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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23348, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533982

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study presents the first preliminary phytochemical screening and investigation of the lipoidal matter of Latania verschaffeltii Lem. leaves, belonging to the Arecaceae family. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) was used to analyze and identify compounds of saponifiable and unsaponifiable content. The preliminary phytochemical screening of total methanolic extract of Latania verschaffeltii Lem. leaves revealed the presence of unsaturated sterols and/or triterpenes, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and phenolic acids in the leaves. However, cardenolides, cyanogenic compounds, alkaloids, and iridoids were not detected. The results of the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis indicated that the percentage of saturated fatty acids (83.82%) is higher than that of unsaturated fatty acids (9.42%). The predominant methyl ester of a saturated fatty acid detected in the sample was hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, accounting for 41.68% of the total. The composition of the unsaponifiable matter consisted of hydrocarbons (5.66%), fatty alcohols (0.96%), terpenes (85.97%), and sterols (2.18%). The major terpenes observed were phytol (43.62%) and squalene (39.27%).


Subject(s)
Triage , Plant Leaves/adverse effects , Arecaceae/classification , Egypt/ethnology , Phytochemicals/analysis , Alkaloids/agonists , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
2.
Med. U.P.B ; 42(1)ene.-jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1416213

ABSTRACT

La cocaína es una de las sustancias ilegales más consumidas y Colombia no es la ex­cepción. Dentro de las sustancias ilegales es la segunda más consumida después del cannabis. Por su mecanismo mismo de acción, que produce aumento de aminas bióge­nas, se han asociado con la cocaína diferentes riesgos, tanto agudos como crónicos, y dentro de sus complicaciones se han descrito cambios comportamentales, compromiso cardiovascular y neurológico. La coingesta de cocaína y alcohol da lugar a un metabolito conocido como cocaetileno, que lleva a complicaciones cardiovasculares. Poco se ha descrito sobre el riesgo de la cocaína o la coingesta cocaína y alcohol, como un factor sumatorio, para la pancreatitis. Reportamos tres pacientes jóvenes consumidores del alcaloide que desarrollaron pancreatitis aguda, dos de ellos murieron. El objetivo de este reporte es sensibilizar a los trabajadores de la salud sobre otro riesgo para considerar en los pacientes consumidores de cocaína.


Cocaine is one of the most consumed illegal substances and Colombia is no exception. It is the second most consumed among the illegal substances after cannabis. Due to its very mechanism of action, which produces an increase in biogenic amines, different risks, both acute and chronic, have been associated with cocaine, and among its complications, behavioral changes, cardiovascular and neurological compromise have been described. The co-ingestion of cocaine and alcohol gives rise to a metabolite known as cocaethylene, which leads to cardiovascular complications. Little has been described about the risk of cocaine or cocaine and alcohol co-ingestion, as a summative factor, for pancreatitis. We report three young patients consuming the alkaloid who developed acute pancreatitis, two of whom died. The objective of this report is to sensitize health workers about another risk to consider in cocaine-consuming patients.


A cocaína é uma das substâncias ilícitas mais consumidas e a Colômbia não é exceção. Dentro das substâncias ilícitas é a segunda mais consumida depois da maconha. Devido ao seu próprio mecanismo de ação, que produz aumento de aminas biogênicas, diversos riscos, tanto agudos quanto crônicos, têm sido associados à cocaína e, entre suas complicações, têm sido descritas alterações comportamentais, comprometimento cardiovascular e neurológico. A co-ingestão de cocaína e álcool dá origem a um metabólito conhecido como cocaetileno, que leva a complicações cardiovasculares. Pouco tem sido descrito sobre o risco da co-ingestão de cocaína ou cocaína e álcool, como fator somativo, para pancreatite. Relatamos 3 pacientes jovens consumindo o alcalóide que desenvolveram pancreatite aguda, dois dos quais morreram. O objetivo deste relatório é sensibilizar os profissionais de saúde sobre outro risco a ser considerado em pacientes consumidores de cocaína.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cocaine , Pancreatitis , Alkaloids
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22394, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505845

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of Picrasma quassioides Benn against inflammation by means of network pharmacology. The paper will provide a reference for multi-target and multi-channel treatment of inflammation with traditional Chinese medicine. Through screening and analysis, 11 active ingredients and 109 anti-inflammation prediction targets were obtained and constructed a compound-target network. The targets such as VEGFA, TLR4 and STAT3 may play a crucial role. Network enrichment analysis showed that the 109 potential targets constitute a number of pathways or inflammatory reactions closely related to inflammation, including NF-κB signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. The docking results indicated that the binding energy of Picrasidine Y and the inflammatory factors VEGFA is the highest. This study predicted the role of multiple active compounds in the alkaloids of Picrasma in the inflammatory response, and provided a theoretical basis for the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Picrasma


Subject(s)
Research/classification , Picrasma/classification , Alkaloids/analysis , Network Pharmacology/instrumentation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21265, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439543

ABSTRACT

Abstract Piper nigrum (black pepper) is used in Indian traditional medicine and its main alkaloid, Piperine (PIP), presents antioxidant, antitumor and neuroprotective pharmacological properties. This substance is insoluble in aqueous media and can irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Aiming to avoid these inconvenient characteristics and enable PIP oral administration, this study suggested the PIP microencapsulation through the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and the preparation of microparticulated tablets by direct compression. An UV-spectroscopy method was validated to quantify PIP. Microparticles and microparticulated tablets were successfully obtained and the microparticles exhibited excellent flow. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that PIP microparticles were intact after compression. The in vitro release showed a controlled release of PIP from microparticles and PIP microparticles from tablets in comparison to PIP and PIP tablets. The release profiles of PIP microparticles and the microparticulated tablets were similar. Therefore, tablets containing PIP microparticles are promising multiparticulated dosage forms because a tablet allows microparticles administration and the intact ones promote a controlled release, decreasing its irritating potential on the mucosa.


Subject(s)
Spectrum Analysis/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Piper nigrum/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Tablets/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Alkaloids/adverse effects , Medicine, Traditional/instrumentation , Antioxidants/adverse effects
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970626

ABSTRACT

Ten alkaloids(1-10) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Lycium chinense var. potaninii by silica gel, ODS, and preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and identified by NMR and MS as methyl(2S)-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(phenyl)propanoate(1), methyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(phenyl)propanoate(2), 3-hydroxy-4-ethyl ketone pyridine(3), indolyl-3-carbaldehyde(4),(R)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde(5),(R)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-car-baldehyde(6), methyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate(7), dimethyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanedioate(8), 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate(9), 4-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid(10). All the compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Among them, compounds 1-3 were new compounds. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in vitro with the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. At 10 μmol·L~(-1), compounds 4, 6, 7, and 9 can promote the glucose consumption of HepG2 cells with insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Lycium/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Propionates , Alkaloids/pharmacology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970545

ABSTRACT

This study explores the effect of apigenin(APG), oxymatrine(OMT), and APG+OMT on the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and the underlying mechanisms. Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was used to detect the vitality of A549 and NCI-H1975 cells, and colony formation assay to evaluate the colony formation ability of the cells. EdU assay was employed to examine the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression of PLOD2. Molecular docking was carried out to explore the direct action ability and action sites between APG/OMT and PLOD2/EGFR. Western blot was used to study the expression of related proteins in EGFR pathway. The viability of A549 and NCI-H1975 cells was inhibited by APG and APG+OMT at 20, 40, and 80 μmol·L~(-1) in a dose-dependent manner. The colony formation ability of NCI-H1975 cells was significantly suppressed by APG and APG+OMT. The mRNA and protein expression of PLOD2 was significantly inhibited by APG and APG+OMT. In addition, APG and OMT had strong binding activity with PLOD2 and EGFR. In APG and APG+OMT groups, the expression of EGFR and proteins in its downstream signaling pathways was significantly down-regulated. It is concluded that APG in combination with OMT could inhibit non-small lung cancer, and the mechanism may be related to EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways. This study lays a new theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with APG in combination with OMT and provides a reference for further research on the anti-tumor mechanism of APG in combination with OMT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Apigenin , Molecular Docking Simulation , Alkaloids , Quinolizines , RNA, Messenger , ErbB Receptors
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970508

ABSTRACT

UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS/MS was used to systematically analyze and compare the alkaloids in Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix, Aconiti Radix, and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. After the samples were pretreated in the solid-phase extraction cartridges, 0.1% ammonium hydroxide(A)-acetonitrile(B) was used for gradient elution. The LC-MS method for characterization of alkaloids in the three herbal medicines was established in ESI positive ion mode to collect high resolution MS data of reference substances and samples. On the basis of the information of reference substance cracking behavior, retention time, accurate molecular mass, and related literature, a total of 155 alkaloids were identified in Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix, Aconiti Radix, and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Prae-parata. Specifically, 130, 127, and 92 alkaloids were identified in Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix, Aconiti Radix, and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, respectively. Monoester alkaloids and amino-alcohol alkaloids were dominant in the three herbal medicines, and the alkaloids in Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix and Aconiti Radix were similar. This paper can provide a reference for elucidating the pharmacological effects and clinical application differences of the three herbal medicines produced from plants of Aconitum.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Aconitum , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Alkaloids , Plants, Medicinal
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970470

ABSTRACT

As a biocatalyst, enzyme has the advantages of high catalytic efficiency, strong reaction selectivity, specific target products, mild reaction conditions, and environmental friendliness, and serves as an important tool for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. With the continuous development of gene sequencing technology, molecular biology, genetic manipulation, and other technologies, the diversity of enzymes increases steadily and the reactions that can be catalyzed are also gradually diversified. In the process of enzyme-catalyzed synthesis, the majority of common enzymatic reactions can be achieved by single enzyme catalysis, while many complex reactions often require the participation of two or more enzymes. Therefore, the combination of multiple enzymes together to construct the multi-enzyme cascade reactions has become a research hotspot in the field of biochemistry. Nowadays, the biosynthetic pathways of more natural products with complex structures have been clarified, and secondary metabolic enzymes with novel catalytic activities have been identified, discovered, and combined in enzymatic synthesis of natural/unnatural molecules with diverse structures. This study summarized a series of examples of multi-enzyme-catalyzed cascades and highlighted the application of cascade catalysis methods in the synthesis of carbohydrates, nucleosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and chiral molecules. Furthermore, the existing problems and solutions of multi-enzyme-catalyzed cascade method were discussed, and the future development direction was prospected.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/chemistry , Catalysis , Alkaloids , Biocatalysis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971487

ABSTRACT

Marine microorganisms, especially marine fungi, have historically proven their value as a prolific source for structurally novel and pharmacologically active secondary metabolites (Deshmukh et al., 2018; Carroll et al., 2022). The corals constitute a dominant part of reefs with the highest biodiversity, and harbor highly diverse and abundant microbial symbionts in their tissue, skeleton, and mucus layer, with species-specific core members that are spatially partitioned across coral microhabitats (Wang WQ et al., 2022). The coral-associated fungi were very recently found to be vital producers of structurally diverse compounds, terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, and steroids. They demonstrate a wide range of bioactivity such as anticancer, antimicrobial, and antifouling activity (Chen et al., 2022). The genetically powerful genus Emericella (Ascomycota), which has marine and terrestrial sources, includes over 30 species and is distributed worldwide. It is considered a rich source of diverse secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity or cytotoxicity (Alburae et al., 2020). Notably, Emericella nidulans, the sexual state of a classic biosynthetic strain Aspergillus nidulans, was recently reported as an important source of highly methylated polyketides (Li et al., 2019) and isoindolone-containing meroterpenoids (Zhou et al., 2016) with unusual skeletons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspergillus nidulans , Polyketides/chemistry , Anthozoa/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Alkaloids
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981509

ABSTRACT

Small-molecule compounds with rich sources have diverse structures and activities. The active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) provide new sources for the discovery of new antitumor drugs. Aconitum plants as Chinese medicinal plants have the effects of dispelling wind, removing dampness, warming meridian, and relieving pain. They are mainly used to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, and tumors, improve heart function, and dilate blood vessels in clinical practice. Diterpenoid alkaloids are the main active components of Aconitum plants, including C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids. Stu-dies have demonstrated that diterpenoid alkaloids can effectively treat lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and other cancers. Diterpenoid alkaloids are considered as the most promising natural compounds against cancers. In this review, we summarized the chemical structures and antitumor activities of C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids extracted from plants of Aconitum, aiming to provide reference for further development of diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum as antitumor drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aconitum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Alkaloids/analysis , Diterpenes/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981507

ABSTRACT

Radiation-induced intestinal injury(RIII), a common complication of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies, affects the quality of life and the radiotherapy efficacy for cancer. Currently, the main clinical approaches for the prevention and treatment of RIII include drug therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and surgical treatment. Among these methods, drug therapy is cost-effective. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) containing a variety of active components demonstrates mild side effects and good efficacy in preventing and treating RIII. Studies have proven that TCM active components, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and alkaloids, can protect the intestine against RIII by inhibiting oxidative stress, regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, modulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, adjusting intestinal flora, and suppressing cell apoptosis. These mechanisms can help alleviate the symptoms of RIII. The paper aims to provide a theoretical reference for the discovery of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of RIII by reviewing the literature on TCM active components in the last 10 years.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Quality of Life , Intestines , Alkaloids
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981483

ABSTRACT

Corydalis hendersonii(CH) is a Tibetan folk medicine with the functions of clearing heat, detoxifying, cooling blood, checking diarrhea, and lowering blood pressure. It is often used to treat high altitude polycythemia, vasculitis, peptic ulcer, and diarrhea. Nine compounds were separated from the ethanol extract of CH by silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as hendersine H(1),hendersine I(2), dehydrocheilanthifoline(3), protopine(4), izmirine(5), 6,7-methylenedioxy-1(2H)-isoquinolinone(6), icariside D_2(7), ethyl 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxybenzoate(8), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid(9), respectively, by the spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with those in the literature. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 are new isoquinoline alkaloids, and compounds 7-9 are reported the first time for Corydalis. The hypoglycemic model of H9c2 cardiomyocytes and the inflammatory model of H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by conditional supernatant were employed to determine the activities of the above compounds. The results showed that 20 μmol·L~(-1) compound 1 had a protective effect on H9c2 cardiomyocytes and 10 μmol·L~(-1) compounds 4 and 5 inhibited H9c2 cardiomyocyte inflammation induced by conditional supernatant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Corydalis/chemistry , Alkaloids/chemistry , Inflammation , Spectrum Analysis , Isoquinolines/pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981467

ABSTRACT

A strategy combining collision cross section(CCS) prediction and quantitative structure-retention relationship(QSRR) model for quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids was established based on UHPLC-IM-Q-TOF-MS and applied to Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex. The strategy included the following three steps.(1) The molecular features were extracted by the "find features" algorithm.(2) The potential quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids were screened by filtering the original characteristic ions extracted from Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex by the established CCS vs m/z prediction interval.(3) According to the retention time of candidate compounds predicted by QSRR model, the chemical constituents were identified in combination with the characteristic fragment ions and pyrolysis law of secondary mass spectrometry. With the strategy, a total of 80 compounds were predicted, and 15 were identified accurately. The strategy is effective for the identification of small analogs of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Algorithms , Alkaloids , Isoquinolines , Quinolines
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981414

ABSTRACT

This work aimed to investigate the differences of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of four alkaloids in Ermiao Pills and Sanmiao Pills in normal and arthritic model rats. The rat model of arthritis was established by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) in the positive ion multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode was used for the determination of four alkaloids in plasma and tissues of normal and arthritic rats after administration of Ermiao Pills and Sanmiao Pills, respectively. The differences in pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the four active components were compared, and the effect of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix on the major components of Sanmiao Pills was explored. This study established an UPLC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of four alkaloids, and the specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and stability of this method all met the requirements. Pharmacokinetics study found that as compared with normal rats, the AUC and C_(max) of phellodendrine, magnoflorine, berberine and palmatine in model rats were significantly decreased after administration of Ermiao Pills, the clearance rate CL/F was significantly increased, and the distribution and tissue/plasma concentration ratio of the four alkaloids in the liver, kidney, and joint were significantly reduced. Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix increased the AUC of phellodendrine, berberine, and palmatine, reduced the clearance rate, and significantly increased the distribution of the four alkaloids in the liver, kidney, and joints in arthritic rats. However, it had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the four alkaloids in normal rats. These results suggest that Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix may play a guiding role in meridian through increasing the tissue distribution of effective components in Sanmiao Pills under arthritis states.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Berberine/pharmacokinetics , Tissue Distribution , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Alkaloids/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Arthritis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981409

ABSTRACT

To study the quality control of three traditional Chinese medicines derived from Gleditsia sinensis [Gleditsiae Sinensis Fructus(GSF), Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis(GFA), and Gleditsiae Spina(GS)], this paper established a multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) approach based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Trap-MS). Using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm), gradient elution was performed at 40 ℃ with water containing 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase running at 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and the separation and content determination of ten chemical constituents(e.g., saikachinoside A, locustoside A, orientin, taxifolin, vitexin, isoquercitrin, luteolin, quercitrin, quercetin, and apigenin) in GSF, GFA, and GS were enabled within 31 min. The established method could quickly and efficiently determine the content of ten chemical constituents in GSF, GFA, and GS. All constituents showed good linearity(r>0.995), and the average recovery rate was 94.09%-110.9%. The results showed that, the content of two alkaloids in GSF(2.03-834.75 μg·g~(-1)) was higher than that in GFA(0.03-10.41 μg·g~(-1)) and GS(0.04-13.66 μg·g~(-1)), while the content of eight flavonoids in GS(0.54-2.38 mg·g~(-1)) was higher than that in GSF(0.08-0.29 mg·g~(-1)) and GFA(0.15-0.32 mg·g~(-1)). These results provide references for the quality control of G. sinensis-derived TCMs.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981372

ABSTRACT

Cytisine derivatives are a group of alkaloids containing the structural core of cytisine, which are mainly distributed in Fabaceae plants with a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as resisting inflammation, tumors, and viruses, and affecting the central nervous system. At present, a total of 193 natural cytisine and its derivatives have been reported, all of which are derived from L-lysine. In this study, natural cytisine derivatives were classified into eight types, namely cytisine type, sparteine type, albine type, angustifoline type, camoensidine type, cytisine-like type, tsukushinamine type, and lupanacosmine type. This study reviewed the research progress on the structures, plant sources, biosynthesis, and pharmacological activities of alkaloids of various types.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Quinolizines/pharmacology , Azocines/chemistry , Fabaceae
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981335

ABSTRACT

Codonopsis Radix is a traditional tonic medicine commonly used in China, which has the effects of strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis species are mainly polyacetylenes, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, lignans, terpenoids and saponins, flavonoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Modern pharmacological studies showed that Codonopsis Radix also has a variety of pharmacological effects such as enhancing body immunity, protecting gastrointestinal mucosa and resisting ulcers, promoting hematopoietic function, regulating blood sugar, and delaying aging. In this paper, the chemical constituents of Codonopsis species and the pharmacological effects of Codonopsis Radix were summarized, and on this basis, the quality markers of Codonopsis Radix were analyzed. It was predicted that lobetyolin, tangshenoside I, codonopyrrolidium A, and the oligosaccharides were the possible Q-markers of Codonopsis Radix. This paper will provide scientific references for the quality evaluation and profound research and the development of Codonopsis Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Codonopsis , Alkaloids , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Roots
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981332

ABSTRACT

Alkaloids, widespread in plants, have a series of pharmacological activities and have been widely used to treat various diseases. Because alkaloids are usually presented in multicomponent mixtures and are deeply low in content, they are very difficult to extract and separate by traditional methods. High-speed counter current chromatography(HSCCC) is a kind of liquid-liquid chromatography without solid support phase, which has the advantages of large injection volume, low cost, and no irreversible adsorption. Compared with the traditional methods of extraction and separation of alkaloids, HSCCC can ensure the separation of many different alkaloids at one time, with a high recovery and large amount. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of HSCCC compared with traditional separation methods were discussed and the solvent system and elution mode of HSCCC used to separate alkaloids in recent years were summarized by referring to the relevant literature to provide some references for the separation of alkaloids by HSCCC.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Countercurrent Distribution/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Alkaloids/analysis , Solvents/chemistry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981320

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginger juice on chemical profile of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex(MOC) when they were processed together. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was used for qualitative analysis of the chemical component of MOC samples before and after being processed with ginger juice. UPLC was performed to observe the content variation of eight main components in processed MOC. A total of 174 compounds were identified or tentatively deduced from processed and unprocessed MOC samples according to MS data obtained in positive and negative ion mode. After MOC was processed with ginger juice, the peak areas of most phenolics increased, while the peak areas of most phenylethanoid glycosides decreased; as for neolignans, oxyneolignans, other lignans and alkaloids, changes in the peak area were variable, and the peak areas of terpenoid-lignans varied little. Additionally, gingerols and diarylheptanoids were only detected in the processed MOC sample. The contents of syringin, magnoloside A, and magnoloside B decreased significantly in the processed MOC sample while no significant difference was observed in the contents of magnoflorine, magnocurarine, honokiol, obovatol, and magnolol. This study comprehensively explored the content variation of chemical components in processed and unprocessed MOC samples derived from different regions and with different tree ages using UPLC and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS, and summarized the variation characteristics of various compounds. The results provide a data foundation for further research on pharmacodynamic substances of MOC processed with ginger juice.


Subject(s)
Zingiber officinale , Trees , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Alkaloids , Lignans/analysis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981304

ABSTRACT

Heterologous biomimetic synthesis of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is a new mode of resource acquisition and has shown great potential in the protection and development of TCM resources. According to synthetic biology and by constructing biomimetic microbial cells and imitating the synthesis of active ingredients in medicinal plants and animals, the key enzymes obtained from medicinal plants and animals are scientifically designed and systematically reconstructed and optimized to realize the heterologous synthesis of the active ingredients in microorganisms. This method ensures an efficient and green acquisition of target products, and also achieves large-scale industrial production, which is conducive to the production of scarce TCM resources. Additiona-lly, the method playes a role in agricultural industrialization, and provides a new option for promoting the green and sustainable deve-lopment of TCM resources. This review systematically summarized the important progress in the heterologous biomimetic synthesis of TCM active ingredients from three research areas: biosynthesis of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids and other active ingredients, key points and difficulties in heterologous biomimetic synthesis, and biomimetic cells with complex TCM ingredients. This study facilitated the application of new generation of biotechnology and theory to the development of TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Biomimetics , Plants, Medicinal , Alkaloids
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