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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1815-1824, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981172

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecule peptides that are widely found in living organisms with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and immunomodulatory effect. Due to slower emergence of resistance, excellent clinical potential and wide range of application, AMP is a strong alternative to conventional antibiotics. AMP recognition is a significant direction in the field of AMP research. The high cost, low efficiency and long period shortcomings of the wet experiment methods prevent it from meeting the need for the large-scale AMP recognition. Therefore, computer-aided identification methods are important supplements to AMP recognition approaches, and one of the key issues is how to improve the accuracy. Protein sequences could be approximated as a language composed of amino acids. Consequently, rich features may be extracted using natural language processing (NLP) techniques. In this paper, we combine the pre-trained model BERT and the fine-tuned structure Text-CNN in the field of NLP to model protein languages, develop an open-source available antimicrobial peptide recognition tool and conduct a comparison with other five published tools. The experimental results show that the optimization of the two-phase training approach brings an overall improvement in accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Matthew correlation coefficient, offering a novel approach for further research on AMP recognition.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Antimicrobial Peptides , Natural Language Processing
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1710-1730, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981165

ABSTRACT

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) widely exist in all organisms, the structures of which are usually extraordinarily conservative. They are also well-known stress proteins that are involved in response to physical, chemical and biological stresses. HSP70 is an important member of the HSPs family. In order to study the roles of amphibians HSP70 during infection, the cDNA sequence of Rana amurensis hsp70 family genes were cloned by homologous cloning method. The sequence characteristics, three-dimensional structure and genetic relationship of Ra-hsp70s were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression profiles under bacterial infection were also analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Expression and localization of HSP70 protein were tested by immunohistochemical techniques. The results showed that three conservative tag sequences of HSP70 family, HSPA5, HSPA8 and HSPA13, were found in HSP70. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated four members are distributed in four different branches, and members with the same subcellular localization motif are distributed in the same branch. The relative expression levels of the mRNA of four members were all significantly upregulated (P < 0.01) upon infection, but the time for up-regulating the expression levels were diverse in different tissues. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that HSP70 was expressed to different degrees in the cytoplasm of liver, kidney, skin and stomach tissue. The four members of Ra-hsp70 family have ability to respond bacterial infection to varying degrees. Therefore, it was proposed that they are involved in biological processes against pathogen and play different biological functions. The study provides a theoretical basis for functional studies of HSP70 gene in amphibians.


Subject(s)
Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Phylogeny , Amino Acid Sequence , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1696-1709, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981164

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clone and characterize the ZFP36L1 (zinc finger protein 36-like 1) gene, clarify its expression characteristics, and elucidate its expression patterns in different tissues of goats. Samples of 15 tissues from Jianzhou big-eared goats, including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney were collected. Goat ZFP36L1 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then the gene and protein sequence were analyzed by online tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect the expression level of ZFP36L1 in intramuscular preadipocytes in different tissues and adipocytes of goat at different differentiation stages. The results showed that the length of ZFR36L1 gene was 1 224 bp, and the coding sequence (CDS) region was 1 017 bp, encoding 338 amino acids, which was a non-secretory unstable protein mainly located in nucleus and cytoplasm. Tissue expression profile showed that ZFP36L1 gene was expressed in all selected tissues. In visceral tissues, the small intestine showed the highest expression level (P < 0.01). In muscle tissue, the highest expression level was presented in longissimus dorsi muscle (P < 0.01), whereas the expression level in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly higher than that in other tissues (P < 0.01). The results of induced differentiation showed that the expression of this gene was up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of intramuscular precursor adipocytes (P < 0.01). These data may help to clarify the biological function of the ZFP36L1 gene in goat.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Liver , Cloning, Molecular
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 642-648, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970533

ABSTRACT

Wurfbainia villosa fruit is rich in volatile terpenoids, among which pinene is one of the main components and has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-tumor, and other pharmacological activities. This research group found that W. villosa fruits were rich in α-pinene by GC-MS, and terpene synthase(WvTPS63, formerly known as AvTPS1) with β-pinene as the main product was cloned and identified, but α-pinene synthase had not been identified. In this study, based on the genome data of W. villosa, we screened and found WvTPS66 with highly similar sequences to WvTPS63, identified enzyme functions of WvTPS66 in vitro, and performed a comparative analysis of sequence, catalytic function, expression pattern, and promoter with WvTPS63. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the amino acid sequences of WvTPS63 and WvTPS66 were highly similar and the conservative motif of terpene synthase was almost identical. In vitro enzymatic experiments on catalytic functions showed that both could produce pinene, and the main product of WvTPS63 was β-pinene, while that of WvTPS66 was α-pinene. Expression pattern analysis showed that WvTS63 was highly expressed in flowers, WvTPS66 was expressed in the whole plant, and the highest expression level was found in the pericarp, which indicated that it might be mainly responsible for the synthesis of α-pinene in fruits. In addition, promoter analysis revealed the presence of multiple regulatory elements related to stress response in the promoter regions of both genes. The findings of this study can provide a reference for the functional study of terpene synthase genes and new genetic elements for pinene biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Terpenes , Amino Acid Sequence , Anti-Bacterial Agents
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 653-669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970398

ABSTRACT

Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of phycocyanidins. In this experiment, the petals of red Rhododendron hybridum Hort. at different developmental stages were used as experimental materials. The R. hybridum flavanone 3-hydroxylase (RhF3H) gene was cloned using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, and bioinformatics analyses were performed. Petal RhF3H gene expression at different developmental stages were analyzed by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A pET-28a-RhF3H prokaryotic expression vector was constructed for the preparation and purification of RhF3H protein. A pCAMBIA1302-RhF3H overexpression vector was constructed for genetic transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The results showed that the R. hybridum Hort. RhF3H gene is 1 245 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1 092 bp, encoding 363 amino acids. It contains a Fe2+ binding motif and a 2-ketoglutarate binding motif of the dioxygenase superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. hybridum RhF3H protein is most closely related to the Vaccinium corymbosum F3H protein. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of the red R. hybridum RhF3H gene tended to increase and then decrease in the petals at different developmental stages, with the highest expression at middle opening stage. The results of the prokaryotic expression showed that the size of the induced protein of the constructed prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a-RhF3H was about 40 kDa, which was similar to the theoretical value. Transgenic RhF3H Arabidopsis thaliana plants were successfully obtained, and PCR identification and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining demonstrated that the RhF3H gene was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana plants. qRT-PCR, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contentanalysis showed that RhF3H was significantly higher expressed in the transgenic A. thaliana relative to that of the wild type, and its total flavonoid and anthocyanin content were significantly increased. This study provides a theoretical basis for investigating the function of RhF3H gene, as well as for studying the molecular mechanism of flower color in R. simsiib Planch.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Rhododendron/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Anthocyanins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Flavonoids/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 177-191, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970367

ABSTRACT

Self-assembly refers to the spontaneous process where basic units such as molecules and nanostructured materials form a stable and compact structure. Peptides can self-assemble by non-covalent driving forces to form various morphologies such as nanofibers, nano layered structures, and micelles. Peptide self-assembly technology has become a hot research topic in recent years due to the advantages of definite amino acid sequences, easy synthesis and design of peptides. It has been shown that the self-assembly design of certain peptide drugs or the use of self-assembled peptide materials as carriers for drug delivery can solve the problems such as short half-life, poor water solubility and poor penetration due to physiological barrier. This review summarizes the formation mechanism of self-assembled peptides, self-assembly morphology, influencing factors, self-assembly design methods and major applications in biomedical field, providing a reference for the efficient use of peptides.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Peptides/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Nanostructures/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 847-850, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical feature and genetic etiology of a patient with normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH) due to variant of CHD7 gene.@*METHODS@#A patient who had presented at Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital in October 2022 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the patient was collected. The patient and his parents were subjected to trio-whole exome sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient had featured delayed development of secondary sexual characteristics but normal olfactory function. Genetic testing revealed that he has harbored a c.3052C>T (p.Pro1018Ser) missense variant of the CHD7 gene, for which both of his parents were of the wild type. The variant has not been recorded in the PubMed and HGMD databases. Analysis of amino acid sequences suggested that the variant site is highly conserved, and the variant may affect the stability of protein structure. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the c.3032C>T variant was classified as a likely pathogenic (PS2+PM2_Supporting+PP2+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The delayed development of secondary sexual characteristics of the patient may be attributed to the c.3052C>T (p.Pro1018Ser) variant of the CHD7 gene. Above finding has expanded the variation spectrum of the CHD7 gene.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Amino Acid Sequence , Computational Biology , DNA Helicases/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Genetic Testing , Genomics , Hypogonadism/genetics , Mutation
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2806-2817, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981234

ABSTRACT

Polygonum cuspidatum polyketide synthase 1 (PcPKS1) has the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS) and benzylidene acetone synthase (BAS), which can catalyze the production of polyketides naringenin chalcone and benzylidene acetone, and then catalyze the synthesis of flavonoids or benzylidene acetone. In this study, three amino acid sites (Thr133, Ser134, Ser33) that may affect the function of PcPKS1 were identified by analyzing the sequences of PcPKS1, the BAS from Rheum palmatum and the CHS from Arabidopsis thaliana, as well as the conformation of the catalytic site of the enzyme. Molecular modification of PcPKS1 was carried out by site-directed mutagenesis, and two mutants were successfully obtained. The in vitro enzymatic reactions were carried out, and the differences in activity were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally, mutants T133LS134A and S339V with bifunctional activity were obtained. In addition to bifunctional activities of BAS and CHS, the modified PcPKS1 had much higher BAS activity than that of the wild type PcPKS1 under the conditions of pH 7.0 and pH 9.0, respectively. It provides a theoretical basis for future use of PcPKS1 in genetic engineering to regulate the biosynthesis of flavonoids and raspberry ketones.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Fallopia japonica/metabolism , Polyketide Synthases/chemistry , Acetone , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Flavonoids/metabolism , Acyltransferases/metabolism
9.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 515-527, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939823

ABSTRACT

PiggyBac is a transposable DNA element originally discovered in the cabbage looper moth (Trichoplusia ni). The T. ni piggyBac transposon can introduce exogenous fragments into a genome, constructing a transgenic organism. Nevertheless, the comprehensive analysis of endogenous piggyBac-like elements (PLEs) is important before using piggyBac, because they may influence the genetic stability of transgenic lines. Herein, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of PLEs in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), and identified a total of 28 PLE sequences. All N. lugens piggyBac-like elements (NlPLEs) were present as multiple copies in the genome of BPH. Among the identified NlPLEs, NlPLE25 had the highest copy number and it was distributed on five chromosomes. The full length of NlPLE25 consisted of terminal inverted repeats and sub-terminal inverted repeats at both terminals, as well as a single open reading frame transposase encoding 546 amino acids. Furthermore, NlPLE25 transposase caused precise excision and transposition in cultured insect cells and also restored the original TTAA target sequence after excision. A cross-recognition between the NlPLE25 transposon and the piggyBac transposon was also revealed in this study. These findings provide useful information for the construction of transgenic insect lines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals, Genetically Modified , DNA Transposable Elements/genetics , Hemiptera/genetics , Transposases/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4587-4600, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970333

ABSTRACT

Ultrashort peptides have higher stability, tissue penetrability, biocompatibility, and less immunogenicity, and are widely applied in biology and medicine. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) and GQPR (glycyl-l-glutamyl-l-prolyl-l-arginine) can stimulate collagen renewal and inhibit collagen degradation. GHK and GQPR have been used in cosmetic anti-wrinkle skincare and make-up products. The most common approach for ultrashort peptide production is the solid-phase synthesis, which is eco-unfriendly due to heavy usage of organic chemical reagents during the manufacturing process. Here we report a new approach to the production of ultrashort peptides. Recombinant expression of ultrashort peptides is usually unfeasible because of the short amino acid sequences. A vector pET28a-Trxm harboring the thioredoxin gene was first constructed for subsequent fusion expression. The tandem repeats of GHK and GQPR genes were used as the templates for rolling circle amplification (RCA). The RCA reaction was tuned to incorporate noncanonical nucleotides 5-methylcytosine to obtain long DNA fragments. Gene sequences with various lengths were generated through double digestion of Acc65 Ⅰ and Apa Ⅰ. The resulting digestion products were gel recovered by size (from 500 bp to 1 500 bp) and cloned into pET28a-Trxm to obtain the recombinant vector pET28a-Trxm-(TRSP)n. The pET28a-Trxm-(TRSP)n was introduced into E. coli BL21(DE3) to generate a library of Trxm-(TRSP)n sequences with a controlled distribution of lengths. Through double digestion and sequencing, positive clones with tandem repeats n=1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 were obtained. Protein expression results showed protein bands with corresponding molecular weight, and the protein expression level decreased as the tandem repeats increased. The expression level of Trxm-(TRSP)1 achieved 50% of the total protein, while the expression level of Trxm-(TRSP)2 was 30% of the total protein. The crude extracts from cell pellets were further treated with enterokinase cleavage, and the supernatants containing (TRSP)1 were collected after ultrafiltration and then subjected to trypsin cleavage. HPLC analysis indicated that the ultrashort peptides GHK and GQPR were successfully obtained through two-step cleavage. This study may facilitate the commercial production of ultrashort peptides.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/metabolism , Peptides/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Gene Library , Tandem Repeat Sequences
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 505-509, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To characterize a novel HLA allele, A*24:191, its DNA sequence, MHC modeling structure, and the possible influence of the amino-acid residue variations on the molecule.@*METHODS@#The HLA sequence was determined by Luminex PCR-SSO and PCR-SBT. Its MHC molecular structure and the possible effects of the amino-acid residue variations were modeled and analyzed with Phyre2, RCSB PDB and HistoCheck software.@*RESULTS@#The PCR-SBT revealed the novel A*24:191 differs from A*24:02 in exon 2 at position 256, 265, 270 with G>C, G>C, A>T. The MHC molecular structure prediction showed that, compared with A*24:02, the 62nd residue of A*24:191 changed from the acidic E to a neutral Q, both with the side chain extending outside the α helix pointing forward the groove, (Risler's score, R=2), the 65th changed from the smaller neutral G extending inside the helix to a basic R with a long-chain extending upward outside the helix (R=52), and the 66th changed from the basic K to a neutral N both with a long side chain extending inside the groove (R=31). The above residues are located on the α helix of the α 1 domain which constituting the side wall of the peptide-binding groove. The DSS Score=3.85. From the surface image of the molecule, it can be clearly seen that the variations of the properties, sizes and configurations of the residues caused significant changes in the shape of the surface structure of the α helix.@*CONCLUSION@#It suggested that the residue variations are likely to change the peptide binding properties as well as the TCR and antibody binding characteristics of the molecule.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Amino Acid Sequence , HLA-A Antigens , Peptides , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 412-418, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927983

ABSTRACT

Farnesyl diphosphate synthase(FPPS) is a key enzyme at the branch point of the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway, but there are no reports on the transcriptional regulation of FPPS promoter in Pogostemon cabin. In the early stage of this study, we obtained the binding protein PcFBA-1 of FPPS gene promoter in P. cabin. In order to explore the possible mechanism of PcFBA-1 involved in the regulation of patchouli alcohol biosynthesis, this study performed PCR-based cloning and sequencing analysis of PcFBA-1, analyzed the expression patterns of PcFBA-1 in different tissues by fluorescence quantitative PCR and its subcellular localization using the protoplast transformation system, detected the binding of PcFBA-1 protein to the FPPS promoter in vitro with the yeast one-hybrid system, and verified its transcriptional regulatory function by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. The findings demonstrated that the cloned PcFBA-1 had an open reading frame(ORF) of 1 131 bp, encoding a protein of 376 amino acids, containing two conserved domains named F-box-like superfamily and FBA-1 superfamily, and belonging to the F-box family. Moreover, neither signal peptide nor transmembrane domain was contained, implying that it was an unstable hydrophilic protein. In addition, as revealed by fluorescence quantitative PCR results, PcFBA-1 had the highest expression in leaves, and there was no significant difference in expression in roots or stems. PcFBA-1 protein was proved mainly located in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, yeast one-hybrid screening and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay showed that PcFBA-1 was able to bind to FPPS promoter both in vitro and in vivo to enhance the activity of FPPS promoter. In summary, this study identifies a new transcription factor PcFBA-1 in P. cabin, which directly binds to the FPPS gene promoter to enhance the promoter activity. This had laid a foundation for the biosynthesis of patchouli alcohol and other active ingre-dients and provided a basis for metabolic engineering and genetic improvement of P. cabin.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Geranyltranstransferase/genetics , Pogostemon , Transcription Factors/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1209-1217, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927775

ABSTRACT

Recombinant HLA-Ⅰ molecules/antigenic peptide complexes (pHLA complexes) are applied in the research of human T cell-specific immune responses. The preparation of pHLA complex is based on genetic engineering and protein in vitro dilution and folding-refolding technology. In an in vitro refolding system, recombinant HLA-Ⅰ molecules correctly fold and bind with antigenic peptides to form complexes. In this study, ultrafiltration-high performance liquid chromatography (ultrafiltration-HPLC) was used for quantitative determination of the antigenic peptides in recombinant pHLA complexes, especially for those in a small amount of prepared products. By adding the recombinant HLA-Ⅰ molecules and antigenic peptides into the refolding buffer, the heavy chain (HC) and light chain (β2m) of recombinant HLA-Ⅰ molecules were refolded and bond with the VYF antigenic peptide containing anchor residues to form a pHLA complex. The unbound free antigenic peptide VYF was removed by ultrafiltration to retain the complex. Finally, the pHLA complex was treated by acid to destroy its interaction, thus releasing the antigenic peptide. The results showed that the prepared recombinant pHLA complex was recognized by HLA-Ⅰ molecule specific antibody W6/32, which indicated that the recombinant HLA-Ⅰ class molecule had correct folding and was identified as pHLA complex. The antigen peptide VYF contained in the pHLA complex was also detected by ultrafiltration-HPLC, so it is feasible to apply ultrafiltration-HPLC for determination of pHLA complex. Compared with Western blotting, the concentration of antigenic peptides detected by ultrafiltration-HPLC was 0-9 μg/mL. The binding conditions can be optimized according to the amount of antigenic peptides bound in the complex in order to improve the folding efficiency of HLA-Ⅰ molecules and promote the binding of HLA-Ⅰ molecules to antigenic peptides. The production rate of pHLA complexes in the refolding system can also be calculated according to the content of antigenic peptides bound by pHLA complexes. Therefore, ultrafiltration-HPLC in this study can be used for the quality control of the preparation process of pHLA complexes, and may facilitate the research of T cell-specific immunity, artificial antigen-presenting cells, and development of specific tetramer probe applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Antigens , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Peptides/chemistry , Ultrafiltration
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 374-385, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927717

ABSTRACT

Phenylalaninammo-nialyase (PAL) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of methyl benzoate - a plant aroma compound. In order to understand the function of this enzyme in the formation of fragrance in the scented Rhododendron species-Rhododendron fortunei, we cloned a gene encoding this enzyme and subsequently examined the gene expression patterns and the profile of enzyme activity during development in various tissues. The full length of RhPAL gene was cloned by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The expression levels of RhPAL gene were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and the amount of phenylalanine and cinnamic acid were assayed with LC-MS. The results showed that the ORF sequence of RhPAL gene amplified from the cDNA templates of flower buds had 2 145 bp, encoding 715 amino acids, and shared 90% homology to the PAL amino acid sequences from other species. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of RhPAL in petals during flowering kept in rising even until the flowers wilted. The expression of RhPAL in pistil was much higher than that in stamen, while the expression in the younger leaves was higher than in old leaves. However, the expression level was relatively lower in petal and stamen compared to that in leaves. We also measured the PAL activity by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay in the petals of flowers at different flowering stages. The results showed that PAL activity reached the highest at the bud stage and then decreased gradually to the lowest when the flowers wilted, which followed a similar trend in the emission of the flower fragrance. The phenylalanine and cinnamic acid contents measured by LC-MS were highly correlated to the expression level of RhPAL in various tissues and at different flowering stages, implying that RhPAL plays an important role in the formation of the flower fragrance. This work may facilitate the breeding and improvement of new fragrant Rhododendron cultivars.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Flowers/genetics , Rhododendron/genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 174-184, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927702

ABSTRACT

Natural antimicrobial peptides have strong bactericidal activities. An obstacle of the development of antimicrobial peptides resides in the difficulty of developing peptides with high biocompatibility. In this study, molecular dynamics analysis was employed to assess the structural characteristics and biological activities of peptides. A (RXKY)2(YRY)2 structure was used as a template to design an antimicrobial peptide RIKL of high-efficiency and low-toxicity, where X represents Ile and Y represents Leu. The secondary structure of the antimicrobial peptide was detected by circular dichroism (CD), and the structures of RIKL in water and in POPC/POPG membrane environment were measured using molecular dynamics. The biological activity of RIKL was further studied by assessing its antimicrobial activity, hemolytic activity, eukaryotic cytotoxicity, and salt ion stability. CD results showed that RIKL presented an α-helical structure in a simulated bacterial membrane environment. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted that the secondary structure of RIKL could be partly retained in water and POPG environment, while this secondary structure was weakened in the POPC environment. Antimicrobial test suggested that RIKL had high antimicrobial activities, and the geometric mean of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 3.1 μmol/L. The hemolysis indicated that RIKL had no hemolytic activity within the detection range, and cytotoxicity test suggested the cytotoxicity of RIKL was low. Stability test showed that RIKL maintained antimicrobial activities under different pH, serum concentrations and salt environments. Based on the above results, RIKL has high cell selectivity and has the potential as a highly effective antibacterial drug.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Antimicrobial Peptides/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Protein Structure, Secondary
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 516-525, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serine protease inhibitors (serpins), a superfamily of protease inhibitors, are known to be involved in several physiological processes, such as development, metamorphosis, and innate immunity. In our study, a full-length serpin cDNA, designated Haserpin1, was isolated from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. The cDNA sequence of Haserpin1 is 1176 nt long, with an open reading frame encoding 391 amino acids; there is one exon and no intron. The predicted molecular weight of Haserpin1 is 43.53 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 4.98. InterProScan was employed for Haserpin1 functional characterization, which revealed that Haserpin1 contains highly conserved signature motifs, including a reactive center loop (RCL) with a hinge region (E341-N350), the serpin signature, (F367-F375) and a predicted P1-P1′ cleavage site (L357-S358), which are useful for identifying serpins. Transcripts of Haserpin1 were constitutively expressed in the fat body, suggesting that it is the major site for serpin synthesis. During the developmental stages, a fluctuation in the expression level of Haserpin1 was observed, with low expression detected at the 5th-instar larval stage. In contrast, relatively high expression was detected at the prepupal stage, suggesting that Haserpin1 might play a critical role at the H. armigera wandering stage. Although the detailed function of this serpin (Haserpin1) needs to be elucidated, our study provides a perspective for the functional investigation of serine protease inhibitor genes.


Resumo Sabe-se que os inibidores de serina protease (serpinas), uma superfamília de inibidores de protease, estão envolvidos em vários processos fisiológicos, como desenvolvimento, metamorfose e imunidade inata. Neste estudo, um cDNA de serpina de comprimento total, denominado Haserpin1, foi isolado da lagarta Helicoverpa armigera na cultura de algodão. A sequência de ADNc de Haserpin1 tem 1.176 nt de comprimento, com uma grelha de leitura aberta que codifica 391 aminoácidos; existe um éxon, mas nenhum íntron. O peso molecular previsto de Haserpin1 é de 43,53 kDa, com um ponto isoelétrico de 4,98. O InterProScan foi empregado para a caracterização funcional do Haserpin1, que revelou que o Haserpin1 contém motivos de assinatura altamente conservados, incluindo um loop central reativo (RCL) com uma região de dobradiça (E341-N350), a assinatura da serpina (F367-F375) e um local de clivagem previsto de P1-P1' (L357-S358), que são úteis para identificar serpinas. As transcrições de Haserpin1 foram expressas constitutivamente no corpo gordo, sugerindo que é o principal local para a síntese de serpinas. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento, observou-se uma flutuação no nível de expressão de Haserpin1, com baixa expressão detectada no estágio larval do 5º ínstar. Por outro lado, detectou-se uma expressão relativamente alta no estágio pré-pupal, sugerindo que o Haserpin1 pode desempenhar um papel crítico no estágio errante de H. armigera. Embora a função detalhada dessa serpina (Haserpin1) precise ser elucidada, este estudo fornece uma perspectiva para a investigação funcional dos genes inibidores da serina protease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Serpins/genetics , Lepidoptera/genetics , Moths/genetics , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Larva/genetics
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e000421, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251386

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anaplasma marginale is a vector-borne pathogen that causes a disease known as anaplasmosis. No sequenced genomes of Brazilian strains are yet available. The aim of this work was to compare whole genomes of Brazilian strains of A. marginale (Palmeira and Jaboticabal) with genomes of strains from other regions (USA and Australia strains). Genome sequencing of Brazilian strains was performed by means of next-generation sequencing. Reads were mapped using the genome of the Florida strain of A. marginale as a reference sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (INDELs) were identified. The data showed that two Brazilian strains grouped together in one particular clade, which grouped in a larger American group together with North American strains. Moreover, some important differences in surface proteins between the two Brazilian isolates can be discerned. These results shed light on the evolutionary history of A. marginale and provide the first genome information on South American isolates. Assessing the genome sequences of strains from different regions is essential for increasing knowledge of the pan-genome of this bacteria.


Resumo Anaplasma marginale é um patógeno transmitido por vetores que causam uma doença conhecida como anaplasmose. Até a presente data, não há genomas sequenciados de cepas brasileiras. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o genoma completo das cepas brasileiras de A. marginale (Palmeira e Jaboticabal) com os genomas de cepas de outras regiões (cepas dos EUA e Austrália). As sequências dos genomas das cepas brasileiras foram obtidas mediante sequenciamento de nova geração. As "reads" foram mapeadas usando-se como referência o genoma de A. marginale da cepa Florida. Foram identificados polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) e analisadas inserções/deleções (INDELs). As duas linhagens brasileiras se agruparam em um clado particular que, por sua vez, agrupou-se em um grupo maior junto com as linhagens norte-americanas. Além disso, foram identificadas diferenças significativas nas proteínas de superfície entre os dois isolados brasileiros. Esses resultados lançam luz sobre a história evolutiva de A. marginale e fornecem as primeiras informações de genomas de isolados sul-americanos. Avaliar as sequências de genomas de cepas de diferentes regiões é essencial para aumentar o conhecimento do pan-genoma dessa bactéria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle Diseases , Anaplasma marginale/genetics , Anaplasmosis , Phylogeny , Brazil , Cattle , Amino Acid Sequence , Genomics
18.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 540-544, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888783

ABSTRACT

A large number of protease inhibitors have been found from leeches, which are essential in various physiological and biological processes. In the curret study, a novel elastase inhibitor was purified and characterized from the leech of Hirudinaria manillensis, which was named HMEI-A. Primary structure analysis showed that HMEI-A belonged to a new family of proteins. HMEI-A exerted inhibitory effects on elastase and showed potent abilities to inhibit elastase with an inhibition constant (K


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Leeches/chemistry , Pancreatic Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Proteins
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4395-4402, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888138

ABSTRACT

Stolon is an important organ for reproduction and regeneration of Amana edulis. Previous analysis of transcriptome showed that MYB was one of the most active transcription factor families during the development of A. edulis stolon. In order to study the possible role of MYB transcription factors in stolon development, the authors screened out an up-regulated MYB gene named AeMYB4 was by analyzing the expression profile of MYB transcription factors. In the present study, sequence analysis demonstrated that AeMYB4 contained an open reading frame of 756 bp encoding 251 amino acids, and domain analysis revealed that the predicted amino acids sequence contained two highly conserved SANT domains and binding sites for cold stress factor CBF. By multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it is indicated that AeMYB4 clustered with AtMYB15 from Arabidopsis thaliana, belonging to subgroup S2 of R2 R3-MYB. And most of the transcription factors in this subfamily are related to low temperature stress. The GFP-AeMYB4 fusion protein expression vector for subcellular localization was constructed and transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens to infect the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, and the results showed the protein was located in the nucleus. To investigate the transcriptional activation, the constructed pGBKT7-AeMYB4 fusion expression vector was transferred into Y2 H Gold yeast cells, which proved that AeMYB4 was a transcription activator with strong transcriptional activity. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of AeMYB4 gene in three different development stages of stolon and in leaves, flowers, and bulbs of A. edulis, which indicated that AeMYB4 transcription factor was tissue-specific in expression, mainly in the stolon development stage, and that the expression was the most active in the middle stage of stolon development, suggesting that AeMYB4 gene may play an important role in stolon development. This study contributes to the further research on the function of AeMYB4 transcription factor in stolon development of A. edulis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2890-2902, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887851

ABSTRACT

The evolution, structure and antigenic epitopes prediction of Rana dybowskii antimicrobial peptide dybowskin-1ST were carried out using bioinformatics software available online. Its antibacterial mechanism and structural properties were analyzed, and its activity was verified by applying wound healing assay in mice and bacteriostatic assay in vitro. This provides the theoretical basis for the improvement of parental peptide and the development of novel derivative peptides. The software MEGA_X were used to conduct homology alignment and to construct a phylogenetic tree. The online software ProtParam, ProtScale, PeptideCutter, signal, TMHMM Server were respectively used to predict the physicochemical parameters, hydrophilia/hydrophobicity, shear sites, signal peptides, and transmembrane domains of dybowskin-1ST. The online software SOPMA, Jpred4, DNAstar Protean were used to predict the secondary structure of dybowskin-1ST, and SWISS-MODEL, I-TASSER were used to predict the tertiary structure. ABCpred and SYFPEITHI were respectively used to predict its B-and T-cell epitopes. The effect of dybowskin-1ST on the wound healing was observed on experimental mice. Kirby-Bauer method and dilution method were used to determine the bacteriostatic activity of dybowskin-1ST. The dybowskin-1ST consists of 59 amino acid residues, of which leucine accounts for 16.9%, with a molecular formula of C₃₁₈H₅₁₀N₈₀O₉₃S₂. Its theoretical isoelectric point is 5.10 and the charge is -2. The dybowskin-1ST and dybowskin-1CDYa are closely related phylogenetically. The secondary structure of dybowskin-1ST predicted by the three methods were similar, which consisted of α-helix (44.07%), extended strand (16.95%), β-turns (3.39%), and random coil (35.39%). The prediction of tertiary structure showed that dybowskin-1ST was mainly composed of α-helix, and it was regarded as a hydrophilic protein with signal peptide sequence. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the probability of secreting the mitochondrial targeted peptides was 0.944. Dybowskin-1ST is an extracellular protein with no transmembrane structure region, but contains seven phosphorylation sites, three T-cell epitopes and eight B-cell epitopes. The dybowskin-1ST promoted wound healing and effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, it had limited antibacterial activity against fungi and drug-resistant bacteria. Although the structure of dybowskin-1ST is rich in α-helix, the verification experiments showed that its antibacterial ability needs to be enhanced. The reason may be that it is a negatively charged and hydrophilic protein, and amino acid modification with the aim of increasing the number of positive charges and changing the hydrophobicity may be used to obtain derived peptides with enhanced activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Amino Acid Sequence , Phylogeny , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins , Protein Structure, Secondary , Ranidae
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