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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 06, 2023. 117 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1412600

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas golpean los sistemas de salud por los altos costos que se derivan por la atención de pacientes en los diferentes estadios de estas enfermedades, en particular aquellas etapas en las que las personas se encuentran con múltiples afecciones provocadas o sumadas por el desarrollo de las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas. Con el fin de mejorar la atención de los pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas priorizadas; y brindar al personal de salud una herramienta técnico-científica para estandarizar la identificación, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las personas mayores de 12 años, la Unidad de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis y Enfermedades Respiratorias, ha elaborado el presente documento, el cual será de mucha utilidad en los diferentes niveles de atención, para brindar una atención de calidad a los pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas. En su contenido se integran instrucciones para la atención del asma y la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC), con un abordaje clínico terapéutico más actualizado, para que puedan darse las atenciones en los establecimientos del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS), así como las actividades educativas que permitan incidir en la prevención de estas enfermedades


Chronic respiratory diseases hit health systems due to the high costs derived from the care of patients in the different stages of these diseases, particularly those stages in which people have multiple conditions caused or added by the development of chronic respiratory diseases. In order to improve the care of patients with prioritized chronic respiratory diseases; and provide health personnel with a technical-scientific tool to standardize the identification, diagnosis and treatment of people over 12 years of age, the Unit for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases has prepared this document, which will be of very useful at different levels of care, to provide quality care to patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Its content includes instructions for the care of asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), with a more up-to-date clinical-therapeutic approach, so that care can be given in the establishments of the National Integrated Health System (SNIS), as well as educational activities that make it possible to influence the prevention of these diseases


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases , Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Health Systems , El Salvador
2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 225-231, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411265

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La dermatitis atópica es un trastorno cutá-neo atópico, inflamatorio de tipo crónico con aparición más frecuente en niños antes de los 5 años de edad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar factores de riesgo clínicos y sociodemográficos asociados a dermatitis atópica en un grupo de niños escolares en Riobamba-Ecuador. Métodos: El presente estudio observacional incluyó escolares en el periodo junio - agosto 2020. Con una muestra probabilística se incluyeron casos con dermatitis atópica (DA) y un grupo control. Las variables fueron Dermatitis atópica, edad, sexo, antecedentes familiares y personales de atopia, exposición materna al humo del tabaco en el período de gestación o en la infancia, duración de lactancia materna exclusiva, nivel de instrucción de los padres, tipo de residencia, tipo de familia, presencia de niños mayores y mascotas en casa, frecuencia de aseo, duración de la ducha. Se pre-senta Odds Ratio con el inter-valo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: Se incluyeron 175 escolares, 28 (14.2%) con DA. OR para exposición a tabaquismo pasivo en la infancia = 3.7, OR para familias pequeñas = 2.5 (P=0.042), OR para el antecedente materno de rinitis alérgica 2.6, OR para dermatitis atópica en padres = 9.0. Conclusión: Se confirma que el antecedente familiar de enfermedades como rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica así como el antecedente personal de enfermedades que forman parte del espectro atópico diferentes de DA, la exposición al humo del tabaco en el hogar y la convivencia con un reducido número de integrantes dentro de la familia son factores de riesgo asociados a dermatitis atópica.


Introduction: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory atopic skin disorder with the most frequent onset in children under five. This study aimed to determine clinical and socio-demographic risk factors associated with atopic dermatitis in a group of school children in Riobamba, Ecuador. Methods: The present observational study included school-children in the period June - August 2020. A probabilistic sample included cases with atopic dermatitis (AD) and a control group. The variables were atopic dermatitis, age, sex, family and personal history of atopy, maternal exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy or in childhood, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, parental educational level, type of residence, family type, presence of older children and pets at home, frequency of grooming, and duration of showering. The odds ratio is presented with a 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 175 school-children were included, 28 (14.2%) with AD. Alternatively, for exposure to secondhand smoke in childhood = 3.7, OR small families = 2.5 (P =0.042) OR for maternal history of allergic rhinitis 2.6, OR atopic dermatitis in parents = 9.0. Conclusion: It is confirmed that the family history of diseases such as allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, as well as the personal history of diseases that are part of the atopic spectrum other than AD, expo-sure to tobacco smoke at home and living with a small number of members within the family, are risk factors associated with atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pathology , Dermatitis, Atopic , Asthma , Lactation , Rhinitis, Allergic
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 283-291, out.2022. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400238

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a via de nascimento tem sido considerada como um possível fator de risco para a ocorrência de doenças alérgicas em crianças e adolescentes, sendo este um dado preocupante, tendo em vista o aumento da prevalência dessas afecções no mundo.Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre o nascimento por cesárea e o desenvolvimento de doenças alérgicas em crianças e adolescentes. Metodologia: revisão sistemática com metanálise de estudos indexados nas bases de dados PubMed, Science Direct e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, com uso dos descritores em saúde: "cesarean section", "hypersensitivity", "allergic rhinitis", "asthma", "atopic dermatitis", "food allergy", "child", "adolescent". A qualidade dos estudos foi avaliada através da ferramenta Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies ­ (QATQS). Resultados: foram incluídos 23 trabalhos na revisão e 21 foram selecionados para metanálise. A prevalência de cesárea variou de 7,8% a 50,8% e a prevalência de doenças alérgicas esteve entre 0,77% e 42,5% na população nascida por essa via. Observou-se uma associação positiva entre parto por cesárea e presença de rinite alérgica (OR=1,30; IC95%: 1,18-1,43) e asma (OR=1,44; IC95%: 1,38-1,49), não sendo encontrada associação significante entre a cesariana e o desenvolvimento de dermatite atópica (OR=1,02; IC95%: 0,96-1,09) ou alergia alimentar (OR=0,99; IC95%: 0,82-1,19). Conclusão: o nascimento pela via de parto cirúrgico pode estar contribuindo com o aumento do número de casos de alergias na população pediátrica e, ainda que haja heterogeneidades entre os estudos analisados, existem riscos que devem ser levados em conta na análise dessa relação em futuros trabalhos que investiguem essa problemática.


Introduction: the route of birth has been considered as a possible risk factor for the occurrence of allergic diseases in children and adolescents, which is a worrying fact, given the increasing prevalence of these conditions in the world. Objective: to analyze the association between cesarean birth and the development of allergic diseases in children and adolescents. Methodology: systematic review with meta-analysis of studies indexed in the PubMed, Science Direct and Virtual Health Library databases, using the health descriptors: "cesarean section", "hypersensitivity", "allergic rhinitis", "asthma", "atopic dermatitis", "food allergy", "child", "adolescent". The quality of studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies ­ (QATQS). Results: 23 papers were included in the review, and 21 were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of cesarean sections varied from 7.8% to 50.8%, and the prevalence of allergic diseases was between 0.77% and 42.5% in the population born through this route. A positive association was observed between cesarean delivery and the presence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.18-1.43) and asthma (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.38-1,49), with no significant association between cesarean section and the development of atopic dermatitis (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.96-1.09) or food allergy (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.19). Conclusion: birth through surgical delivery may be contributing to the increase in the number of cases of allergies in the pediatric population and, although there are heterogeneities between the studies analyzed, there are risks that must be taken into account when analyzing this relationship in future works to investigate this issue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cesarean Section , Child , Adolescent , Hypersensitivity , Asthma , Rhinitis, Allergic
4.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13(n.esp1): 1-10, set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1396811

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar fatores que influenciam no cuidado às crianças com agravos respiratórios na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: Revisão integrativa realizada mediante pesquisa à Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE e IBECS, utilizando-se os descritores Infecções Respiratórias, Pneumonia, Asma, Atenção Primária à Saúde e Enfermagem, no período de 2014 a 2018. Foram identificadas 165 publicações, sendo selecionados 34 artigos na língua portuguesa. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Os resultados foram agrupados nas categorias: determinantes de saúde, resolutividade da atenção primária à saúde e prática de enfermagem. Constatou-se que as condições de nascimento, socioeconômicas e ambientais são os principais aspectos que determinam a manifestação ou complicação dos agravos respiratórios em crianças. Desse modo, também influenciam nas taxas de Internações por Condições Sensíveis à Atenção Primária. Para a redução dessas taxas evidencia-se a necessidade de ampliar a resolutividade da atenção primária à saúde por meio de ações de enfermagem. Conclusão: As ações de enfermagem para o manejo do cuidado dessas crianças na Atenção Primária à Saúde permitem reduzir o número de crianças com necessidade de atendimento de urgência/emergência ou hospitalização, promovendo o controle dos quadros respiratórios agudos e crônicos na atenção básica. (AU)


Objective: Identify factors that influence the care of children with respiratory diseases in Primary Health Care. Methods: Integrative review carried out through research to the Virtual Health Library, in the LILACS, MEDLINE and IBECS databases, using the descriptors Respiratory Infections, Pneumonia, Asthma, Primary Health Care and Nursing, from 2014 to 2018. 165 publications were identified, with 34 articles selected in Portuguese. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: The results were grouped into the categories: health determinants, resolvability of Primary Health Care and nursing practice. It was found that birth, socioeconomic and environmental conditions are the main aspects that determine the manifestation or complication of respiratory disorders in children. Thus, they also influence the rates of Hospitalizations for Conditions Sensitive to Primary Care. To reduce these rates, the need to expand the resolution of Primary Health Care through nursing actions is evident. Conclusion: It is concluded that the nursing actions for managing the care of these children in Primary Health Care allow reducing the number of children in need of urgent / emergency care or hospitalization, promoting the control of acute and chronic respiratory conditions in care basic. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los factores que influyen en la atención de los niños con enfermedades respiratorias en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Metodos: Revisión integradora realizada por la investigación en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, en las bases de datos LILACS, MEDLINE e IBECS, utilizando descriptores Infecciones Respiratorias, Neumonía, Asma, Atención Primaria de Salud y Enfermería, de 2014 a 2018. Se identificaron 165 publicaciones, con 34 artículos seleccionados en portugués. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Los resultados se agruparon en las categorías: determinantes de salud, resolubilidad de la Atención Primaria de Salud y práctica de enfermería. Las condiciones de nacimiento, socioeconómicas y ambientales que determinan la manifestación o complicación de los trastornos respiratorios en los niños. Por lo tanto, también influyen en las tasas de Hospitalizaciones por Afecciones Sensibles a la Atención Primaria. Para reducir estas tasas, es evidente la necesidad de ampliar la resolución de la Atención Primaria de Salud por acciones de enfermería. Conclusión: Se concluye que las acciones de enfermería para el manejo de la atención de estos niños en Atención Primaria de Salud permiten reducir el número de niños que necesitan atención de urgência/emergencia o hospitalización, promoviendo el control de las afecciones respiratorias agudas y crónicas en la atención básica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Pneumonia , Primary Health Care , Asthma , Nursing
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 47-54, jun, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381292

ABSTRACT

El síndrome del edificio enfermo, se refiere a un conjunto de síntomas generales en mucosa (ocular y/o respiratoria) y piel que presentan los ocupantes de edificaciones con calidad ambiental deficientes, exponiendo a sus ocupantes a factores de riesgos físicos, mecánicos, químicos, biológicos y psicosociales, que puede afectar negativamente la salud y productividad de las personas. Con el propósito de determinar la frecuencia de los síntomas de los ocupantes de una industria manufacturera del Perú, se realizó estudio transversal aplicándose a 237 trabajadores, estratificados por áreas laborales, el cuestionario sugerido por el Instituto Nacional de Higiene y Seguridad en el Trabajo, además de evaluar la condición ambiental mediante la determinación de bioaerosoles cultivables y contables. Los resultados mostraron prevalencia superior al 20% en síntomas como: sequedad en ojos y garganta, picor en garganta congestión nasal, dolor de cabeza y debilidad general. Se tomaron, cuantificaron y caracterizaron 164 muestras de bioaerosoles, los microrganismos encontrados con mayor porcentaje fueron, Aspergillus sp. 54,68% (68) en el área administrativa, mientras que en las áreas de producción y almacén predomino Penicillium sp. con 87,10% (108) y 62,21% (77) respectivamente. Otros géneros encontrados en mayor porcentajes, en las tres áreas fueron: Trichoderma, Acremonium, Monilia, Cladosporium, entre otros. Los hallazgos se correlacionan con lo reportado en diversas investigaciones, la presencia de mencionados hongos, sugiere que existe una inadecuada calidad ambiental y aunada a la prevalencia obtenida en cuanto a sintomatología, se puede clasificar la edificación objeto de estudio con el Síndrome del edificio enfermo(AU)


Sick building syndrome refers to a set of general mucosal (ocular and/or respiratory) and skin symptoms presented by occupants of buildings with poor environmental quality, exposing their occupants to physical, mechanical, chemical, biological and psychosocial, which can negatively affect the health and productivity of people. In order to determine the frequency of the symptoms of the occupants of a manufacturing industry in Peru, a cross-sectional study was carried out, applying to 237 workers, stratified by work areas, the questionnaire suggested by the National Institute of Hygiene and Safety at Work, in addition to to evaluate the environmental condition by determining cultivable and countable bioaerosols. The results showed a prevalence greater than 20% in symptoms such as: dry eyes and throat, itchy throat, nasal congestion, headache and general weakness. 164 samples of bioaerosols were taken, quantified and characterized, the microorganisms found with the highest percentage were Aspergillus sp. 54.68% (68) in the administrative area, while in the production and storage areas, Penicillium sp. with 87.10% (108) and 62.21% (77) respectively. Other genera found in higher percentages in the three areas were: Trichoderma, Acremonium, Monilia, Cladosporium, among others. The findings correlate with what has been reported in various investigations, the presence of these fungi suggests that there is an inadequate environmental quality and, together with the prevalence obtained in terms of symptoms, the building under study can be classified with the Sick Building Syndrome(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sick Building Syndrome/etiology , Sick Building Syndrome/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Asthma , Rhinitis , Headache Disorders , Otomycosis , Manufacturing Industry
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 430-438, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377394

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Use of inhaled corticosteroids for managing acute asthma exacerbations has been tested since the 1990s. OBJECTIVE: To compare high doses of inhaled ciclesonide with systemic hydrocortisone for managing acute asthma exacerbations in the emergency department. DESIGN AND SETTING: Double-blind, randomized clinical trial in the public healthcare system of the city of São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with moderate or severe asthma with peak flow < 50% of predicted were randomized into two groups. Over the course of four hours, one group received 1440 mcg of inhaled ciclesonide plus hydrocortisone-identical placebo (ciclesonide + placebo), while the other received 500 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone plus ciclesonide-identical placebo (hydrocortisone + placebo). Both groups received short-acting bronchodilators (fenoterol hydrobromide and ipratropium bromide). The research protocol included spirometry, clinical evaluation, vital signs and electrocardiogram monitoring. Data were obtained at 30 (baseline), 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. We compared data from baseline to hour 4, between and within groups. RESULTS: Overall, 31 patients received ciclesonide + placebo and 27 received hydrocortisone + placebo. Inhaled ciclesonide was as effective as intravenous hydrocortisone for improving clinical parameters (Borg-scored dyspnea, P = 0.95; sternocleidomastoid muscle use, P = 0.55; wheezing, P = 0.55; respiratory effort, P = 0.95); and spirometric parameters (forced vital capacity, P = 0.50; forced expiratory volume in the first second, P = 0.83; peak expiratory flow, P = 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled ciclesonide was not inferior to systemic hydrocortisone for managing acute asthma exacerbations, and it improved both clinical and spirometric parameters. TRIAL REGISTRATION: RBR-6XWC26 - Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-6xwc26/).


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Pregnenediones , Brazil , Forced Expiratory Volume , Double-Blind Method , Emergency Service, Hospital
7.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 271-284, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400222

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease that is influenced by several factors. An evolutionarily conserved serine/ threonine kinase named mTOR plays a key role in the integration of environmental signals in the form of growth factors, amino acids, and energy. In the immune system, mTOR is a critical regulator. The mTOR pathway exerts central control over processes in the immune response and in T-cell proliferation, multiplication, and differentiation. Variations in the gene responsible for mTOR complexes have been associated with different critical levels of cytokines, increased likelihood of developing asthma, and increased prevalence of atopy. Objective and method: This study aimed to investigate the association of mTOR gene variants with asthma, asthma severity, and atopy, as well as to perform a cytokine analysis. Result and conclusion: The findings reinforce the importance of mTOR gene variants in the development of asthma.


Introdução: A asma é uma doença inflamatória das vias aéreas, com diversos fatores influenciando essa condição inflamatória. A mTOR, uma serina/treonina quinase evolutivamente conservada, desempenha um papel central na integração de sinais ambientais na forma de fatores de crescimento, aminoácidos e energia. No sistema imunológico, a mTOR se apresenta como um regulador crítico. A via mTOR se destaca pelo controle central na resposta do sistema imunológico, bem como na proliferação, multiplição e diferenciação das células T. Variações no gene responsável pelos complexos mTOR têm sido associadas a diferentes níveis críticos de citocinas, aumento da probabilidade de desenvolver asma e aumento da prevalência de atopia. Objetivo e método: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre as variantes do gene mTOR com asma e sua gravidade, atopia, além da análise de citocinas. Resultado e conclusão: Os achados reafirmam a importância das variantes do gene mTOR no desenvolvimento da asma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Threonine , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Serine , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Prevalence , Cytokines , Immune System , Immunity , Methods
8.
Espaç. saúde (Online) ; 23: 1-14, abr.2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395848

ABSTRACT

Buscou-se analisar as reações adversas do montelucaste quando prescrito para o tratamento da asma pediátrica. Revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando as bases de dados: U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Biblioteca Virtual da Saúde (BVS), SCOPUS e Business Source Complete (EBSCO), empregando os descritores: "asthma", "pediatric", "montelukast" e "adverse effects", unidos pelo booleano "AND''. Incluíram-se artigos na íntegra; publicados nos últimos 5 anos; redigidos em português, inglês ou espanhol; pesquisados em humanos e com uma relação com o nosso objetivo. Excluíram-se os que se enquadravam em nossos critérios de exclusão.Foram identificados 53 artigos, dos quais 11 compuseram a amostra final desta revisão. A exposição ao montelucaste foi associada a uma chance 2 vezes maior de reações neuropsiquiátricas em um dos artigos analisados, porém os estudos ainda não forneceram uma explicação fisiopatológica em comum. Reações neuropsiquiátricas foram as de maior prevalência, representando mais de 90% da amostra.


We analyzed the adverse reactions of montelukast when prescribed for the treatment of pediatric asthma. This is an integrative literature review using the databases: U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Virtual Health Library (BVS), SCOPUS and Business Source Complete (EBSCO), using the descriptors: "asthma", "pediatric", "montelukast" and "adverse effects", connected by the Boolean " AND''. Articles in full were included, published in the last 5 years, written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, researched in humans and related to our objective. Those that met our exclusion criteria were excluded. Fifty-three articles were identified, of which 11 comprised the final sample of this review. Exposure to montelukast was associated with a 2-fold greater chance of neuropsychiatric reactions in one of the articles analyzed, but the studies have not yet provided a common pathophysiological explanation. Neuropsychiatric reactions were the most prevalent, representing more than 90% of the sample.


Se intentó analizar las reacciones adversas de montelukast cuando se prescribe para el tratamiento del asma pediátrica. Revisión integrativa de la literatura usando las bases de datos: U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Virtual Health Library (BVS), SCOPUS y Business Source Complete (EBSCO), utilizando los descriptores: "asma", "pediátrico", "montelukast" y "efectos adversos", unidos por el booleano " Y". Se incluyeron artículos completos, publicados en los últimos 5 años, escritos en portugués, inglés o español, investigados en humanos y relacionados con nuestro objetivo. Se excluyeron aquellos que cumplieron con nuestros criterios de exclusión. Se identificaron cincuenta y tres artículos, de los cuales 11 constituyeron la muestra final de esta revisión. La exposición a montelukast se asoció con una probabilidad 2 veces mayor e reacciones neurosiquiátricas en uno de los artículos analizados, pero los estudios aún no han proporcionado una explicación fisiopatológica común. Las reacciones neurosiquiátricas fueron las más prevalentes, representando más del 90% de la muestra


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Asthma , Anti-Asthmatic Agents
9.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 201-210, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367344

ABSTRACT

El manejo del asma grave descontrolada con biológicos es un área de extrema dificultad, dada la escasez de información respecto a los criterios de inicio de los mismos, las variables a evaluar para determinar la eficacia y seguridad de su manejo, los puntos de corte para determinar el momento oportuno para cambiar o agregar otro biológico y el proceso para disminuir o retirar los esteroides. Esta revisión incorpora la información más reciente y realiza una propuesta con base en ella.


The management of severe uncontrolled asthma with biologics is an area of extreme difficulty given the scarcity of information regarding their starting criteria, the variables to be evaluated to determine the efficacy and safety of their management, the cut-off points to determine the timing to change or add another biological and the process to decrease or withdraw steroids. This review incorporates the latest information and makes a proposal based on it


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Therapy , Asthma/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 81(Único): e37177, mar.1, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, VETINDEX, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1395715

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic and heterogeneous disease of the airways that begins in childhood and persists, in many cases, into adulthood. The disease is the result of environmental, epigenetic and genetic interactions. This work aims to review the polymorphisms described in the literature in the IL-4 gene associated with susceptibility or protection to the development of asthma. This is a systematic literature review, carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE and Science Direct databases in the time frame from 2000 to July 2021, revealing the following key points: IL-4, Polymorphisms and Asthma. The search resulted in 29 articles, all in English. Despite some divergent studies, the SNP rs2243250, which was the most studied in populations from different countries, was also the one that found the most correlations of susceptibility with the disease. It is concluded that although there is controversial data on IL-4 SNPs related to the disease, the association of pangenomic studies has brought a list of genes and their variations associated with the risk of developing asthma, such as the rs2243250 SNP that was well related in populations of several countries analyzed. (AU)


A asma é uma doença crônica e heterogênea das vias aéreas que tem início na infância e persiste em muitos casos até a vida adulta. A doença é resultado de interações ambientais, epigenéticas e genéticas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo revisar sobre os polimorfismos descritos na literatura no gene IL-4 associados à susceptibilidade ou proteção ao desenvolvimento da asma. Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, feita nos bancos de dados PubMed, MEDLINE e Science Direct no corte temporal de 2000 a julho de 2021, ressaltando os seguintes pontos-chave: IL-4, Polimorfismos e Asma. A pesquisa resultou em 29 artigos, sendo em sua totalidade em língua inglesa. Apesar de alguns estudos divergentes, o SNP rs2243250, que foi o mais estudado em populações de diversos países, também foi o que mais encontrou correlações de susceptibilidade com a doença. Conclui-se que, apesar de haver dados controversos sobre os SNPs de IL-4 relacionados à doença, a associação dos estudos pangenômicos tem trazido uma lista de genes e variações deles associados com o risco de desenvolver a asma, como o SNP rs2243250 que foi bem relacionado em populações de vários países analisados (AU).


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic , Asthma , Interleukin-4 , Systematic Review
11.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 100-107, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400113

ABSTRACT

A asma é o produto de processos coordenados, interligados e complexos que têm origem nos genes/epigenética, microbioma e ambiente/estilo de vida. Os medicamentos atualmente disponíveis não são capazes de interferir com a inserção da asma no organismo. A abordagem terapêutica atual envolve fármacos que visam controlar os sintomas e antagonizar parte dos efeitos de algumas das citocinas envolvidas. Dessa forma, o tratamento atual visa o controle da asma e não a sua cura. Mecanismos epigenéticos traduzem os estímulos microbiômicos e ambientais em comportamento celular alterado. Por essa razão, a identificação de marcadores epigenéticos certamente apontará novos alvos terapêuticos e, idealmente, estratégias para reverter o comportamento celular alterado no trato respiratório. Aí, sim, poderíamos dizer que a asma tem cura.


Asthma is the product of coordinated, interconnected and complex processes that originate in genes/epigenetics, microbiome, and environment/lifestyle. Currently available drugs are not able to interfere with the insertion of asthma into the body. The current therapeutic approach involves drugs that aim to control symptoms and antagonize part of the effects of some of the cytokines involved. Thus, the current treatment is aimed at controlling asthma and not curing it. Epigenetic mechanisms translate the microbiological and environmental stimuli into altered cellular behavior. For this reason, the identification of epigenetic markers will certainly point out to new therapeutic targets and, ideally, strategies to reverse the altered cellular behavior in the respiratory tract. Then, yes, we could say that asthma is curable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Therapeutics , Epigenomics , Respiratory System , Signs and Symptoms , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cytokines , Health Strategies , Environment , Microbiota , Life Style
12.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 75-87, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362684

ABSTRACT

O cigarro eletrônico surgiu como uma tentativa para minimizar a dependência ao uso de tabaco, entretanto, engloba controvérsias e dúvidas acerca das reais implicações para o organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura a fim de relacionar o uso de cigarro eletrônico com suas consequências para os humanos. Os estudos analisados relatam experimentos in vitro e in vivo em camundongos, demonstrando menor concentração de poluentes e nocividades no cigarro eletrônico comparado ao convencional, porém, seu potencial efeito maléfico está relacionado à composição do e-líquido, à maneira do uso e à variedade de aromas presentes nos produtos. Além disso, foram verificadas lesões celulares, hiperreatividade das vias aéreas, liberação de citocinas ­ IL-8, IL-10 e TNF, redução da ação antimicrobiana de queratinócitos e potencial apoptose nas células alveolares. Foi observado também um aumento em até cinco vezes da concentração de carboxihemoglobina em comparação ao cigarro comum e um aumento na auto renovação de células de adenocarcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas, devido à expressão de SOX2. Observa-se também que em casos de DPOC, o cigarro eletrônico não apresenta agravamentos na fisiologia respiratória, contrapondo outras ocorrências como asma, pneumonia, câncer de pulmão e doenças infecciosas que podem ser ocasionadas ou exacerbadas pelo seu uso. Contudo, pelo curto prazo de observação de seus efeitos, não é possível determinar com precisão a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos, dessa forma, faz-se necessário que mais pesquisas longitudinais sejam desenvolvidas, auxiliando, assim, na construção de evidências sobre a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos e na regulamentação futura do produto.


Electronic cigarettes emerged as an attempt to minimize tobacco dependence. However, its use is surrounded by controversies and doubts about the real implications for the human organism. Therefore, this study aims at performing a review of the most recent literature to corelate the use of e-cigarettes with their consequences for the human body. The analyzed studies relate in vitro and in vivo experiments on mice, demonstrating lower concentration of pollutants and harmfulness in the electronic cigarette than in conventional cigarettes. However, its potential harmful effect is related to the composition of the e-liquid, in its use and in the variety of aromas in the products. In addition, cellular lesions, airway hyperreactivity, release of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF cytokines could be observed, as well as reduced keratinocyte antimicrobial action and potential apoptosis in alveolar cells. An increase of up to five-fold the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in comparison to ordinary cigarettes and an increase in self-renewal of non-small pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells due to the expression of SOX2 have also been related. It could also be observed that in COPD cases, e-cigarettes do not present worsening in respiratory physiology, which contrasts with other occurrences such as asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and infectious diseases that can be caused or exacerbated by its use. However, due to the short term of observation of the effects, the safety of e-cigarettes could not be accurately determined, thus, the need for further longitudinal research is necessary, which could be used to help build evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes and also to create future regulation of the product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Asthma/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking , Disease , Lung Injury , Tobacco Use , Vaping , Smokers , E-Cigarette Vapor/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms
13.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(1): 37-52, 01/03/2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367715

ABSTRACT

Objective. To investigate the effect of teach-back education on patient asthma control and family care pressure of patients with asthma. Methods. The present study is a clinical trial and the study population was patients referred to Shahid Faghihi and Shahid Motahhari clinics in Shiraz, Iran. 58 patients with asthma and their caregivers were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups, for a total of 29 subjects in each group. In the intervention group: the teach-back method was delivered individually to the patient and his or her primary caregiver in three sessions of approximately 60 minutes at one-day intervals. each session included presentations, practical techniques and a booklet. In this study, patients and caregivers in the control group were not trained. Before the intervention, 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention, asthma control test and spirometry test were performed to evaluate asthma control; Also, before the intervention and 8 weeks after the intervention, Zarit test was performed to evaluate the care burden. Results. The findings of repeated measures tests showed that, compared to the control group, the intervention group obtained a greater increase in the vital capacity index (p=0.028) and in the disease control score (p=0.001), as well as a reduction in the burden of care on family members (p<0.001). Conclusion. The present study showed that teaching asthma related topics to the patient and her caregiver along with the follow-up and supervision of the nurse improves the asthma control of the patient and also reduces the caregiver pressure.


Objetivo. Investigar el efecto de la educación con el método teach-back sobre el control del asma y la carga del cuidado familiar de estos pacientes. Métodos. Ensayo clínico cuya población de estudio fueron los pacientes remitidos a las clínicas Shahid Faghihi y Shahid Motahhari en Shiraz, Irán. Se asignaron aleatoriamente 58 pacientes con asma y sus cuidadores a los grupos de intervención y control, con un total de 29 díadas en cada grupo. Las personas del grupo de intervención recibieron formación con el método teach-back que se impartió individualmente al paciente y a su cuidador principal en tres sesiones de aproximadamente 60 minutos en tres días consecutivos. Cada sesión incluía presentaciones, técnicas prácticas y un folleto. Los pacientes y cuidadores del grupo de control no recibieron formación. Antes de la intervención y a las 4 y 8 semanas después de la misma, se aplicaron las escalas de control del asma y la de Zarit para evaluación de la carga del cuidado y, además se practicó una espirometría. Resultados. Las pruebas de medidas repetidas entre los grupos de estudio mostraron que, comparando con el grupo control, el grupo de intervención obtuvo mayor aumento del índice de capacidad vital (p=0.028) y del puntaje de control de la enfermedad (p=0.001), además, se redujo la carga del cuidado en los familiares (p<0.001). Conclusión. El presente estudio mostró que con la enseñanza de temas relacionados con el asma al paciente y a su cuidador, junto con el seguimiento y la supervisión de la enfermera, se mejora el control del asma en el paciente y también se reduce la carga del cuidador.


Objetivo. Investigar o efeito da educação com o método teach-back sobre o controle da asma e a carga do cuidado familiar destes pacientes. Métodos. Ensaio clínico no qual a população de estudo foram os pacientes enviados às clínicas Shahid Faghihi e Shahid Motahhari em Shiraz, Irã. 58 pacientes com asma e seus cuidadores foram designados aleatoriamente aos grupos de intervenção e controle, com um total de 29 díade em cada grupo. As pessoas do grupo da intervenção receberam formação com o método teach-back que se transmitiu individualmente ao paciente e ao seu cuidador principal em três sessões de aproximadamente 60 minutos em três dias consecutivos. Cada sessão incluía apresentações, técnicas práticas e um folheto. Os pacientes e cuidadores do grupo de controle não receberam formação. Antes da intervenção e às 4 e 8 semanas depois dela, se aplicaram as escalas de controle da asma e a de Zarit para avaliação da carga do cuidado e, além disso se praticou uma espirometria. Resultados. As provas de medidas repetidas entre os grupos de estudo mostraram que, comparando com o grupo de controle, o grupo de intervenção obteve maior aumento do índice de capacidade vital (p=0.028) e da pontuação de controle da doença (p=0.001), ademais de que se reduziu a carga do cuidado nos familiares (p<0.001). Conclusão. O presente estudo mostrou que o ensino de temas relacionados com a asma ao paciente e ao seu cuidador, junto com o seguimento e a supervisão da enfermeira, se melhora o controle da asma no paciente e também se reduz a carga do cuidador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Teach-Back Communication , Caregiver Burden , Education
14.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 141-143, jan.mar.2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400124

ABSTRACT

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a lung disease involving hypersensitivity to the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus which occur in susceptible patient with asthma or cystic fibrosis, also considered a rare disease. We report a case of HAE and ABPA in a single patient. HAE diagnosis was confirmed: C4 = 3 mg/dL, C1INH < 2.8 mg/dL - nephelometry. Former lung function showed elevation RV and RV/FVC, suggesting small airways lung disease. Positive skin prick test to Aspergillus fumigatus (03 mm); total serum IgE level 3,100 IU/mL (nephelometry - BNII Siemens), eosinophilia 11% (528/mm3) and specific A. fumigatus IgG antibodies 6,8 mgA/L (FEIA - fluorenzymeimmunoassay - ThermoFisher) and Chest CT showed mucoid impaction of the bronchi, consistent to current ABPA. Controlling ABPA could prevent and reduce angioedema attacks, and lung structural damage. Early diagnosis and treatment of both diseases should be emphasized to reduce mortality and morbidity


Angioedema hereditário (AEH) é uma doença autossômica dominante; aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica (ABPA) é uma doença de hipersensibilidade pulmonar relacionada ao esporo de Aspergillus fumigatus, mais suscetível em pacientes com asma e fibrose cística, ambas são consideradas doenças raras. Apresentamos um caso de AEH e ABPA em um paciente. O diagnóstico de AEH foi confirmado com exames laboratoriais: C4 = 3 mg/dL, C1INH < 2,8 mg/dL - nefelometria. Prova de função pulmonar evidenciou aumento de VR e VR/CVF, sugerindo doenças de pequenas vias aéreas. Teste de puntura positivo para A. fumigatus (03 mm); IgE total = 3.100 IU/mL (nefelometria - BNII Siemens), eosinofilia 11% (528/mm3) e IgG específica para A. fumigatus 6,8 mgA/L (FEIA - ThermoFisher), TC de tórax evidenciou impactação mucoide, consistente com ABPA. Controlar ABPA pode prevenir e reduzir as crises de angioedema e os danos ao tecido pulmonar. O diagnóstico precoce de ambas as doenças deve ser enfatizado para reduzir a morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary , Angioedemas, Hereditary , Patients , Association , Asthma , Therapeutics , Immunoglobulin E , Rare Diseases , Early Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Eosinophilia
15.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 4-48, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400091

ABSTRACT

A alergia ocular, também conhecida como conjuntivite alérgica (CA), é uma reação de hipersensibilidade mediada por imunoglobulina E (IgE) do olho desencadeada por aeroalérgenos, principalmente ácaros da poeira doméstica e pólen de gramíneas. Os sintomas geralmente consistem em prurido ocular ou periocular, lacrimejamento e olhos vermelhos que podem estar presentes durante todo o ano ou sazonalmente. A alergia ocular tem frequência elevada, é subdiagnosticada e pode ser debilitante para o paciente. É potencialmente danosa para a visão, nos casos em que ocasiona cicatrização corneana grave, e na maioria dos pacientes associa-se a outros quadros alérgicos, principalmente rinite, asma e dermatite atópica. É classificada em conjuntivite alérgica perene, conjuntivite alérgica sazonal, ceratoconjuntivite atópica e ceratoconjuntivite vernal. O diagnóstico procura evidenciar o agente etiológico e a confirmação se dá pela realização do teste de provocação conjuntival. O tratamento baseia-se em evitar o contato com os desencadeantes, lubrificação, anti-histamínicos tópicos, estabilizadores de mastócitos, imunossupressores e imunoterapia específica com o objetivo de obter o controle e prevenir as complicações da doença.


Ocular allergy, also known as allergic conjunctivitis, is an immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction of the eye triggered by airborne allergens, primarily house dust mites and grass pollen. Symptoms usually consist of ocular or periocular itching, watery eyes, and red eyes that may be present year-round or seasonally. Ocular allergy has a high frequency, is underdiagnosed, and can be debilitating for the patient. It is potentially harmful to vision in cases of severe corneal scarring, and in most patients, it is associated with other allergic conditions, especially rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. It is classified as perennial allergic conjunctivitis, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Diagnosis seeks to identify the etiologic agent, and confirmation is given by conjunctival provocation testing. Treatment is based on avoiding contact with triggers, lubrication, topical antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, immunosuppressants, and specific immunotherapy with the aim of achieving control and preventing disease complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Diagnosis , Keratoconjunctivitis , Patients , Plants, Medicinal , Pruritus , Psychotherapy , Asthma , Signs and Symptoms , Societies, Medical , Vision, Ocular , Climate Change , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/complications , Conjunctivitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Complementary Therapies , Immunoglobulin E , Serologic Tests , Skin Tests , Allergens , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Probiotics , Acupuncture , Pyroglyphidae , Dermatitis, Atopic , Environmental Pollution , Allergy and Immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Omalizumab , Mast Cell Stabilizers , Histamine Antagonists , Hypersensitivity , Immunosuppressive Agents , Immunotherapy , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Mites
16.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 17(44): 3105, 20220304. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1399860

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As doenças respiratórias crônicas estão entre os principais problemas de saúde pública no mundo. Mesmo sendo sensíveis ao tratamento na Atenção Primária à Saúde, são a terceira principal causa de morte no Brasil. Os serviços de telemedicina apresentam-se como aliados importantes dos profissionais de saúde no que tange ao manejo de doenças respiratórias como a asma e a doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. Objetivo: Avaliar a adequabilidade de um serviço de telemedicina diagnóstica em espirometria considerando os indicadores de oferta, utilização e cobertura populacional no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Resultados: No período estudado, o serviço ofertou 27.672 exames de telespirometria aos usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul encaminhados por médicos da Atenção Primária à Saúde. A utilização esteve abaixo de 50% da oferta em todas as macrorregiões de saúde do estado. Conclusões: O estudo demonstrou que a capacidade instalada pelo serviço esteve adequada para atender à demanda populacional do Rio Grande do Sul, no entanto a baixa utilização do serviço pode estar associada ao desconhecimento sobre ele e à dificuldade em reconhecer essas doenças por parte dos profissionais de saúde da Atenção Primária à Saúde.


Introduction: Chronic respiratory diseases are among the main public health problems in the world. Despite being sensitive to treatment in Primary Health Care, they are the third leading cause of deaths in Brazil. Telemedicine services present themselves as important allies of health professionals regarding the management of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objective: to evaluate the adequacy of a telemedicine diagnostic service in spirometry considering the indicators of supply, use and population coverage in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Results: In the studied period, the service offered 27,672 telespirometry tests to users of the Brazilian Unified Health System referred by Primary Health Care physicians; the use was under 50% in relation to the offer in all health macro-regions of the state. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the capacity installed by the service was adequate to meet the demand of the population in Rio Grande do Sul. However, the low usage of the service may be associated with lack of knowledge about the service and the difficulty to recognize these diseases by health professionals in Primary Health Care.


Introducción: Las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas están entre los principales problemas de salud pública en el mundo. Aunque son sensibles al tratamiento en la Atención Primaria de Salud, son la tercera principal causa de muerte en Brasil. Los servicios de telemedicina se presentan como aliados importantes de los profesionales de la salud en lo que respecta al manejo de enfermedades respiratorias como asma y Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica. Objetivo: evaluar la adecuación de un servicio de telemedicina diagnóstica en espirometría considerando los indicadores de oferta, utilización y cobertura poblacional en el estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Resultados: En el período estudiado, el servicio ofertó 27.672 exámenes de telespirometría a los usuarios del Sistema Único de Salud del RS encaminados por médicos de la atención primaria de salud, la utilización estuvo por debajo del 50% de la oferta en todas las macrorregiones de salud del Rio Grande do Sul. Conclusiones: El estudio demostró que la capacidad instalada por el servicio estuvo adecuada para atender la demanda poblacional de Rio Grande do Sul, sin embargo, la baja utilización del servicio puede estar asociada al desconocimiento del servicio y a la dificultad de reconocer estas enfermedades por parte de los profesionales de salud de la atención primaria de salud.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Spirometry , Telemedicine , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
17.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 601-609, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359371

ABSTRACT

Introdução: doenças crônicas como asma brônquica, alergias respiratórias ou doenças agudas recorrentes, como gripes, frequentemente acometem as crianças. Tais condições exigem o uso de medicamentos, normalmente sob a forma de xaropes, que podem se apresentar como genéricos ou de referência. A alta concentração em sacarose e o baixo pH dessas formulações, assim como o uso noturno e a falta de higienização após sua administração, são alguns fatores que podem contribuir para o potencial cariogênico e erosivo desses medicamentos. Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro o potencial cariogênico e erosivo de xaropes infantis, de referência e genéricos, a partir de suas propriedades físico-químicas e identificar seus principais componentes a partir da análise de bulas e rótulos. Metodologia: foram analisados oito medicamentos de referência e os oito genéricos equivalentes, os quais foram avaliados quanto ao pH, a acidez titulável, a presença de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix) e a composição em sacarose e conservantes através da análise de bulas e rótulos. Resultados: constatou-se que 75% da amostra apresentou pH abaixo do crítico para desmineralização do esmalte dentário. A presença da sacarose e do ácido cítrico foi observada em 43,75% dos medicamentos, especialmente entre aqueles com altos valores de titulação. Conclusão: a maioria dos medicamentos apresentou pH abaixo do pH crítico para dissolução do esmalte dentário, havendo uma ampla variação da acidez titulável. As bulas dos medicamentos não informavam quanto ao risco de erosão dentária e de cárie, apesar da presença de sacarose em algumas formulações.


Introduction: chronic illnesses such as bronchial asthma, respiratory allergies or recurrent acute illnesses, such as the flu, often affect children. Such conditions require the use of medications, usually in the form of syrups, which can be presented as generic or reference ones. The high concentration of sucrose and the low pH of these formulations, as well as the night use and the lack of hygiene after its administration, are some factors that can contribute to the cariogenic and erosive potential of these drugs. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cariogenic and erosive potential of infant reference and generic syrups, based on their physical and chemical properties and to identify their main components from the analysis of package inserts and labels. Methodology: eight reference drugs and eight generic equivalents were analyzed, which were evaluated for pH, titratable acidity, the presence of total soluble solids (ºBrix) and the composition in sucrose and preservatives through the analysis of package inserts and labels. Results: it was found that 75% of the sample had a pH below the critical level for tooth enamel demineralization. The presence of sucrose and citric acid was observed in 43.75% of the drugs, especially among those with high titration values. Conclusion: most drugs had pH below the critical pH for tooth enamel dissolution, with a wide range of titratable acidity between them. The package inserts of the medications did not inform about the risk of dental erosion and caries, despite the presence of sucrose in some formulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma , Tooth Erosion , Bronchitis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chronic Disease , Dental Caries
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in allergic airway inflammation induced by house dust mite (HDM) in bronchial epithelial cells.@*METHODS@#A HDM- induced asthmatic cell model was established in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by exposure to a concentration gradient (200, 400 and 800 U/mL) of HDM for 24 h. To test the effect of siHSP90α and HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG on HDM-induced asthmatic inflammation, HBE cells were transfected with siHSP90α (50 nmol, 12 h) or pretreated with 17-AAG (900 nmol, 6 h) prior to HDM exposure (800 U/mL) for 24 h, and the changes in the expression of HSP90α and ER stress markers were assessed. We also tested the effect of nasal drip of 17-AAG, HDM, or their combination on airway inflammation and ER stress in C57BL/6 mice.@*RESULTS@#In HBE cells, HDM exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of HSP90α protein (P=0.011) and ER stress markers XBP-1 (P=0.044), ATF-6α (P=0.030) and GRP-78 (P=0.027). Knocking down HSP90α and treatment with 17-AAG both significantly inhibited HDM-induced upregulation of XBP-1 (P=0.008). In C57BL/6 mice, treatment with 17-AAG obviously improved HDM-induced airway inflammation and significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the airway (P=0.014) and lowered the levels of IL-4 (P=0.030) and IL-5 (P=0.035) in alveolar lavage fluid. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expressions of XBP-1 and GRP-78 in airway epithelial cells decreased significantly after the treatment of 17-AAG.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HSP90α promotes HDM-induced airway allergic inflammation possibly by upregulating ER stress pathway in bronchial epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Epithelial Cells , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pyroglyphidae
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) on toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two mice were randomly divided into AOO group, AOO+5Z-7-Oxozeaenol group, TDI group, and TDI+5Z-7-Oxozeaenol group. Another 32 mice were randomly divided into AOO group, TDI group, TDI +5Z-7-Oxozeaenol group, and TDI +5Z-7-Oxozeaenol + Necrostatin-1 group. TAK1 inhibitor (5Z-7-Oxozeaenol, 5 mg/kg) and/or RIPK1 inhibitor (Necrostatin-1, 5 mg/kg) were used before each challenge. Airway responsiveness, airway inflammation and airway remodeling were assessed after the treatments. We also examined the effect of TDI-human serum albumin (TDI-HSA) conjugate combined with TAK1 inhibitor on the viability of mouse mononuclear macrophages (RAW264.7) using CCK8 assay. The expressions of TAK1, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and receptor interacting serine/threonine protease 1 (RIPK1) signal pathway in the treated cells were detected with Western blotting. The effects of RIPK1 inhibitor on the viability of RAW264.7 cells and airway inflammation of the mouse models of TDI-induced asthma were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#TAK1 inhibitor aggravated TDI-induced airway inflammation, airway hyper responsiveness and airway remodeling in the mouse models (P < 0.05). Treatment with TAK1 inhibitor significantly decreased the viability of RAW264.7 cells, which was further decreased by co-treatment with TDI-HSA (P < 0.05). TAK1 inhibitor significantly decreased the level of TAK1 phosphorylation and activation of MAPK signal pathway induced by TDI-HSA (P < 0.05). Co-treatment with TAK1 inhibitor and TDI-HSA obviously increased the level of RIPK1 phosphorylation and caused persistent activation of caspase 8 (P < 0.05). RIPK1 inhibitor significantly inhibited the reduction of cell viability caused by TAK1 inhibitor and TDI-HSA (P < 0.05) and alleviated the aggravation of airway inflammation induced by TAK1 inhibitors in TDI-induced mouse models (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Inhibition of TAK1 aggravates TDI-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and may increase the death of macrophages by enhancing the activity of RIPK1 and causing persistent activation of caspase 8.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/chemically induced , Inflammation , Macrophages , Mice , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Respiratory System , Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate/adverse effects
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936237

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the sensitization characteristics of Juniperus chinensis pollen in patients with allergic rhinitis and/or allergic asthma in Beijing area, and to explore the characteristics of Juniper chinensis pollen sensitized population. Methods: Patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and/or asthma from January 2017 to December 2019 in the outpatient department of Allergy Department of Beijing Shijitan Hospital were selected in this study. Skin prick test (SPT) was performed with Juniper chinensis pollen allergen reagent to compare different age and disease allergen distribution, and to observe the sensitization characteristics of its population. All of the analyses were performed using SAS software version 9.4. Results: A total of 8 380 patients were enrolled in the end. The total positive rate of Juniper chinensis pollen SPT reached 49.92% (4 183/8 380). The positive rate of Juniper chinensis pollen SPT was highest in the 10-14 age group, reaching 60.99% (283/464). Compared with other age groups, there was a statistical difference (χ²=266.77, P<0.01). The SPT positive rate of patients aged less than 10 years increased with the increase of age, while the SPT positive rate of patients aged over 40 years decreased with the increase of age. Single Juniper chinensis pollen was less allergenic, accounting for about 25.05% (1 048/4 183), and the patients' age was (35.21±12.39) years. Regardless of single Juniper chinensis pollen or other pollen allergies, allergic rhinitis was the main disease. Among the patients with SPT positive Juniper chinensis pollen combined with other inhaled pollen allergens, willow pollen accounted for the first (74.99%). The positive rate of Juniper chinensis pollen was the highest in patients with single allergic rhinitis, accounting for 52.05% (3 797/7 295), and the rate in patients with single allergic asthma was the lowest, accounting for 17.49% (53/303), with statistically difference (χ²=138.99, P<0.01). Conclusions: Juniper chinensis pollen is highly sensitized in patients with allergic rhinitis and/or allergic asthma in Beijing . The positive rate of SPT is highest among 10-14 age group, most of which showed strong positive reaction, and allergic rhinitis is more common in Juniper chinensis pollen sensitization diseases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Allergens , Asthma , Child , Humans , Juniperus , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin Tests
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