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3.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(2): 139-148, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283427

ABSTRACT

Atopic diseases, especially asthma may confer increased susceptibility to viral infections, however, such patients have been largely unaffected in the current Covid-19 pandemic. This favorable course could be explained by a protective role of cytokines and cells involved in an immune response with a T2 profile. In spite of the favorable course observed, it is a priority to maintain with its basic treatments to ensure a good control of the pathology. With respect the immunization process being carried out in patients with a history of allergic reactions in different degrees, the recommendation of the type of vaccine and the protocol for its administration should be individualized according to a risk stratification prior to its administration. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergy and Immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology
4.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(3): 9-21, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342066

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las exposiciones frecuentes o estacionales a helmintos que no provocan infecciones crónicas se asocian a un aumento de la inflamación alérgica, situación que podría extrapolarse a la toxocariasis humana. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de seropositivos a Toxocara spp. entre estudiantes atópicos y la relación entre atopia y seropositividad a Toxocara spp. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal donde por conveniencia se seleccionaron 90 estudiantes de los programas de Enfermería, Regencia en Farmacia y MVZ de la Universidad de los Llanos que según diligenciamiento del cuestionario ISAAC fase III se presume sufren de enfermedad atópica; para desarrollar en ellos la prueba de hipersensibilización alérgica cutánea (PHAC), utilizando extractos de Blomia tropicalis y Dermatophagoides pteronyssius. En los estudiantes positivos a esta prueba, se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para el recuento de eosinófilos e inmunoensayo in-house para IgG anti-Toxocara spp. Resultados: De los 90 estudiantes con antecedentes de enfermedad atópica, solo el 33,3% fueron positivos para uno o ambos ácaros del polvo en la PHAC y su recuento de eosinófilos en sangre fue normal 66,6%, medio 26,7% y moderado 6,7%. La frecuencia de seropositividad a Toxocara spp. fue del 73,3% (DO 1,009 cut-off). La OR entre atopia y seropositividad a Toxocara spp. fue 1,18 (IC95% 0,24-5,7). Discusión: Colombia es uno de los países con alta endemicidad de toxocariasis con prevalencias entre 40.4­54.4%, dato confirmado según la frecuencia de seropositivos a Toxocara spp. encontrada en personas atópicas en estudio. Conclusiones: No se encontró relación entre atopia y seropositividad a Toxocara spp.


Introduction: The frequent or seasonal expositions to parasitic worms that do not provoke chronic infections are associated to an increase of allergic inflammation, situation that could be extrapolated to human toxocariasis. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of Toxocara spp seropositivity among atopic students and the relationship be-tween atopy and seropositivity to Toxocara spp. Materials and methods: Observational and cross-sectional study using 90 students by convenience from the Nursing, Farmacy, Veter-inary, and Animal Science programs at the Universidad de los Llanos that according to the completion of the ISSAC phase III questionnaire are presumed to suffer from an atopic dis-ease. In order to perform an allergy skin test in them, extracts from Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssius were used. The students that tested positive got a blood test to count the eosinophils and the in-house enzyme immunoassay for IgG anti-Toxocara spp. Results: From the 90 students with records of atopic diseases, only 33,3% were positive to one or the two dust mites in the allergy skin test. Their eosinophils count in the blood test were normal 66.6%, medium 26.7% and moderate 6.7%. The frequency of seropositivity to Toxocara spp. was 73.3% (DO 1,009 cut-off). The OR between atopy and seropositivity to Toxocara spp. corresponded to 1.18 (CI 95% 0,24-5,7). Discussion: Colombia is one of the countries with high endemicity of toxocariasis with prevalences between 40.4­54.4%, a fact that is confirmed according to the frequency of seropositives to Toxocara spp. found in atopic people in the study. Conclusions: No relationship between atopy and seropositivity to Toxocara spp. was found


Introdução: as exposições frequentes ou estacionais a helmintos que não desenvolvem in-feções crônicas associam-se com o incremento de inflamação alérgica, situação que poderia evoluir a toxocaríase humana. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi determinar a frequência de soro positividade à Toxocara spp. entre alunos atópicos e a relação entre atopia e soro positividade à Toxocara spp. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional transversal onde por conveniên-cia estudaram-se 90 alunos dos programas de enfermagem, regência em farmácia e medicina veterinária da Universidade dos Llanos que segundo o preenchimento do questionário ISAAC fase III presumiam padecer doença atópica. Para desenvolver a prova de hiper sensibilidade alérgica cutânea (PHAC), usaram-se extratos de Blomia tropicalis e Dermatophagoides pter-onyssius. Os alunos com teste positivo, foram analisados por meio de amostra sanguínea para contagem de eosinófilos e imunoensaio in-house para IgG anti-Toxocara spp. Resultados: dos 90 alunos analisados, só 33,3% foram positivos para um ou ambos ácaros no PHAC. A contagem de eosinófilos em sangue foi normal (66,6%), média (26,7%) e moderada (6,7%). A frequência de soro positividade para à Toxocara spp. foi de 73,3% (DO 1,009 cut-off). O OR relacionando atopia e soro positividade à Toxocara spp. foi de 1,18 (IC95% 0,24-5,7). Discussão: Colômbia é um dos países endêmicos para toxocaríase com prevalências entre 40.4 e 54,4%, informação confirmada com os achados desse estudo. Conclusões: Não foi encontrada relação estadística entre atopia e soro positividade à Toxocara spp


Subject(s)
Toxocariasis , Zoonoses , Adolescent , Allergy and Immunology
5.
Iatreia ; 33(3): 298-304, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143081

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La inmunología es una de las ciencias biomédicas con mayor desarrollo en la segunda parte del siglo XX y principios del presente en al ámbito mundial. También ha tenido un desarrollo muy importante en Antioquia a partir de los años sesenta del siglo pasado. En la tercera parte de esta reseña histórica el autor expone, según su criterio, cuál es el estado actual y los retos futuros de la inmunología en lo científico, pedagógico y administrativo en la Universidad de Antioquia.


SUMMARY Immunology is one of the biomedical sciences that had, worldwide, a greater development in the last part of the XX century and the beginning of the present century. In Antioquia, immunology also had important developments that began in the 1960s. In the third part of this historical review, the author exposes his personal view about the present situation and the future challenges of immunology at the scientific, pedagogical and administrative levels in the Universidad de Antioquia.


Subject(s)
Humans , History , Allergy and Immunology
6.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e477, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138988

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La psoriasis, enfermedad inflamatoria sistémica de la piel, tiene consecuencias adversas serias para el bienestar físico, mental y social de las personas; sus tratamientos son costosos y con marcados efectos adversos. El itolizumab, anticuerpo monoclonal anti CD6 humanizado, actúa como inmunomodulador de las células T y desempeña un importante papel en su patogénesis. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad clínica del itolizumab en 80 pacientes con psoriasis vulgar grave. Métodos: Se realizó un programa de uso clínico expandido, promovido por el Centro de Inmunología Molecular. La respuesta clínica se midió por el índice de gravedad y área de afectación de psoriasis, y para la eficacia se conjugaron estos elementos con los de seguridad, mediante un análisis clínico complementario de los datos generados durante la fase de inducción. Se emplearon como medidas de resumen los números absolutos, el porciento, el promedio y estadísticas de asociación: las pruebas de correlación de de Pearson, de Friedman y la prueba de Lambda. Resultados: El análisis del área de afectación de psoriasis arrojó un rápido y sostenido descenso de sus valores; prevalecieron los eventos adversos relacionados con la administración del producto en investigación, de aparición inmediata, ligeros, muy probables y no serios. Conclusiones: El itolizumab es seguro y eficaz en el 96 por ciento de los pacientes psoriásicos graves durante los esquemas de inducción(AU)


Introduction: Psoriasis, systemic inflammatory skin disease, has serious adverse consequences for the physical, mental and social well-being of people; its treatments are expensive and with marked adverse effects. Itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, acts as an immunomodulator of T cells and plays an important role in its pathogenesis. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and clinical safety of itolizumab in 80 patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris. Methods: An expanded clinical use program was carried out, promoted by the Molecular Immunology Center. The clinical response was measured by the severity index and area of psoriasis involvement and for effectiveness these elements were combined with safety, through a complementary clinical analysis of the data generated during the induction phase. Absolute numbers, percent and average and association statistics such as Pearson's correlation tests or Lambda's test were used as summary measures. Results: The area of psoriasis involvement analysis showed a rapid and sustained decrease in its values; adverse events related to the administration of the product under investigation prevailed, light onset, very probable and not serious. Conclusions: Itolizumab is safe and effective in 96 percent of severe psoriatic patients during the induction phase(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psoriasis , Skin Diseases , Effectiveness , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Allergy and Immunology , Immunologic Factors
7.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(2): 173-182, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130592

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio sobre treinta pacientes con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) que asisten para su atención a centros especializados que funcionan en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y en el conurbano bonaerense. A todos ellos se les efectuó un estudio psico-neuro-cognitivo exhaustivo, según la escala IDEA (Inventario del Espectro Autista) que tiene el objetivo de evaluar doce dimensiones características significativas en estos pacientes, con cuatro niveles de puntuación en cada una de las dimensiones estudiadas. Los padres o tutores completaron una encuesta con datos epidemiológicos y se investigaron posibles factores de alergias y/o intolerancias presentes. Esta encuesta también se hizo extensiva a otras familias con niños autistas, para que los datos epidemiológicos fueran representativos de una población mayor. Sobre los treinta pacientes estudiados se dosaron anticuerpos antiendomisio y antitransglutaminasa, ambos asociados con la enfermedad celíaca; IgE total, asociada a procesos de alergia y a parasitosis; homocisteína sérica o urinaria, cortisol sérico o urinario y factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro (BNDF). Se trataron de establecer posibles asociaciones causales entre los parámetros estudiados y las manifestaciones de los trastornos autistas.


Thirty patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who attend specialized centers in Buenos Aires and its suburbs were carefully studied. All of them underwent a psycho-neuro-cognitive study. The psychologists used the IDEA (Autism Spectrum Inventory) scale which is focused on twelve characteristically significant dimensions with four typical levels in each of those dimensions studied. Their parents or guardians completed a survey with epidemiological data and possible factors of allergies and/or intolerance presence were investigated. This survey was also distributed among other families with children with ASD condition so that the epidemiological results were taken from a larger number of cases. Anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies usually related to celiac disease, total IgE related to allergic processes, homocysteine measures in serum or urine, cortisol measured in serum or urine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) were dosed in all the cases. The aim was to establish possible causal associations between the studied parameters and the manifestations of the autism spectrum disorder.


Foi conduzido um estudo em trinta pacientes com transtorno do espectro autista (TEA) que para serem atendidos frequentam centros especializados que operam na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e seus arrededores. Todos eles foram submetidos a um exaustivo estudo psico-neurocognitivo, de acordo com a escala IDEA (Inventário do Espectro Autista) que visa avaliar doze características significativas desses pacientes, com quatro níveis de pontuação em cada uma das dimensões estudadas. Os pais ou responsáveis responderam uma pesquisa com dados epidemiológicos e foram pesquisados possíveis fatores de alergias e / ou intolerâncias presentes. Essa pesquisa também foi estendida a outras famílias com crianças autistas, de modo que os dados epidemiológicos fossem representativos de uma população maior. Anticorpos antiendomísio e antitransglutaminase foram dosados nos trinta pacientes estudados, ambos associados à doença celíaca; IgE total associada a processos de alergia e a parasitose; homocisteína sérica ou urinária, cortisol sérico ou urinário e fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BNDF). Tentou-se estabelecer possíveis associações causais entre os parâmetros estudados e as manifestações dos transtornos autistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurobiology , Biomarkers , Allergy and Immunology , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Association , Attention , Celiac Disease , Cerebrum
9.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 88(1, supl): 19-28, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140027

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión bibliográfica se realizó con el propósito de brindar una perspectiva histórica que relacione la estrecha vinculación de la infectología y la inmunología y sus repercusiones en la medicina en Honduras, haciendo relación a la práctica médica desde sus orígenes difusos de la época colonial hasta la actualidad. Se revisó la información de los registros de la Revista Médica Hondureña y publicaciones similares nacionales. Se presentan y discuten aspectos clínicos, de salud pública, académicos y éticos en el modo de actuar profesional donde convergen ambas especialidades, resaltando elucubraciones, actualizaciones contextuales, procesos, instituciones y figuras médicas que han marcado en forma indeleble su desarrollo y evolución...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergy and Immunology , Infectious Disease Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Medicine , History of Medicine
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829111

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the first domestic ACYW135 meningococcal conjugate vaccine and a control vaccine named AC group meningococcal conjugate vaccine for 3 months (90-119 days) infants. From February 2017 to June 2018, a randomized, blinded, and similar vaccine-controlled clinical trial design was adopted at the Henan Vaccine Clinical Research Base. The subjects were 3 months old healthy infants, a total of 720, based on a 1∶1 ratio. The random allocation table for entry was randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group. According to the 3, 4, and 5 month-old vaccination procedures, the subjects were vaccinated with test vaccine (ACYW135 group meningococcal conjugate vaccine) and control vaccine (group A group C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine), of which 720 were given the first dose, 696 were given the second dose (test group: 346; control group: 350), and 692 were given the third dose (test group: 344; Control group: 348). The overall adverse reaction rate of the test vaccine was 21.90% (230 cases), which was lower than the 32.04% (339 cases) of the control vaccine (0.05). Group Y and W135 was 88.17% (298 cases), 99.41% (336 cases), respectively. The GMT results showed that the test vaccine group A was 56.24, the control vaccine was 57.43 (>0.05); the group C test vaccine (43.53) was higher than the control group (27.28) (<0.001). The group Y and W135 are 89.22 and 140.66, respectively. Among them, the proportion of the group C GMT antibody ≥ 1∶128 for test vaccine (31.07%, 105 cases) was higher than the control vaccine (16.22%, 55 cases) (<0.001). ACYW135 group meningococcal conjugate vaccine has more safety and immunogenicity after application to 3 month old infants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial , Humans , Infant , Meningococcal Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Vaccines, Conjugate
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828995

ABSTRACT

Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a veterinary pathogen that infects domestic animals as well as wild animals such as wild boar and feral swine, was recently reported to infect human and led to endophthalmitis and encephalitis. A retrospective seroepidemiologic survey was conducted using 1,335 serum samples collected from patients with encephalitis and ELISA positive rates were 12.16%, 14.25%, and 6.52% in 2012, 2013, and 2017, respectively. The virus neutralizing antibody titers of positive samples correlated well with ELISA results. The pseudorabies virus antibody positive rate of patients with encephalitis were higher than that of healthy people in 2017. The above results suggest that some undefined human encephalitis cases may be caused by PRV infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , China , Encephalitis , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Herpesvirus 1, Suid , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pseudorabies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828989

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Long-term seroprotection the hepatitis A vaccine is essential for the prevention of disease from the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Due to documented difficulties during decade-long follow-ups after receiving vaccines, statistical-modeling approaches have been applied to predict the duration of immune protection.@*Methods@#Based on five-year follow-up data from a randomized positive-controlled trial among Chinese children (1-8 years old) following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule, a power-law model accounting for the kinetics of B-cell turnover, as well as a modified power-law model considering a memory-B-cell subpopulation, were fitted to predict the long-term immune responses induced by HAV vaccination (Healive or Havrix). Anti-HAV levels of each individual and seroconversion rates up to 30 years after vaccination were predicted.@*Results@#A total of 375 participants who completed the two-dose vaccination were included in the analysis. Both models predicted that, over a life-long period, participants vaccinated with Healive would have close but slightly higher antibody titers than those of participants vaccinated with Havrix. Additionally, consistent with previous studies, more than 90% of participants were predicted to maintain seroconversion for at least 30 years. Moreover, the modified power-law model predicted that the antibody titers would reach a plateau level after nearly 15 years post-vaccination.@*Conclusions@#Based on the results of our modeling, Healive may adequately induce long-term immune responses following a 0, 6 months vaccination schedule in children induction of memory B cells to provide stable and durable immune protection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Hepatitis A , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Active , Infant , Male , Models, Statistical , Vaccination
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828988

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The definite diagnosis of human and animal prion diseases depends on the examination of special pathological changes and/or detection of PrP in the brain tissues of suspected cases. Thus, developing methods to obtain PrP antibody with good specificity and sensitivity is fundamental for prion identification.@*Methods@#We prepared a PrP-specific polyclonal antibody (pAb P54) in a -knockout mouse model immunization with recombinant full-length human PrP protein residues 23-231. Thereafter, we verified that pAb in Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and immunofluorescent (IFA) assays.@*Results@#Western blot illustrated that the newly prepared pAb P54 could react with recombinant PrP protein, normal brain PrP from healthy rodents and humans, and pathological PrP in the brains of experimental rodents infected with scrapie and humans infected with different types of prion diseases. The electrophoretic patterns of brain PrP and PrP observed after their reaction with pAb P54 were nearly identical to those produced by commercial PrP monoclonal antibodies. Three glycosylated PrP molecules in the brain homogenates were clearly demonstrated in the reactions of these molecules with pAb P54. IHC assay revealed apparent PrP deposits in the GdnCl-treated brain slices of 139A-infected mice and 263K-infected hamsters. IFA tests with pAb P54 also showed clear green signals surrounding blue-stained cell nuclei.@*Conclusion@#The newly prepared pAb P54 demonstrated reliable specificity and sensitivity and, thus, may have potential applications not only in studies of prion biology but also in the diagnosis of human and experimental rodent prion diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Allergy and Immunology , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunization , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mice, Knockout , PrPC Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , PrPSc Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Prion Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Recombinant Proteins , Allergy and Immunology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828973

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the differences in clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory features between the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and influenza A in children. Data of 23 hospitalized children with COVID-19 (9 boys, 5.7 ± 3.8 years old) were compared with age- and sex-matched 69 hospitalized and 69 outpatient children with influenza A from a hospital in China. The participants' epidemiological history, family cluster, clinical manifestations, and blood test results were assessed. Compared with either inpatients or outpatients with influenza A, children with COVID-19 showed significantly more frequent family infections and higher ratio of low fever ( 39 °C), nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, vomiting, myalgia or arthralgia, and febrile seizures. They also showed higher counts of lymphocytes, T lymphocyte CD8, and platelets and levels of cholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid, but lower serum amyloid, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and shorter prothrombin time. The level of alanine aminotransferase in children with COVID-19 is lower than that in inpatients but higher than that in outpatients with influenza A. Pediatric COVID-19 is associated with more frequent family infection, milder symptoms, and milder immune responses relative to pediatric influenza A.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare the recombinant peptide MVF-HER3 I composed of the 183-227aa peptide segment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3 I) and the measles virus protein 288-302 peptide segment (MVF), and prepare polyclonal antibodies (PcAb) against this recombinant peptide.@*METHODS@#The MVF-HER3 I gene was synthesized chemically and subcloned into pET21b or pET32a plasmid containing Thioredoxin (Trx) tag gene. The recombinant plasmids were identified by endonuclease digestion. MVF-HER3 I was expressed in BL21(DE3) cells under an optimal bacterial expression condition. The fusion protein Trx-MVF-HER3 I was purified using nickel ion affinity chromatography, and the purified protein was digested by enterokinase to remove Trx tag. The digested mixture underwent further nickel ion affinity chromatography to obtain purified MVF-HER3 I. The purified MVF-HER3 I was used to immunize SD rats subcutaneously for preparing anti-MVF-HER3 I PcAb. The titer of PcAb was determined using ELISA. The bindings of anti-MVF-HER3 I PcAb to MVF-HER3 I, native HER3 and MCF7 cells were analyzed using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and laser confocal microscopy. The growth inhibition effect of the antibodies on MCF7 cells cultured in the absence or presence of NRG was assessed using sulforhodamine B.@*RESULTS@#The recombinant peptide gene could not be expressed alone, but could be efficiently expressed after fusion with Trx gene under optimized conditions. The fusion peptide MVF-HER3 I was successfully prepared from Trx-MVF-HER3 I. The anti-MVF-HER3 I PcAb, with a titer reaching 1: 512 000, specifically bound to MVF-HER3 I, recognized native HER3 and bound to the membrane of MCF7 cells. The obtained PcAb could dose-dependently inhibit the growth of MCF7 cells irrespective of the presence or absence of NRG.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We successfully obtained the recombinant peptide MVF-HER3 I and prepared its PcAb, which can facilitate further functional analysis of HER3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Escherichia coli , Humans , Plasmids , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, ErbB-3 , Allergy and Immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828750

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828746

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Young Adult
18.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 707-722, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828586

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Betacoronavirus , Body Fluids , Metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Therapeutics , Translational Medical Research
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828582

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Young Adult
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828561

ABSTRACT

The three known human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are composed of non-structural proteins, structural proteins and accessory proteins. Viral particles recognize host receptors via spike glycoprotein (S protein), enter host cells by membrane fusion, replicate in host cells through large replication-transcription complexes, and promote proliferation by interfering with and suppressing the host's immune response. Human highly pathogenic coronaviruses are hosted by humans and vertebrates. Viral particles are transmitted through droplets, contact and aerosols or likely through digestive tract, urine, eyes and other routes. This review discusses the mechanisms of proliferation and transmission of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses based on the results of existing research, providing basis for future study on interrupting the transmission and pathogenicity of human highly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , SARS Virus , Physiology , Virus Replication , Physiology
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