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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 154-161, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528830

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal cancers. Invasion and metastasis are the main causes of poor prognosis of esophageal cancer. SPRY2 has been reported to exert promoting effects in human cancers, which controls signal pathways including PI3K/AKT and MAPKs. However, the expression of SPRY2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed role of SPRY2 in the regulation of cell proliferation, invasion and ERK/AKT signaling pathway in ESCC. It was identified that the expression level of SPRY2 in ESCC was remarkably decreased compared with normal tissues, and it was related to clinicopathologic features and prognosis ESCC patients. The upregulation of SPRY2 expression notably inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of Eca-109 cells. In addition, the activity of ERK /AKT signaling was also suppressed by the SPRY2 upregulation in Eca-109 cells. Our study suggests that overexpression of SPRY2 suppress cancer cell proliferation and invasion of by through suppression of the ERK/AKT signaling pathways in ESCC. Therefore, SPRY2 may be a promising prognostic marker and therapeutic target for ESCC.


El cáncer de esófago es uno de los cánceres gastrointestinales más agresivos. La invasión y la metástasis son las principales causas de mal pronóstico del cáncer de esófago. Se ha informado que SPRY2 ejerce efectos promotores en los cánceres humanos, que controla las vías de señales, incluidas PI3K/AKT y MAPK. Sin embargo, la expresión de SPRY2 en el carcinoma de células escamosas de esófago (ESCC) y su mecanismo subyacente aún no están claros. En el presente estudio, nuestro objetivo fue investigar el papel detallado de SPRY2 en la regulación de la proliferación celular, la invasión y la vía de señalización ERK/AKT en ESCC. Se identificó que el nivel de expresión de SPRY2 en ESCC estaba notablemente disminuido en comparación con los tejidos normales, y estaba relacionado con las características clínico-patológicas y el pronóstico de los pacientes con ESCC. La regulación positiva de la expresión de SPRY2 inhibió notablemente la proliferación, migración e invasión de células Eca-109. Además, la actividad de la señalización de ERK/AKT también fue suprimida por la regulación positiva de SPRY2 en las células Eca-109. Nuestro estudio sugiere que la sobreexpresión de SPRY2 suprime la proliferación y la invasión de células cancerosas mediante la supresión de las vías de señalización ERK/AKT en ESCC. Por lo tanto, SPRY2 puede ser un marcador de pronóstico prometedor y un objetivo terapéutico para la ESCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Blotting, Western , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Cell Proliferation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 173-184, feb. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528836

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) is associated with cancer progression. The expression and immunologic function of CLCA1 in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) remain unclear. In this investigation, the expression of CLCA1 in STAD tissues and its involvement in the progression and immune response of STAD were examined using databases such as cBioPortal, TISIDB, and UALCAN. In order to validate the expression level of CLCA1 protein in gastric adenocarcinoma, thirty clinical tissue specimens were gathered for immunohistochemical staining. The findings indicated a downregulation of CLCA1 in STAD patients, which was correlated with race, age, cancer grade, Helicobacter pylori infection, and molecular subtype. Through the examination of survival analysis, it was identified that diminished levels of CLCA1 within gastric cancer cases were linked to decreased periods of post-progression survival (PPS), overall survival (OS), and first progression (FP) (P<0.05). The CLCA1 mutation rate was lower in STAD, but the survival rate was higher in the variant group. The correlation between the expression level of CLCA1 and the levels of immune infiltrating cells in STAD, as well as the immune activating molecules, immunosuppressive molecules, MHC molecules, chemokines, and their receptor molecules, was observed. Gene enrichment analysis revealed that CLCA1 may be involved in STAD progression through systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), proteasome, cell cycle, pancreatic secretion, and PPAR signaling pathways. In summary, CLCA1 is anticipated to function as a prognostic marker for patients with STAD and is linked to the immunization of STAD.


El regulador 1 del canal de cloruro activado por calcio (CLCA1) está asociado con la progresión del cáncer. La expresión y la función inmunológica de CLCA1 en el adenocarcinoma de estómago (STAD) aún no están claras. En esta investigación, se examinó la expresión de CLCA1 en tejidos STAD y su participación en la progresión y respuesta inmune de STAD utilizando bases de datos como cBioPortal, TISIDB y UALCAN. Para validar el nivel de expresión de la proteína CLCA1 en el adenocarcinoma gástrico, se recolectaron treinta muestras de tejido clínico para tinción inmunohistoquímica. Los hallazgos indicaron una regulación negativa de CLCA1 en pacientes con STAD, que se correlacionó con la raza, la edad, el grado del cáncer, la infección por Helicobacter pylori y el subtipo molecular. Mediante el examen del análisis de supervivencia, se identificó que los niveles reducidos de CLCA1 en los casos de cáncer gástrico estaban relacionados con períodos reducidos de supervivencia posterior a la progresión (PPS), supervivencia general (OS) y primera progresión (FP) (P <0,05). La tasa de mutación CLCA1 fue menor en STAD, pero la tasa de supervivencia fue mayor en el grupo variante. Se observó la correlación entre el nivel de expresión de CLCA1 y los niveles de células inmunes infiltrantes en STAD, así como las moléculas activadoras inmunes, moléculas inmunosupresoras, moléculas MHC, quimiocinas y sus moléculas receptoras. El análisis de enriquecimiento genético reveló que CLCA1 puede estar involucrado en la progresión de STAD a través del lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), el proteasoma, el ciclo celular, la secreción pancreática y las vías de señalización de PPAR. En resumen, se prevé que CLCA1 funcione como un marcador de pronóstico para pacientes con STAD y está vinculado a la inmunización de STAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/immunology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Survival Analysis , Chloride Channels/genetics , Chloride Channels/immunology , Computational Biology , Mutation
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250575, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350309

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cancer is a fatal malignancy and its increasing worldwide prevalence demands the discovery of more sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers. To investigate the GINS1 expression level and its prognostic value in distinct human cancers using a series of multi-layered in silico approach may help to establish it as a potential shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of different cancer subtypes. The GINS1 mRNA, protein expression, and promoter methylation were analyzed using UALCAN and Human Protein Atlas (HPA), while mRNA expression was further validated via GENT2. The potential prognostic values of GINS1 were evaluated through KM plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to examine the GINS1-related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), while pathway enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. Moreover, a correlational analysis between GINS1 expression and CD8+ T immune cells and a the construction of gene-drug interaction network was performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. The GINS1 was found down-regulated in a single subtypes of human cancer while commonly up-regulated in 23 different other subtypes. The up-regulation of GINS1 was significantly correlated with the poor overall survival (OS) of Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (LIHC), Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). The GINS1 was also found up-regulated in LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of GINS1 in two diverse pathways, while few interesting correlations were also documented between GINS1 expression and its promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cells level, and CNVs. Moreover, we also predicted few drugs that could be used in the treatment of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC by regulating the GINS1 expression. The expression profiling of GINS1 in the current study has suggested it a novel shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC.


Resumo O câncer é uma doença maligna fatal e sua crescente prevalência mundial exige a descoberta de biomarcadores moleculares mais sensíveis e confiáveis. Investigar o nível de expressão de GINS1 e seu valor prognóstico em cânceres humanos distintos, usando uma série de abordagens in silico em várias camadas, pode ajudar a estabelecê-lo como um potencial biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de diferentes subtipos de câncer. O mRNA de GINS1, a expressão da proteína e a metilação do promotor foram analisados ​​usando UALCAN e Human Protein Atlas (HPA), enquanto a expressão de mRNA foi posteriormente validada via GENT2. Os valores prognósticos potenciais de GINS1 foram avaliados por meio do plotter KM. Em seguida, o cBioPortal foi utilizado para examinar as mutações genéticas relacionadas ao GINS1 e as variações do número de cópias (CNVs), enquanto a análise de enriquecimento da via foi realizada usando DAVID. Além disso, uma análise correlacional entre a expressão de GINS1 e células imunes T CD8 + e a construção de uma rede de interação gene-droga foi realizada usando TIMER, CDT e Cytoscape. O GINS1 foi encontrado regulado negativamente em um único subtipo de câncer humano, enquanto comumente regulado positivamente em 23 outros subtipos diferentes. A regulação positiva de GINS1 foi significativamente correlacionada com a sobrevida global pobre (OS) de Carcinoma Hepatocelular de Fígado (LIHC), Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão (LUAD) e Carcinoma de Células Claras Renais de Rim (KIRC). O GINS1 também foi encontrado regulado positivamente em pacientes LIHC, LUAD e KIRC de diferentes características clínico-patológicas. A análise de enriquecimento de vias revelou o envolvimento de GINS1 em duas vias diversas, enquanto poucas correlações interessantes também foram documentadas entre a expressão de GINS1 e seu nível de metilação do promotor, nível de células imunes T CD8 + e CNVs. Além disso, também previmos poucos medicamentos que poderiam ser usados ​​no tratamento de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC, regulando a expressão de GINS1. O perfil de expressão de GINS1 no estudo atual sugeriu que é um novo biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/genetics , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , DNA-Binding Proteins , DNA Copy Number Variations
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 64-70, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012426

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SRF-rearranged cellular perivascular myoid tumor. Methods: Two cases of SRF-rearranged cellular perivascular myoid tumor diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from October 2021 to March 2022 were collected. Immunohistochemical staining, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed, and the literature was reviewed. Results: Case 1, a 3-month-old boy presented with a painless tumor of the scalp, measuring about 2 cm in diameter. Case 2, a 3-year-old girl complained with a painless tumor of the knee, measuring approximately 1.5 cm in diameter. Microscopically, the tumor had a clear boundary and showed multinodular growth. The tumor was mainly composed of spindle cells arranged in long intersecting fascicles associated with thin, slit-like or branching ectatic vessels, focally forming hemangiopericytoma-like appearance. The tumor cells were abundant, but there was no obvious atypia. Mitotic figures (3-4/10 HPF) were noted. H-caldesmon and SMA were positive in both cases. Case 1 showed diffuse and strong positivity for Desmin, and focally for CKpan. Ki-67 proliferation index was 20% and 30%, respectively. FISH displayed NCOA2 gene translocation in case 1 and the RELA gene translocation in case 2. NGS detected the SRF-NCOA2 gene fusion in case 1 and the SRF-RELA gene fusion in case 2. Both patients underwent local excisions. During the follow-up of 5-14 months, case 1 had no local recurrence, while case 2 developed local recurrence 1 year post operatively. Conclusions: SRF-rearranged cellular perivascular myoid tumor is a novel variant of perivascular cell tumor, which tends to occur in children and adolescents. The tumor forms a broad morphologic spectrum ranging from a pericytic pattern to a myoid pattern, and include hybrid tumors with a mixture of pericytic and myoid patterns. Due to its diffuse hypercellularity and increased mitotic figures and smooth muscle-like immunophenotype, the tumor is easy to be misdiagnosed as myogenic sarcomas. The tumor usually pursues a benign clinical course and rare cases may locally recur.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Calmodulin-Binding Proteins , China , Hemangiopericytoma/pathology , Sarcoma/pathology , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 58-63, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012425

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological and genetic features of epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomysarcoma with EWSR1-TFCP2 or FUS-TFCP2 fusion. Methods: The clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of 14 cases of epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomysarcoma with EWSR1-TFCP2 or FUS-TFCP2 fusion diagnosed from January 2019 to December 2022 in the Department of Pathology, Foshan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Foshan, China were retrospectively analyzed. The cases were all subject to FISH or next generation sequencing for analysis of molecular genetic features. The literature was reviewed. Results: There were 5 males and 9 females, with the age at presentation ranging from 6 to 36 years (mean, 22 years). Tumors occurred in the head and neck (9 cases), pelvic region (2 cases), bladder (one case), right humerus (one case), and the abdominal wall, humerus and pubic at the same time (one case). Presenting symptoms varied by location but often included pain or discomfort. Most of the patients showed aggressive radiographic features with soft tissue extension. The tumors had a median size of 6.6 cm (range, 2-23 cm). The tumors were poorly defined and irregularly shaped. Microscopic examination showed diffuse proliferation of spindle or epithelioid cells. While morphologically high-grade tumors displayed obvious cytological atypia, a high mitotic count and tumor necrosis, low-grade tumors grew in sheets and fascicles composed of spindle, epithelioid cells with moderate or abundant amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm, without pronounced cytological atypia. The tumor cells expressed Desmin, MyoD1, and Myogenin, as well as ALK, EMA, and CKpan. EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 gene fusion was detected in 14 cases with next generation sequencing and confirmed by FISH. Six cases had EWSR1-TFCP2 fusions and 8 cases showed FUS-TFCP2 fusions. Follow-up information was available in 13 patients, ranged from 5 to 37 months. At the end of follow-up period, 7 patients died of the disease. Six patients were alive:two cases had local recurrences and metastases, two cases of recurrences, one case of metastasis and one case without recurrences and metastasis. Conclusions: Epithelioid and spindle cell rhabdomysarcomas with EWSR1-TFCP2 or FUS-TFCP2 fusion show a very aggressive clinical course, and more commonly occur in the head and neck. Their genetic hallmark is the presence of EWSR1/FUS-TFCP2 fusions. Familiarity with its clinicopathological characteristics is helpful in avoiding misdiagnoses.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Transcription Factors/genetics , Rhabdomyosarcoma , RNA-Binding Protein EWS/genetics , China , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Protein FUS/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 52-57, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012424

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and treatment of gastric alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma with SWI/SNF complex deletion. Methods: Four cases of gastric AFP-producing adenocarcinoma with SWI/SNF complex deletion diagnosed in Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University from January 2021 to December 2022 were collected, and their histomorphological characteristics, immunohistochemical (IHC), in situ hybridization of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER), next-generation sequencing results, clinicopathological features and treatment were summarized, and literature review was conducted. Results: Among the 4 patients, there were three males and one female. They presented with abdominal pain, belching and melena. Serum AFP was significantly elevated in three patients, and endoscopy showed ulcerative lesions. Microscopically, the tumor cells showed mainly diffuse flaky or nest-like growth and typical characteristics of hepatoid adenocarcinoma. In two cases there were adenoid growth, and the tumor cells in these areas possessed clear cytoplasm, suggesting enteroblastic differentiation. The tumor cell nuclei were pleomorphic with large nucleoli and brisk mitoses. The IHC results showed that the tumor cells expressed AFP, GPC3 and SALL4, and there was retained expression of broad-spectrum keratin (CKpan) and E-cadherin. IHC detection of SWI/SNF complex subunits, namely INI1 (SMARCB1), BRG1 (SMARCA4), BRM (SMARCA2), ARID1A protein was performed. In all four cases the hepatoid adenocarcinoma region and enteroblastic differentiation region showed SMARCA2 deletion, and one case with enteroblastic differentiation also showed ARID1A deletion. SMARCB1 and SMARCA4 deletions were not seen. All the four cases were diffusely positive for p53 protein, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 80%-90%. There were no mismatch repair deletion detected; one cases showed HER2 was strongly positive (3+), and EBER was negative. None of the four cases had mutations in the SWI/SNF complex-related subunits detected by next-generation sequencing. Among the four patients, two underwent palliative surgery due to distant metastasis at the time of surgery, two underwent radical resection. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was given to three patients. Conclusions: AFP-producing adenocarcinoma is a rare subtype of gastric cancer, which can be combined with SWI/SNF complex deletion, and the pathomorphological manifestations are different from the classical SWI/SNF complex deletion of undifferentiated carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , alpha-Fetoproteins , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors/genetics , Glypicans
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 152-161, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Highly expressed in various human cancers, circular RNA Protein Kinase C Iota (circPRKCI) has been reported to play an important role in cancer development and progression. Herein, we sought to reveal the prognostic and clinical value of circPRKCI expression in diverse human cancers.@*METHODS@#We searched the Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases from inception until May 16, 2021. The relationship between circPRKCI expression and cancer patients' survival, including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), was assessed by pooled hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). The correlation between circPRKCI expression and clinical outcomes was evaluated using odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% CI. The data were analyzed by STATA software (version 12.0) or Review Manager (RevMan 5.3).@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 studies with 1109 patients were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results demonstrated that high circPRKCI expression was significantly related to poor OS (HR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.61, 2.39, P <0.001) when compared with low circPRKCI expression in diverse human cancers. However, elevated circPRKCI expression was not associated with DFS (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.95, P = 0.121). Furthermore, the patient with a higher circPRKCI expression was prone to have a larger tumor size, advanced clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis, but it was not significantly correlated with age, gender, and distant metastasis.@*CONCLUSION@#Elevated circPRKCI expression was correlated with worse OS and unfavorable clinical features, suggesting a novel prognostic and predictive role of circPRKCI in diverse human cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Disease-Free Survival , Progression-Free Survival , Lymphatic Metastasis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
8.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 291-296, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518709

ABSTRACT

Los tumores de células germinales (TCGs) se forman a partir de células embrionarias y generalmente se presentan en pacientes de entre 11 y 30 años de edad. Los TCG pue-den presentarse como tumores extragonadales, siendo el mediastino anterior el sitio más común en el 50 a 70% de los casos. Presentamos a un paciente masculino de 21 años con un tumor sólido mediastinal de 17 x 15 cm que, de acuerdo a la tomografía de tórax (TC), ocupaba toda la cavidad torácica izquierda desplazando el corazón ha-cia la cavidad torácica derecha. El estudio patológico fue reportado por el patólogo co-mo un TCG.


Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are formed from embryonic cells and usually occur in patients between age 11 and 30 years. GCT can present as extra-gonadal tumors, with the an-terior mediastinum being the most common site in 50 to 70% of cases. We present a 21-year-old male patient with a solid mediastinal tumor of 17 x 15 cm that, according to the chest tomography (CT), it was occupying the entire left thoracic cavity moving the heart towards the right thoracic cavity. The pathological study was reported by the pathologist as a GCT tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Teratoma/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Mediastinal Neoplasms/surgery , Biopsy , Tomography , Biomarkers, Tumor
10.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(4): 724-731, 20230906. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511129

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Un biomarcador se define como una alteración molecular presente en el desarrollo de la patogénesis del cáncer, que puede ser utilizada para el diagnóstico temprano de la enfermedad. La medición del biomarcador se hace por medio de diversas técnicas, como bioquímica, inmunohistoquímica o biología molecular, en diferentes tipos de muestras, como tejido, sangre periférica y orina. El biomarcador ideal será aquel que sea válido y específico a la vez, que sea no invasivo, barato y fácilmente detectable. El uso de biomarcadores para la detección temprana del cáncer debe seguir un desarrollo ordenado y sistemático antes de introducirlos en la práctica clínica. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en las bases de datos de PubMed y Embase, seleccionando los artículos pertinentes para revisarlos acorde a la temática específica de interés. Resultados. Se propone la sistematización del desarrollo de biomarcadores en cinco grandes fases, las cuales tienen la característica de ser ordenadas desde las evidencias más tempranas hasta las fases finales de su estudio. Conclusiones. El correcto desarrollo de biomarcadores hace posible la introducción de intervenciones terapéuticas en el ámbito de la prevención secundaria del cáncer.


Introduction. A biomarker can be defined as a molecular alteration present in the development of cancer pathogenesis which can be used for early diagnosis of the disease. The measurement of the biomarker can be carried out through various techniques such as biochemistry, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, in different types of samples such as tissue, peripheral blood, and urine. The ideal biomarker will be one that is valid and specific while is non-invasive, cheap, and easily detectable. The use of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer must follow an orderly and systematic development before introducing them into clinical practice. Methods. An exhaustive search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases, selecting the relevant articles according to the specific topic of interest. Results. Systematization of the development of biomarkers in five large phases is proposed, which has the characteristic of being ordered from the earliest evidence to the final phases of their study. Conclusions. The correct development of biomarkers makes possible the introduction of therapeutic interventions in the field of secondary prevention of cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Early Diagnosis , Secondary Prevention , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions
11.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 171-178, July-sept. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521147

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most diagnosed malignancies worldwide, and it is also the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite recent progress in screening programs, noninvasive accurate biomarkers are still needed in the CRC field. In this study, we evaluated and compared the urinary proteomic profiles of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and patients without cancer, aiming to identify potential biomarker proteins. Urine samples were collected from 9 patients with CRC and 9 patients with normal colonoscopy results. Mass spectrometry (label-free LC—MS/MS) was used to characterize the proteomic profile of the groups. Ten proteins that were differentially regulated were identified between patients in the experimental group and in the control group, with statistical significance with a p value ≤ 0.05. The only protein that presented upregulation in the CRC group was beta-2-microglobulin (B2M). Subsequent studies are needed to evaluate patients through different analysis approaches to independently verify and validate these biomarker candidates in a larger cohort sample. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/urine , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Proteomics , Neoplasm Staging
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 491-500, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440341

ABSTRACT

Siendo el cáncer gástrico la 3ª causa de muerte por cáncer en Chile, y existiendo estrategias de tamizaje consistentes en pesquisa de lesiones preneoplásicas de la mucosa gástrica, es relevante conocer los aspectos genéticos y moleculares que puedan ser aplicados, en la optimización de dichas estrategias a grupos de mayor riesgo. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue revisar la evidencia actual en los aspectos señalados, y de la inmunohistoquímica de 4 marcadores (p53, CDX2, MUC2 y S100A9) en la mucosa gástrica normal y en las lesiones preneoplásicas de la misma.


SUMMARY: Since gastric cancer is the 3rd leading cause of death from cancer in Chile, and there are screening strategies consisting of screening for preneoplastic lesions of the gastric mucosa, it is important to know certain genetic and molecular aspects that can be applied in optimizing these strategies for higher risk groups. The aim of this manuscript was to review the current evidence on the aforementioned aspects, and on the immunohistochemistry of 4 markers (p53, CDX2, MUC2 and S100A9) in normal gastric mucosa and in its preneoplastic lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , Precancerous Conditions/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Genes, p53 , Mucin-2 , CDX2 Transcription Factor , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Metaplasia
14.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 369-373, 20230303. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425218

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El cistoadenoma mucinoso biliar es una neoplasia rara con alta probabilidad de malignidad. Su diagnóstico es un reto ya que se asemeja a otras masas benignas que pueden encontrarse en el hígado. Caso clínico. Mujer de 21 años con sensación de masa en hipocondrio derecho, a quien se le realizan marcadores tumorales y estudios de imágenes concluyendo que se trataba de un cistadenoma mucinoso biliar. Resultado. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con cistoadenoma mucinoso biliar, diagnosticada y tratada exitosamente con cirugía. Conclusión. El diagnóstico de cistoadenoma mucinoso biliar se confirma mediante marcadores tumorales y estudios radiológicos, y su tratamiento es quirúrgico debido al riesgo de malignidad


Introduction. Biliary mucinous cystadenoma is a rare neoplasm with a high probability of malignancy. Its diagnosis is a challenge since it resembles other benign masses that can be found in the liver. Clinical case. A 21-year-old woman with a sensation of a mass in the right hypochondrium, who underwent tumor markers and imaging studies, concluding with a diagnosis of biliary mucinous cystadenoma. Result. A case of a patient with biliary mucinous cystadenoma diagnosed and successfully treated by surgery is presented. Conclusion. The diagnosis of biliary mucinous cystadenoma is confirmed by tumor markers and radiological studies, and its treatment is surgical due to the risk of malignancy


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Cystadenoma, Mucinous , Liver Neoplasms , Immunohistochemistry , Hepatomegaly , Liver
15.
Natal; s.n; 17 mar. 2023. 126 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1532217

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os cistos e tumores odontogênicos são lesões que apresentam comportamento biológico heterogêneo e patogênese ainda não totalmente esclarecida. A Yes-associated protein (YAP) atua como um regulador transcricional de genes envolvidos na proliferação celular e na apoptose, participando da ativação de vias associadas ao crescimento cístico e à progressão neoplásica. Objetivo: Analisar a expressão imuno-histoquímica da proteína YAP e correlacioná-la com marcadores envolvidos na proliferação celular e na apoptose em lesões odontogênicas epiteliais benignas. Metodologia: A amostra consistiu de 95 casos de lesões odontogênicas - 25 cistos dentígeros (CDs), 30 CO não sindrômicos (COs), 30 AMB convencionais (AMB-Cs) e 10 AMB unicísticos (AMB-Us) -, além de 10 espécimes de folículo dentários (FD). Foi realizada coleta dos dados clinico-demográficos dos casos, bem como análise morfológica para melhor caracterização da amostra. Os cortes histológicos foram submetidos à técnica imuno-histoquímica através da utilização dos anticorpos YAP, ciclina D1, Ki-67 e Bcl-2, e a análise da expressão destes foi realizada quali-quantitativamente, mediante metodologia adaptada. Os dados coletados seguiram para análise descritiva e estatística (p ≤ 0,05). Resultados: Houve discreta predileção por mulheres (n = 55; 57,6%) e por indivíduos na faixa etária dos 21 aos 40 anos (n = 50; 47,6%), sendo a região posterior de mandíbula mais afetada (64%). A análise da imunoexpressão de YAP revelou maiores níveis de expressão em COs, especialmente nas camadas basal e parabasal, seguido dos AMB-Us e AMB-Cs, que demonstraram moderada imunorreatividade, predominantemente nas células periféricas. Além disso, houve diferenças significativas quanto à imunoexpressão de YAP entre os grupos analisados, com existência de correlações positivas e estatisticamente significativas entre YAP e ciclina D1 em CDs e AMB-Us, e entre YAP e Ki-67 em AMB-Us (p < 0,05). Todavia, entre a imunoexpressão YAP e Bcl-2, foi verificada ausência de correlação estatisticamente significativa. Conclusões: A YAP pode exercer influência sobre a proliferação celular do epitélio de cistos e tumores odontogênicos, auxiliando, assim, na progressão das diferentes lesões odontogênicas (AU).


Background: Odontogenic cysts and tumors present heterogeneous biological behavior, and their etiopathogenesis is not fully understood yet. Yes-associated protein (YAP) acts as a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, activating pathways associated with cystic growth and neoplastic progression. Objective: To analyze the immunohistochemical expression of YAP protein and correlate it with markers involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in benign epithelial odontogenic lesions. Methods: The sample consisted of 95 cases of odontogenic lesions - 25 dentigerous cysts (DCs), 30 non-syndromic odontogenic keratocyst (OKCs), 30 conventional AMB (C-AMBs), and 10 unicystic AMB (UAMBs) -, in addition to 10 specimens of dental follicles (DF). Clinicodemographic data collection was carried out, as well as morphological analysis for better characterization of the sample. The histological sections were submitted to the immunohistochemical technique using YAP, cyclin D1, Ki-67, and Bcl-2 antibodies, and their immunoexpression analysis was performed qualitatively and quantitatively, through an adapted methodology. The collected data were submitted for descriptive and statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). Results: There was a slight predilection for women (n = 55; 57.6%) and individuals aged between 21 and 40 years (n = 50; 47.6%), with the posterior region of the mandible as the most affected site (64%). Analysis of YAP immunoexpression revealed higher expression levels in OKCs, especially in the basal and parabasal layers, followed by U-AMBs and C-AMBs, which showed moderate immunoreactivity, predominantly in peripheral cells. In addition, there were significant differences in YAP immunoexpression between the analyzed groups, with positive and statistically significant correlations between YAP and cyclin D1 in DCs and U-AMBs, and between YAP and Ki-67 in U-AMBs (p < 0.05). However, between YAP and Bcl-2 immunoexpression, there was no statistically significant correlation. Conclusions: YAP may influence on the cell proliferation of odontogenic cysts and tumors epithelium, thus helping with the progression of the different odontogenic lesions (AU) .


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , YAP-Signaling Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptional Coactivator with PDZ-Binding Motif Proteins/metabolism , Dentigerous Cyst/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Apoptosis , Odontogenic Cyst, Calcifying/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins , Observational Study , Morphological and Microscopic Findings
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 118-133, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430508

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: We investigated Tweety Family Member 3 (TTYH3) level in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and its relationship with immune infiltration in tumors by bioinformatics. Differential expressions of TTYH3 in lung cancer were analyzed with Oncomine, TIMER, GEO, UALCAN and HPA. Relationship of TTYH3 mRNA/protein levels with clinical parameters was analyzed by UALCAN. Co-expressed genes of TTYH3 in LUAD were analyzed using Cbioportal. Its relationship with LUAD prognosis was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier plotter. GO and KEGG analysis were performed. Correlation between TTYH3 and tumor immune infiltration were tested by TIMER, TISIDB and GEPIA. We found that TTYH3 was significantly increased in LUAD tissues. TTYH3 high expression was closely related to poor overall survival, post progression survival and first progression in LUAD patients. TTYH3 mRNA/protein levels were significantly associated with multiple pathways. Specifically, TTYH3 up-regulation was mostly related to biological regulation, metabolic process, protein blinding, extracellular matrix organization and pathways in cancer. Moreover, TTYH3 was positively associated with immune cell infiltration in LUAD. Finally, TTYH3 was highly expressed in LUAD as revealed by meta-analysis. TTYH3 is closely related to the prognosis of LUAD and immune cell infiltration, and it can be used as a prognostic biomarker for LUAD and immune infiltration.


Investigamos por bioinformática el nivel de Tweety Family Member 3 (TTYH3) con adenocarcinoma de pulmón (LUAD) y su relación con la infiltración inmune en tumores. Las expresiones diferenciales de TTYH3 en cáncer de pulmón se analizaron con Oncomine, TIMER, GEO, UALCAN y HPA. Con UALCAN se analizó la relación de los niveles de ARNm/proteína de TTYH3 con los parámetros clínicos. Los genes coexpresados de TTYH3 en LUAD se analizaron utilizando Cbioportal. Su relación con el pronóstico LUAD se analizó mediante plotter de Kaplan- Meier. Se realizaron análisis GO y KEGG. TIMER, TISIDB y GEPIA probaron la correlación entre TTYH3 y la infiltración inmune tumoral. Encontramos que TTYH3 aumentó significativamente en los tejidos LUAD. La alta expresión de TTYH3 estuvo estrechamente relacionada con una supervivencia general deficiente, supervivencia posterior a la progresión y primera progresión en pacientes con LUAD. Los niveles de ARNm/ proteína de TTYH3 se asociaron significativamente con múltiples vías. Específicamente, la regulación positiva de TTYH3 se relacionó principalmente con la regulación biológica, el proceso metabólico, el cegamiento de proteínas, la organización de la matriz extracelular y las vías en el cáncer. Además, TTYH3 se asoció positivamente con la infiltración de células inmunitarias en LUAD. Finalmente, TTYH3 se expresó altamente en LUAD como lo reveló el metanálisis. TTYH3 está estrechamente relacionado con el pronóstico de LUAD y la infiltración de células inmunitarias, y se puede utilizar como biomarcador pronóstico para LUAD y la infiltración de células inmunitarias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prognosis , RNA, Messenger , Lymphocytes , Biomarkers, Tumor , Chloride Channels/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/immunology , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism
17.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023227, 14 fev. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518568

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most diagnosed neoplasia and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. A substantial number of patients exhibit an advanced GC stage once diagnosed. Therefore, the search for biomarkers contributes to the improvement and development of therapies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify potential GC biomarkers making use of in silico tools. METHODS: Gastric tissue microarray data available in Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas Program was extracted. We applied statistical tests in the search for differentially expressed genes between tumoral and non-tumoral adjacent tissue samples. The selected genes were submitted to an in-house tool for analyses of functional enrichment, survival rate, histological and molecular classifications, and clinical follow-up data. A decision tree analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive power of the potential biomarkers. RESULTS: In total, 39 differentially expressed genes were found, mostly involved in extracellular structure organization, extracellular matrix organization, and angiogenesis. The genes SLC7A8, LY6E, and SIDT2 showed potential as diagnostic biomarkers considering the differential expression results coupled with the high predictive power of the decision tree models. Moreover, GC samples showed lower SLC7A8 and SIDT2 expression, whereas LY6E was higher. SIDT2 demonstrated a potential prognostic role for the diffuse type of GC, given the higher patient survival rate for lower gene expression. CONCLUSION: Our study outlines novel biomarkers for GC that may have a key role in tumor progression. Nevertheless, complementary in vitro analyses are still needed to further support their potential.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor , Computational Biology , Prognosis , Computer Simulation , Gene Expression , Tissue Array Analysis
18.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 396-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986805

ABSTRACT

Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, with incidence and mortality rankings of 7th and 6th, respectively. In recent years, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors of programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been introduced into clinical practice and has changed the treatment status of esophageal cancer. Although immunotherapy has provided long-term survival benefits for patients with advanced esophageal cancer and high pathological response rates in the neoadjuvant therapy, only a few of the patients have satisfactory therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, effective biomarkers for predicting immunotherapeutic effects are urgently needed to identify those patients who could benefit from immunotherapy. In this paper, we mainly discuss recent research advances of biomarkers related to the immunotherapy of esophageal cancer and the clinical application prospects of these biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy , B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers, Tumor
19.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 729-735, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986202

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment, and prognosis of hepatic angiosarcoma. Methods: Clinicopathological data and prognostic conditions of 18 cases with hepatic angiosarcoma were collected retrospectively. The recurrence-free survival rate and overall survival rate were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was used to explore the survival-related risk factors. Results: There were 12 male and 6 female patients, with an average age of 57 (37 ~ 70) years. The tumor's average diameter was 8.40 (2.00 ~ 18.00) cm. Seven cases had multiple tumors, while two cases had large vessel tumor thrombuses. Microscopically, the tumor tissues were irregularly anastomosed, with vascular lacunar or solid bundle-like weaving, and the tissue morphology mimicked capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma, or angioepithelioma, while tumor cells were spindle-shaped or epithelioid, lined with hobnails in the lumen, or formed papillary structures in the lumen. The proportion of highly, moderately, and poorly differentiated tumors was 4:8:6, with six cases having clear tumor boundaries, eight having microvascular tumor thrombi, and sixteen having blood lake formation. Different levels of expression of CD31, CD34, erythroblast transformation-specific related genes, and Fli-1 markers were demonstrated in all of the cases. Four cases had a P53 mutation, and six cases had Ki-67 > 10%. During the follow-up period of 0.23-114.20 months, the five-year recurrence-free survival rate and overall survival rate were 16.7% and 37.2%, respectively. Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that preoperative symptoms and multiple tumors were significant risk factors for recurrence-free survival, while preoperative symptoms and Ki-67 > 10% were significant risk factors for overall survival. Conclusion: Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare hepatic mesenchymal tumor with high malignancy and a poor prognosis. Pathological morphology and immunohistochemical marker combinations are needed for a definite diagnosis. However, the complexity of angiosarcomas' histological and cytological conformations and the overlap of pathological features with benign vascular tumors, sarcomas, and carcinomas pose difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Thus, the only effective ways to prolong survival are early detection and radical surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Hemangiosarcoma , Ki-67 Antigen , Retrospective Studies , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Prognosis , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 627-633, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986181

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) potential value as a diagnostic and prognostic evaluator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A gene chip and GO analysis were used to screen the candidate marker molecule CNDP1 for HCC diagnosis. 125 cases of HCC cancer tissues, 85 cases of paracancerous tissues, 125 cases of liver cirrhosis tissues, 32 cases of relatively normal liver tissue at the extreme end of hepatic hemangioma, 66 cases from serum samples of HCC, and 82 cases of non-HCC were collected. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the differences in mRNA and protein expression levels of CNDP1 in HCC tissue and serum. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier survival were used to analyze and evaluate the value of CNDP1 in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC patients. Results: The expression level of CNDP1 was significantly reduced in HCC cancer tissues. The levels of CNDP1 were significantly lower in the cancer tissues and serum of HCC patients than those in liver cirrhosis patients and normal controls. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of serum CNDP1 in the diagnosis of HCC patients was 0.753 2 (95% CI 0.676-0.830 5), and the sensitivity and specificity were 78.79% and 62.5%, respectively. The combined detection of serum CNDP1 and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.820 6, 95% CI 0.753 5-0.887 8). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum CNDP1 for AFP-negative HCC patients were 73.68% and 68.75% (AUC = 0.793 1, 95% CI 0.708 8-0.877 4), respectively. In addition, the level of serum CNDP1 distinguished small liver cancer (tumor diameter < 3 cm) (AUC = 0.757 1, 95% CI 0.637 4-0.876 8). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that CNDP1 was associated with a poor prognosis in HCC patients. Conclusion: CNDP1 may be a potential biomarker for the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of HCC, and it has certain complementarity with serum AFP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Carnosine , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , ROC Curve
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