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2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 23: e240396, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1537126

ABSTRACT

Aim: Like other fields of health, the main focus in dentistry has shifted from treatment to prevention of diseases. Parents have a vital role in deciding about their children's oral health issues. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of four educational methods (including printed pamphlets, digital pamphlets, faceto-face education, and educational films) in increasing the awareness of parents about preventive orthodontic treatments. Methods: The study samples were selected from patients who were referred to the Pediatric Dentistry Department. 150 parents of children between 4-12 years old participated in the study. They filled out a questionnaire including demographic data and knowledge about orthodontic problems and their early treatments. Then they were divided into five groups (control, printed pamphlet, digital pamphlet, face-to-face, educational films) and after one month they repeated the test. Results: A total of 102 fathers and 48 mothers were evaluated. There was no statistical difference between different ages, sex, or income in terms of their awareness, but the awareness score between educational groups was different. There has been observed a significant increase in the awareness level of all four groups (except the control group) (P < 0.05). The highest score was seen in the video group. The difference between printed pamphlets and digital pamphlets was not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that educational films are the most effective way of increasing awareness about preventive orthodontic treatments


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics, Preventive , Parents , Awareness , Therapeutics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pediatric Dentistry , Education, Dental
3.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(1): 28-37, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1532983

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, 296 million people were infected by hepatitis B in 2019, with 1.1 million deaths. Africa is one of the endemic regions. Good knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B remain pivotal to the biosafety of medical students. This study sought to determine the levels of knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among students of Pamo University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and the predicting factors associated with this knowledge and awareness. The is with the aim of providing recommendations for improving and sustaining biosafety levels for medical and other health-related students of the University. Methodology: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design conducted amongst 528 randomly selected medical students of PUMS, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were interviewer-administered to collect socio-demographic information and participants' responses to questions on knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26.0 and relationships of socio-demographic characteristics and predictive factors with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B were tested using binary logistic regression analysis with p value for statistical significance set at <0.05. Results: A total of 528 students participated in the study, 202 (38.3%) males and 326 (61.7%) females. Most participants (296, 56.1%) were between 15-19 years of age with mean age of 19 ±2.43 years. The mean (±SD) of participants responses with good knowledge of hepatitis B was 249±121.5 while for good awareness, it was 181±88.3. The percentage average for good knowledge and good awareness was 47.2% and 34.2% respectively, with positive correlation between knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B (r=0.720, p<0.0001). Age was significantly associated with participants percentage average knowledge (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84, p<0.0001) and awareness of hepatitis B (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.78-0.90, p=0.004). No other factor was significantly associated with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B except Ijaw tribe (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.24-0.66, p=0.034) and attendance of Federal Government College (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.24-0.68, p=0.046). Conclusion: The percentage average good knowledge of 47.2% and awareness of 34.2% for hepatitis B in this study are low, although most participants in the study were between the ages of 15-19 years and in their first and second year of study. This gives room for improvement in knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B with progression in age and year of training. Good knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B are central to the biosafety of medical students. It is recommended that the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria (MDCN) review the current medical school curriculum to increase the teaching of medical and health-related students that will impact more on knowledge and awareness of infectious diseases and infection prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Schools, Medical , Awareness , Hepatitis B , Universities , Knowledge
4.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 1-10, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006395

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study sought to investigate citizens' awareness, availment, satisfaction, and perceived need for action with health services offered by a rural municipality in Samar, Philippines.@*Methods@#This study utilized an explanatory-sequential research design, involving 150 participants selected through the Kish Grid Method via a multi-stage sampling approach within the community. The Citizen Satisfaction Index System was employed to assess the levels of awareness, utilization, and satisfaction with health services in the municipality.@*Results@#Among the assessed health services, the cohort had low awareness and low availment on services for communicable diseases, basic dental/oral hygiene, and reproductive health. While high awareness was observed for childbirth services, there was low availment on these. The participants showed high awareness and availment for only two services namely, free general consultation and the free medicine program. While high satisfaction was seen among all services that were assessed, the participants also expressed a high perceived need for action to improve their delivery. @*Conclusion@#This study presents a comprehensive view of rural healthcare in Samar, Philippines. Despite high satisfaction rates, gaps persist in the citizen’s awareness and availment due to accessibility, costs, fear, misinformation, and cultural differences. The findings of this study can guide policymakers in identifying gaps in healthcare in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Health Services , Awareness , Personal Satisfaction
5.
Rev. ADM ; 80(5): 267-273, sept.-oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531449

ABSTRACT

El propósito del presente trabajo está orientado a generar una reflexión entre el gremio odontológico profesional y los estudiantes de las licenciaturas en Odontología respecto a la contaminación global que estamos generando y a la crítica situación del planeta, así como sus consecuencias ambientales y climatológicas, sobre lo importante que es educar bajo la perspectiva de una Odontología Verde y Sostenible a través de la ambientalización curricular en las escuelas y facultades de Odontología para generar un tipo de cultura y conciencia proambiental. De igual forma para señalar lo sencillo que es ambientalizar agradable y relajantemente nuestro entorno educativo y laboral, así como realizar algunas prácticas odontológicas ecológicas y ambientales en la práctica privada que cuestan poco o nada y que, por el contrario, el gran efecto positivo que éstas tendrán en el medio ambiente y la reducción de los niveles de contaminación actuales. Si realmente logramos generar una nueva cultura y conciencia que se preocupe por el medio ambiente en el campo de la Odontología, los resultados para todos se verán reflejados en un mejor ambiente social, educativo de trabajo y de salud (AU)


The purpose of this work is aimed at generating a reflection between the professional dental guild and the students of the Bachelor's Degrees in Dentistry regarding the global pollution that we are generating and the critical situation of the planet and its environmental and climatological consequences, on how important it is educate under the perspective of a Green and Sustainable Dentistry through the greening of the curriculum in the Schools and Faculties of Dentistry to generate a type of culture and pro-environmental awareness. Likewise, point out how simple it is to pleasantly and relaxingly green our educational and work environment, as well as perform some ecological and environment, as well perform some ecological and environment, dental practices in private practice that cost little or nothing and that, on the contrary, the great positive effect that these will have on the environment and the reduction of current pollution levels. If we truly manage to generate a new culture and awareness that cares about the environment in the field of Dentistry, the results for all will be reflected in a better social, educational, work and health environment (AU)


Subject(s)
Dentistry/trends , Environment , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Awareness , Climate Change , Dental Equipment/trends , Sustainable Development Indicators
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 17(1): 94-111, jan.-marc. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418676

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo tem como objetivo estudar as reportagens jornalísticas que noticiam casos de feminicídio seguido de suicídio, e analisar qual o papel da mídia na conscientização do público sobre as violências correlacionadas. Com muitos estigmas, o tema ainda é pouco abordado pelo jornalismo de forma esclarecedora e em formato de prestação de serviço, uma vez que ambos os assuntos ainda são tabus para a sociedade. Dessa forma, este estudo se propõe a ampliar o debate, a partir dos autores Durkheim, Blázquez e Christofoletti. A pesquisa também é pautada com dois manuais para jornalistas, o da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), sobre como falar do suicídio; e o da plataforma Universa UOL, sobre como abordar o feminicídio. Ao longo do trabalho, percebe-se que o jornalismo precisa refletir sobre seu papel na prevenção de casos como esses e a respeito de como exercê-lo


This article aims to study the journalistic reports that report cases of femicide followed by suicide, and to analyze the role of the media in raising the public awareness of correlated violence. With many stigmas, the subject is still little addressed by journalism in an enlightening way and in order to provide service, since both subjects are still taboo subjects for society. Thus, this study proposes to broaden the debate, based on the authors Durkheim, Blázquez and Christofoletti. The research is also guided by two manuals for journalists: that elaborated by the World Health Organization (WHO), on how to talk about suicide; and that presented by the Universa UOL platform, on how to approach femicide. Throughout the work, it is clear that journalism needs to reflect on its role in preventing cases like these and how to exercise it


Este artículo tiene como objetivo estudiar los reportajes periodísticos que divulgan casos de feminicidio seguido de suicidio, y analizar el papel de los medios de comunicación en la sensibilización de la población sobre la violencia correlacionada. Con muchos estigmas, el tema es aún poco abordado por el periodismo de manera esclarecedora y con el fin de prestar un servicio, ya que los dos temas siguen siendo tabúes para la sociedad. Así, este estudio propone ampliar el debate, apoyándose en los autores Durkheim, Blázquez y Christofoletti. La investigación también se guía por dos manuales para periodistas: el elaborado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), sobre cómo hablar sobre el suicidio; y el presentado en la plataforma Universa UOL, sobre cómo abordar el feminicidio. A lo largo del trabajo, queda claro que el periodismo necesita reflexionar sobre su papel en la prevención de casos como estos y sobre cómo ejercerlo


Subject(s)
Humans , Suicide , News , Journalism , Homicide , Awareness , Violence , Ethical Theory , Social Media
7.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35: 1-9, jan. 31, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417329

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that represents a severe public health problem worldwide and in Brazil it has not been different. The national compulsory notifications regarding syphilis cases are significantly increasing, and therefore, this fact alone justifies the study of such a relevant subject. Objective: This work presents a situational analysis of syphilis cases in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2015 and 2021, aiming primarily at assisting public healthcare authorities in decision-making processes to cope with the disease. Concomitantly, this research aims to build knowledge as well as to provide awareness to the population. Methods: This study analyzed data from compulsory notifications reports from 2015 to 2021, available in the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's Informatics Department, in the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases and in the Brazilian Health Surveillance Secretariat. Results: In the state, 70% of patients with syphilis are aged 15 to 39 years. The rate of patients affected with acquired syphilis that have low education is 48%, and for pregnant women, this value rises to 77%. The declared mixed-race patients represent 48% of notifications for acquired syphilis, and for mixed-race pregnant women, this value increases to 60%. In congenital syphilis, 98% of compulsory notifications occurred for children aged up to 7 days of birth. Conclusion: Syphilis in Rio Grande do Norte is a public health problem that mainly affects the vulnerable population, predominantly the groups at risk with low education, mixed race, and young-adult people, being of paramount importance to combat the disease through population awareness, as well as through constant and adequate compulsory notification.


Introdução: A sífilis é uma infecção sexualmente transmissível que representa um grave problema de saúde pública para o mundo, bem como para o Brasil. As notificações compulsórias nacionais de casos de sífilis estão crescendo significativamente, portanto esse fato por si só justifica o estudo centrado nesta temática de primordial importância. Objetivo: Este trabalho apresenta uma análise situacional da sífilis entre os anos de 2015 e 2021 no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, visando principalmente auxiliar as autoridades públicas de saúde nos processos decisórios em resposta à sífilis, mas também construir conhecimento e embasar a conscientização da população. Métodos: Foram analisados dados das notificações de 2015 a 2021 disponíveis na base de dados do Sistema Único de Saúde, no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação e na Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Resultados: No estado, mais de 70% dos pacientes afetados por sífilis têm entre 15 e 39 anos de idade. A taxa de pacientes com baixa escolaridade e que foram notificados com sífilis adquirida é de 48% e, para as gestantes, esse valor sobe para 77%. Pacientes declarados pardos representam 48% das notificações para sífilis adquirida e, para gestantes pardas, esse valor amplia-se para 60%. Na sífilis congênita, 98% das notificações ocorreram para crianças com idade de até sete dias de nascidos. Conclusão: A sífilis no Rio Grande do Norte é um problema de saúde pública que atinge principalmente a população vulnerável, com predominância dos grupos de baixa escolaridade, raça parda e jovens adultos, sendo de suma importância o combate à doença por meio da conscientização da população, como também a constante e adequada notificação compulsória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Syphilis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Public Health , Awareness , Vulnerable Populations
8.
PAMJ One Health ; 10(4): 1-15, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425253

ABSTRACT

Introduction: gender-based violence (GBV) is a global pandemic which is deeply rooted in culture, hence the need to contextually understand its occurrence and patterns in rural settings. The objective of this study assessed respondents´ attitude, prevalence, the perceived risk factors, patterns and predictors of GBV in Ife-Odan, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods: cross-sectional study design was used and multi-stage sampling method employed to recruit 450 consenting adults. A pretested interviewer-administered, semistructured questionnaire was used for data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out. Results: mean age (±SD) of the respondents was 30.73±7.0, 58.7% of them were females and 88.0% had negative attitude to GBV. Prevalence of any form of GBV was 16.2%. Predominant GBV types included intimate partner violence (IPV) (58.3%), female genital mutilation (FGM) (31.1%), Sexual violence (6.9%) and incest (3.4%). Perceived risk factors of GBV included cultural acceptance, substance abuse, lack of punishments for GBV offenders, indecent female dressing styles, social media influences, effects of COVID-19 lockdown and male dominance. However, gender (AOR=7.82; 95%CI=2.35-8.17), marital status (AOR=3.23;95%CI=1.82-3.78), religion (AOR=5.02;95%CI=1.78-9.63) and attitude (AOR=4.23; 95%CI=2.267-5.82) were the significant predictors of past GBV experiences in the study setting. Conclusion: gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent in the study setting, with IPV being the most common. There is need for policymakers to focus on cultural transformation by designing a robust awareness campaign against GBV in rural Nigerian communities. Traditional and religious leaders should be sensitized and involved in the campaign programs using all available channels of communication. Laws prohibiting perpetration of GBV need to be fully implemented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Offenses , Awareness , Social Media , Intimate Partner Violence , Gender-Based Violence , COVID-19 , Risk Factors , Circumcision, Female
9.
Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 17(2): 1-8, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1426660

ABSTRACT

Background:The COVID-19 pandemic and its vaccine have been met with varying perceptions that may have both negative and positive effects on the willingness to uptake the COVID-19 vaccine. The study is set to determine the perception and willingness of the household heads to the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine in a rural community in Southwestern, Nigeria.Materials and Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out among 409 household heads selected through a multistage sampling technique. The instrument of data collection was a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaireusing the Health Belief model constructs. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS version 21.0 and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to determine the association between perception and willingness to uptake vaccine. P<0.05 was taken as significant at 95% confidence interval.Results:The majority of the unvaccinated respondents in the study were not willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine (60.1%). There was a poor perception of the susceptibility/severity of unvaccinated respondents to COVID-19 infection and a poor perception of the benefit/barrier to the uptake of the COVID-19vaccine. Perception of susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection were statistically related to the willingness to uptake the COVID-19vaccine.Conclusion:There should be an increase in awareness campaigns to change the perception of people positively to COVID-19 infection and uptake of the COVID-19vaccine.


Subject(s)
Rural Population , Awareness , Therapeutics , Family Characteristics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pandemics
10.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(2): 1-9, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427614

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective preventive measures against HIV infection but its success is strongly based on adherence, which in turn depends on willingness to use. This study is aimed at assessing the level of awareness and willingness to use PrEP to prevent HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Anambra State, Nigeria, and to identify factors that influence willingness to use PrEP. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional survey involving 265 brothel-based FSWs recruited through snowballing technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information on demographic characteristics, awareness of HIV/AIDS and transmission route, attitudes/behavior related to HIV/AIDS, and awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Univariate and bivariate analyses with Chi square test (with Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) was used to determine association of socio-demographic and predictive factors with willingness to use PrEP. Statistical significance was considered when p value was less than 0.05. Results: Of 265 FSW respondents, only 81 (31.2%) have heard of PrEP, 10 (3.9%) indicated they have previously used PrEP while 91.0% indicated willingness to use PrEP. Univariate analysis showed that FSWs in Onitsha had a significantly higher odds (OR=28.6, 95% CI=1.718-476.82, p=0.0006) while those from Awka had a significantly lower odds (OR=0.184, 95% CI=0.0704-0.1812, p=0.0004) of willingness to use PrEP. Also, FSWs with monthly income less than 18,000 Naira had a lower odd of willingness to use PrEP (OR=0.3980, 95% CI=0.1593-0.9945, p=0.08). Bivariate analysis shows that FSWs who wish to have more knowledge of HIV/AIDS had higher odd of willingness to use PrEP than those who did not wish to have more knowledge (OR=4.235, 95% CI=1.577­11.374, p=0.0066). Similarly, FSWs who are worried of being discriminated against have a lower odd of willingness to use PrEP than those who are not worried of being discriminated against (OR=0.3921, 95% CI=0.1582-0.9718, p=0.0439). Conclusion: Our study showed low awareness but high willingness to use PrEP among FSWs in Anambra State,Nigeria. Cost, HIV/AIDS knowledge and fear of discrimination are significant predicting factors of willingness to use HIV PrEP and should be considered when formulating PrEP policy. Adequate enlightenment on PrEP should be emphasized among FSWs.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Genitalia, Female , Awareness , Sex Workers
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243885, 2023. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422418

ABSTRACT

Esta é uma pesquisa qualitativa, em formato de ensaio, que realiza o estudo comparado de duas obras literárias, de A. Von Chamisso e E. T. A. Hoffmann, e de uma anotação do diário deste último para problematizar a repercussão de algumas formas de desestabilizações do Eu na dinâmica psíquica da neurose. O foco dos textos referidos está no fenômeno do duplo na sua forma negativizada, isto é, como o desaparecimento da imagem exterior que dá suporte ao Eu. As ausências da sombra e do reflexo são entendidas como representações metafóricas de uma alteração do Eu que engendra repercussões importantes na homeostase psíquica, sobretudo nas relações sociais de troca. Explora-se daí a menção no diário de Hoffmann de instrumentos ópticos para interrogar o uso desses aparelhos como modelos metapsicológicos na psicanálise. Salienta-se, ainda, a participação de processos de natureza estética na dinâmica psíquica do infamiliar, tomando como referência a ligação entre o conto de Hoffmann e o relato de Stendhal sobre a sua estadia em Florença.(AU)


This is a qualitative research, in essay format, which performs the comparative study of two literary works, by A. Von Chamisso and E. T. A. Hoffmann, and an annotation in the latter's diary to problematize the repercussion of some forms of destabilization of the Ego's in the psychic dynamics of neurosis. The focus of the referred texts is on the phenomenon of the double in its negative form, that is, as the disappearance of the outer image that supports the Ego. The absences of the shadow and the reflection are understood as metaphorical representations of an alteration of the Ego that generates important repercussions on psychic homeostasis, above all in social relationships of exchange. Thus, we analyze the mention of optical instruments in Hoffmann's diary to question the use of these devices as metapsychological models in psychoanalysis. Note, also, the participation of processes of aesthetic nature in the psychic dynamics of the uncanny, taking as reference the connection between Hoffmann's short story and Stendhal's account of his stay in Florence.(AU)


Este ensayo cualitativo realiza un estudio comparativo de dos obras literarias de A. Von Chamisso y de E. T. A. Hoffmann, junto con una anotación en el diario de este último para problematizar la repercusión de algunas formas de desestabilizaciones de la función del Yo en la dinámica psíquica de la neurosis. Los textos se centran en el fenómeno del doble en su forma negativa, como la desaparición de la imagen exterior que sostiene el Yo. Se entienden las ausencias de la penumbra y el reflejo como una representación metafórica de una alteración de la función del Yo que genera importantes repercusiones en la regulación psíquica, sobre todo en las relaciones de intercambio social. Se analiza la presencia en el diario de Hoffmann de instrumentos ópticos para discutir el uso de estos dispositivos como modelos metapsicológicos en psicoanálisis. Se destaca la reverberación de procesos de naturaleza estética en la dinámica psíquica de lo ominoso, tomando como referencia la conexión entre el cuento de Hoffmann y el relato de Stendhal sobre su estancia en Florencia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychoanalysis , Family , Literature , Narcissism , Personal Satisfaction , Personality Development , Personality Disorders , Psychology , Psychosexual Development , Psychosomatic Medicine , Regression, Psychology , Self Concept , Social Alienation , Stress, Psychological , Sublimation, Psychological , Awareness , Superego , Unconscious, Psychology , Behavioral Sciences , Behavioral Symptoms , Body Image , Letter , Consciousness , Intuition , Metaphor , Diary , Essay , Affect , Death , Narration , Comprehension , Dependency, Psychological , Depersonalization , Ego , Empathy , Extraversion, Psychological , Fantasy , Problem Behavior , Metacognition , Romanticism , Graphic Novel , Folklore , Perfectionism , Frailty , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Academic Success , Freudian Theory , Disgust , Egocentrism , Emotional Regulation , Gaslighting , Germany , Narcissistic Personality Disorder , Homeostasis , Identification, Psychological , Imagination , Individuality , Individuation , Inhibition, Psychological , Intelligence , Jealousy , Linguistics , Loneliness , Machiavellianism , Mental Processes , Negativism , Oedipus Complex
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e254599, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448941

ABSTRACT

Student protagonism is paramount in the knowledge construction process. In this paper, we discuss a didactic-pedagogical resource called licentîa hypomnema (LH), inspired in portfolios and learning diaries in which student-teachers record their understandings and reflections regarding pedagogical topics learned at University in a meta-learning process on learning about teaching. The initial context of the research was a Psychological Development and Teaching course, offered in the Teacher Education program at Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Two of the authors, then Literacy and Languages Teaching students, produced their LH and peer assessed each other during the course. In their annotations, the student-authors recorded two pedagogical situations related to the use of LH in their own teaching practices, causing an impact on their formative path. These materials consist of the data for analysis and discussion. Moreover, we discuss possible uses of reflexive writing in teacher education and other learning contexts. Producing a LH supports knowledge production and allows students to connect theory and practice, which consequently influences the student's teaching practice. Since LH is a didactic-pedagogical resource and not a close-ended tool, both the context and individuals who use it should be considered.(AU)


O protagonismo de estudantes tem grande importância no processo de construção do conhecimento. Neste artigo, discutimos um recurso didático-pedagógico chamado licentîa hypomnema (LH), inspirado em portfólios e diários de aprendizagem, isto é, estudantes de licenciatura escrevem suas compreensões e reflexões acerca de assuntos pedagógicos vistos na universidade em um processo de meta-aprendizagem sobre aprender a ensinar. O contexto inicial da pesquisa foi um curso de Desenvolvimento Psicológico e Ensino, ministrado em cursos de Licenciatura da Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Duas das autoras eram estudantes do curso de Letras, elas produziram seus LH, realizando avaliação por pares entre si durante o curso. As estudantes-autoras trouxeram em seus registros duas situações pedagógicas relacionadas ao uso desse recurso em suas próprias práticas de ensino que causaram um impacto em suas trajetórias formativas. São esses relatos que compõem os dados para análise e discussão. Além disso, procuramos discutir possíveis desdobramentos para o uso do recurso da escrita reflexiva na formação docente e em outros contextos de aprendizagem. A produção do LH fornece suporte para a produção de conhecimento e permite ao aluno conectar teoria e prática, o que, consequentemente, reverbera na prática de ensino do aluno. O LH é um recurso didático-pedagógico e não uma ferramenta fechada, portanto, tanto o contexto quanto as pessoas que o utilizam devem ser considerados.(AU)


El protagonismo de los estudiantes tiene gran importancia en el proceso de construcción del conocimiento. En este trabajo, discutimos un recurso didáctico-pedagógico llamado licentîa hypomnema (LH), que se inspira en diarios de aprendizaje, es decir, estudiantes de profesorado escriben sus comprensiones y reflexiones sobre temas pedagógicos aprendidos en la universidad, produciendo un proceso de meta-aprendizaje sobre aprender a enseñar. El contexto inicial de la investigación fue un curso de Desarrollo Psicológico y Enseñanza, impartido en el programa de Formación de Profesores de la Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Dos de las autoras eran alumnas de la carrera de Letras que produjeron sus LH y realizaron una evaluación por pares mutua durante el curso. Las estudiantes autoras plantearon en su LH dos situaciones pedagógicas relacionadas con el uso de este recurso en sus propias prácticas de enseñanza, causando un impacto en su trayectoria formativa. Estos materiales constituyen los datos para el análisis y la discusión en esta investigación. Buscamos discutir posibles desdoblamientos para el uso del recurso de la escritura reflexiva en la formación docente y en otros contextos de aprendizaje. La producción de este recurso da soporte a la producción de conocimiento y permite al estudiante conectar teoría y práctica, lo que consecuentemente repercute en su práctica docente. El LH es un recurso didáctico-pedagógico y no una herramienta cerrada, por lo tanto, se debe considerar tanto el contexto como las personas que lo utilizan.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diary , Faculty , Handwriting , Organizational Objectives , Aptitude , Psychology , Psychology, Educational , Psychology, Social , Reading , Remedial Teaching , Association , Self Care , Social Change , Social Responsibility , Social Sciences , Speech , Awareness , Thinking , Writing , Activities of Daily Living , Power, Psychological , Mental Competency , Models, Educational , Cognition , Problem-Based Learning , Conditioning, Psychological , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Creativity , Cultural Evolution , Culture , Personal Autonomy , Decision Making , Interdisciplinary Communication , Comprehension , Educational Measurement , Educational Status , Abstracting and Indexing , Methodology as a Subject , Planning , Existentialism , Knowledge Discovery , Teach-Back Communication , Mindfulness , Mentoring , Self-Directed Learning as Topic , Memory and Learning Tests , Self-Management , Freedom , Self-Testing , Social Interaction , Individuality , Inservice Training , Intelligence , Knowledge of Results, Psychological , Language Arts , Leadership , Learning Disabilities , Life Change Events , Memory , Mental Processes
14.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253652, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448950

ABSTRACT

Martin Heidegger, em sua ontologia, destaca uma característica específica da atualidade que atravessa o comportamento humano, na filosofia, na ciência ou no senso comum: o esquecimento do ser. O filósofo diferencia a época atual das demais épocas históricas. O horizonte histórico contemporâneo se desvela por meio do desafio e da exploração, da tentativa de controle e domínio dos acontecimentos, ao modo da disponibilidade e em função da produtividade. O filósofo esclarece que todo esse desenraizamento do homem atual está atrelado ao esquecimento daquilo que é o mais essencial, qual seja, a existência. A questão que norteia este estudo é apurar, por meio das referências de Heidegger e dos estudos sobre suicídio, o quanto a interpretação da morte voluntária nos dias atuais está atravessada por tal esquecimento. Pretendemos investigar o quanto as ações de prevenção desenvolvidas pela suicidologia se encontram atravessadas por tal esquecimento do ser do homem e, dessa forma, acabam por estabelecer relações entre ser e ente em uma consequente redução ao ente como invariante e atemporal. O caminho para investigar a questão iniciará por abordar, em maiores detalhes, a analítica existencial, a questão da técnica e o movimento de esquecimento do ser apontados por Heidegger a fim de problematizar as perspectivas científicas atuais sobre o suicídio em sua prevenção para, então, estabelecer uma compreensão fenomenológica e existencial sobre o referido fenômeno.(AU)


Martin Heidegger, in his ontology, highlights a specific characteristic of the present moment that crosses human behavior, in philosophy, science, or common sense: the forgetfulness of being. The philosopher differentiates the current age from other historical ages. The contemporary historical horizon is unveiled by the challenge and the exploration, from the attempt to control and dominate events, to the mode of standing reserve and in terms of productivity. The philosopher clarifies that all this uprooting of the current man is linked to the forgetfulness of what is the most essential, namely, the existence itself. The question that guides this study is to investigate, via Heidegger's references and studies on suicide, to what extent the interpretation of voluntary death today is crossed by such forgetfulness. We intend to investigate to what extent the prevention actions developed by suicidology are crossed by such forgetfulness of the human's being and, in this way, they end up establishing relationships between being and entity in a consequent reduction to entity as an invariant and timeless. The path to investigate the issue will start by addressing, in greater detail, the existential analytics, the question concerning technique and the movement of forgetting the being pointed out by Heidegger to problematize the current scientific perspectives on suicide and its prevention to, then, propose a phenomenological and existential understanding about the referred phenomenon.(AU)


Martin Heidegger en su ontología destaca una característica específica del presente que atraviesa el comportamiento humano, ya sea en la filosofía, la ciencia o el sentido común: el olvido del ser. El filósofo diferencia la época actual de otras épocas históricas. El horizonte histórico contemporáneo se devela el desafío y la exploración, el intento de controlar y dominar los eventos, en la modalidad de disponibilidad y en términos de productividad. Y así aclara que todo este desarraigo del hombre actual está involucrado en el olvido de lo más esencial, que es la existencia misma. A partir de las referencias a Heidegger y de los estudios sobre el suicidio, este estudio busca saber hasta qué punto la interpretación de la muerte voluntaria hoy está atravesada por este olvido. Pretendemos investigar en qué medida las acciones de prevención desarrolladas por la suicidología se encuentran atravesadas por el olvido del ser del hombre y, de esta manera, terminan por establecer relaciones entre el ser y el ente, en una consecuente reducción al ente como invariante y atemporal. Para investigar el tema se abordará inicialmente, con mayor detalle, la analítica existencial, la cuestión de la técnica y el movimiento del olvido del ser señalado por Heidegger para problematizar las perspectivas científicas actuales sobre el suicidio y su prevención y, luego, proponer una comprensión fenomenológica y existencial sobre el referido fenómeno.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suicide , Disease Prevention , Suicide Prevention , Anxiety , Pain , Personal Satisfaction , Personality , Prejudice , Psychiatry , Psychological Phenomena , Psychology , Psychopathology , Psychotherapy, Group , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Problems , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Suicide, Attempted , Therapeutics , Behavior , Behavioral Sciences , Neurosciences , Humans , Power, Psychological , Family , Catatonia , Mental Health , Causality , Risk Factors , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Self-Injurious Behavior , Panic Disorder , Suicide, Assisted , Cognition , Combat Disorders , Conflict, Psychological , Conscience , Meditation , Cultural Diversity , Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Crisis Intervention , Affective Symptoms , Death , Depression , Drive , Alcoholism , User Embracement , Existentialism , Mental Fatigue , Resilience, Psychological , Theory of Mind , Suicidal Ideation , Apathy , Pandemics , Early Medical Intervention , Gene Ontology , Protective Factors , Behavior Observation Techniques , Moral Status , Freedom , Sadness , Emotional Regulation , Psychological Distress , Suicide, Completed , Social Inclusion , Genetics, Behavioral , Family Support , Psychological Well-Being , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Interpersonal Relations , Life Change Events , Life Style , Loneliness , Mental Disorders , Morals , Dissociative Identity Disorder , Neurotic Disorders , Obsessive Behavior , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
15.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e261792, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529200

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender como mulheres adultas (acima de 30 anos) diagnosticadas com transtornos alimentares (TAs) vivenciam o adoecer. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório, desenvolvido com base no referencial teórico-metodológico da Análise Fenomenológica Interpretativa (AFI). Participaram seis mulheres, com idades entre 34 e 65 anos, atendidas em um serviço especializado. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista aberta, de inspiração fenomenológica, na modalidade remota. As entrevistas foram audiogravadas, transcritas e analisadas seguindo os passos da AFI. Duas categorias temáticas foram identificadas: "Vivendo antes do adoecer" e "Encontrando-se doente." Constatou-se que os sintomas tiveram início anteriormente à vida adulta e que houve dificuldade na confirmação do diagnóstico. Na perspectiva das participantes, conviver com a sintomatologia ficou mais complicado em função de particularidades de manejo dos sintomas na vida adulta, e a idade é percebida como um fator que impacta e dificulta ainda mais a recuperação. As participantes relataram desesperança em relação ao futuro, apesar de a maioria reconhecer melhoras no quadro clínico ao longo do tempo e de valorizar a relação de confiança estabelecida com a equipe multiprofissional.(AU)


This study aimed to understand the experience of illness of adult women (over 30 years) diagnosed with eating disorders (ED). This is a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study, using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as theoretical and methodological framework. A sample of six women aged 34-64 years, assisted in a specialized service, were recruited to complete a phenomenological in-depth open interview. The data were remotely collected. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed following the IPA. Two thematic categories were identified: "Living before the illness" and "Finding about the illness." It was found that the symptoms started before adulthood and that there was difficulty establishing the diagnosis. Living with the symptoms became more complicated due to particularities of symptom management in adulthood and age is perceived as a factor that impacts recovery and makes it even more difficult. The participants reported hopelessness about the future, although most recognized improvements in the clinical condition over time and valued the trusting relationship they established with the multiprofessional team.(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender las experiencias de las mujeres adultas (mayores de 30 años) diagnosticadas con trastornos alimentarios (TA) respecto a la enfermedad. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, desarrollado a partir del marco teórico y metodológico del Análisis Fenomenológico Interpretativo (AFI). Participaron seis mujeres, con edades de entre 34 y 65 años, atendidas en un servicio especializado. Los datos se recogieron mediante entrevistas abiertas, de inspiración fenomenológica, en la modalidad a distancia. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas en audio, transcritas y analizadas siguiendo los pasos del AFI. Se identificaron dos categorías temáticas: "Vivir antes de enfermar" y "Encontrarse enfermo." Se constató que los síntomas comenzaron antes de la edad adulta y que hubo dificultades de establecer el diagnóstico. La convivencia con síntomas se complicó debido a las particularidades del manejo de los síntomas en la vida adulta y la edad se percibe como un factor que influye y dificulta aún más la recuperación. Los participantes manifestaron desesperanza sobre el futuro, aunque reconocieron mejoras en el cuadro clínico con el paso del tiempo y valoraron la relación de confianza establecida con el equipo multiprofesional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anorexia Nervosa , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Bulimia Nervosa , Pandemics , Anxiety , Perceptual Distortion , Appetite , Personal Satisfaction , Psychiatry , Psychology , Psychopathology , Quality of Life , Self-Assessment , Self Concept , Shame , Stomach Diseases , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Therapeutics , Thinness , Beauty Culture , Vomiting , Nutrition Rehabilitation , Body Image , Body Weight , Aging , Menopause , Weight Loss , Family , Hyperphagia , Comorbidity , Mental Health , Mortality , Interview , Cultural Factors , Dehydration , Transcription Factors, General , Malnutrition , Depressive Disorder , Diagnosis , Diet , Diet Therapy , Emotions , Nutritional Sciences , Laxatives , Feeding Behavior , Binge-Eating Disorder , Bullying , Social Stigma , Physical Appearance, Body , Self-Control , Applied Behavior Analysis , Food Addiction , Rumination, Digestive , Mental Health Recovery , Body-Weight Trajectory , Embarrassment , Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder , Body-Shaming , Social Representation , Orthorexia Nervosa , Social Status , Guilt , Health Promotion , Mass Media , Mental Disorders , Metabolism , Obesity
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e264982, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529201

ABSTRACT

A violência por parceiro íntimo (VPI) consiste em atos que ameacem causar ou efetivamente causem danos em um parceiro dentro de uma relação afetivo-sexual, independente da configuração ou tempo do relacionamento ou de haver coabitação ou não entre as partes. Nas relações homossexuais, a VPI é invisibilizada de diversas maneiras, mesmo sendo reconhecida como uma grave violação de direitos humanos. O estudo objetivou compreender os significados da VPI para um grupo de homens que se relacionam com homens (HRH). Participaram da pesquisa oito HRH, selecionados através da técnica "bola de neve", utilizada devido à sensibilidade do tema, considerando os estigmas de ser HRH. Os dados foram obtidos através de entrevista semiestruturada e foram analisados pela Análise Temática. Como resultados, foram construídas seis categorias: 1º) O armário; 2º) Homofobia 3º) Racismo, poder e vulnerabilidade a VPI; 4º) Sexualidade; 5º) Infidelidade; 6º) HIV, que discutem a interseccionalidade de diversas formas de opressão na produção de VPI entre HRH. Conclui-se que a VPI vivenciada por esse grupo é influenciada por diversos fatores que envolvem a interseccionalidade de vários marcadores sociais, como os estereótipos de masculinidade em relação a hipersexualização e infidelidade, a homofobia como fator direto do estresse minoritário, o racismo que hierarquiza os corpos e invisibiliza o afeto de homens negros, e o estigma de HIV no imaginário social.(AU)


Intimate partner violence (IPV) consists of acts that threaten to harm or actually harm to a partner within an affective-sexual relationship, regardless of the configuration or duration of the relationship or whether or not there is cohabitation between the parties. In homosexual relationships, IPV is made invisible in several ways, even though it is recognized as a serious violation of human rights. The study aimed to understand the meanings of IPV for a group of men in same sex relationships (MSSR). Eight MSSR participated in the research, selected by snowball sampling, used due to the topic's sensitivity, considering the stigmas involved in being MSSR. Data were constructed via semi-structured interviews and analyzed using Thematic Analysis. As a result, six categories were constructed: 1) The closet persons; 2) Homophobia; 3) Racism, power, and vulnerability to IPV; 4) Sexuality; 5) Infidelity; 6) HIV, which discuss the intersectionality of various forms of oppression in the production of IPV among MSSR. Thus, the IPV experienced by this group is influenced by several factors that involve the intersectionality between different social markers, such as stereotypes of masculinity in relation to hypersexualization and infidelity, homophobia as a direct factor of minority stress, the racism that hierarchizes bodies and makes the affection of Black men and the stigma of HIV invisible in the social imaginary.(AU)


La violencia de pareja (VP) consiste en actos que amenazan con causar o de hecho causan daño a una pareja dentro de una relación afectivo-sexual, independientemente de la configuración o duración de la relación o de si existe o no cohabitación entre las partes. En las relaciones homosexuales, la VP se invisibiliza de varias formas, a pesar de que se reconoce como una grave violación de los derechos humanos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender los significados de VP para un grupo de hombres que se relacionan con hombres (HRH). Ocho HRH participaron de la investigación, seleccionados mediante la técnica de "bola de nieve", utilizada debido a la sensibilidad del tema, considerando los estigmas de ser HRH. Los datos se construyeron mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y se sometieron a análisis temático. Como resultado se construyeron seis categorías: 1.ª) El armario; 2.º) Homofobia; 3.º) Racismo, poder y vulnerabilidad a la VP; 4.º) Sexualidad; 5.º) Infidelidad; 6.ª) HIV; que discuten la interseccionalidad de diferentes formas de opresión en la producción de VP entre HRH. Se concluye que la VP vivida por este grupo está influida por varios factores que involucran la interseccionalidad entre distintos marcadores sociales, como los estereotipos de masculinidad en relación con la hipersexualización y la infidelidad, la homofobia como factor directo de estrés minoritario, el racismo que jerarquiza cuerpos e invisibiliza en el imaginario social el afecto de los hombres negros y el estigma del HIV en el imaginario social.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Power, Psychological , Marriage , Masculinity , Intimate Partner Violence , Psychological Distress , Men , Paraphilic Disorders , Prejudice , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Rape , Rejection, Psychology , Self Concept , Sexual Behavior , Sex Offenses , Shame , Social Problems , Spouse Abuse , Awareness , Therapeutics , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Family , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Mental Health , Prevalence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Sexual Harassment , Condoms , Interview , Domestic Violence , Homosexuality, Male , Hazards , Safe Sex , Dangerous Behavior , Aggression , Racial Groups , Dependency, Psychological , Unsafe Sex , Diagnosis , Alcoholism , Erotica , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Fear , Pleasure , Social Stigma , Sexual Health , Racism , Sexism , Social Marginalization , Criminal Behavior , Defamation , Social Oppression , Sexual Vulnerability , Androcentrism , Gender Stereotyping , Embarrassment , Emotional Abuse , Gender Equity , Genital Diseases , Family Structure , Guilt , Handling, Psychological , Homicide , Hostility , Jealousy
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253492, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440794

ABSTRACT

O racismo é um fenômeno que impacta a vida da população negra, direcionando-a para uma condição de marginalização social, inclusive profissionalmente. Diante disso, o presente estudo, qualitativo, objetivou analisar as estratégias de enfrentamento ao racismo adotadas por universitários negros de uma instituição pública de ensino superior no processo de construção de suas carreiras. Adotando-se como referencial a Teoria de Construção da Carreira, 27 entrevistas semiestruturadas foram conduzidas com graduandos (16 do gênero feminino e 11 do gênero masculino) autodeclarados negros de uma universidade situada na região Sudeste do Brasil. Os dados coletados foram submetidos a Análise de Similitude, por meio do software IRaMuTeQ, que demonstrou, a partir de uma árvore máxima, que os discursos dos participantes estiveram centrados no termo "racismo" e em quatro troncos de similitude relacionados aos vocábulos: "negro", "falar", "situação" e "acontecer". Os resultados indicaram que o racismo é um dos fatores que impactam a carreira dos sujeitos, sobretudo por sustentar práticas discriminatórias veladas e limitar oportunidades profissionais. Em resposta a ele, quatro estratégias de enfrentamento foram identificadas: a) diálogo com sujeitos próximos; b) busca por suporte junto à rede de apoio constituída na universidade; c) denúncia de seus impactos; e d) adoção de ações individuais de transformação da realidade. Os achados permitem identificar a adoção de diferentes estratégias individuais e coletivas de enfrentamento ao racismo, que devem ter seu desenvolvimento estimulado pelas instituições de ensino superior, a fim de que se tornem práticas sistematizadas que favoreçam a discussão sobre o fenômeno em âmbitos acadêmico e profissional.(AU)


The phenomenon of racism impacts the lives of Black population, leading them to social marginalization, including professionally. Thus, this qualitative study analyzes the coping strategies adopted by Black undergraduates from a public higher education institution to confront racism during career construction. Adopting the Career Construction Theory as a framework, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted (16 women and 11 men) with self-declared black undergraduates from a university located in southeastern Brazil. Similarity analysis of the collected data, performed using the IRaMuTeQ software, showed that, from a maximum tree, the participants' speeches centered around the term "racism" and on four similarity trunks related to the words: "black", "talk", "situation" and "happen". Results indicated that racism majorly impacts the subjects' careers, especially by upholding veiled discriminatory practices and limiting professional opportunities. To cope with it, undergraduates adopt four main strategies: a) dialogue with close subjects; b) search for support with the support network established at the university; c) denunciation of its impacts; and d) adoption of individual strategies to transform reality. The findings point to different actions, individual and collective, adopted to fight racism, whose development should be supported by higher education institutions so that they become systemic practices that favor discussing the phenomenon in academic and professional fields.(AU)


El racismo es un fenómeno que impacta la vida de la población negra, llevándola a una condición de marginación social, incluso a nivel profesional. Así, este estudio cualitativo, tuvo por objetivo analizar las estrategias de afrontamiento el racismo que utilizan los universitarios negros de una Institución Pública de Educación Superior en el proceso de construcción de sus carreras. Tomando como referencia la Teoría de Construcción de Carrera, se realizaron 27 entrevistas semiestructuradas a estudiantes (16 mujeres y 11 hombres) autodeclarados negros de una universidad en la región Sureste de Brasil. Los datos recolectados se sometieron a un Análisis de Similitud, desarrollado utilizando el software IRaMuTeQ, que demostró, a partir de un árbol máximo, que los discursos de los participantes se centraron en el término "racismo" y en cuatro troncos de similitud relacionados con las palabras: "negro", "hablar", "situación" y "pasar". Los resultados indicaron que el racismo es uno de los factores que impactan la carrera, especialmente por sostener prácticas discriminatorias veladas y limitar las oportunidades profesionales. En respuesta a ello, se identificaron cuatro estrategias de afrontamiento: a) diálogo con sujetos cercanos; b) búsqueda de apoyo en la red constituida en la universidad; c) denuncia de sus impactos; y d) adopción de acciones individuales para transformar la realidad. Los hallazgos permiten identificar la adopción de diferentes estrategias, individuales y colectivas, para enfrentar el racismo, las cuales deben tener su desarrollo estimulado por las instituciones de educación superior, para que se conviertan en prácticas sistematizadas que favorezcan la discusión del fenómeno en el ámbito académico y profesional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Students , Universities , Adaptation, Psychological , Career Choice , Career Mobility , Racism , Poverty , Prejudice , Problem Solving , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Race Relations , Rejection, Psychology , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Self Concept , Social Behavior , Social Change , Social Class , Social Identification , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Socialization , Societies , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Awareness , Work , Ethnicity , Family , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Color , Cultural Diversity , Crime , Cultural Characteristics , Culture , Personal Autonomy , Dehumanization , Qualitative Research , Racial Groups , Education , Emotions , Employee Incentive Plans , Resilience, Psychological , Altruism , Bullying , Social Stigma , Social Discrimination , Genocide , Enslavement , Protective Factors , Social Capital , Physical Appearance, Body , Work Performance , Social Segregation , Political Activism , Work Engagement , Ethnocentrism , Extremism , Social Oppression , Freedom , Respect , Empowerment , Sociodemographic Factors , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Antiracism , Hate , Hierarchy, Social , Household Work , Human Rights , Learning , Minority Groups
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250490, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448944

ABSTRACT

As dificuldades e barreiras enfrentadas no processo de inclusão de pessoas com deficiência (PcD) nas organizações incitam o desenvolvimento de pesquisas. Este estudo compreendeu a percepção de psicólogos organizacionais sobre a inclusão de PcD em empresas. Dezoito psicólogos atuantes na área de gestão de pessoas de empresas das sete regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul responderam a uma entrevista individual. A média de idade dos participantes foi de 33,17 anos, atuavam em empresas de diferentes segmentos, eram predominantemente do sexo feminino e possuíam pós-graduação em áreas relacionadas. Os relatos dos psicólogos alertaram para o fato de que, em suas graduações, o conteúdo sobre deficiência humana e, especificamente, inclusão no mercado de trabalho foi escasso ou inexistente. Essa lacuna na formação, de egressos de diferentes instituições de ensino superior, é relatada desde os anos de 1990. Para esses psicólogos, barreiras atitudinais e organizacionais são frequentemente enfrentadas no processo de inclusão, tais como o despreparo das empresas, gestores e colaboradores para receber as PcD, os poucos programas voltados a uma prática efetiva de inclusão e não somente ao cumprimento da legislação, além das dificuldades dos próprios profissionais em identificar os potenciais e as limitações que a PcD apresenta e de adaptá-la de maneira correta ao trabalho. O psicólogo organizacional pode contribuir para um processo adequado de inclusão por meio de práticas, tais como treinamentos e sensibilizações, que fomentem a informação e diminuam a discriminação e as dificuldades.(AU)


Difficulties and barriers to including people with disabilities (PwDs) in organizations drives research development. This study sought to understand how organizational psychologists perceived the inclusion of PwDs in organizations. Eighteen organizational psychologists who work in people management for companies in the seven regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul participated in an individual interview. Most interviewees were female, with average age of 33.17 years, had a postgraduate degree in the field, and worked in companies from different segments. During the interviews, the psychologists called attention to the little or nonexistent content on human disability and, specifically, inclusion in the labor market covered in the graduate course. This gap has been reported by graduates from different higher education institutions since the 1990s. According to the respondents, attitudinal and organizational barriers are often faced in the inclusion process, such as the unpreparedness of companies, managers, and employees to welcome PwD, the few programs aimed at an effective inclusion and not only to comply with the law, as well as the difficulties of the professionals themselves to identify the potentials and limitations that PwD present and to adapt them correctly to the work. Organizational psychologists can contribute to an adequate inclusion process by developing training and sensibilization activities that foster information and reduce discrimination and difficulties.(AU)


Las dificultades y barreras enfrentadas en el proceso de inclusión de personas con discapacidad (PcD) en las organizaciones fortalecen el desarrollo de la investigación. Este estudio entendió la percepción de los psicólogos organizacionales acerca de la inclusión de las PcD en las empresas. Dieciocho psicólogos que trabajan en el área de gestión de personas en empresas de las siete regiones del estado de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil) respondieron a una entrevista individual. Los participantes tenían una edad promedio de 33,17 años, trabajaban en empresas de diferentes segmentos, eran predominantemente mujeres y tenían un posgrado en el área. Los informes de los psicólogos alertaron sobre el hecho de que el contenido sobre discapacidad humana y, específicamente, su inclusión en el mercado laboral era escaso o inexistente durante su formación académica. Esta brecha en la formación de los egresados de diferentes instituciones de educación superior se reporta desde los 1990. Para estos psicólogos, a menudo ocurren barreras organizacionales y de actitud en el proceso de inclusión de las PcD, como la falta de preparación de las empresas, gerentes y empleados para recibirlas, pocos programas destinados a una práctica efectiva de la inclusión, no solo al cumplimiento de la ley, y las dificultades de los profesionales para identificar las potencialidades y limitaciones y adecuarlas correctamente al trabajo. El psicólogo organizacional puede contribuir a un proceso de inclusión adecuado, con prácticas de capacitación y sensibilización que brindan información y reducen la discriminación y dificultades.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personnel Management , Architectural Accessibility , Organizations , Disabled Persons , Social Inclusion , Organization and Administration , Organizational Innovation , Personnel Selection , Prejudice , Psychology , Psychology, Industrial , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Self Concept , Social Behavior , Social Environment , Social Justice , Social Responsibility , Social Security , Social Welfare , Socialization , Societies , Stereotyping , Awareness , Task Performance and Analysis , Unemployment , Vocational Guidance , Occupational Health Program , Decision Making, Organizational , Handicapped Advocacy , Adaptation, Psychological , Organizational Culture , Occupational Health , Staff Development , Civil Rights , Employment, Supported , Workplace , Efficiency, Organizational , Constitution and Bylaws , Cultural Diversity , Legislation , Personal Autonomy , Whistleblowing , Disability Evaluation , Absenteeism , Economics , Education , Ego , Employee Grievances , Employee Incentive Plans , Employment , Workforce , Health of Specific Groups , Health of the Disabled , Job Market , Occupational Health Policy , Social Stigma , Social Discrimination , Work Performance , Social Workers , Occupational Stress , Work Engagement , Respect , e-Accessibility , Public Nondiscrimination Policies , Social Integration , Right to Work , Empowerment , Teleworking , Disinformation , Sociodemographic Factors , Citizenship , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Health Promotion , Ergonomics , Human Rights , Job Application , Job Satisfaction , Labor Unions , Leadership , Life Change Events
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 75, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522865

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportions of awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Brazilian adult population. METHOD This is a cross-sectional study, with data from a representative sample of the Brazilian population, taken from the National Health Survey(PNS 2014/2015). Outcomes were defined based on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements, self-reported DM diagnosis, and use of hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The proportion of DM awareness, treatment, and control was estimated according to sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and access to health services, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS DM prevalence in the Brazilian population was of 8.6% (95%CI: 7.8-9.3): 68.2% (95%CI: 63.9-72.3) were aware of their diagnosis, 92.2% (95%CI: 88.6-94.7) of those who were aware were undergoing drug treatments, and, of these, 35.8% (95%CI: 30.5-41.6) had controlled HbA1c levels. The proportions of DM awareness, control, and treatment were lower in men aged 18 to 39 years, individuals with low education, without health insurance, and beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família program. CONCLUSION Approximately one in ten Brazilians has DM. A little more than half of this population is aware of their diagnosis, a condition measured by HbA1c dosage and clinical diagnosis. Among those who know, the vast majority are undergoing drug treatments. However, less than half of these have their HbA1c levels controlled. Worse scenarios were found in subgroups with high social vulnerability.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar as proporções dos indivíduos que têm conhecimento do diagnóstico, tratamento e controle do diabetes mellitus (DM) na população adulta brasileira. MÉTODO Este é um estudo transversal, com dados de amostra representativa da população brasileira, provenientes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS 2014/2015). Os desfechos foram definidos com base na medida de hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c), no diagnóstico autorreferido de DM e no uso de hipoglicemiantes ou de insulina. Estimou-se a proporção do conhecimento, tratamento e controle do DM de acordo com as características sociodemográficas, condição de saúde e de acesso aos serviços de saúde, e seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%). RESULTADOS A prevalência de DM na população brasileira foi 8,6% (IC95% 7,8-9,3), 68,2% (IC95% 63,9-72,3) tinham conhecimento do seu diagnóstico, 92,2% (IC95% 88,6-94,7) dos que tinham conhecimento realizam tratamento medicamentoso, e desses, 35,8% (IC95% 30,5-41,6) tinham os níveis de HbA1c controlados. As proporções de conhecimento, controle e tratamento foram menores nos homens, com idade de 18 a 39 anos, indivíduos que possuem baixa escolaridade, sem plano de saúde e beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família. CONCLUSÃO Aproximadamente um em cada dez brasileiros apresenta DM. Um pouco mais da metade desta população tem conhecimento do seu diagnóstico, condição aferida por dosagem de HbA1c e diagnóstico clínico. Entre os que sabem, a grande maioria está sob tratamento medicamentoso. Porém, menos da metade destes tem seus níveis de HbA1c controlados. Cenários piores foram encontrados em subgrupos com alta vulnerabilidade social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Awareness , Therapeutics , Glycated Hemoglobin , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e245337, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422395

ABSTRACT

Partindo da psicologia, este texto compõe nosso exercício ético-político de assumir a perspectiva dos povos e de suas organizações, neste caso em específico, da Aty Guasu, movimento étnico-social dos Kaiowá e Guarani de Mato Grosso do Sul. A colonização e expropriação violenta dos territórios tradicionais destes povos, o tekoha guasu, culminou na limitação do modo originário de ser, segundo os princípios cosmológicos, desdobrando-se na precarização da saúde, visível pelos altos índices de desnutrição, suicídio, violência e mortalidade. Com este estudo, visamos descrever e analisar aspectos da dimensão saúde para os Kaiowá e Guarani a partir de suas próprias narrativas. Como estratégia metodológica, realizamos a análise documental de todos os comunicados, em formato de notas, publicados entre 2011 e 2013 no blog do movimento na internet. Também participamos, de 2015 a 2020, de momentos importantes para as comunidades, como as Grandes Assembleias Kaiowá e Guarani, com registros em diário de campo. Esses procedimentos, articulados às produções teóricas da antropologia, psicologia da libertação, estudos decoloniais e anticoloniais, possibilitaram o entendimento da indissociabilidade da saúde indígena dos processos de colonização territorial e intersubjetiva. Nesse sentido, a saúde dos Kaiowá e Guarani, tendo o tekoha como aspecto vital, segundo a cosmopolítica, encontra-se em profundo conflito devido à expropriação, expulsão e confinamento empreendido pelas políticas colonialistas. Portanto, propomos a compreensão do tekoha como indicador da saúde Kaiowá e Guarani e os movimentos de reocupação dos territórios, protagonizados pela organização autônoma das comunidades e sintetizados pela sentença: "terra é vida", como retomada da saúde.(AU)


From the psychology, this text makes up our ethical-political exercise of regarding the perspective of the peoples and their organizations, in this specific case, Aty Guasu, ethnic-social movement of the Kaiowá and Guarani of Mato Grosso do Sul. Colonization and violent expropriation of the traditional territories of these peoples, the tekoha guasu, resulted in limiting the original way of being, according to cosmological principles, unfolding in the precariousness of health, visible from the high rates of malnutrition, suicide, violence, and mortality. With this research, we aim to describe and analyze aspects about the health dimension for the Kaiowá and Guarani from their own narratives. As a methodological strategy, we carry out the Document Analysis of all communications, in the form of notes, published between 2011 and 2013 on the organization's blog on the internet. We also participated, from 2015 to 2020, of important moments for the communities, such as the Highs Assemblies Kaiowá and Guarani, with records in a field diary. These proceedings, articulated with the theoretical productions of anthropology, liberation psychology, decolonial and anticolonial studies, made it possible to understand the inseparability of indigenous health from the processes of territorial and intersubjective colonization. In this sense, the health of the Kaiowá and Guarani, taking the tekoha as a vital aspect, according to cosmopolitics, is in deep conflict due to the expropriation, expulsion, and confinement undertaken by colonialist policies. Therefore, we propose the understanding of the tekoha as an indicator of Kaiowá and Guarani health, and the movements of reoccupation of territories, led by the autonomous organization of communities and synthesized by the sentence: "land is life," as a recovery of health.(AU)


Este texto realiza un ejercicio ético-político desde el aporte de la Psicología al asumir la perspectiva de los pueblos y sus organizaciones, en este caso, de la Aty Guasu, un movimiento étnico y social de los Kaiowá y Guaraní. La colonización y expropiación violenta de los territorios tradicionales de estos pueblos, los tekoa guasu, culminó en la limitación de los modos originarios de ser según los principios cosmopolíticos, que tienen como resultado la precarización de la salud, visibles por los altos índices de desnutrición, suicidio, violencia y mortalidad. En este estudio se busca tejer aproximaciones acerca la dimensión salud para los Kaiowá y Guaraní a partir de sus proprias narrativas. La metodología utilizada realizó un Análisis Documental de todos los anuncios en formato de "notas", publicados en los años 2011 y 2013, en el blog del movimiento en la internet. También hubo participación, de 2015 a 2020, en momentos importantes para las comunidades, tales como en las Gran Asambleas Kaiowá y Guaraní, con registro en diario de campo. Estos procedimientos articulados a las producciones de la Antropología, Psicología de la Liberación, Estudios Decoloniales y Anticoloniales permiten comprender la condición indisociable de la salud indígena en los procesos de colonización territorial e intersubjetiva. En este sentido, la salud de los Kaiowá y Guaraní, por el tekoha ser aspecto vital según la cosmovisión de estos pueblos, se encuentra en profundo conflicto debido a la expropiación, expulsión y confinamiento practicado por las políticas colonialistas. Por lo tanto, comprender el tekoha como indicador de la salud Kaiowá y Guaraní, y los movimientos de reocupación de los territorios, protagonizado por la autonomía de las comunidades, como recuperación de la salud, sintetiza en la sentencia: "tierra es vida".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Social , Health , Colonialism , American Indian or Alaska Native , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Awareness , Brazil , Culture , Dehumanization , Human Rights Abuses , Xenophobia , Sociocultural Territory , History , Human Rights
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