son leves y se resolvieron al cabo de dos días, siendo excepción algunos casos, ya que se registró un efecto adverso poco común denominado trombocitopenia prevalente en mujeres de 18 a 40 años, por este motivo, la FDA (Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de EE.UU.) recomienda la precaución en el uso de la vacuna con respecto a este efecto adverso que en algunos casos podría ser mortal (AU)


The SARS-CoV-2, which caused us to be experiencing a global pandemic, had its origins in China, from where it has crossed borders rapidly, reaching all corners of the world. Many research teams have faced the challenge of getting a vaccine to fight this deadly virus. For this reason, this research aimed to analyze the literature on the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine: global distribution of the vaccine, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications and side effects. Several studies show that its effectiveness varies according to the age and gender of each individual, but this vaccine reached a moderate degree of certainty. The adverse effects are mostly mild and resolved within two days, with some exceptions being a rare adverse effect called prevalent thrombocytopenia in women aged 18 to 40 years. For this reason, the FDA recommends caution in the use of the vaccine with respect to this potentially fatal adverse effect in some cases (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Contraindications, Drug , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Proteins , Effectiveness , RNA, Viral , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Virus Inactivation
2.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8231, 31-07-2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284247

ABSTRACT

Objetivos Describir las características clínicas y evaluar los factores asociados con la mortalidad de los pacientes adultos con la nueva enfermedad causada por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ingresados a un hospital de referencia nacional de Perú. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados con el diagnóstico de infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2). Se excluyó a quienes ingresaron con prueba rápida serológica positiva al ingreso, sin clínica sugestiva ni imágenes compatibles. Los datos se recolectaron a partir de la historia clínica. Resultados Se incluyó un total de 813 adultos, 544 (66,9%) tuvieron COVID-19 confirmado. La media de la edad fue de 61,2 años (desviación estándar: 15) y 575 (70,5%) fueron de sexo masculino. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (34,1%) y obesidad (25,9%). Los síntomas más frecuentes al ingreso fueron disnea (82,2%) y tos (53,9%). Un total de 114 (14%) pacientes recibieron ventilación mecánica, 38 (4,7%) ingresaron a unidad de cuidados intensivos y 377 (46,4%) fallecieron. Se asociaron a la mortalidad el requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio, el mayor compromiso pulmonar y los marcadores inflamatorios. Encontramos que por cada 10 años que aumentó la edad, el riesgo de morir se incrementó en 32% (riesgo relativo: 1,32; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,25 a 1,38). Aquellos pacientes que requirieron ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos y ventilación mecánica tuvieron 1,39 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,13 a 1,69) y 1,97 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,69 a 2,29) veces el riesgo de morir, respectivamente. Conclusión La mortalidad encontrada en nuestro estudio fue alta y estuvo asociada a la edad, marcadores inflamatorios y compromiso respiratorio.


Objectives To describe and assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national referral hospital in Peru. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study that included hospitalized patients older than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis. Patients with a positive rapid serological test on admission but no respiratory symptoms nor compatible images were excluded. We collected the data from clinical records. Results A total of 813 adults were included, 544 (66.9%) with confirmed COVID-19. The mean age was 61.2 years (standard deviation: 15.0), and 575 (70.5%) were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (34.1%) and obesity (25.9%). On admission, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (82.2%) and cough (53.9%). A total of 114 (14.0%) patients received mechanical ventilation, 38 (4.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 377 (46.4%) died. The requirement for ventilatory support, greater lung involvement, and inflammatory markers were associated with higher mortality. It was found that for every 10-year age increase, the risk of dying increased 32% (relative risk: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 1.38). Those who were admitted to the intensive care unit and and were placed on mechanical ventilation had 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 1.69) and 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 2.29) times the risk of dying compared to those who did not, respectively. Conclusion We found a high mortality rate among hospitalized patients associated with older age, higher inflammatory markers, and greater lung involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals
3.
Aval. psicol ; 20(2): 241-252, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1285441

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo principal investigar evidências de validade discriminante para o Desenho da Família Cinética. Pretendeu também analisar a influência de variáveis sociodemográficas, bem como a frequência e capacidade de discriminação de cada item de análise dessa técnica projetiva. Participaram 112 crianças de 9 a 12 anos pertencentes a dois grupos critério, sendo 80 da amostra normativa e 32 da amostra clínica (com problemas de aprendizagem). Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Desenho da Família Cinética, sua folha de correção e as Matrizes Progressivas e Coloridas de Raven. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais com o auxílio do software SPSS. Os principais resultados mostraram que a variável sociodemográfica Idade gerou efeito nos resultados obtidos; houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos-critério, corroborando para as evidências de validade discriminante; e apenas 38,46% dos itens de análise obtiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos critério. (AU)


This study aimed to investigate evidence of discriminant validity for the Kinetic Family Drawing test. It also intended to analyze the influence of sociodemographic variables, to evaluate the frequency and discriminatory capacity of each analysis item of this projective technique. Participants were 112 children from 9 to 12 years of age, belonging to two criterion groups, 80 from the normative sample and 32 from the clinical sample (with learning problems). The instruments used were the Kinetic Family Drawing test, its correction sheet and Raven's Progressive and Colored Matrices. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics using the SPSS software. The main results showed that the sociodemographic variable age influenced the results obtained; there was a statistically significant difference between the criterion groups, corroborating the evidence of discriminant validity; while only 38.46% of the analysis items obtained statistically significant difference between the criterion groups. (AU)


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo principal investigar las evidencias de validez discriminatorias para el Dibujo de la Familia Kinética. También se pretendía analizar la influencia de las variables sociodemográficas, así como evaluar la frecuencia y la capacidad discriminatoria de cada ítem de análisis de esta técnica proyectiva. Participaron un total de 112 niños de 9 a 12 años, pertenecientes a dos grupos de criterios, 80 de la muestra normativa y 32 de la muestra clínica (con problemas de aprendizaje). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Dibujo de la Familia Kinética, su hoja de corrección y las Matrices Progresivas Coloreadas de Raven. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial con la ayuda del software SPSS. Los principales resultados mostraron que la variable sociodemográfica edad tuvo un efecto sobre los resultados obtenidos; hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos de criterios, corroborando la evidencia de validez discriminante; y solo el 38.46% de los ítems de análisis obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de criterios. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Projective Techniques , Learning Disabilities/psychology , Psychometrics , Socioeconomic Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors
4.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-14, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284430

ABSTRACT

En el nivel primario de atención se detectan errores en la prescripción del tratamiento farmacológico de la diabetes tipo 2. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de la prescripción de hipoglucemiantes orales en pacientes atendidos en consultorios del médico de la familia del Policlínico Universitario Hermanos Cruz, municipio Pinar del Río, Cuba. Se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos de tipo descriptivo y transversal clasificado dentro de estos como de indicación-prescripción con elementos de esquema terapéutico y de factores que condicionan los hábitos de prescripción. El universo estuvo conformado por 1575 pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tratados con hipoglucemiantes orales que pertenecían a los 20 consultorios médicos de la familia.La muestra de estudio se obtuvo por el método de muestreo no probabilístico (por conveniencia) (n=846). La información se obtuvo de la historia clínica y tarjeta control de los pacientes para adquirir estos medicamentos. Predominó la edad de 40-49 años, el sexo femenino y entre 5-10 años de evolución de la enfermedad. No se usó la primera línea de tratamiento en el 43,6 % de los casos, ningún caso tenía estudios de laboratorio para el uso de la Metformina. La prescripción y dosis fue adecuada no así su uso racional. Las interacciones más frecuentes fueron las farmacocinéticas.El uso racional de hipoglucemiantes orales fue deficiente lo que hace necesario ampliar la divulgación de un protocolo de tratamiento para mejorar el uso de estos fármacos en el nivel primario de atención.


Errors in the prescription of drug treatment for type 2 diabetes are detected at the primary level of care. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the prescription of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients attended in the family doctor's offices of the Hermanos Cruz University Polyclinic, Pinar del Río distrit, Cuba. A descriptive and cross-sectional study of the use of medications was carried out, classified within these as indication-prescription with elements of the therapeutic scheme and factors that condition prescription habits. The universe was made up of 1575 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents who belonged to the 20 family medical offices. The study sample was carried out by the non-probabilistic sampling method (for convenience) (n = 846). The information was obtained from the clinical history and control card of the patients to acquire these medications. The age of 40-49 years, the female sex and between 5-10 years of evolution of the disease predominated. The first line of treatment was not used in 43.6% of the cases; no case had laboratory studies for the use of Metformin. The prescription and dose was adequate, but not its rational use. The most frequent interactions were pharmacokinetic ones.The rational use of oral hypoglycemic agents was deficient, which makes it necessary to expand the dissemination of a treatment protocol to improve the use of these drugs at the primary level of care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Age Factors , Cuba , Drug Interactions , Drug Utilization
5.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-17, jun. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284420

ABSTRACT

Background: Echocardiographic predictors for new onset heart failure in patients with ischemic heart disease with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) or with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) in Ethiopian and Sub-Saharan African is not well-known.Methods: Two hundred twenty-eight patients with ischemic heart disease were retrospectively recruited and followed. Analysis on baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients, and risk factors for new onset HFpEF and new onset HFrEF were done. The exclusion criteria were known heart failure at baseline and those who did not have echocardiography data.Results: During the follow up period, heart failure developed in 62.2% (61/98) of ischemic heart disease patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and in 70.1% (92/130) of ischemic heart disease patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. We did not find significant difference between HFrEF and HFpEF in time to new onset heart failure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, left atrium and diastolic left ventricular dimension had significant association with new onset HFrEF on univariate regression analysis. Whereas new onset HFpEF was significantly associated with age, sex, presence of hypertension, Systolic blood pressure and diastolic left ventricular dimension. On cox regression analysis diastolic left ventricular dimension was associated with both new onset HFpEF and HFrEF. Age, diabetes, and dimension of left atrium were also associated with HFrEF.Conclusion: This cohort study in ischemic heart disease patients suggests a key role for the diastolic left ventricular dimension, left atrium size, diabetes, sex and age as predictors of new onset HFrEF and HFpEF. Strategies directed to prevention and early treatment of diabetes, dilatation of left ventricle and left atrium may prevent a considerable proportion of HFrEF or HFpEF.


Antecedentes: Los predictores ecocardiográficos de nuevos eventos de insuficiencia cardiaca en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular preservada (HFpEF) o con fracción de eyección ventricular reducida (HFrEF) no son bien conocidos en la Africa etíope y subsahariana.Métodos: Doscientos veintiocho pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica fueron reclutados y seguidos retrospectivamente. Se realizaron análisis sobre las características clínicas y ecocardiográficas basales de los pacientes, así como los factores de riesgo para un nuevo evento de HFpEF y un nuevo evento de HFrEF. Los criterios de exclusión fueron insuficiencia cardíaca conocida al inicio del estudio y aquellos que no tenían datos de ecocardiografía.Resultados: Durante el período de seguimiento, la insuficiencia cardíaca se desarrolló en el 62,2% (61/98) de pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda preservada y en el 70,1% (92/130) de pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica con fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda reducida. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre HFrEF y HFpEF en el tiempo hasta la nueva aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica, la diabetes y las dimensiones de la aurícula iquierda y del ventrículo izquierdo en diástole tuvieron una asociación significativa con nuevos eventos de HFrEF en el análisis de regresión univariada. Mientras que un nuevo evento de HFpEF se asoció significativamente con la edad, el sexo, la presencia de hipertensión, la presión arterial sistólica y la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica. En el análisis de regresión de cox, la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica se asoció con HFpEF de nuevo inicio y HFrEF. La edad, la diabetes y la dimensión de la aurícula izquierda también se asociaron con HFrEF. Conclusión: Este estudio de cohorte en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica sugiere un papel clave para la dimensión ventricular izquierda diastólica, el tamaño de la aurícula izquierda, la diabetes, el sexo y la edad como predictores de un nuevo evento de HFrEF y HFpEF. Las estrategias dirigidas a la prevención y el tratamiento temprano de la diabetes, la dilatación del ventrículo izquierdo y la aurícula izquierda pueden prevenir una proporción considerable de HFrEF o HFpEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Tobacco Use Disorder , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Age Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Risk Assessment/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 987-1000, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153843

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective was to identify the impact of social distance in the management of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in the adult population from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This is an ambispective, population-based cohort study. Descriptive analysis and Poisson regression models were used and the results were reported as prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. From a total of 1,288 participants, 43.1% needed medical care and 28.5% reported impaired management of NCDs during social distance. Female sex, age between 18 and 30 years old, living in the Serra region (central region of the state), people with depression and multimorbidity were more likely to have impaired management of NCDs. Being physically active reduced the probability of having impaired management of NCD by 15%. Reduced monthly income was associated with the difficulty in accessing prescription medicine and avoidance of seeking in-person medical assistance. Depression was associated with difficulties in accessing medications, while avoidance of seeking in-person medical assistance was more likely for people with multimorbidity, arthritis/arthrosis/fibromyalgia, heart disease, and high cholesterol.


Resumo O objetivo foi identificar o impacto do distanciamento social no manejo das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) na população adulta do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Este é um estudo de coorte ambispectivo de base populacional. Foi utilizada análise descritiva e modelos de regressão de Poisson, os resultados são apresentados em razão de prevalência e intervalos de confiança de 95%. De um total de 1.288 participantes, 43,1% necessitaram de cuidados médicos e 28,5% relataram manejo prejudicado de DCNT durante o distanciamento social. Sexo feminino, idade entre 18 e 30 anos, residente na região da Serra (região central do estado), pessoas com depressão e multimorbidade apresentaram maior chance de manejo prejudicado das DCNT. Ser fisicamente ativo reduziu a probabilidade de ter gerenciamento prejudicado de DCNT em 15%. A redução da renda mensal esteve associada à dificuldade de acesso a medicamentos prescritos e a deixar de buscar atendimento médico presencial. A depressão foi associada a dificuldades de acesso a medicamentos, enquanto deixar de buscar assistência médica pessoalmente foi mais provável para pessoas com multimorbidade, artrite/artrose/fibromialgia, doenças cardíacas e colesterol alto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Poisson Distribution , Sex Factors , Regression Analysis , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Depression/psychology , Multimorbidity , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Income , Middle Aged
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1023-1033, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153816

ABSTRACT

Resumo A vulnerabilidade é um fator chave no enfrentamento da COVID-19 tendo em vista que pode influenciar no agravamento da doença. Desse modo, ela deve ser considerada no controle da COVID-19, prevenção e promoção da saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a distribuição espacial da incidência de casos de COVID-19 em uma metrópole brasileira e sua associação com indicadores de vulnerabilidade social. Estudo ecológico. Foi utilizada a análise de varredura espacial (scan) para identificar aglomerados de COVID-19. As variáveis para identificação da vulnerabilidade foram inseridas em um modelo de Regressão Espacial Geograficamente Ponderado (GWR) para identificar sua relação espacial com os casos de COVID-19. A incidência de COVID-19 em Fortaleza foi de 74,52/10 mil habitantes, com notificação de 3.554 casos, sendo pelo menos um caso registrado em cada bairro. A regressão espacial GWR mostrou relação negativa entre incidência de COVID-19 e densidade demográfica (β=-0,0002) e relação positiva entre incidência de COVID-19 e percentual de ocupados >18 anos trabalhadores autônomos (β=1,40), assim como, renda domiciliar per capita máxima do quinto mais pobre (β=0,04). A influência dos indicadores de vulnerabilidade sobre a incidência evidenciou áreas que podem ser alvo de políticas públicas a fim de impactar na incidência de COVID-19.


Abstract Vulnerability is a crucial factor in addressing COVID-19 as it can aggravate the disease. Thus, it should be considered in COVID-19 control and health prevention and promotion. This ecological study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of the incidence of COVID-19 cases in a Brazilian metropolis and its association with social vulnerability indicators. Spatial scan analysis was used to identify COVID-19 clusters. The variables for identifying the vulnerability were inserted in a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model to identify their spatial relationship with COVID-19 cases. The incidence of COVID-19 in Fortaleza was 74.52/10,000 inhabitants, with 3,554 reported cases and at least one case registered in each neighborhood. The spatial GWR showed a negative relationship between the incidence of COVID-19 and demographic density (β=-0,0002) and a positive relationship between the incidence of COVID-19 and the percentage of self-employed >18 years (β=1.40), and maximum per capita household income of the poorest fifth (β=0.04). The influence of vulnerability indicators on incidence showed areas that can be the target of public policies to impact the incidence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Comorbidity , Incidence , Bayes Theorem , Age Factors , Population Density , Cities/epidemiology , Suburban Health/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Housing/standards , Income , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 9-14, mar. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177228

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los siniestros viales representan un significativo problema de salud pública y una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad evitables en la Argentina. La vigilancia epidemiológica permite valorar el alcance del problema y orientar respuestas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características demográficas, uso de la vía pública, mecanismo de producción, evaluación en Unidad de Emergencias y morbimortalidad de los casos ingresados en el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica de siniestros viales en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires durante durante el año 2018. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se analizaron las variables sexo, grupo etario, tiempo de internación, tipo de usuario, mecanismo de producción, gravedad del herido y del siniestro. Resultados: se registraron 404 consultas por siniestros viales. El sexo masculino fue el predominante en el 62,13% (251). El rango etario más frecuente abarcó los 25 a 44 años (187). La forma de traslado mayoritaria fue el automóvil en el 42,57% (172), seguido de motovehículos 29,21% (118). La gran mayoría fueron secundarios a colisiones entre dos vehículos. El 80,20% (324) ingresó deambulando por sus propios medios y el 83% (336) no requirió internación. El 90,6% (366) consultó por heridas leves. De los heridos graves, el 71,05% (27) fue de sexo masculino y el 26,32% (10) mayor de 75 años. La mayoría eran usuarios de automóvil. Ocurrieron 3 óbitos de mujeres mayores de 75 años. Conclusión: se observó una mayor cantidad de siniestros viales en adultos jóvenes, principalmente en varones. En general, usuarios de vehículos que consultaron tras una colisión con otro vehículo. Mayormente, ingresaron por sus propios medios, no requirieron internación de ningún tipo y presentaron heridas leves. Los casos graves correspondieron en su mayoría a varones con gran proporción de adultos mayores. Los casos fatales ocurrieron en mujeres adultas mayores. Contar con información del perfil epidemiológico de los siniestros viales permite la comprensión de esta compleja problemática en el ámbito local y el diseño de estrategias de intervención ajustadas a dicho perfil. (AU)


Introduction: road accidents represent a significant public health problem and one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in Argentina. Epidemiological surveillance makes it possible to assess the scope of the problem and guide responses. The objective of this study is to describe the demographic characteristics, use of the public highway, production mechanism, evaluation in the emergency center and morbidity and mortality of the cases admitted to the epidemiological surveillance system of road accidents at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires during 2018. Materials and methods: observational cross-sectional study. The variables sex, age group, length of stay, type of user, production mechanism, severity of the injured and the accident were analyzed. Results: 404 consultations for road accidents were registered. Male sex was predominant in 62.13% (251). The most frequent age range was 25 to 44 years (187). The majority form of transportation was the automobile in 42.57% (172), followed by motorcycle vehicles 29.21% (118). The vast majority were secondary to collisions between two vehicles. 80.20% (324) were admitted wandering by their own means and 83% (336) did not require hospitalization. 90.6% (366) consulted for minor injuries. Of the seriously injured, 71.05% (27) were male and 26.32% (10) were older than 75 years. Most were car users. There were 3 deaths of women older than 75 years. Conclusion: there was a greater number of road accidents in young adults, mainly in men. In general, vehicle users consulted after a collision with another vehicle. Moreover, they entered by their own means, they did not require hospitalization of any kind and presentation of minor injuries. Severe cases correspond mostly to males with a large proportion of older adults. The fatal cases occurred in older adult women. Having information on the epidemiological profile of road accidents allows the understanding of this complex problem at the local level and the design of intervention strategies adjusted to this profile. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Argentina , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Sex Factors , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Public Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Age Groups
9.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(273): 5229-5242, fev.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1148490

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever incidência de dengue em Santos/SP e relacionar coeficiente de incidência (CI) de dengue com indicadores socioeconômicos e entomológicos de 2012-2016. Método: estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, ecológico dos casos confirmados de dengue, residentes em Santos, de 2012-2016, do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação-Online; foram obtidos seis indicadores socioeconômicos da base de setores censitários do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística-2010; o sétimo do Índice Paulista de Vulnerabilidade Social-2010 e os indicadores entomológicos da Secretaria de Saúde; foi aplicada Correlação bivariada de Spearman (SPSS-Statistics®). Aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa-CAAE nº79776017.1.0000.5479. Resultados: de 2012-2016 ocorreram 16.451 casos, com CI de 117,4 (2012) a 2.122,8 (2013) casos/100.000 habitantes, maior no sexo feminino e de 15-29 anos; os fatores socioeconômicos foram mais significativos entre 2015-2016; o Índice de Densidade de fêmeas Aedes aegypti apresentou maior correlação positiva. Conclusão: descreveu-se perfil epidemiológico/entomológico da dengue, apoiando gestores nas ações locais de controle.(AU)


Objectives: describe incidence of dengue in Santos/SP and relate dengue incidence coefficient (IC) with socioeconomic and entomological indicators from 2012-2016. Methods: epidemiological, descriptive, ecological study of confirmed cases of dengue, resident in Santos, from 2012-2016, of the Online-Notifiable Diseases Information System; six socioeconomic indicators were obtained from census sectors base of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics-2010; the seventh from the São Paulo Index of Social Vulnerability-2010 and the entomological indicators from the Health Department; Spearman's Bivariate Correlation (SPSS-Statistics®) was applied. Approved by the Research Ethics Committee-CAAE nº79776017.1.0000.5479. Results: from 2012-2016 there were 16.451 cases, with IC from 117,4 (2012) to 2.122,8 (2013) cases/100.000 inhabitants, higher in females and between 15-29 years old; socioeconomic factors were more significant between 2015-2016; the Density Index of Aedes aegypti females showed a greater positive correlation. Conclusion: epidemiological/entomological profile of dengue was described, supporting managers in local control actions.(AU)


Objetivos: describir incidencia del dengue en Santos/SP y relacionar coeficiente de incidencia (CI) del dengue con indicadores socioeconómicos y entomológicos para 2012-2016. Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, ecológico de casos confirmados de dengue, residentes en Santos, desde 2012-2016, del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación-Online; obtuvieron-se seis indicadores socioeconómicos desde base de sectores censales del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística-2010, el séptimo del Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social de São Paulo-2010 y los indicadores entomológicos del Departamento de Salud. Aplicó-se Correlación Bivariada de Spearman (SPSS-Statistics®). Aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación-CAAE nº79776017.1.0000.5479. Resultados: desde 2012-2016 hubo 16.451 casos, con CI de 117,4 (2012) a 2.122,8 (2013) casos/100.000 habitantes, mayor en mujeres y de 15-29 años; los factores socioeconómicos fueron más significativos entre 2015-2016; el Índice de Densidad de hembras Aedes aegypti mostró mayor correlación positiva. Conclusión: describió-se perfil epidemiológico/entomológico del dengue, apoyando a los gerentes en acciones de control local.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aedes/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Socioeconomic Factors , Sex Factors , Incidence , Age Factors , Ecological Studies , Social Vulnerability Index
10.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 24(273): 5289-5298, fev.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1148515

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever a situação epidemiológica de pessoas que foram vítimas de maus-tratos, negligência ou abandono em um estado do nordeste brasileiro. Método: Trata-se de estudo exploratório e descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa e dados retrospectivos, desenvolvido com dados obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Resultados: A população compreendeu pessoas atendidas e notificadas nos serviços próprios e conveniados ao Sistema Único de Saúde, por causas de maus-tratos, negligência ou abandono, entre 2015 e 2018. Observou-se que a maior parte era do sexo feminino (59,6%), na faixa etária de até 9 anos (56,4%) e residentes da zona urbana (79,1%). Quanto as pessoas que cometeram maus-tratos, negligência ou abandono, a maioria era do sexo feminino, não havia ingerido bebida alcóolica e a violência foi motivada por conflito geracional (20%). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se a necessidade de políticas públicas que proteja as crianças e as pessoas que estão em situação de vulnerabilidade.(AU)


Objective: describes an epidemiological situation of people who have been victims of abuse, neglect or abandonment in a state in northeastern Brazil. Method: This is an exploratory and descriptive study, with a quantitative approach and retrospective data, developed with data obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Results: The population comprised people attended and notified in the services themselves and under the Unified Health System, due to maltreatment, neglect or abandonment, between 2015 and 2018. It was observed that the majority were female (59, 6%), aged up to 9 years (56.4%) and residents of the urban area (79.1%). As for people who committed abuse, neglect or abandonment, the majority were female, had not drunk alcohol and violence was motivated by generational conflict (20%). Conclusion: The need for public policies to protect children and people who are in a situation of vulnerability was highlighted.(AU)


Objetivo: describe una situación epidemiológica de personas que han sido víctimas de abuso, negligencia o abandono en un estado del noreste de Brasil. Método: Se trata de un estudio exploratorio y descriptivo, con enfoque cuantitativo y datos retrospectivos, desarrollado con datos obtenidos del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables. Resultados: La población estuvo conformada por personas atendidas y notificadas en los propios servicios y en el Sistema Único de Salud, por maltrato, negligencia o abandono, entre 2015 y 2018. Se observó que la mayoría eran mujeres (59, 6%), de hasta 9 años (56,4%) y residentes del casco urbano (79,1%). En cuanto a las personas que cometieron maltrato, abandono o abandono, la mayoría eran mujeres, no habían bebido alcohol y la violencia estuvo motivada por conflicto generacional (20%). Conclusión: Se destacó la necesidad de políticas públicas para proteger a la niñez y a las personas en situación de vulnerabilidad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Domestic Violence/classification , Health Information Systems
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 64-70, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155785

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: We aimed to analyze the early and long-term results of open-heart surgery in Turkish patients aged 80 years or older who were operated on at our center. Methods: All patients aged 80 years or older who underwent surgery between January 2000 and December 2013 at a high-level heart center were included in the study. The in-hospital data of study patients were obtained from the electronic database and from the hospital files. Survival data were analyzed as a long-term outcome. Results: A total of 245 patients aged 80-93 years were evaluated in the study. The patients were followed up 5.4±3.7 years after open-heart surgery. In-hospital mortality rates were 10% in elective cases and 15.1% overall. Age ≥85 years, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and emergency surgery were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The median survival time was found to be 4.4±0.3 years for all participants. The long-term survival of patients who underwent emergency cardiac surgery was significantly lower than that of elective patients (log-rank <0.001). Conclusion: Octogenarians have satisfactory long-term outcomes after open-heart surgery when operated electively. On the other hand, patients operated under emergency conditions have worse in-hospital outcomes and long-term follow-up results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures
12.
Psico USF ; 26(1): 77-89, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1287594

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se existe diferença no desempenho entre meninos e meninas no teste de Zulliger, pelo Sistema Compreensivo ZSC. A amostra constituiu-se de 623 crianças com idades entre 6 a 14 anos, provenientes da região Sudeste do Brasil, divididas em quatro faixas etárias, a saber, seis a sete anos, oito a nove, dez a onze e doze a quatorze anos. As médias foram comparadas por meio do teste t. Os resultados indicaram que algumas diferenças foram significativas, embora o número de variáveis tenha sido reduzido consideravelmente, quando comparado com a literatura. Os achados são discutidos junto a estudos com técnicas projetivas e outros de personalidade. Conclui-se que, embora muitas variáveis sejam corroboradas na literatura, são necessários mais estudos com amostras mais homogêneas, por exemplo, controlando nível cognitivo e variáveis sociodemográficas. (AU)


The objective of this study was to verify possible differences in performance between boys and girls in the Zulliger Comprehensive System (ZSC). The sample consisted of 623 children aged from 6 to 14, from the Southeast region of Brazil, divided into four age groups: six to seven years, eight to nine, ten to eleven, and twelve to fourteen years. The means were compared using the t-test. The results indicated that some differences remained significant even after the Bonferroni correction, although the number of variables was reduced considerably when compared to the literature. The findings are discussed together with studies with projective techniques as well as other personality techniques. It was concluded that, although many variables were corroborated in the literature, more studies with more homogenous samples are needed, including, for example, control for the cognitive level and sociodemographic variables. (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si existe diferencia en el rendimiento entre niños y niñas en la prueba de Zulliger, por el Sistema Comprensivo ZSC. Las medias se compararon usando el t test. La muestra estuvo conformada por 623 niños con edades entre 6 y 14 años, provenientes de la región Sudeste de Brasil, dichos niños fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de edad: de seis a siete, de ocho a nueve, de diez a once y de doce a catorce años. Los resultados indicaron que, incluso con la corrección de Bonferroni, algunas diferencias se mantuvieron significativas, aunque el número de variables se redujo considerablemente en comparación con la literatura. Los hallazgos son discutidos junto con estudios con técnicas proyectivas y otras técnicas de personalidad. Se concluye que, aunque muchas variables se corroboran en la literatura, son necesarios más estudios con muestras más homogéneas, por ejemplo, controlando el nivel cognitivo y las variables sociodemográficas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Personality , Personality Tests , Projective Techniques , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors
13.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 21-25, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156117

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Social isolation is one of the strategies used to prevent the contagion and transmission of the coronavirus (COVID-19), but it impacts on the daily routines and lifestyle of the population. Objective Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity, sleep and eating habits of adults and the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method A cross-sectional study with a sample comprising 135 participants, divided by age group. First, the whole group was divided into age groups with a 10-year cut-off. They were then characterized by sex, type of home, eating habits, sleep, and physical activity. For the second analysis, the participants were organized into three groups: young adults (18-40 years), middle-aged adults (41-60 years) and elderly (>60 years). An online questionnaire was sent to all the participants, with 26 questions focusing on eating habits, sleep, protective behaviors against COVID-19, and physical activity. Results The participants were mainly women (85.9%), external community (71.1%), students' families (17.1%), teachers and staff (11.8%). Of the total participants, 40% were dedicated to home care activities and 21.1% had started working from home. The remainder (38.9%) were engaged in activities such as studying or caring for dependents. The younger age group (18-40 years old) reported spending more time in sedentary activities during the day, and 34.2% did not perform physical activity and ate lower quality food during social isolation (p<0.01). All groups, with the exception of the 30-40 age group (p <0.01) highlighted the importance of having the presence of a teacher responsible for guiding physical activities during isolation. Conclusion We conclude that, social isolation has more negative impact on the habits of the younger group. Cross-sectional study.


RESUMO Introdução O isolamento social é uma das estratégias de prevenção do contágio e transmissão do coronavírus (COVID-19), porém tem impacto na rotina diária e no estilo de vida da população. Objetivo Assim sendo, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar atividade física, sono e hábitos alimentares de adultos e idosos durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos Estudo transversal com amostra de 135 participantes divididos por faixa etária. No início, todo o grupo foi dividido em grupos etários com corte de 10 anos. A seguir, foram caracterizados por sexo, tipo de residência, hábitos alimentares, sono e atividade física. Para a segunda análise, os participantes foram organizados em três grupos: adultos jovens (18 a 40 anos), adultos de meia-idade (41 a 60 anos) e idosos (> 60 anos). Um questionário online foi enviado a todos os participantes, com 26 questões concentradas em hábitos alimentares, sono, comportamentos de proteção contra a COVID-19 e atividade física foi enviado a todos os participantes. Resultados Os participantes eram principalmente mulheres (85,9%), estudantes universitários (71,1%), familiares dos alunos (17,1%), professores e funcionários (11,8%). Do total dos participantes, 40% eram dedicados às atividades domésticas e 21,1% começaram a trabalhar em casa. O restante (38,9%) exercia atividades como estudar ou cuidar de dependentes. A faixa etária mais jovem (18 a 40 anos) relatou passar mais tempo em atividades sedentárias durante o dia, e 34,2% não praticavam atividade física e consumiam alimentos com menor teor nutritivo durante o isolamento social (p < 0,01). Todos os grupos, com exceção da faixa etária de 30 a 40 anos (p < 0,01), destacaram a importância da presença de um professor responsável por orientar as atividades físicas durante o isolamento. Conclusão Concluímos que o isolamento social tem impacto mais negativo nos hábitos do grupo mais jovem. Estudo transversal.


RESUMEN Introducción El aislamiento social es una de las estrategias de prevención del contagio y transmisión del coronavirus (COVID-19), aunque tiene un impacto en la rutina diaria y el estilo de vida de la población. Objetivo Siendo así, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la actividad física, el sueño y los hábitos alimentarios de adultos y personas de la tercera edad durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos Estudio transversal con muestra de 135 participantes divididos por grupo de edad. Al inicio, todo el grupo fue dividido en grupos de edad con corte de 10 años. A continuación, fueron caracterizados por sexo, tipo de residencia, hábitos alimentarios, sueño y actividad física. Para el segundo análisis, los participantes fueron organizados en tres grupos: adultos jóvenes (18 a 40 años), adultos de mediana edad (41 a 60 años) y personas de la tercera edad (> 60 años). Fue enviado un cuestionario en línea a todos los participantes con 26 cuestiones concentradas en hábitos alimentarios, sueño, comportamientos de protección contra la COVID-19 y actividad física. Resultados Los participantes eran principalmente mujeres (85,9%), estudiantes universitarios (71,1%), familiares de los alumnos (17,1%), profesores y funcionarios (11,8%). Del total de los participantes, 40% se dedicaba a actividades domésticas y 21,1% comenzó a trabajar en casa. El resto (38,9%) ejercía actividades como estudiar o cuidar a dependientes. El grupo de edad más joven (18 a 40 años) relató pasar más tiempo en actividades sedentarias durante el día, y 34,2% no practicaba actividad física y consumía alimentos con menor tenor nutritivo durante el aislamiento social (p <0,01). Todos los grupos, con excepción del grupo de edad de 30 a 40 años (p < 0,01) destacaron la importancia de la presencia de un profesor responsable por orientar las actividades físicas durante el aislamiento. Conclusión Concluimos que el aislamiento social tiene impacto más negativo en los hábitos del grupo más joven. Estudio transversal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sleep , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878370

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine increases in average height among Chinese children and adolescents.@*Methods@#The data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted during the period 1989-2015. A stratified multistage cluster sampling method was utilized to select participants aged 2-22 years in each province. Linear regression was used to examine the effects of age, birth cohort, and survey period on height.@*Results@#A total of 15,227 males and 13,737 females were included in the final analysis. Age (A) showed a continuous effect on height. The average heights of the investigated groups increased continuously during the investigation period. By 2015, the average height of the overall group increased by 7.87 cm compared to the average height during the 1989 survey. Moreover, birth year (cohort, C) also had a stable effect on height. Using the height of individuals born in or before 1975 as a reference, the average height of each birth cohort increased in comparison to the previous birth cohort.@*Conclusions@#The height of Chinese children and adolescents was affected by age, period, and cohort effects, and this effect is governed by certain rules. The age-period-cohort model can be used to analyze the trends of children's and adolescent's heights. The findings provide a scientific basis for the formulation of children's and adolescents' growth and development policies in China.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adolescent Development , Adolescent Health , Age Factors , Body Height , Child , Child Development , Child Health , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Health Status Indicators , Health Surveys , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Sex Factors , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878369

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Nutrition is closely related to the health of the elderly population. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive picture of the nutrition status of elderly Chinese and its related dietary, geographical, and socioeconomic factors.@*Methods@#A total of 13,987 ≥ 60-year-old persons from the 2010-2013 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey were included to evaluate various aspects of malnutrition, including underweight, overweight or obesity, and micronutrient inadequacy.@*Results@#Overall, the prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight was 12.4%, 34.8%, and 5.7%, respectively, with disparities both geographically and socioeconomically. The prevalence of underweight was higher among the older old (≥ 75 years), rural residents and those with low income, with low education status, and residing in undeveloped West areas. More than 75% of the elderly do not meet the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamins A, B @*Conclusions@#Obesity epidemic, inadequacy of micronutrient intake, and high prevalence of underweight and anemia in susceptible older people are the major nutrition challenges for the rapidly aging population in China.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/etiology , Micronutrients/deficiency , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Overweight/etiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Thinness/etiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877763

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#As part of infection control measures for COVID-19, individuals have been encouraged to adopt both preventive (such as handwashing) and avoidant behavioural changes (e.g. avoiding crowds). In this study, we examined whether demographics predicted the likelihood that a person would adopt these behaviours in Singapore.@*METHODS@#A total of 1,145 participants responded to an online survey conducted between 7 March and 21 April 2020. We collected demographic information and asked participants to report which of 17 behaviour changes they had undertaken because of the COVID-19 outbreak. Regression analyses were performed to predict the number of behavioural changes (preventive, avoidant, and total) as a function of demographics. Finally, we sought to identify predictors of persons who declared that they had not undertaken any of these measures following the outbreak.@*RESULTS@#Most participants (97%) reported at least one behavioural change on account of the pandemic, with changes increasing with the number of local COVID-19 cases (@*CONCLUSION@#Our characterisation of behavioural changes provides a baseline for public health advisories. Moving forward, health authorities can focus their efforts on encouraging segments of the population who do not readily adopt infection control measures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hand Disinfection/trends , Health Behavior , Health Policy , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Risk-Taking , Self Report , Sex Factors , Singapore/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020763, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142941

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as características dos óbitos por COVID-19 no estado de Rondônia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, com dados do Sistema Estratégia de Informatização do Sistema Único de Saúde Vigilância Epidemiológica (E-SUS-VE), notificados entre 1º de janeiro e 20 de agosto de 2020. Foram aplicados testes estatísticos (qui-quadrado e procedimento de Marascuilo), considerando-se como diferenças significantes quando os testes apresentaram p-valor <0,05. Resultados: Foram notificados 184.146 casos suspeitos, dos quais 49.804 foram confirmados como COVID-19, e 1.020 evoluíram para óbito (letalidade 2,1%). Observaram-se diferenças significantes estatisticamente entre as faixas etárias e a letalidade (p-valor <0,001); maior letalidade quanto maior a idade (procedimento de Marascuilo, significativo na comparação entre maiores de 60 anos com as demais faixas etárias); maior óbito no sexo masculino (letalidade de 2,7%); e maior letalidade entre as pessoas de cor preta (3,0%). Conclusão: Em Rondônia, observou-se maior letalidade entre idosos, homens e pessoas pardas e pretas.


Objetivo: Describir las características de los óbitos debidos a COVID-19 en Rondônia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, con datos del Sistema de Estrategia de Computación del Sistema Unificado de Salud de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (E-SUS-VE), notificados entre el 1 de enero y el 20 de agosto de 2020. Se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas (procedimiento Chi-cuadrado y Marascuilo), considerando significativas cuando las pruebas presentaron valor p<0,05. Resultados: se notificaron 184.146 casos sospechosos, con 49.804 confirmados como COVID-19 y 1.020 muertes (letalidad 2,1%). Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos de edad y letalidad (valor p <0,001); a mayor edad mayor letalidad (procedimiento de Marascuilo, significativo en la comparación entre mayores de 60 años con los otros grupos de edad); mayor óbito en el sexo masculino (letalidad del 2,7%); y mayor letalidad entre la raza negra (3,0%). Conclusión: En Rondônia, hubo una mayor letalidad entre los adultos mayores, hombres y pardos y negros.


Objective: To describe the characteristics of deaths due to COVID-19 in the state of Rondônia. Methods: This was a descriptive study, with data from the Brazilian National Health System Epidemiological Surveillance System Computerization Strategy (E-SUS-VE, notified between January 1 and August 20, 2020. Statistical tests (Chi-square and Marascuilo procedure) were applied, where differences were considered to be significant when p< 0.05. Results 184,146 suspected cases were reported, of which 49,804 were confirmed as COVID-19, and 1,020 died (lethality 2.1%). Statistically significant differences were observed between age groups and lethality (p-value <0.001); lethality was greater as age increased (Marascuilo procedure, significant in the comparison between the over 60s and the other age groups); death was higher among males (2.7% lethality); and lethality was higher among Black people (3.0%). Conclusion: Lethality was greater among the elderly, males and people of brown and black skin color in Rondônia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mortality/trends , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , National Health Programs , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Population Surveillance , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Age Factors , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Race Factors/statistics & numerical data
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study aimed to describe the status of alcohol consumption and drug use among young adults as well as their determinants.@*METHODS@#We conducted a cross-sectional study of 356 young adults (aged 18 to 24 years) living in Palau in 2013. The prevalence of self-reported alcohol and marijuana usage were compared within and between sexes, age groups, ethnicities, and education levels.@*RESULTS@#The proportion of current drinking was higher in people aged 21-24 than in those aged 18-20 (73.2% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.09 in men and 48.3% vs. 30.0%, p = 0.02 in women), while that of marijuana use did not differ between the age groups. The proportions of current drinking and marijuana use were higher in Palauan than in other ethnicities (current drinking: 70.6% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.005 in men and 38.8% vs. 16.6%, p = 0.04 in women; lifetime marijuana use: 80.0% vs. 52.9%, p = 0.02 in men and 56.1% vs. 30.6%, p = 0.09 in women). The proportion of frequent (3 times or more) marijuana users was higher for the lower educated than for the higher educated (62.5% vs. 32.1%, p < 0.001 in men and 33.9% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.12 in women).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Sex, age, ethnicity, and education were significant determinants of alcohol and marijuana use.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Marijuana Use/ethnology , Palau/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Young Adult
19.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 90-94, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283560

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), habitualmente asociada a adultos en edad media y adulto mayor, ha presentado un aumento en su incidencia en pacientes menores de 40 años, lo que se conoce como DM2 de inicio en paciente joven. Varios estudios sugieren que este tipo de diabetes presenta no sólo un deterioro más rápido de las células beta-pancreáticas en comparación con la DM2 de inicio más tardío, sino que también un mayor riesgo de complicaciones que pacientes con DM Tipo1, lo que sugiere una variable independiente de los años de exposición a la enfermedad y por tanto, un fenotipo más agresivo. Por otra parte, hay evidencia que afirma que existen grupos poblacionales en mayor riesgo de desarrollar esta patología, particularmente ciertas etnias. En el presente trabajo se exponen los principales hallazgos de una reciente revisión del tema y se los compara con los datos nacionales disponibles. Dada la alta prevalencia de DM2 en la población chilena y la escasa cantidad de estudios epidemiológicos de calidad que permitan conocer nuestro panorama con mayor precisión, es que se destaca la importancia de estos últimos para poder tomar medidas de salud pública adecuadas.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), commonly associated with the middle to old aged adults group, has shown an increase in incidence in patients younger than 40 years old, which is known as young-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies suggest that this type of diabetes not only exhibits a faster deterioration of the beta-pancreatic cells in comparison with type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, but also a greater risk of complications not regarding the time of exposure to the disease, therefore a more aggressive phenotype. Otherwise, there is evidence which asserts that some population groups are in mayor risk of developing this disease, especially certain ethnics. In this work it is exposed the main findings of a recent review of the subject and it is contrasted with available national data. Given the high prevalence of T2DM in the chilean population and the little amount of epidemiological high-quality studies that allows us to know our outlook with greater precision, it is highlighted the need for them in order to make adequate public health decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Age of Onset , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/etiology , Diabetic Neuropathies/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1156856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study describes body weight changes among participants of the NutriNet Brasil cohort (n = 14,259) during the covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed data reported before the pandemic onset (01/26/2020 to 03/18/2020) and about six months after (09/14/2020 to 10/19/2020). Our results show that 19.7% of the participants gained ≥ 2 kg. Weight gain was directly associated with male gender, lower education, and previous presence of overweight, and inversely associated with age. In turn, 15.2% lost ≥ 2kg, being directly associated with male gender and previous presence of overweight and inversely associated with age.


RESUMO Este estudo descreve modificações no peso corporal de participantes da coorte NutriNet Brasil (n = 14.259) ocorridas durante a pandemia de covid-19. Foram analisados dados informados em período anterior ao início da pandemia (26/01/2020 a 18/03/2020) e cerca de 6 meses após (14/09/2020 a 19/10/2020). O ganho de peso ≥ 2 kg alcançou 19,7% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associado ao sexo masculino, à menor escolaridade e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associado à idade. A perda de peso ≥ 2kg alcançou 15,2% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associada ao sexo masculino e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associada à idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Weight , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Overweight
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