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1.
Singapore medical journal ; : 9-15, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007298

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#A previous prospective, randomised controlled trial showed that animated videos shown to children before magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan reduced the proportion of children needing repeated MRI sequences and improved confidence of the children staying still for at least 30 min. Children preferred the interactive video. We hypothesised that the interactive video is non-inferior to showing two videos (regular and interactive) in improving children's cooperativeness during MRI scans.@*METHODS@#In this Institutional Review Board-approved prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial, 558 children aged 3-20 years scheduled for elective MRI scan from June 2017 to March 2019 were randomised into the interactive video only group and combined (regular and interactive) videos group. Children were shown the videos before their scan. Repeated MRI sequences, general anaesthesia (GA) requirement and improvement in confidence of staying still for at least 30 min were assessed.@*RESULTS@#In the interactive video group ( n = 277), 86 (31.0%) children needed repeated MRI sequences, two (0.7%) needed GA and the proportion of children who had confidence in staying still for more than 30 min increased by 22.1% after the video. In the combined videos group ( n = 281), 102 (36.3%) children needed repeated MRI sequences, six (2.1%) needed GA and the proportion of children who had confidence in staying still for more than 30 min increased by 23.2% after the videos; the results were not significantly different between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#The interactive video group demonstrated non-inferiority to the combined videos group.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Young Adult , Anesthesia, General , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Simulation Training , Video Recording
2.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 764-768, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Propofol is a widely used anesthetic and its dose is closely related to aging. Telomere length (TL) is a unique heritable trait, and emerging as a biomarker of aging, health and disease. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) plays an important role in maintaining TL. We proposed a hypothesis that propofol dose in general anesthesia can be predicted by measuring TL before operation, which greatly reduced the risk of anesthesia, especially the elderly. Methods: The association between the propofol dose in anesthesia induction and: TL in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes; body weight; sex; difference of the Bispectral Index (BIS) before and after anesthesia induction in patients was evaluated by multivariable linear regression analyses. The mutation at the 5'end or 3'end of TERC was detected. We recruited 100 patients of elective surgery. Results: We found that propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated significantly with TL (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p= 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p = 0.004), and difference of BIS before and after anesthesia induction (r = 0.85, p = 0.029). By comparing the absolute values of standardized regression coefficients (0.58, 0.21, 0.19, and 0.12) of the four variables, it can be seen that TL contributes the most to the propofol dose in anesthesia induction. However, the mutation at the 5' end or 3' end of TERC was not found. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that the propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated with genetically determined TL. TL may be a promising predictor of the propofol dose, which is beneficial to improve the safety of anesthesia and reduce perioperative complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Propofol/pharmacology , Body Weight , DNA , Telomere , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Electroencephalography , Anesthesia, General , Leukocytes
3.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 316-339, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In this systematic review, we carried out an assessment of perioperative costs of local or regional anesthesia versus general anesthesia in the ambulatory setting. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to find relevant data on costs and cost-effectiveness analyses of anesthesia regimens in outpatients, regardless of the medical procedure they underwent. The hypothesis was that local or regional anesthesia has a lower economic impact on hospital costs in the outpatient setting. The primary outcome was the average total cost of anesthesia calculated on perioperative costs (drugs, staff, resources used). Results: One-thousand-six-hundred-ninety-eight records were retrieved, and 28 articles including 27,581 patients were selected after reviewing the articles. Data on the average total costs of anesthesia and other secondary outcomes (anesthesia time, recovery time, time to home readiness, hospital stay time, complications) were retrieved. Taken together, these findings indicated that local or regional anesthesia is associated with lower average total hospital costs than general anesthesia when performed in the ambulatory setting. Reductions in operating room time and postanesthesia recovery time and a lower hospital stay time may account for this result. Conclusions: Despite the limitations of this systematic review, mainly the heterogeneity of the studies and the lack of cost-effectiveness analysis, the economic impact of the anesthesia regimes on healthcare costs appears to be relevant and should be further evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Outpatients , Anesthesia, Conduction , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Anesthesia, General , Length of Stay
4.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 301-304, May-June 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aspiration of gastric contents during induction of general anesthesia remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in anesthesia. Recent data show that pulmonary aspiration still accounts for many cases with implications on mortality despite technical and technological evolution. Practical, ethical, and methodological issues prevent high-quality research in the setting of aspiration and rapid sequence induction/intubation, and significant controversy is ongoing. Patients' position, drugs choice, dosing and timing, use of cricoid force, and a reliable risk assessment are widely debated with significant questions still unanswered. We focus our discussion on three approaches to promote a better understanding of rapid sequence induction/intubation and airway management decision-making. Firstly, we review how we can use qualitative and quantitative assessment of fasting status and gastric content with the point-of-care ultrasound as an integral part of preoperative evaluation and planning. Secondly, we propose using imaging-based mathematical models to study different patient positions and aspiration mechanisms, including identifying aspiration triggers. Thirdly, we promote the development of a global data collection system aiming to obtain precise epidemiological data. Therefore, we fill the gap between evidence-based medicine and experts' opinion through easily accessible and diffused computer-based databases. A better understanding of aspiration epidemiology obtained through focused global data gathering systems, the widespread use of ultrasound-based prandial status evaluation, and development of advanced mathematical models might potentially guide safer airway management decision making in the 21st century.


Subject(s)
Humans , Airway Management , Anesthesia, General , Incidence , Data Collection , Mathematics
5.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 291-300, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439618

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Increasing abdominal pressures could affect pulmonary compliance and cardiac performance, a fact based on which the aim of the present study to detect the cardiopulmonary burden of multiple retractors application during supine versus lateral abdominal surgeries. We hypothesized that surgical ring multiple retractors application would affect the pulmonary and cardiac functions during both lateral and supine abdominal surgeries. Methods: Prospective observational comparative study on forty surgical patients subdivided into two groups twenty each, comparing pulmonary compliance and cardiac performance before, during and after retractors application, group (S) supine position cystectomy surgery, and group (L) lateral position nephrectomy surgery under general anesthesia, Composite 1ry outcome; dynamic compliance C-dyn and cardiac index CI and Other outcome variables ICON cardio-meter were also recorded. Results: C-dyn and C-stat were significantly decreased late during retractor application in lateral compared to supine surgery with significant decrease compared to basal values all over the surgical time. CI was significantly increased after retractor removal in both of the study groups compared to basal values. PAW P was significantly increased in -lateral compared to supine surgery -with significant increase compared to basal value all over the surgical time in both of the study groups. significant increase in DO2I compared to basal value during both supine and lateral positions. Conclusion: Surgical retraction results in a short-lived significant decreases in lung compliance and cardiac output particularly during the lateral-kidney position than the supine position compliance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdomen/surgery , Anesthesia, General/methods , Cardiac Output , Lung Compliance , Supine Position
6.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 91-100, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420641

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Postoperative cough may occur after tracheal intubation, but it is indistinct which drug is best at diminishing these events. Additionally, airway reflexes are commonly accompanied by severe hemodynamics responses during emergence. Objectives To evaluate the role of topical airway anesthesia on immediate post-extubation cough/bucking and extubation time. Methods Randomized clinical trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS published until December 23, 2020 were included. Our primary outcome was postoperative cough/bucking incidence which was compared between local anesthetics and controls. Extubation times were likewise considered. Predisposition appraisal and subgroup, affectability investigations were likewise performed. Results The pooled analysis found a 45% reduction in cough incidence after treatment with topical airway local anesthetic (RR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.72; p< 0.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 4.61. The intervention showed no differences in reduction of the extubation time (mean difference = -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.28; p= 0.49). Conclusion Topical airway anesthesia demonstrated better than placebo or no medication in reducing immediate post-extubation cough/bucking. Further studies could have this objective to combine the different ways to perform better outcomes for patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cough/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal , Postoperative Period , Airway Extubation , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local
8.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 426-433, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447630

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Few trials have examined the efficacy of esmolol to attenuate hemodynamic and respiratory responses during extubation. However, the most appropriate dose of esmolol and an optimal protocol for administering this beta-blocker are uncertain. Methods Ninety patients ASA physical status I, II, and III (aged 18-60 years) scheduled to procedures with general anesthesia and tracheal extubation were selected. Patients were randomized into esmolol and placebo group to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single bolus dose of esmolol (2 mg.kg-1) on cardiorespiratory responses during the peri-extubation period. The primary outcome was the rate of tachycardia during extubation. Results The rate of tachycardia was significantly lower in esmolol-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients (2.2% vs. 48.9%, relative risk (RR): 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.01 to 0.32, p= 0.002). The rate of hypertension was also significantly lower in the esmolol group (4.4% vs. 31.1%, RR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.6, p= 0.004). Esmolol-treated patients were associated with higher extubation quality compared to patients who received placebo (p< 0.001), with an approximately two-fold increase in the rate of patients without cough (91.1%) in the esmolol group compared to the placebo group (46.7%). The rate of bucking was approximately 5-fold lower in the esmolol group (8.9% vs. 44.5%, respectively, RR: 0.20 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.5, p= 0.002, with an NNT of 2.8). Conclusion A single bolus dose of esmolol is an effective and safe therapeutic strategy to attenuate cardiorespiratory responses during the peri-extubation period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Hypertension/ethnology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Tachycardia/ethnology , Tachycardia/prevention & control , Tachycardia/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Heart Rate , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
9.
Montevideo; s.n; 2023. 63 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1518916

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La variación de la velocidad máxima aórtica con la ventilación mecánica (ΔVpeakAo) ha demostrado ser el mejor predictor de respuesta a volumen en pediatría. Existe evidencia en adultos de que la variación de velocidad máxima de flujo carotídeo (ΔVpeakCar) es predictor de respuesta a fluidos. Al momento es escasa la información sobre este índice en pediatría. Su beneficio se basa en la no-invasividad, y que para su medición no es necesaria la ecocardiografía ni el acceso al tórax del paciente. Objetivo. El objetivo general de este trabajo fue estudiar la correlación y la concordancia de ΔVpeakCar con ΔVpeakAo en una población pediátrica bajo ventilación mecánica. Metodología. Se incluyeron pacientes de 0 a 12 años. Se registraron flujos aórtico y carotídeos máximos y mínimos y se calculó ΔVpeakCar y ΔVpeakAo. Para analizar correlación y concordancia entre las variables se utilizó el test de Pearson, análisis de Bland-Altman y análisis de los 4-cuadrantes. Resultados. Se estudiaron 58 pacientes, 13 lactantes (menores 12 meses), 21 preescolares (12-60 meses) y 24 escolares (mayores a 60 meses). Se observó una correlación significativa entre ΔVpeakAo y ΔVpeakCar (r=0,85; p<0,05) con un coeficiente de determinación de r2=0,72. El análisis de Bland-Altman mostró un sesgo del 0,15% (IC95%, -0.7-1.0) con un límite de concordancia del -6,1 a 6,2%. La concordancia fue 85%, con un sesgo angular de 4,5°±31°. El análisis por subgrupos mostró un r2 de 0.89 en escolares, 0.56 en preescolares y 0.45 en lactantes. La concordancia fue de 100% en escolares, 95% en prescolares y 93% en lactantes. Discusión y conclusiones. El registro de ΔVpeakCar fue viable. Al analizar la capacidad de ΔVpeakCar de sustituir a ΔVpeakAo en el total de la muestra, no es buena La correlación y concordancia son mejores en escolares. Es necesario continuar estudiando este nuevo índice.


Introduction. The variation in maximum aortic velocity with mechanical ventilation (ΔVpeakAo) has proven to be the most effective predictor of fluid response in pediatrics. While there is evidence in adults that the variation in maximum carotid flow velocity (ΔVpeakCar) predicts fluid response, information on this index in pediatrics remains limited. Its advantage lies in its non-invasive nature, eliminating the need for echocardiography or thoracic access for recording. Objective. This study aims to examine the correlation and concordance between ΔVpeakCar and ΔVpeakAo in a pediatric population. Methodology. The study included patients aged 0 to 12 years. Maximum and minimum aortic and carotid flows were recorded, and ΔVpeakCar and ΔVpeakAo were calculated. Correlation and agreement between variables were analyzed using the Pearson test, Bland Altman analysis, and 4-quadrant analysis. Results. A total of 58 patients were studied, comprising 13 infants (under 12 months), 21 preschoolers (12-60 months), and 24 school-aged children (over 60 months). A significant correlation was observed between ΔVpeakAo and ΔVpeakCar (r=0.85; p<0.05) with a coefficient of determination, r²=0.72. The Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of 0.15% (95% CI, -0.7-1.0) with an agreement limit of -6.1% to 6.2%. The concordance rate was 85%, with an angular bias of 4.5°±31°. Subgroup analysis showed r² values of 0.89 in school-aged children, 0.56 in preschoolers, and 0.45 in infants. Concordance rates were 100% in school-aged children, 95% in preschoolers, and 93% in infants. Discussion and Conclusions. The measurement of ΔVpeakCar proved feasible. However, when considering its ability to replace ΔVpeakAo, the results are suboptimal. Correlation and concordance are stronger in school-aged children. Further investigation into this new index is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Respiration, Artificial , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Anesthesia, General
10.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 563-569, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520350

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients undergoing elective surgery and its relationship with difficult intubation (DI). Methods: This prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2018 and February 2020 in the anesthesiology and reanimation service of a training and research hospital. The study included patients who were ASA I-II, 18 years of age, and older who underwent elective surgery under general anesthesia. A form regarding the baseline characteristics of the participants as well as STOP-Bang score, Mallampati, and Cormack-Lehane classification was used to collect the data. Results: The study included 307 patients. It was determined that 64.2% of patients had a high risk of OSA. The presence of DI (determined by repeated attempts at intubation) was 28.6% in the high-risk OSA group, while there was no DI in the low-risk OSA group. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of OSA risk according to the presence of DI according to repeated attempts, Cormack-Lehane classification, and Mallampati classification (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Due to the high rate of DI in patients with a high risk of OSA, the security of the airway in these patients is endangered. Early clinical recognition of OSA can help in designing a safer care plan.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Intubation , Elective Surgical Procedures , Preoperative Period , Anesthesia, General
11.
In. Huart Sottolano, Regina Natalia; Biafore, Federico. Imagen por resonancia magnética desde cero: manual para estudiantes y docentes. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro-FEFMUR, c2023. p.39-44, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1437695
12.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 718-726, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the regulatory effects of GABAergic neurons in the zona incerta (ZI) on sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice divided into 8 groups (n=6) were used in this study. In the study of sevoflurane anesthesia, chemogenetic experiment was performed in 2 groups of mice with injection of either adeno-associated virus carrying hM3Dq (hM3Dq group) or a virus carrying only mCherry (mCherry group). The optogenetic experiment was performed in another two groups of mice injected with an adeno-associated virus carrying ChR2 (ChR2 group) or GFP only (GFP group). The same experiments were also performed in mice for studying propofol anesthesia. Chemogenetics or optogenetics were used to induce the activation of GABAergic neurons in the ZI, and their regulatory effects on anesthesia induction and arousal with sevoflurane and propofol were observed; EEG monitoring was used to observe the changes in sevoflurane anesthesia maintenance after activation of the GABAergic neurons.@*RESULTS@#In sevoflurane anesthesia, the induction time of anesthesia was significantly shorter in hM3Dq group than in mCherry group (P < 0.05), and also shorter in ChR2 group than in GFP group (P < 0.01), but no significant difference was found in the awakening time between the two groups in either chemogenetic or optogenetic tests. Similar results were observed in chemogenetic and optogenetic experiments with propofol (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Photogenetic activation of the GABAergic neurons in the ZI did not cause significant changes in EEG spectrum during sevoflurane anesthesia maintenance.@*CONCLUSION@#Activation of the GABAergic neurons in the ZI promotes anesthesia induction of sevoflurane and propofol but does not affect anesthesia maintenance or awakening.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Propofol/pharmacology , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Zona Incerta , Anesthesia, General , GABAergic Neurons
13.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 604-610, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the parental acceptance of dental treatment under general anesthesia and deep sedation in children and assess the changes in postoperative oral health-related quality of life and treatment efficacy.@*METHODS@#The parents of 131 children undergoing dental treatment in the Department of Stomatology of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January, 2022 to June, 2022 were surveyed using a questionnaire of children's advanced oral behavior management, and 83 children receiving general anesthesia or deep sedation for dental treatment between January, 2018 and December, 2021 were also investigated for changes in quality of life after the treatment using a questionnaire. The treatment efficacy was assessed at the 1-year follow-up visit in 149 children who received dental treatment under general anesthesia or deep sedation during the same period.@*RESULTS@#The survey of perantal acceptance showed that 62.6% of the parents preferred deep sedation, 29.01% preferred general anesthesia, and 8.4% preferred compulsory treatment. Dental treatments under general anesthesia and deep sedation both significantly improved oral health-related quality of life of the children. While dental surgeries under general anesthesia resulted in the most significant improvement of pain symptoms, deep sedation was associated with both obvious relief of the children's pain symptoms and reduction of the parents' pressure level. No significant difference was found in the efficacy of treatments under general anesthesia and deep sedation at the 1-year follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Dental treatment in children under deep sedation has the highest parental acceptance, followed by treatment under general anesthesia, and the acceptance of compulsory treatment is the lowest. The treatments under general anesthesia and deep sedation significantly improve the quality of life of the children and their parents and both have good treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Quality of Life , Deep Sedation , Child Behavior , Treatment Outcome , Anesthesia, General , Parents , Pain , Dental Care , Dental Caries
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 206-212, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#With the rapid development of aging population, the number of elderly patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery continues to increase. Lumbar spine surgery could cause moderate to severe postoperative pain, and the conventional opioid-based analgesia techniques have many side effects, which are barriers to the recovery after surgery of the elderly. Previous studies have demonstrated that erector spinae plane block (ESPB) could bring about favorable analgesia in spinal surgery. As far as the elderly are concerned, the analgesic and recovery effects of ESPB on posterior lumbar spine surgery are not completely clear. This study aims to observe the effects of bilateral ESPB on elderly patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery, and to improve the anesthesia techniques.@*METHODS@#A total of 70 elderly patients of both sex, who were selected from May 2020 to November 2021, scheduled for elective posterior lumbar spine surgery, and in the age of 60-79 years, with American Society of Anesthesiologists class Ⅱ-Ⅲ, were divided into a ESPB group and a control (C) group using a random number table method, with 35 patients each. Before general anesthesia induction, 20 mL 0.4% ropivacaine was injected to the transverse process of L3 or L4 bilaterally in the ESPB group and only saline in the C group. The score of Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) indicating pain at rest and on movement within 48 h after operation, time of first patient control analgesia (PCA), cumulative consumptions of sufentanil within 48 hours, Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) scores on the morning of day 1 and day 2 after operation, Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) scores at 24 and 48 h after operation, full diet intake times, perioperative adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, postoperative dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and constipation were compared between the 2 groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 70 patients were enrolled and 62 subjects completed the study, including 32 in the ESPB group and 30 in the C group. Compared with the C group, the postoperative NRS scores at rest at 2, 4, 6, and 12 h and on movementat at 2, 4, and 6 h were lower, time of first PCA was later, sufentanil consumptions were significantly decreased during 0-12 h and 12-24 h after operation, LSEQ scores on the morning of day 1 and QoR-15 scores at 24 and 48 h after operation were higher, full diet intakes achieved earlier in the ESPB group (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidences of intraoperative hypotension, postoperative dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and constipation between the 2 groups (all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Providing favorable analgesic effects with reduced opioids consumption, bilateral ESPB for posterior lumbar spine surgery in the elderly patients could also improve postoperative sleep quality, promote gastrointestinal functional restoration, and enhance recovery with few adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Sufentanil , Dizziness , Pain , Anesthesia, General , Constipation , Hypotension , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Analgesics, Opioid , Ultrasonography, Interventional
15.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 186-189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971294

ABSTRACT

Severe hypokalemia is defined as the concentration of serum potassium lower than 2.5 mmol/L, which may lead to serious arrhythmias and cause mortality. We report an unusual case of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias induced by severe hypokalemia in a patient undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in Peking University Third Hospital due to irregular use of indapamide before operation. Indapamide is a sulfonamide diuretic with vasodilative and calcium antagonistic effects, which enhances sodium delivery to the renal distal tubules resulting in a dose-related increase in urinary potassium excretion and decreases serum potassium concentrations. The electrolyte disorder caused by the diuretic is more likely to occur in the elderly patients, especially those with malnutrition or long-term fasting. Hence, the serum potassium concentration of the patients under indapamide therapy, especially elderly patients, should be monitored carefully. Meanwhile, the potassium concentration measured by arterial blood gas analysis is different from that measured by venous blood or laboratory test. According to the previous research, the concentration of potassium in venous blood was slightly higher than that in arterial blood, and the difference value was 0.1-0.5 mmol/L. This error should be taken into account when rapid intravenous potassium supplementation or reduction of blood potassium level was carried out clinically. In the correction of severe hypokalemia, the standard approach often did not work well for treating severe hypokalemia. The tailored rapid potassium supplementation strategy shortened the time of hypokalemia and was a safe and better treatment option to remedy life-threatening arrhythmias caused by severe hypokalemia with a high success rate. Through the anesthesia management of this case, we conclude that for the elderly patients who take indapamide or other potassium excretion diuretics, the electrolyte concentration and the general volume state of the patients should be comprehensively measured and fully evaluated before operation. It may be necessary for us to reexamine the serum electrolyte concentration before anesthesia induction on the morning of surgery in patients with the history of hypokalemia. For severe hypokalemia detected after anesthesia, central venous cannulation access for individualized rapid potassium supplementation is an effective approach to reverse the life-threatening arrhythmias caused by severe hypokalemia and ensure the safety of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Hypokalemia/complications , Indapamide/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Diuretics/adverse effects , Potassium , Electrolytes/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
16.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 479-483, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981294

ABSTRACT

The role of white matter of brain has always been neglected by scholars.With the development of neuroimaging technology,the role of white matter has attracted increasing attention.Perioperative neurocognitive disorders have been a hot issue in the research on anesthesia,and recent studies have suggested that white matter may be involved in the effects of general anesthetics on cognitive function.This paper reviews the progress in the relationship between white matter,general anesthesia,and cognitive function from clinical practice and research,aiming to provide new ideas for the research on the mechanism.


Subject(s)
White Matter , Cognition , Brain , Neuroimaging , Anesthesia, General
17.
The Philippine Children&rsquo ; s Medical Center Journal;(2): 47-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Emergence delirium is a state of mental confusion and agitation after wakening from anesthesia that may result in traumatic injuries to the child. Limited drugs have been studied or used to prevent this occurrence.@*OBJECTIVE@#To determine the efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine in controlling emergence agitation (EA) in children undergoing surgeries done under general anesthesia compared to placebo or other intravenous anesthetics.@*METHODOLOGY@#This study is a meta-analysis, where published articles were obtained using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials, and Google Scholar up to August 2022. The primary outcome measure includes incidence of emergence delirium while secondary outcomes are postoperative pain and adverse effects comparing lidocaine and other intravenous drugs. The latter includes nausea and vomiting, untoward airway events and local anesthetic toxicity (LAST). Review Manager 5.4 was used for statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#There were a total of 6 articles included for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The overall incidence of emergence agitation (RR=1.03, 95% CI [0.50, 2.13], P=0.94) and adverse events were higher in the Lidocaine group, although the differences were not significant. Subgroup analysis by comparator showed significant increased risk of developing EA with Lidocaine compared to other intravenous drugs (RR=2.06, 95% CI [1.32, 2.32], P=0.002). The risk for developing postoperative pain is decreased with Lidocaine compared to placebo and other drugs.@*CONCLUSION@#Intravenous lidocaine given to children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane increased their risk for emergence delirium, compared to both placebo and other intravenous anesthetics.


Subject(s)
Lidocaine , Emergence Delirium , Child , Pediatrics , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General
18.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 282-286, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TEAS) at Neiguan (PC 6) on general anesthesia under preserving spontaneous breathing in thoracoscopic lobectomy.@*METHODS@#A total of 66 patients of primary lung cancer undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy were divided to an observation group (33 cases, 1 case discontinued) and a control group (33 cases). In the observation group, TEAS at Neiguan (PC 6) was used 30 min before anesthesia induction till the end of surgery. The surgery time, maximum value of partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and minimum value of oxygen saturation (SpO2) of the two groups were recorded. The dosage of propofol, sufentanil, remifentanil and dexmedetomidine were analyzed. Separately, before induction (T0), at the start of surgery (T1), thoracic exploration (T2) and lobectomy (T3), as well as 30 min (T4) and 60 min (T5) after lobectomy, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), serum cortisol (Cor) and norepinephrine (NE) were measured. The time of post anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, ambulation, flatus, chest drainage and the incidence of nausea and vomiting were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The maximum value of PETCO2, the dosage of propofol and remifentanil in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), the minimum value of SpO2 in the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). At T1-T5, the MAP, HR, serum Cor and NE levels in the observation group were all lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The ambulation time, the time for the flatus, chest drainage time, and the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the observation group were all lower than those in the control group (P<0.001, P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#For the general anesthesia under preserving spontaneous breathing in thoracoscopic surgery, TEAS at Neiguan (PC 6) relieves stress response, reduces opioids dosage and promotes postoperative recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Carbon Dioxide , Flatulence , Propofol , Remifentanil , Anesthesia, General , Nausea , Norepinephrine , Electric Stimulation
19.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 731-736, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore lumbar plexus nerve block combined with general anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing hip operation could improve analgesia effect, reduce consumption of analgesics, prevent inflammatory reaction, and avoid postoperative delirium(POD).@*METHODS@#Totally 200 elderly patients underwent hip fracture surgery from February 2020 to September 2021 were selected and were divided into observation group and control group according to different anesthesia methods. There were 97 patients in observation group including 66 males and 33 females; aged (70.23±6.60) years old;body mass index (BMI) was (23.13±1.94) kg·m-2;19 patients with hemi arthroplasty, 46 patients with total hip arthroplasty, and 32 patients with femur intertrochanteric fixation;treated with lumbar plexus block combined with general anesthesia. There were 94 patients in control group, including 66 males and 33 females;aged (68.80±6.24) years old;BMI was (22.88±1.85) kg·m-2;14 patients with hemi arthroplasty, 39 patients with total hip arthroplasty, and 41 patients with femur intertrochanteric fixation;treated with only general anesthesia. Nine patients were separated due to the change of surgical protocol or chronic disease. The incidence of POD at 1, 2 and 3 days after surgery, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score, visual analogue scale (VAS) in resting state, serum inflammatory factors levels [such as C-reactive protein(CRP), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)] at 1 d before operation, 1 and 6 h after surgery, consumption of sufentanil between two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#The incidences of POD in observation group were lower than control group at 1, 2 and 3 days of operation (P<0.05), MMSE score in observation group was higher than that of control group (P<0.05), VAS in observation group was lower than that of control group (P<0.01). The incidences of POD decreased and MMSE score were increaed in both groups day by day (P<0.01). The levels of CRP, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in observation group were lower than that of control group at 1 h after operation (P<0.01). The levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in observation group were lower than that of control group at 6 h after operation (P<0.01), while no statisitical difference in IL-1β between two groups(P>0.05). The consumption of sufentanil in observation group was lower than that of control group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with general anesthesia, lumbar plexus nerve block combined with general anesthesia for the operations of hip fracture in elderly patients has better analgesic effect, has advantages of slight inflammatory reaction, and could decrease consumption of opioid and incidence of POD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Emergence Delirium , Interleukin-6 , Sufentanil , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Hip Fractures/surgery , Anesthesia, General , Inflammation , Lumbosacral Plexus
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e380523, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1429533

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In this study, the aim to assess the combined effects of prone-positioning (PP) and minimal-flow (MF) general anesthesia on regional cerebral oxygenation (RCO) and systemic hemodynamics. Methods: This is a randomized prospective study aiming to evaluate changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic parameters in MF systemic anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery in PP. Patients were randomized to MF or normal-flow (NF) anesthesia. In the operating room, pulse rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), peripheral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (spO2), and right- and left-side RCO (assessed by nearinfrared spectroscopy, NIRS) were measured perioperatively. Results: Overall, 46 patients were included (24 in the MF group and 22 in the NF group). The amount of anesthetic gas consumption was significantly lower in the low-flow (LF) group. In both groups, the mean pulse rate showed a decrease after PP. Before induction, RCO was significantly higher both at the right- and left-sides in the LF group compared to the NF group. This difference continued throughout the operation on the left-side and disappeared 10 min after intubation on the right-side. On the left side, mean RCO decreased after PP in both groups. Conclusion: MF anesthesia in PP did not reduce cerebral oxygenation compared to NF and was safe in terms of systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygenation , Prone Position , Cerebrum/physiology , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Anesthesia, General
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