Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.921
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247422, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ-resistant genotype in the study area.


Resumo A resistência do Plasmodium falciparum à cloroquina (CQ) é uma causa significativa de mortalidade e morbidade em todo o mundo. Há uma escassez de dados documentados sobre a prevalência de haplótipos mutantes CQ-resistentes dos genes Pfcrt e Pfmdr1 da guerra endêmica da malária em áreas tribais administradas pelo governo federal do Paquistão. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de resistência a CQ de P. falciparum nesta área. Isolados clínicos foram coletados entre maio de 2017 e maio de 2018 nas agências do Waziristão do Norte e do Waziristão do Sul da Área de Ensaio Administrada Federalmente. Posteriormente, esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa foram examinados para detectar Plasmodium falciparum. A extração do DNA da malária foi feita a partir de amostras de P. falciparum positivas para microscopia, e as infecções por P. falciparum foram confirmadas por nested PCR (visando genes de ácido ribonucleico ribossômico de subunidade pequena de Plasmodium (ssrRNA)). Todas as amostras de P. falciparum confirmadas por PCR foram sequenciadas por pirosequenciamento para descobrir a mutação no gene Pfcrt no códon K76T e em pfmdr1 nos códons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D e D1246Y. De 121 microscopias de casos positivos de P. falciparum, 109 amostras foram positivas para P. falciparum por nested PCR. A mutação Pfcrt K76T foi encontrada em 96% dos isolados, a mutação Pfmdr1 N86Y foi observada em 20% e 11% abrigou a mutação Y184F. Todas as amostras eram do tipo selvagem para o códon N1042D e D1246Y de Pfmdr1. No FATA, Paquistão, a frequência do alelo resistente 76T permaneceu alta apesar da remoção de CQ. No entanto, as descobertas atuais do estudo sugerem a fixação completa do genótipo resistente a CQ de P. falciparum na área de estudo.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Pakistan , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Alleles
2.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 117-125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971418

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the phenotypes of the newborns with SLC26A4 single-allele mutation in deafness genetic screening and second variant; to analyze the SLC26A4 genotype and hearing phenotype. Methods: 850 newborns born in Beijing from April 2015 to December 2019 were included and there were 468 males and 382 females. They received genetic deafness screening for 9 or 15 variants, with the result of SLC26A4 single-allele mutation. Firstly, three step deafness gene sequencing was adopted in this work, i.e., the first step was "SLC26A4 gene whole exons and splice sites" sequencing; the second step was "SLC26A4 gene promoter, FOXI1 gene and KCNJ10 gene whole exons" sequencing; and the third step was detection for "SLC26A4 gene copy number variation". Secondly, we collected the results of newborn hearing screening for all patients with the second mutation found in the three step test, and conducted audiological examinations, such as acoustic immittance, auditory brainstem response and auditory steady state response. Thirdly, for novel/VUS mutations, we searched the international deafness gene database or software, such as DVD, ClinVar and Mutation Taster, to predict the pathogenicity of mutations according to the ACMG guideline. Lastly, we analyzed the relationship between genotype and phenotype of newborns with SLC26A4 single allele mutation. Results: Among 850 cases, the median age of diagnosis was 4 months. In the first step, 850 cases were sequenced. A total of 32 cases (3.76%, 32/850) of a second variants were detected, including 18 cases (2.12%, 18/850) with identified pathogenic variants; 832 cases were sequenced and 8 cases of KCNJ10 gene missense variants were detected among the second step. No missense mutations in the FOXI1 gene and abnormal SLC26A4 gene promoter were detected; the third step sequencing results were all negative. Genotypes and hearing phenotypes included 18 cases combined with the second clear pathogenic variant, 16 cases (16/18) referred newborn hearing screening and 2 cases (2/18) passed in both ears; degree of hearing loss consisted of 18 profound ears (18/36), 13 severe ears (13/36) and 5 moderate ears (5/36); audiogram patterns comprised 17 high frequency drop ears (17/36), 14 flat ears (14/36), 3 undistinguished ears (3/36), and 2 U shaped ears (2/36); 11 cases underwent imaging examination, all of which were bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct. As for 22 cases of other genotypes, all passed neonatal hearing screening and the hearing diagnosis was normal, including 9 cases with VUS or possibly novel benign variants, 8 cases with KCNJ10 double gene heterozygous variants, and 5 cases with double heterozygous variants. Conclusions: The probability of individuals with SLC26A4 single-allele variant who merge with a second pathogenic variant is 2.12%, all of which are SNV, which can provide scientific basis for the genetic diagnosis and genetic counseling of SLC26A4 variants. Those who have merged with second pathogenic variant are all diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with KCNJ10 gene mutations do not manifest hearing loss during the infancy, suggesting the need for further follow-up.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Alleles , Deafness/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Genotype , Hearing Loss/genetics , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Mutation , Phenotype , Sulfate Transporters/genetics , Vestibular Aqueduct , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/genetics
3.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1029-1034, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of peginterferon-α2b for treatment of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of 107 patients with MPN, including 95 with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 12 with polycythemia vera (PV), who all received peginterferon-α2b treatment for at least 12 months. The clnical and follow-up data of the patients were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse reactions of the treatment.@*RESULTS@#After receiving peginterferon- α2b treatment, both ET and PV patients achieved high hematological remission rates, and the total remission rates did not differ significantly between the two groups (86% vs 78%, P>0.05). In the overall patients, the spleen index decreased by 13.5% (95%CI: 8.5%-18.5%) after the treatment. The patients with hematological remission showed a significantly greater reduction of the total symptom score than those without hematological remission (P < 0.01). The median percentage of JAK2V617F allele load of PV patients decreased from 67.23% (49.6%-84.86%) at baseline to 19.7% (0.57%-74.6%) after the treatment, and that of JAK2V617F-positive ET patients decreased from 48.97% (0.45%-74.24%) at baseline to 22.1% (0.33%-65.42%) after the treatment. Mild adverse reactions (grade 1-2) were observed in both ET and PV groups without significant differences between them. The overall incidence of thrombotic events during the treatment was 2.8% in these patients, and no serious adverse reactions were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#For patients with chronic myelodysplasia, peginterferon-α2b treatment can achieve a high peripheral blood cell remission rate and maintain a long-term stable state with good effect in relieving symptoms such as splenomegaly. Peginterferon- α2b treatment caused only mild adverse reactions, which can be tolerated by most of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasms , Alleles , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Spleen
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 203-208, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To confirm the HLA genotypes of the samples including 4 cases of magnetic bead probe HLA genotyping result pattern abnormality and 3 cases of ambiguous result detected by PCR sequence-specific oligonudeotide probe (SSOP) method.@*METHODS@#All samples derived from HLA high-resolution typing laboratory were detected by PCR-SSOP. A total of 4 samples of magnetic bead probe HLA genotyping result pattern abnormality and 3 samples of ambiguous result were further confirmed by PCR sequence-based typing (SBT) technology and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.@*RESULTS@#A total of 4 samples of magnetic bead probe HLA genotyping result pattern abnormality were detected by PCR-SSOP method. The results of SBT and NGS showed that the HLA-A genotype of sample 1 did not match any known genotypes. NGS analysis revealed that the novel allele was different from the closest matching allele A*31:01:02:01at position 154 with G>A in exon 2, which resulting in one amino acid substitution at codon 28 from Valine to Methionine (p.Val28Met). The HLA-C genotype of sample 2 was C*03:119, 06:02, sample 3 was C*03:03, 07:137, and sample 4 was B*55:02, 55:12. A total of 3 samples with ambiguous result were initially detected by PCR-SSOP method. The re-examination results of SBT and NGS showed that the HLA-B genotype of sample 5 was B*15:58, 38:02, sample 6 was DRB1*04:05, 14:101, and sample 7 was DQB1*03:34, 05:02. Among them, alleles C*03:119, C*07:137 and DRB1*14:101 were not included in the Common and Well-documented Alleles (CWD) v2.4 of the Chinese Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donor Database.@*CONCLUSION@#The abnormal pattern of HLA genotyping results of magnetic probe by PCR-SSOP method suggests that it may be a rare allele or a novel allele, which needs to be verified by sequencing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Histocompatibility Testing/methods , Technology
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 110-113, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular mechanism for an individual with Bweak subtype.@*METHODS@#Serological methods were used to identify the proband's phenotype. In vitro enzyme activity test was used to determine the activity of B-glycosyltransferase (GTB) in her serum. The genotype was determined by PCR amplification and direct sequencing of exons 5 to 7 and flanking sequences of the ABO gene. T-A cloning technology was used to isolate the haploids. The primary physical and chemical properties and secondary structure of the protein were analyzed with the ProtParam and PSIPRED software. Three software, including PolyPhen-2, SIFT, and PROVEAN, was used to analyze the effect of missense variant on the protein.@*RESULTS@#Serological results showed that the proband's phenotype was Bweak subtype with anti-B antibodies presented in her serum. In vitro enzyme activity assay showed that the GTB activity of the subject was significantly reduced. Analysis of the haploid sequence revealed a c.398T>C missense variant on the B allele, which resulted in a novel B allele. The 398T>C variant has caused a p.Phe133S substitution at position 133 of the GTB protein. Based on bioinformatic analysis, the amino acid substitution had no obvious effect on the primary and secondary structure of the protein, but the thermodynamic energy of the variant protein has increased to 6.07 kcal/mol, which can severely reduce the protein stability. Meanwhile, bioinformatic analysis also predicted that the missense variant was harmful to the protein function.@*CONCLUSION@#The weak expression of the Bweak subtype may be attributed to the novel allele of ABO*B.01-398C. Bioinformatic analysis is helpful for predicting the changes in protein structure and function.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Phenotype , Genotype , Exons , Alleles
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 855-859, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the recombinations within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region in two families.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood specimens of the different family members. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 loci were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probing technique (PCR-SSO) and next-generation sequencing technique. HLA haplotype was determined by genetic analysis of the pedigree.@*RESULTS@#The haplotypes of HLA-A*11:01~C*03:04~B*13:01~DRB1*12:02~DQB1*03:01~DPB1*05:01:01G and HLA-A*03:01~C*04:01~B*35:03~DRB1*12:01~DQB1*03:01~DPB1*04:01:01G in the family 1 were recombined between HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci, which formed the haplotype of HLA-A*11:01~C*03:04~B*13:01~DRB1* 12:01~DQB1*03:01~DPB1*04:01:01G. The haplotypes of HLA-A *02:06~C*03:03~B*35:01~DRB1*08:02~DQB1*04:02~ DPB1*13:01:01G and HLA-A *11:01~C*07:02~B*38:02~DRB1*15:02~DQB1*05:01~DPB1*05:01:01G in the family 2 were recombined between HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1 loci, which formed the haplotype of HLA-A*02:06~C*03:03~B*35:01~ DRB1*08:02~DQB1*04:02~DPB1*05:01:01G.@*CONCLUSION@#The gene recombination events between HLA-B and -DRB1, HLA-DQB1 and -DPB1 loci were found respectively in two Chinese Han families.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Frequency , HLA-DQ beta-Chains/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Haplotypes , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Alleles
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 843-849, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the RHD genotype of a blood donor with Del phenotype in Yunnan.@*METHODS@#Rh serological phenotype was identified. RHD gene was detected by PCR-SSP typing, and its 10 exons were sequenced. Exon 9 was amplified for sequencing and analysis. RHD zygosity was detected.@*RESULTS@#The Rh phenotype of this specimen was CcDelee. Genomic DNA exhibited a 1 003 bp deletion spanning from intron 8, across exon 9 into intron 9. The deletion breakpoints occurred between two 7-bp short tandem repeat sequences. There was no variation in the sequences of the remaining exons. The Rh hybridization box test showed that there was one RHD negative allele.@*CONCLUSION@#This specimen is Del type caused by deletion of RHD exon 9.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics , China , Phenotype , Exons , Genotype , Alleles
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 509-512, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#In this study, the results of forward and reverse blood typing of a male patient diagnosed as bronchiectasis were inconsistent, which were type O and type A respectively. Multiple experiments including genotyping and sequencing and family investigation were carried out to determine the subtype of ABO blood group and explore the serological characteristics of this subtype.@*METHODS@#Standard serological techniques were used to conduct forward and reverse typing, reverse blood typing enhancement test, H antigen identification, absorption-elution test, salivary blood group substances test, and PCR-SSP method for ABO genotyping and exon 6 and 7 sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband's blood group was type O by forward typing, but antigen A could be detected by absorption-elution test, anti-A1 could be detected by reverse blood typing enhancement test, it was found that there was substance H but no substance A in saliva, and the serological characteristics were consistent with Ael subtype. Gene sequencing analysis showed that there was a c.625T>G base substitution on the basis of A102, which had never been reported before. Family survey showed that c.625T>G base substitution appeared in three generations of the family.@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, a new subtype A with Ael serological characteristics caused by c.625T>G mutation was identified. c.625T>G base substitution results in the weakening of A antigen, and this mutation can be stably passed down to future generations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Genotype , Phenotype , Alleles , Mutation , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics
9.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 240-246, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981856

ABSTRACT

Tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR is a common abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis, which brings difficulties and uncertainties to the evaluation of the evidence weight in actual cases. This paper reviews the types, formation mechanism, occurrence frequency, genetic pattern and quantitative evaluation of evidence of the tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR in forensic DNA analysis. This paper mainly explains the formation mechanism and genetic patterns based on different types of tri-allelic pattern. This paper also discusses the determination of tri-allelic pattern and the quantitative method of evidence evaluation in paternity testing and individual identification. This paper aims to provide references for scientific and standardized analysis of this abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , DNA/genetics , Forensic Medicine , Gene Frequency , Microsatellite Repeats
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 750-755, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the serological characteristics of ABO blood group and molecular genetic mechanism for a Chinese pedigree with cisAB09 subtype.@*METHODS@#A pedigree undergoing ABO blood group examination at the Department of Transfusion, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University on February 2, 2022 was selected as the study subjects. Serological assay was carried out to determine the ABO blood group of the proband and his family members. Activities of A and B glycosyltransferases in the plasma of the proband and his mother were measured with an enzymatic assay. Expression of A and B antigens on the red blood cells of the proband was analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members were collected. Following extraction of genomic DNA, exons 1 to 7 of the ABO gene and their flanking introns were sequenced, and Sanger sequencing of exon 7 was carried out for the proband, his elder daughter and mother.@*RESULTS@#The results of serological assay suggested that the proband and his elder daughter and mother had an A2B phenotype, whilst his wife and younger daughter had an O phenotype. Measurement of plasma A and B glycosyltransferase activity suggested that the titers of B-glycosyltransferase activity were 32 and 256 for the proband and his mother, which were respectively below and above that of A1B phenotype-positive controls (128). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of A antigen on the red blood cell surface of the proband has decreased, whilst the expression of B antigen was normal. Genetic sequencing confirmed that, in addition to an ABO*B.01 allele, the proband, his elder daughter and mother have harbored a c.796A>G variant in exon 7, which has resulted in substitution of the methionine at 266th position of the B-glycosyltransferase by valine and conformed to the characteristics of ABO*cisAB.09 allele. The genotypes of the proband and his elder daughter were determined as ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*O.01.01, his mother was ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*B.01, and his wife and younger daughter were ABO*O.01.01/ABO*O.01.01.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.796A>G variant of the ABO*B.01 allele has resulted in an amino acid substitution p.Met266Val, which probably underlay the cisAB09 subtype. The ABO*cisA B.09 allele encodes a special glycosyltransferase which can synthesize normal level of B antigen and low level of A antigen on the red blood cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Pedigree , East Asian People , Genotype , Phenotype , Alleles , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Molecular Biology
11.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 16(2): 162-170, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384671

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) polymorphisms have been associated with antisocial disorders. Less attention has been paid to the cognitive functioning of individuals with different MAOA alleles. No study has described the cognitive phenotype associated with the less frequent, low enzyme activity allele, MAOA_LPR*2R. Objective: We describe the cognitive correlates of boys having MAOA_LPR*2R allele, ascertained in a sample of school children with normal intelligence, not referred for behavioral disorders. Methods: Participants were eight boys, attending from the second to fifth grades in state-run schools. They were identified among 712 children with typical general cognitive ability, genotyped for MAOA_LPR polymorphism. Participants were assessed with general intelligence, mathematics and spelling achievement, and verbal and visuospatial working memory tests. Neuropsychological performance was compared to published standards, using 1 SD below the mean as a cutoff value for low performance. Results: Intelligence of boys with MAOA_LPR*2R allele varied from above average (N=2) to low average in the other children. Five out of eight boys with the MAOA_LPR*2R allele had low mathematics achievement, and three presented additional difficulties with spelling. Four out of eight children had low short-term and working memory performance. Discussion: This is the first study describing cognitive correlates and school performance in boys having the MAOA_LPR*2R allele. Having this allele, and therefore, probably low MAO-A activity, does not necessarily imply low intelligence or low school performance. However, learning difficulties, particularly in math, and low working memory performance were observed in boys having this allele. This suggests a role of MAOA in learning difficulties.


RESUMO. Polimorfismos da monoaminoxidase A (MAOA) são associados a transtornos antissociais. Menos atenção tem sido dada ao funcionamento cognitivo de indivíduos com diferentes alelos de MAOA. Nenhum estudo descreveu o fenótipo cognitivo associado ao alelo menos frequente, de baixa atividade enzimática, MAOA_LPR*2R. Objetivo: Descrevemos os correlatos cognitivos de meninos com o alelo MAOA_LPR*2R, identificados em uma amostra de escolares com inteligência normal, não encaminhados por transtornos de comportamento. Métodos: Oito meninos com o alelo MAOA_LPR*2R foram identificados entre 712 crianças genotipadas, com inteligência típica, que cursavam do 2º ao 5º ano em escolas públicas. Foram avaliados: inteligência, desempenho em matemática e ortografia, memória de trabalho verbal e visuoespacial. O desempenho foi comparado a normas publicadas, utilizando-se 1 desvio padrão (DP) abaixo da média como ponto de corte para desempenho rebaixado. Resultados: A inteligência dos meninos com alelo MAOA_LPR*2R variou de acima da média (N=2) a médio-inferior nas demais crianças. Cinco dos oito meninos com alelo MAOA_LPR*2R apresentaram desempenho rebaixado em matemática e três apresentaram dificuldades adicionais em ortografia. Quatro dos oito meninos apresentaram baixo desempenho de memória de curto prazo e de trabalho. Discussão: Este é o primeiro estudo a descrever os correlatos cognitivos e o desempenho escolar em meninos com alelo MAOA_LPR*2R. Ter esse alelo não significa necessariamente baixa inteligência ou baixo desempenho escolar. No entanto, dificuldades de aprendizagem, principalmente em matemática, e desempenho rebaixado da memória de trabalho foram observados em mais da metade dos meninos com esse alelo. Isso sugere um papel do MAOA nas dificuldades de aprendizagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Monoamine Oxidase , Alleles
12.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022218, 06 abr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391913

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The frequency of the premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene varies from 1:100 to 1:260 Israeli, Canadian, Finnish and American women, but it is unknown in Brazil. Premutation carriers may have reduced reproductive age and are at risk of transmitting the expanded allele to their offspring, and consequently fragile X syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To observe the distribution range of the FMR1 gene alleles in a population of women with idiopathic infertility, without symptoms of premature ovarian insufficiency. METHODS: The presence of premutation in FMR1 was assessed by conventional PCR, agarose, and acrylamide gel and analysis of fragments in capillary electrophoresis. Lymphocyte DNA obtained from 283 women undergoing infertility treatment was analyzed. RESULTS: 169 patients had the normal heterozygous allele (59.7%), 114 had the normal homozygous allele (40.6%) and no patient had the premutation. Premature ovarian insufficiency is seen in 20 to 30% of women with the permutated allele. Thus, the condition can be asymptomatic in a large part of the premutation carriers. Brazil has a diverse population and, therefore, the allele frequencies of many gene variants are unknown. Previous Brazilian studies have shown a low frequency of the premutation allele in different patient cohorts. Corroborating these articles, the results demonstrated that the frequency of the premutation allele is low in the infertile women population studied. CONCLUSION: Tracking the size of the FMR1 gene alleles allows the expansion of knowledge about the frequency of risk alleles associated with genetic diseases in the Brazilian population.


INTRODUÇÃO: A frequência dos alelos pré-mutados do gene FMR1 varia de 1:100 e 1:260 mulheres israelenses, canadenses, finlandesas e americanas, mas é desconhecida no Brasil. Portadoras da pré-mutação podem apresentar redução da idade reprodutiva e possuem risco de transmissão do alelo expandido para a prole, e consequentemente a Síndrome do X frágil. OBJETIVO: Observar a faixa de distribuição dos alelos do gene FMR1 em uma população de mulheres com infertilidade idiopática, sem sintomas de insuficiência ovariana prematura. MÉTODOS: A presença da pré-mutação em FMR1 foi avaliada por PCR convencional, gel de agarose e acrilamida e análise de fragmentos em eletroforese capilar. Analisou-se DNA de linfócitos obtidos de 283 mulheres em tratamento de infertilidade. RESULTADOS: Foi observado que 169 pacientes apresentam o alelo heterozigoto normal (59,7%), 114 apresentam o alelo homozigoto normal (40,6%) e nenhuma paciente apresentou a pré-mutação. A insuficiência ovariana prematura é observada em 20 a 30% das mulheres portadoras do alelo pré-mutado. Assim, a presença de um alelo pré-mutado pode ser assintomática em grande parte dos casos. O Brasil possui uma população diversificada e, portanto, as frequências alélicas de muitas variantes gênicas são desconhecidas. Estudos brasileiros anteriores mostraram uma baixa frequência do alelo pré-mutado em diferentes coortes de pacientes. Corroborando estes autores, os resultados demonstram que frequência do alelo pré-mutado é baixa na população de mulheres inférteis estudada. CONCLUSÃO: O rastreamento do tamanho dos alelos do gene FMR1 permite ampliar o conhecimento sobre a frequência dos alelos de risco para doenças genética na população brasileira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Infertility, Female , Fragile X Syndrome , Mutation
13.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022219, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391917

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The causal mechanisms behind crack/cocaine use are still unknown, but genetic influences are suggested. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the genetic polymorphism TaqI (rs1800497) in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and susceptibility to crack/cocaine dependence in a group of addicts to crack/cocaine and a non-addicted group. METHODS: The case group (n=515) was composed of crack/cocaine-dependent men and the control group (n=106) comprised men who were considered not dependent on crack/cocaine. The oral hygiene habits, decayed, missing, and filled teeth index, gingival index, and plaque index were evaluated. The reference single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1800497 C/T) of the DRD2 gene was genotyped by a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Student's t-tests for independent samples or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test were used to compare groups regarding quantitative variables. RESULTS: The case group showed a mean time of 9.91±7.03 years of crack use, and 61.06±92.96 stones/week. The socio-demographic profile of the sample was White, single men, with basic education, blue-collar worker, smoker, and reporting alcohol use. There was a high frequency of gingival inflammation, plaque accumulation, and caries experience. For all genetic models tested, there was no significant difference in the genotypic frequency in rs1800497 of the DRD2 gene, between case and control groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The genetic variant in the DRD2 did not increase the vulnerability to develop crack/cocaine dependence. The complex genetic nature of crack/cocaine dependence and a large variation of DRD2 allele frequencies, depending on the population group sampled, could be one explanation for the no association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptors, Dopamine D2 , Drug Users , Cocaine Smoking/genetics , Cohort Studies , Alleles
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 12-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The AKR1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose into sorbitol. Chronic hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to increased AKR1B1 affinity for glucose and, consequently, sorbitol accumulation. Elevated sorbitol increases oxidative stress, which is one of the main pathways related to chronic complications of diabetes, including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Accordingly, some studies have suggested the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene is associated with DKD; however, findings are still contradictory. The aim was to investigate the association of the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene and DKD. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 695 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and DKD (cases) and 310 patients with T2DM of more than 10 years' duration, but no DKD (controls). The polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Allelic and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism did not differ significantly between groups. However, the A/A genotype was associated with risk for DKD after adjustment for gender, triglycerides, BMI, presence of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy, and duration of DM, under both recessive (P = 0.048) and additive (P = 0.037) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between the AKR1B1 rs759853A/A genotype and risk for DKD in Brazilians T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aldehyde Reductase/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 141-152, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929045

ABSTRACT

Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9), the third-generation genome editing tool, has been favored because of its high efficiency and clear system composition. In this technology, the introduced double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways. The high-fidelity HDR pathway is used for genome modification, which can introduce artificially controllable insertions, deletions, or substitutions carried by the donor templates. Although high-level knock-out can be easily achieved by NHEJ, accurate HDR-mediated knock-in remains a technical challenge. In most circumstances, although both alleles are broken by endonucleases, only one can be repaired by HDR, and the other one is usually recombined by NHEJ. For gene function studies or disease model establishment, biallelic editing to generate homozygous cell lines and homozygotes is needed to ensure consistent phenotypes. Thus, there is an urgent need for an efficient biallelic editing system. Here, we developed three pairs of integrated selection systems, where each of the two selection cassettes contained one drug-screening gene and one fluorescent marker. Flanked by homologous arms containing the mutated sequences, the selection cassettes were integrated into the target site, mediated by CRISPR/Cas9-induced HDR. Positively targeted cell clones were massively enriched by fluorescent microscopy after screening for drug resistance. We tested this novel method on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) loci and demonstrated up to 82.0% biallelic editing efficiency after optimization. Our results indicate that this strategy can provide a new efficient approach for biallelic editing and lay a foundation for establishment of an easier and more efficient disease model.


Subject(s)
Alleles , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA End-Joining Repair , Gene Editing/methods , Recombinational DNA Repair
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 579-584, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the distribution characteristics of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in children with primary hypertension, and to explore the association between MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and H-type hypertension in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 121 children with primary hypertension who were hospitalized in the department of cardiovascular medicine from January to July 2021, newly diagnosed, and untreated were retrospectively selected as the subjects. The children were divided into three groups: CC genotype (19 children), CT genotype (51 children), and TT genotype (51 children). According to the serum homocysteine (Hcy) level, they were divided two groups: H-type hypertension (47 children) and simple hypertension (74 children). The medical data were compared between the groups. The association between MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and H-type hypertension was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#The mutation frequency of T allele in children with primary hypertension was significantly higher than that in healthy adults in Beijing and Chinese Han adults (P<0.001). The serum Hcy level in the TT genotype group was significantly higher than that in the CC and CT genotype groups (P<0.001). The serum Hcy level in the H-type hypertension group was significantly higher than that in the simple hypertension group (P<0.001), and MTHFR C677T was mostly TT genotype, which was associated with the risk of H-type hypertension (OR=12.71, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of target organ damage between the H-type hypertension and simple hypertension groups (P>0.05). However, multiple organ involvement was observed in the H-type hypertension group at diagnosis, accounting for 11% (5/47).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mutation rate of MTHFR C677T T allele in children with primary hypertension is high and associated with the serum Hcy level. TT genotype is an independent risk factor for H-type hypertension in children, and it may be related to the severity of early target organ damage.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Alleles , Genotype , Hypertension/genetics , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Retrospective Studies
17.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 546-547, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular reasons of weak expression of B antigen on the red cell.@*METHODS@#Serological test for blood group was carried out, including red cell and plasma grouping, and anti-A1 and anti-H testing, and confirming weak A or B antigens by adsorption and elution. Exons 1-7 were sequenced directly, and one of them was cloned and sequenced.@*RESULTS@#All of the 23 samples showed the weak B antigen by serological method. The alleles of the subgroups were identified by DNA sequencing, including 2 Bel subgroup, 4 B3 subgroup, 14 Bw subgroup, 2 CisAB subgroup and a novel allele. The novel allele showed a nucleotide substitution 662G>A in the exon 7, and the sequence was submitted to Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database, and the novel allele was named Bel10.@*CONCLUSION@#Nucleotide substitution in exon results in blood subgroup, which showed that the antigens were weakened, and Bw phenotype was the most frequently subgroup.


Subject(s)
Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Alleles , Exons , Genotype , Nucleotides , Phenotype
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 505-509, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To characterize a novel HLA allele, A*24:191, its DNA sequence, MHC modeling structure, and the possible influence of the amino-acid residue variations on the molecule.@*METHODS@#The HLA sequence was determined by Luminex PCR-SSO and PCR-SBT. Its MHC molecular structure and the possible effects of the amino-acid residue variations were modeled and analyzed with Phyre2, RCSB PDB and HistoCheck software.@*RESULTS@#The PCR-SBT revealed the novel A*24:191 differs from A*24:02 in exon 2 at position 256, 265, 270 with G>C, G>C, A>T. The MHC molecular structure prediction showed that, compared with A*24:02, the 62nd residue of A*24:191 changed from the acidic E to a neutral Q, both with the side chain extending outside the α helix pointing forward the groove, (Risler's score, R=2), the 65th changed from the smaller neutral G extending inside the helix to a basic R with a long-chain extending upward outside the helix (R=52), and the 66th changed from the basic K to a neutral N both with a long side chain extending inside the groove (R=31). The above residues are located on the α helix of the α 1 domain which constituting the side wall of the peptide-binding groove. The DSS Score=3.85. From the surface image of the molecule, it can be clearly seen that the variations of the properties, sizes and configurations of the residues caused significant changes in the shape of the surface structure of the α helix.@*CONCLUSION@#It suggested that the residue variations are likely to change the peptide binding properties as well as the TCR and antibody binding characteristics of the molecule.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Amino Acid Sequence , HLA-A Antigens , Peptides , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 231-233, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA) system 10 among ethnic Han Chinese from Shandong, China so as to supplement the data of platelet donor bank in the region.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of platelet donors from the region were genotyped for HPA-10 alleles by PCR-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) and direct sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Among 1401 donors, a rare heterozygote carrier of HPA-10w (a+b+) was identified, which gave an allelic frequency of approximately 0.035%.@*CONCLUSION@#The detection of rare HPA-10bw antigen allele among ethnic Han Chinese from Shandong is useful for the diagnosis and prevention of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and post-transfusion purpura in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Alleles , Antigens, Human Platelet/genetics , Asian People/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Polymorphism, Genetic
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 89-93, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for an individual with a para-Bombay phenotype.@*METHODS@#A proband with mismatched forward and reverse serotypes for the ABO blood group was identified. Weakly expressed ABH blood type antigen on the surface of red blood cells was verified by absorption and release test, and the blood group substances in saliva was detected by sialic acid test. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene and exons of the FUT1 and FUT2 genes were subjected to direct sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to be of O type by forward ABO serotyping and AB type by reverse ABO serotyping, though H and substance A and B were detected in her saliva. DNA sequencing revealed that she has harbored c.35C/T, c.328G/A, and c.504delC compound heterozygous variants of the FUT1 gene. Haploid analysis showed that her FUT1 genotype was h328A/h35T+504delC, which has been uploaded to the NCBI website (No. MW323551).@*CONCLUSION@#The para-Bombay phenotype of the proband may be attributed to the novel compound heterozygous variants including c.504delC of the FUT1 gene, which may affect its function by altering the activity of FUT1 glycotransferase.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Alleles , China , Fucosyltransferases/genetics , Genotype , Phenotype
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL