Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.668
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257070, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360228

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles with a diameter of fewer than 100 nanometers. Two main methods have been utilized in orthodontic therapy to avoid microbial adherence or enamel demineralization. Certain NPs are included in orthodontic adhesives or acrylic resins (fluorohydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, SiO2, TiO2, silver, nanofillers), and NPs (i.e., a thin layer of nitrogen-doped TiO2 on the bracket surfaces) are coated on the surfaces of orthodontic equipment. Although using NPs in orthodontics may open up modern facilities, prior research looked at antibacterial or physical characteristics for a limited period of time, ranging from one day to several weeks, and the limits of in vitro studies must be understood. The long-term effectiveness of nanotechnology-based orthodontic materials has not yet been conclusively confirmed and needs further study, as well as potential safety concerns (toxic effects) associated with NP size.


Nanopartículas (NPs) são partículas insolúveis com diâmetro inferior a 100 nanômetros. Dois métodos principais têm sido utilizados na terapia ortodôntica para evitar a aderência microbiana ou a desmineralização do esmalte: NPs são incluídas em adesivos ortodônticos ou resinas acrílicas (fluoro-hidroxiapatita, fluorapatita, hidroxiapatita, SiO2, TiO2, prata, nanopreenchimentos) e NPs são revestidas nas superfícies de equipamentos ortodônticos, ou seja, uma camada fina de TiO2 dopado com nitrogênio nas superfícies do braquete. Embora o uso de NPs em ortodontia possa tornar acessível modernos recursos, pesquisas anteriores analisaram as características antibacterianas ou físicas por um período limitado de tempo, variando de 24 horas a várias semanas, por isso devem ser compreendidos os limites dos estudos in vitro. A eficácia de longo prazo de materiais ortodônticos com base em nanotecnologia ainda não foi confirmada de forma conclusiva, o que exige mais estudos, bem como potenciais preocupações de segurança (efeitos tóxicos) associadas ao tamanho da NP.


Subject(s)
Orthodontics , Demineralization , Dental Enamel , Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Thymus Plant , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Silver , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244551, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285626

ABSTRACT

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.


Resumo Origanum vulgare tem despertado grande interesse na academia e na indústria farmacêutica devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes, antifúngicas e antitumorais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar o potencial anti-MRSA e avaliações de toxicidade in vivo de O. vulgare. O extrato de O. vulgare foi usado para monitorar a atividade anti-MRSA em camundongos. Após infecção estabelecida por MRSA em camundongos (Mus musculus), o tratamento com O. vulgare foi continuado por 7 dias. As autópsias foram realizadas e o reisolamento, pontuação das lesões grosseiras e carga bacteriana em vários órgãos foram medidos. Além disso, a amostra de sangue foi analisada para ensaios hematológicos. A avaliação da toxicidade do potencial de O. vulgare como medicamento foi feita com 200 mg / kg e 400 mg / kg, avaliando as funções hepática e renal. A carga bacteriana e as lesões graves nos pulmões e no coração foram significativamente baixas em comparação com o controle positivo após o tratamento com O. vulgare. Da mesma forma, os grupos tratados com O. vulgare apresentaram valores hematológicos, de neutrófilos e de TLC semelhantes aos grupos de controle. Aumento de AST, ALP e bilirrubina total juntamente com degeneração hepatocelular marcada e distorção ao redor da veia central, infiltração de células inflamatórias e vacuolização citoplasmática de células hepáticas foram observados em doses mais altas. Conclui-se que o extrato bruto de O. vulgare pode conter metabólitos secundários benéficos e, no futuro, pode ser explorado para a cura de doenças infecciosas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Oils, Volatile , Origanum , Anti-Infective Agents/toxicity , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Liver , Antioxidants
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.


Subject(s)
Cordia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, Liquid , Plant Leaves , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Subject(s)
Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 689-696, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394867

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 16S rDNA gene screening using sonicated fluid from orthopedic implants. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 73 sonicated fluids obtained from patients with infection associated with orthopedic implants. The samples were subjected to conventional culture and molecular testing using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and qPCR for 16S rDNA. The cycle threshold values were used to define a cut-off of the qPCR of the 16S rDNA for negative and positive cultures. Results No statistical differences were observed between the positive and negative culture groups based on the time from the first surgery to infection (p= 0.958), age (p =0.269), or general comorbidities. Nevertheless, a statistical difference was found between the mean duration of antibiotic use before device removal (3.41 versus 0.94; p =0.016). Bacterial DNA was identified in every sample from the sonicated fluids. The median cycle thresholds of the positive and negative cultures were of 25.6 and 27.3 respectively (p< 0.001). As a diagnostic tool, a cycle threshold cut-off of 26.89 demonstrated an area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic of 0.877 (p≤ 0.001). Conclusion The presence of antimicrobial agents for more than 72 hours decreased culture positivity, but did not influence the qPCR results. Despite this, amplification of the 16S rDNA may overestimate infection diagnosis.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a sensibilidade e a especificidade da reação em cadeia de polimerase em tempo real quantitativa (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, qPCR, em inglês) para a triagem do gene rDNA 16S, com a utilização do fluido sonicado de implantes ortopédicos. Métodos Um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado em 73 fluidos sonicados obtidos de pacientes com infecção associada aos implantes ortopédicos. As amostras foram submetidas a cultura convencional e a teste molecular utilizando ionização e dessorção a laser assistida por matriz com espectrometria de massa por tempo de voo (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF MS, em inglês) e qPCR para o gene rDNA 16S. Os valores limiares do ciclo foram usados para definir um ponto de corte para a qPCR do gene rDNA 16S para culturas negativas e positivas. Resultados Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos de cultura positiva e negativa com base no tempo desde a primeira cirurgia até a infecção (p= 0,958), na idade (p= 0,269), ou nas comorbidades em geral. No entanto, uma diferença estatística foi encontrada entre a duração média do uso de antibióticos antes da remoção do dispositivo (3,41 versus 0,94; p= 0,016). O DNA bacteriano foi identificado em todas as amostras dos fluidos sonicados. Os limiares do ciclo médio de culturas positivas e negativas foram de 25,6 e 27,3, respectivamente (p< 0,001). Como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico, um corte do limite do ciclo de 26,89 demonstrou uma área sob a curva da característica de operação do receptor de 0,877 (p ≤ 0,001). Conclusão A presença de agentes antimicrobianos por mais de 72 horas diminuiu a positividade da cultura, mas não influenciou os resultados da qPCR. Apesar disso, a amplificação do rDNA 16S pode sobrestimar o diagnóstico de infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostheses and Implants/microbiology , Sonication , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Infection Control , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Anti-Infective Agents
9.
Hig. aliment ; 36(294): e1055, jan.-jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396534

ABSTRACT

Existe uma preocupação na produção de alimentos com a segurança sanitária desde o processo de cultivo até a sua expedição aos centros comerciais. Uma das maiores contaminações em sementes por suas características físicas e químicas, é a contaminação fúngica devida à acidez e umidade dos frutos. As doenças fúngicas entre elas, antracnose, vassoura de bruxa e podridão parda são consideradas importante doenças em pós colheita, ocorrendo, principalmente, sob condições de alta umidade relativa do ar e temperaturas elevadas (26ºC a 28ºC). Dentre as sementes da região Amazônica, destacam-se sementes de (cacau- Theobroma cacao L., pupunha- Bactris gasipaes, tucumã da Amazonas-Astrocaryum aculeatum), que apresentam problemas de contaminação fúngica durante o sistema de cultivo. Métodos de biocontroles com ação antimicrobiana: bactérias endofíticas, rizobactérias e fungo Trichoderma ssp, entre outros estão sendo estudados para a redução destas contaminações fúngicas em estudos in vitro e no campo. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a utilização de métodos de biocontrole como uma alternativa promissora no manejo de doenças de plantas na fase de pós-colheita, com excelentes resultados em culturas de grande importância econômica. Assim novas alternativas ecologicamente sustentáveis demonstram a possibilidade de os produtos estudados serem utilizados no manejo da antracnose na pós-colheita.(AU)


There is a concern in food production with health security from cultivation process to its dispatch to redistribution centers. One of the biggest contaminations in seeds due to their physical and chemical characteristics, is the fungal contamination due to the acidity and humidity of the fruits. Fungal diseases including anthracnose, bruca's broom and brownrot are considered important diseases in post-harvest, occurring mainly under conditions of high relative humidity and high temperatures (26ºC to 28ºC). Among the seeds of the Amazon region, seeds of de (cacau- Theobroma cacao L., pupunha- Bactris gasipaes, tucumã da Amazonas- Astrocaryum aculeatum ), that present problems fungals contamination during in their growing cultures sistems. Biocontrol methods with antimicrobial action: endophytic bacteria, rhizobacteria and the fungus Trichoderma ssp, among others, are being studied to reduce these fungal contaminations in in vitro and field studies. The objective of this work is to present a bibliographic review on the use of biocontrol methods as an alternative that is promising in the management of plant diseases in the post-harvest phase, with excellent results in crops of great economic importance. Thus, new ecologically sustainable alternatives demonstrate the possibility of the studied products to be used in the management of anthracnose in the post-harvest period.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Mycoses/prevention & control , Brazil , Cacao/microbiology , Review , Arecaceae/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis
10.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(2): 77-83, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1378671

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el impacto de la resistencia antimicrobiana (RAM) generará un aumento de las muertes relacionadas de 10 millones anuales hacia 2050. El 70% de la dispensación de antimicrobianos (ATB) se utiliza en la agroveterinaria y no en salud humana. Es fundamental conocer la portación de RAM en trabajadores de cría de animales y en los animales, para acciones tempranas de salud pública. Métodos: bajo metodología PRISMA se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica en distintas fuentes disponibles hasta octubre de 2020. Se priorizaron revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis, ensayos clínicos y estudios observacionales para determinar la RAM en trabajadores de cría de cerdos. De 990 artículos identificados se incluyeron 8 estudios. Resultados: la tasa de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR) en trabajadores fue mayor que la de la población general. La prevalencia de SAMR fue significativamente mayor en trabajadores en contacto directo con animales y los de granjas de cría intensiva con respecto a los de extensiva. En cerdos, la prevalencia de RAM en cría intensiva fue significativamente mayor que la de los de cría extensiva. También fue significativa la asociación entre el suministro de antibióticos en la cría intensiva y la presencia de RAM. Las granjas de más de 1250 cerdos presentaron mayor prevalencia de RAM (p < 0,001). El fenotipo de SAMR en cerdos, trabajadores y el ambiente fue el mismo. Conclusiones: existe evidencia de asociación entre la producción agrícola de cría intensiva y la RAM en cerdos y trabajadores. No se encontraron estudios de vigilancia epidemiológica en la Argentina en trabajadores de cría de animales. (AU)


Introduction: it is estimated that the impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will generate an increase of 10 million deaths by 2050, being reflected to a greater extent in low-income countries. 70% of the annual use of antimicrobials is concentrated in agroveterinary but not in human health. Considering the presence of AMR in ranchers and agricultural workers is essential for early public health actions. Methods: using the PRISMA methodology, bibliography was searched in different sources until October 2020. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials and observational studies were prioritized to determine AMR in pig workers. Eight studies of the 990 found have been included. Results: the rate of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in farming workers was higher than the general population. MRSA prevalence was significantly higher in workers who reported direct contact with animals. And also in those workers of intensive farms compared to those of extensive farms. The same situation is observed in swines, in which the prevalence of AMR in intensive farming was significantly higher than in extensive farming. The association between the supply of antibiotics in intensive farming workers and the presence of AMR was also significant. Farms with more than 1,250 swines had a higher prevalence of AMR (p<0.001). The MRSA phenotype found in swine, agricultural workers, and the environment was the same. Conclusions: there is scientific evidence of an association between agricultural production in intensive livestock farming and AMR in swine and farming workers. There aren't Argentine studies of epidemiological surveillance in farming workers. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Public Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Observational Studies as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
11.
San Salvador; MINSAL; may. 11, 2022. 47 p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1372447

ABSTRACT

El presente Plan nacional contra la resistencia a los antimicrobianos, tiene como objetivo prevenir las enfermedades infecciosas, asegurando el uso adecuado de los tratamientos con medicamentos eficaces, seguros y de calidad garantizada, que se usen de modo responsable, tanto para el tratamiento de enfermedades infecciosas en humanos y animales, así como para garantizar la producción de alimentos. Este Plan se construye bajo la visión de «Una Salud¼ en el plano internacional, la OMS colabora estrechamente con la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO) y la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE) para proponer soluciones viables a los peligros y riesgos generados por el uso inadecuado de antibióticos en la producción de alimentos de origen animal. En este plan nacional se contempla la participación de diversas instituciones relacionadas con la prestación de servicios de salud, producción de alimentos e instituciones formadoras de recursos humanos en salud, coordinadas todas por la Comisión Nacional contra la Resistencia a Antimicrobianos


This National Plan against antimicrobial resistance aims to prevent infectious diseases, ensuring the proper use of treatments with effective, safe and quality-guaranteed medicines, which are used responsibly, both for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans and animals, as well as to guarantee food production. This Plan is built under the vision of "One Health" at the international level, the WHO collaborates closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) to propose solutions viable to the dangers and risks generated by the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the production of food of animal origin. This national plan contemplates the participation of various institutions related to the provision of health services, food production and training institutions for human resources in health, all coordinated by the National Commission against Antimicrobial Resistance


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Health Services Programming , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Solutions , Therapeutics , Health , El Salvador , Food
12.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022202, 06 abr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363542

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tigecycline is an antimicrobial agent, approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections and anaerobic or atypical infections. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of tigecycline in a teaching hospital and to compare data from patients who had their prescriptions audited by the hospital infection committee with those who did not have audited prescriptions. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study conducted at a teaching hospital from April 2012 to March 2014 including patients who received tigecycline. Demographic variables, comorbidities, microbiological findings, prescribed antibiotics and technical opinions issued by the Hospital Infection Control Service were collected. RESULTS: 71 patients were included, aged between 13 and 92 years, 63.4% were male and 56.3% were non-white. Tigecycline was the first antimicrobial choice in 19.7% (14/71) of the cases, while the use associated with other antibiotics was observed in 66.2% (45/71) of the prescriptions. mainly with meropenem (28.9%). Empirical use was performed in 69.0% of cases, after culture and the antibiogram in 31.0% and off label use in 81.7%. The microorganisms frequently identified by the culture tests were Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.7%) and Klebsiella penumoniae (11.8%). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that empirical and off label use is common in clinical practice and few prescriptions were guided by the results of the culture and the antibiogram, demonstrating the need for prescribers to evaluate the benefits/ risks of using this antibiotic, risk of resistance, adverse effects and drug interactions, in addition to cost.


INTRODUÇÃO: A tigeciclina é agente antimicrobiano, aprovada para o tratamento de infecções complicadas na pele e tecidos moles, pneumonia hospitalar e adquirida na comunidade, infecções intra-abdominal e infecções anaeróbias ou atípicas. OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso da tigeciclina em hospital de ensino e comparar dados de pacientes que tiveram suas prescrições auditadas pela comissão de infecção hospitalar com os que não tiveram prescrições auditadas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo observacional realizado em hospital de ensino de abril de 2012 a março de 2014 incluindo pacientes que receberam tigeciclina. Foram coletadas variáveis ​​demográficas, comorbidades, achados microbiológicos, antibióticos prescritos e pareceres técnicos emitidos pelo Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 71 pacientes, com idade entre 13 e 92 anos, 63,4% eram do sexo masculino e 56,3% eram não brancos. A tigeciclina foi primeira escolha antimicrobiana em 19,7% (14/71) dos casos, enquanto o uso associado a outros antibióticos foi observado em 66,2% (45/71) das prescrições. principalmente com meropenem (28,9%). O uso empírico foi realizado em 69,0% dos casos, após cultura e o antibiograma em 31,0% e o uso off label em 81,7%. Os microrganismos frequentemente identificados pelos testes de cultura foram Enterococcus faecalis (17,6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14,7%) e Klebsiella penumoniae (11,8%). CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que o uso empírico e off label é comum na prática clínica e poucas prescrições foram orientadas pelos resultados da cultura e do antibiograma, demonstrando necessidade de prescritores avaliarem os benefícios/riscos do uso desse antibiótico, risco de resistência, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas, além do custo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tigecycline , Hospitals, University , Cross Infection , Off-Label Use , Anti-Infective Agents
13.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 85-94, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361189

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) es un problema de salud pública que manifiesta la disminuida eficacia de estos agentes en la prevención y tratamiento de una proporción cada vez más amplia de patologías. Los actinomicetos son un grupo bacteriano importante de productores de metabolitos activos contra patógenos. Objetivo: Aislar actinomicetos del bosque tropical de Nariño, con potencial producción de metabolitos inhibitorios contra bacterias multidrogo-resistentes. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron muestras de suelo de Bosque Tropical Húmedo de la Reserva Natural del Río Ñambí, se analizaron microbiológica y molecularmente. Se estimuló la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios y evaluó el efecto inhibitorio de estos extractos contra las bacterias multidrogo-resistentes Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 11 aislados presuntivos, se confirmó que cuatro de ellos correspondieron al género Streptomyces sp. Las pruebas de inhibición contra bacterias multidrogo-resistentes E. coli y S. aureus, permitieron verificar que el aislado P3772 fue el más eficiente en la inhibición de los patógenos. Conclusiones: Todos los actinomicetos evaluados presentan actividad antibacteriana contra al menos una de las bacterias patógenas estudiadas; destacando el aislado P3772, que inhibe a E. coli y S. aureus. Se espera caracterizar los compuestos vinculados a la actividad antibacteriana.


Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a public health problem that reveals the diminished efficacy of these agents in the prevention and treatment of an increasingly larger number of pathologies. Actinomycetes are an important bacterial producer group of metabolites that are active against pathogens. Objective: To isolate actinomycetes from the tropical forest of Nariño (Colombia), which have the potential to produce inhibitory metabolites against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Materials and methods: Soil samples were taken from the Humid Tropical Forest of the Río Ńambí Natural Reserve and analyzed through microbiological and molecular assays. In vitro production of secondary metabolites was first stimulated, followed by the assessment of the inhibitory effect of these extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results: 11 presumptive isolates were obtained, confirming that four of them corresponded to the Streptomyces sp. genus. The bacterial isolate P3772 was identified as the one with the highest inhibitory effect against multi-drug resistant E. coli and S. aureus. Conclusions: All the actinomycetes evaluated presented antibacterial activity. The isolate P3772 stands out, which inhibited both E. coli and S. aureus. The compounds associated with this antibacterial activity will be characterized in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcus aureus , Actinobacteria , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e190578, fev. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380248

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated (a) the efficacy of an association between injectable antibiotic therapy and sealant (ATBS) on milk yield (MY), somatic cell count (SCC), and prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI); and (b) the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on follicular cyst (FCs) resolution (cyclicity at the 45th day in milk; DIM) and cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) in heifers submitted to a lactation induction protocol (LIP). A total of 114 crossbred (Holstein × Jersey) heifers, with 34.7 ± 4.8 months and 439 ± 56.35 kg were submitted to LIP. On the 5th day of the LIP, the heifers were assigned to (i) ATBS (n = 57) with 7 mg/kg of norfloxacin associated with sealant and (ii) Control 1 (n = 57; CONT1) with no treatments. Lactation began on the 21st day of LIP and the 15th DIM, FCs were diagnosed and 106 heifers were randomized into two treatment groups with 53 heifers each: (i) GnRH (5 mL injectable GnRH) and (ii) Control 2 (CONT2; no treatment). Of the 114 heifers initially induced, 83.33% (n = 95) responded to LIP with an average MY of 15.19 kg/milk/day during 22 weeks of lactation. In the first 14 DIM, the IMI prevalence was 18% and 28% for heifers ATBS and CONT1 treated, respectively. Additionally, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. Mammary quarters that received ATBS treatment had a lower risk of IMI and SCC than CONT1. The cyclicity at 45 DIM was 68% (ATBS) and 35% (CONT1), and 57% and 46% for animals in the GnRH and CONT2. CPR was 60% in the ATBS group and 89% in CONT1, but GnRH treatment did not affect the CPR. In conclusion, LIP was effective in stimulating MY in heifers, and the IMI prevalence decreased with ATBS treatment. Also, the use of GnRH did not affect the FC regression, cyclicity at 45 DIM, and CPR.(AU)


Este estudo avaliou a (i) eficácia da associação entre antibioticoterapia injetável e selante interno de tetos (ATBS) na produção de leite (PL), contagem de células somáticas (CCS), e prevalência de infecções intramamárias (IIM); e (ii) eficácia do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH) na resolução de cistos foliculares (CFs), ciclicidade ao 45º dia em lactação (DEL) e taxa de prenhez cumulativa (TPC) em novilhas submetidas a um protocolo de indução de lactação (PIL). Um total de 114 novilhas mestiças (Holandês × Jersey), com 34,7 ± 4,8 meses e 439 ± 56,35 kg foram submetidas ao PIL. No 5º dia do PIL, as novilhas receberam: (i) ATBS (n = 57) com 7 mg/kg de norfloxacina associada ao selante interno de tetos e (ii) Controle 1 (n = 57; CONT1) sem tratamento. A lactação teve início no 21º dia do PIL e no 15º DEL, foram diagnosticados CFs e 106 novilhas foram agrupadas em dois grupos de tratamento com 53 novilhas em cada: (i) GnRH (5 mL de GnRH injetável) e (ii) Controle 2 (CONT2; sem tratamento). Das 114 novilhas inicialmente induzidas, 83,33% (n = 95) responderam ao PIL com PL média de 15,19 kg/leite/d durante 22 semanas de lactação. Nos primeiros 14 DEL a prevalência de IIM foi de 18% e 28% para as novilhas tratadas com ATBS e CONT1, respectivamente. Além disso, estafilococos coagulase negativa foram o grupo de patógenos mais frequentemente isolados. Quartos mamários tratados com ATBS tiveram menor risco (0,56) de IIM e menor CCS do que CONT1. A ciclicidade a 45 DEL foi de 68% (ATBS) e 35% (CONT1), e 57% e 46% para os animais no GnRH e CONT2. A TPC foi de 60% no grupo ATBS e 89% no CONT1, porém o tratamento com GnRH não afetou a TPC. Em conclusão, o PIL foi eficaz em estimular a PL em novilhas tardias e a prevalência de IIM diminiuiu com o tratamento ATBS. Além disso, o uso de GnRH não afetou a regressão de CF, ciclicidade em 45 DEL e a TPC.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pregnancy , Lactation/physiology , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/pharmacology , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Follicular Cyst/diagnosis , Cattle/physiology , Norfloxacin/administration & dosage , Cell Count/veterinary , Milk/physiology
15.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210017, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365075

ABSTRACT

Background: Acylpolyamines are one of the main non-peptide compounds present in spider venom and represent a promising alternative in the search for new molecules with antimicrobial action. Methods: The venom of Acanthoscurria natalensis spider was fractionated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and the antimicrobial activity of the fractions was tested using a liquid growth inhibition assay. The main antimicrobial fraction containing acylpolyamines (ApAn) was submitted to two additional chromatographic steps and analyzed by MALDI-TOF. Fractions of interest were accumulated for ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and ESI-MS/MS analysis and for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and hemolytic activity determination. Results: Five acylpolyamines were isolated from the venom with molecular masses between 614 Da and 756 Da, being named ApAn728, ApAn614a, ApAn614b, ApAn742 and ApAn756. The analysis of UV absorption profile of each ApAn and the fragmentation pattern obtained by ESI-MS/MS suggested the presence of a tyrosyl unit as chromophore and a terminal polyamine chain consistent with structural units PA43 or PA53. ApAn presented MIC between 128 µM and 256 µM against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, without causing hemolysis against mouse erythrocytes. Conclusion: The antimicrobial and non-hemolytic properties of the analyzed ApAn may be relevant for their application as possible therapeutic agents and the identification of an unconventional chromophore for spider acylpolyamines suggests an even greater chemical diversity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Spider Venoms/toxicity , Staphylococcus aureus , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1768-1783, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927817

ABSTRACT

Bacillus spp. are probiotics and can secrete a variety of natural antimicrobiol active substances, of which lipopeptides are an important class. Up to now, about 90 lipopeptides have been identified, and most of them are cyclic lipopeptides. surfactin, iturin, fengycin, bacillomycin and polymyxins are widely studied, and the first three have huge potential for application due to their properties of surfactants and anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory functions. In this paper, the research progress in the structure, function, synthesis regulation, separation, purification and production of surfactin, iturin and fengycin was reviewed. Synthetic biology is a vital means to increase the yield of lipopeptides, and in the future, lipopeptides can be used in crop cultivation, animal farming, food, medicine and petroleum industries as well as environmental protection. Future research should be strengthened on the discovery of new lipopeptides, synthesis of high-activity lipopeptides, economical production of lipopeptides on a large scale and their safety evaluation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus , Bacillus subtilis , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology
17.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210046, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365231

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe and evaluate the xylitol products' applicability and its effects in the health area worldwide utilizing a bibliometric analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCT) with humans. Material and Methods Electronic searches were carried out in Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and VHL databases. The main data extracted were: year, area of applicability, type of treatment, country, journal, xylitol posology and concentration, presentation form, outcomes, and effects. Results From 1476 studies, 257 were included. These studies were published between 1973-2021. The majority was carried out in dentistry (73.9%) and under preventive treatment (67.4%). These studies were developed in the USA (15.4%) and published in Caries Research (6.6%). The posology and concentration ranged between 0.004-67 g/day and 0.002-100%, respectively. The xylitol is usually used in the chewing gum form (44.0%), and for antimicrobial activity evaluation (38.5%). A positive effect was observed in 204 studies (79.3%) and was associated with xylitol concentration ≥ 15(p=0.007). Side effects were reported in 8.2and were associated with posology ≥ 5 g/day (p=0.03). Conclusion Most studies with xylitol were conducted to prevent diseases in the dentistry field. The chewing gum form and antimicrobial activity evaluation were more frequent. Most xylitol products have a positive effect, and few studies report side effects.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Xylitol/therapeutic use , Bibliometrics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Chewing Gum , Anti-Infective Agents , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Oral Health/education , Data Interpretation, Statistical
18.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 288-296, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1380900

ABSTRACT

Los microorganismos son seres vivos, que han ido adaptándose y evolucionando permitiendo su supervivencia, evadiendo las respuesta innata de los hospedadores e incluso modificando sus estructuras biológicas antes moléculas farmacológicas, que se han, en los últimos años, empleado de manera inadecuadas, bien sea por abuso o por deficiencia en el cumplimiento del esquema del tratamiento, o desaciertos para tratar un germen en específico y, como consecuencia, la actual crisis mundial por la resistencia a los antimicrobianos; considerado un problema de salud pública, requiere de esfuerzos multisectoriales e integrales que aporten soluciones mediatas, a corto y mediano plazo, sostenibles en el tiempo. Para ellos, es clave la formación de los nuevos profesionales, en el área de microbiología, de las diferentes carreras biomédicas. Es por ello, el presente estudio identificó las competencias que deben desarrollar los estudiantes, de seis universidades ecuatorianas. Se aplicaron cuestionarios, inquiriendo la importancia atribuida y el grado de desarrollo percibido de cada competencia mediante escala tipo Likert, además de seis dimensiones distribuidas en 40 indicadores. Se identificó mayor desarrollo de competencias en la identificación del patógeno, diagnóstico y análisis e interpretación de los resultados; además las seis dimensiones educativas fueron clasificadas como relevantes. Sin embargo, los resultados sugieren falencia en el desarrollo de competencias en la temática de resistencia antimicrobiana, por lo que se sugiere la revisión de los contenidos programáticos y aplicar nuevas herramientas pedagógicas que permitan al estudiantado aprender a aprender, aplicando un modelo socio-critico, y como base la investigación y el conocimiento científico actualizado(AU)


Microorganisms are living beings, which have been adapting and evolving allowing their survival, evading the innate response of the hosts and even modifying their biological structures before pharmacological molecules, which have, in recent years, been used inappropriately, either by abuse or deficiency in compliance with the treatment scheme, or failure to treat a specific germ and, as a consequence, the current global crisis due to antimicrobial resistance; considered a public health problem, it requires multisectoral and comprehensive efforts that provide immediate, short- and medium-term solutions that are sustainable over time. For them, the training of new professionals in the area of microbiology, of the different biomedical careers, is key. For this reason, this study identified the skills that students from six Ecuadorian universities should develop. Questionnaires were applied, inquiring about the importance attributed and the perceived degree of development of each competency using a Likert-type scale, in addition to six dimensions distributed in 40 indicators. Greater development of skills in the identification of the pathogen, diagnosis and analysis and interpretation of the results was identified; In addition, the six educational dimensions were classified as relevant. However, the results suggest a lack in the development of skills in the subject of antimicrobial resistance, so it is suggested to review the program contents and apply new pedagogical tools that allow students to learn to learn, applying a socio-critical model, and as a basis research and updated scientific knowledge(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Schools, Medical , Competency-Based Education , Anti-Infective Agents , Noxae , Research , Models, Educational , Containment of Biohazards , Education, Professional , Microbiology
19.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 60(3): 265-273, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378407

ABSTRACT

Introduction Bitter Kola (Garcinia Kola) and kola nut, contains substances attributed to numerous effects on humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic properties, anti-infective and caffeinism. This study explores Bitter kola and kola nut use and its impact on treatment outcome on People Living with HIV (PLWHIV). Methods: The study was conducted at a Military Hospital in Nigeria. An analytical cross-sectional study was done using questionnaire among 700 HIV-positive clients selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected by researcher and three trained assistants. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used for identifying associations and predictors, respectively. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Findings show that 260 (63.6%) and 179 (25.6%) have ever and currently used Bitter kola/Kola nut, respectively. Also, 14 (7.8%) used Bitter kola/Kola nut alone while 165 (92.2%) used it in addition to other substances, especially with alcohol 123 (68.7%). Bitter kola use was associated with age (p = 0.037), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.001), and number of children (p < 0.011). Identified predictors were being a female (AOR 0.79; 95% CI 0.08-0.92) and earning <18,000 Naira (AOR 2.91; 95% CI 2.03-21.54). There was no association of Bitter kola/kola nut use with CD4 count and viral load suppression. Conclusion: Though Kola nut and Bitter kola use was high as in the general population we have not found any effect on treatment outcome among PLWHIV. This calls for more research to ascertain if there are other possible beneficial effects on PLWHIV.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Allergic Agents , Cola , Garcinia kola , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
20.
Niger. Postgrad. Med. J. ; 29(3): 236-243, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1381438

ABSTRACT

Background: Dental caries remains a public health threat of concern among children. About 2.3 billion people are affected by dental caries, of which 530 million are children globally. Objective: This study was carried out to identify sugar fermenting bacteria in the oral cavity and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern, assess the association with sugar fermenter bacteria and dental caries and evaluate dental caries outcomes among children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2021 and February 2022 at Ruhengeri Referral Hospital. About 136 oral swab samples were collected from children with and without dental caries at 1:1 ratio. The samples were put in Stuart sterile container and transported to INES-clinical microbiology laboratory for microbial identification. Logistic regression analysis of demographic characteristics was performed to study the relationship between demographic variables and dental caries. Chi-square test was performed for the association between variables. Results: About 67.6% were male, while children of age 7­9 years (64.7%) dominated the age groups. Lactobacilli spp (15.29%) and Streptococcus mutans (12.94%) were the most predominant microorganisms observed in the oral cavity among children with dental caries. The S. mutans (x2 = 27.03, P < 0.00001, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.2901­0.5785), S. aureus (x2 = 34.59, P < 0.00001, 95% CI = 0.3541­0.6292), Enterobacter aerogenes (x2 = 13.5, P = 0.000239, 95% CI = 0.151­0.4622), Serratia marcescens (x2 = 11.64, P = 0.00645, 95% CI = 0.1275­0.4418) and Klebsiella pneumonia (x2 = 13.51, P = 0.000237, 95% CI = 0.1511­0.4623) were significantly associated with dental caries. Teeth loss (x2 = 51.04, P < 0.00001, 95% CI = 0.4757­0.7205), teeth pain (x2 = 5.05, P = 0.0246, 95% CI = 0.0249­0.33499), and infection (x2 = 4.73, P = 0.02964, 95% CI = 0.0186­0.3441) were dental outcomes associated with tooth decay. Ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and amoxicillin were the most sensitive antibiotics, while vancomycin and chloramphenicol were the most resistant. Conclusion: Sugar consumption favours the growth of sugar fermenter bacteria that cause dental caries among children. Dental caries is associated with adverse oral health outcomes among children. Oral health education is recommended for children. Parents are advised to reduce the consumption of sugary food for their children for oral health safety.


Subject(s)
Referral and Consultation , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , Oral Medicine , Dental Caries , Sugars , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Mouth , Fermentation , Anti-Infective Agents
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL