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Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 40-48, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927438


INTRODUCTION@#Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a form of coagulopathy unique to trauma patients and is associated with increased mortality. The complexity and incomplete understanding of TIC have resulted in controversies regarding optimum management. This review aims to summarise the pathophysiology of TIC and appraise established and emerging advances in the management of TIC.@*METHODS@#This narrative review is based on a literature search (MEDLINE database) completed in October 2020. Search terms used were "trauma induced coagulopathy", "coagulopathy of trauma", "trauma induced coagulopathy pathophysiology", "massive transfusion trauma induced coagulopathy", "viscoelastic assay trauma induced coagulopathy", "goal directed trauma induced coagulopathy and "fibrinogen trauma induced coagulopathy'.@*RESULTS@#TIC is not a uniform phenotype but a spectrum ranging from thrombotic to bleeding phenotypes. Evidence for the management of TIC with tranexamic acid, massive transfusion protocols, viscoelastic haemostatic assays (VHAs), and coagulation factor and fibrinogen concentrates were evaluated. Although most trauma centres utilise fixed-ratio massive transfusion protocols, the "ideal" transfusion ratio of blood to blood products is still debated. While more centres are using VHAs to guide blood product replacement, there is no agreed VHA-based transfusion strategy. The use of VHA to quantify the functional contributions of individual components of coagulation may permit targeted treatment of TIC but remains controversial.@*CONCLUSION@#A greater understanding of TIC, advances in point-of-care coagulation testing, and availability of coagulation factors and fibrinogen concentrates allows clinicians to employ a more goal-directed approach. Still, hospitals need to tailor their approaches according to available resources, provide training and establish local guidelines.

Humans , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostatics
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 959-964, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939716


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease caused by uncontrolled proliferation of activated macrophage, and secreting high amounts of inflammatory cytokines which lead to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. HLH patients often show different clinical characteristics during the disease was progressed, in which coagulopathy were the most common, including thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia, those are the major cause of death in patients, and the clinicians should increase awareness of the mechanisms, clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment. In this review, the above problems are briefly summarized, to deepen understanding of the HLH related coagulation dysfunctions, and early identification and treatment to reduce mortality, so as to provide more opportunities for HLH patients to recieve subsequent treatment.

Humans , Afibrinogenemia , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/therapy , Prognosis , Thrombocytopenia
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 209-214, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279103


Resumen La infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) es la causante de la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), con un índice de letalidad alto. La mayoría de los pacientes graves desarrollan un tipo especial de coagulopatía no descrito hasta ahora y la cual se considera ahora la principal causa de muerte. Por esta razón, el tratamiento anticoagulante se ha convertido en una de las piedras angulares del tratamiento de esta infección. Sin embargo, la velocidad con la que se genera la evidencia respecto al uso de anticoagulantes es muy rápida y, en ocasiones difícil de interpretar y contradictoria. Luego de hacer una revisión extensa de la literatura publicada, se hace esta propuesta para el uso del tratamiento anticoagulante tomando en cuenta los recursos disponibles en México.

Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has a high case fatality rate. Most severely ill patients develop a special type of coagulopathy that had not been described before and that is now considered the main cause of death. For this reason, anticoagulant treatment has become one of the cornerstones of the treatment of this infection. However, the rate at which the evidence regarding the use of anticoagulants is generated is quite fast, and sometimes it is difficult to interpret and conflicting. After having performed an extensive review of the published literature, this proposal for the use of anticoagulant treatment is made, taking into account available resources in Mexico.

Humans , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Algorithms , Guidelines as Topic , Mexico
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 474-478, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138507


RESUMO Este relato de caso detalha um caso grave de febre amarela complicada por insuficiência hepática e coagulação intravascular disseminada. A tromboelastometria foi capaz de identificar os distúrbios da coagulação e orientar o tratamento hemostático. Relatamos o caso de um homem com 23 anos de idade admitido na unidade de terapia intensiva com quadro com início abrupto de febre e dor muscular generalizada associados a insuficiência hepática e coagulação intravascular disseminada. Os resultados dos exames laboratoriais convencionais revelaram trombocitopenia, enquanto a tromboelastometria sugeriu coagulopatia com discreta hipofibrinogenemia, consumo de fatores de coagulação e, consequentemente, aumento do risco de sangramento. Diferentemente dos exames laboratoriais convencionais, a tromboelastometria identificou o distúrbio de coagulação específico e, assim, orientou o tratamento hemostático. Administraram-se concentrados de fibrinogênio e vitamina K, não sendo necessária a transfusão de qualquer componente do sangue, mesmo na presença de trombocitopenia. A tromboelastometria permitiu a identificação precoce da coagulopatia e ajudou a orientar a terapêutica hemostática. A administração de fármacos hemostáticos, incluindo concentrados de fibrinogênio e vitamina K, melhorou os parâmetros tromboelastométricos, com correção do transtorno da coagulação. Não se realizou transfusão de hemocomponentes, e não ocorreu qualquer sangramento.

Abstract This case report a severe case of yellow fever complicated by liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromboelastometry was capable of identifying clotting disorders and guiding hemostatic therapy. We report the case of a 23-year-old male admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with sudden onset of fever, generalized muscle pain associated with liver failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The results of conventional laboratory tests showed thrombocytopenia, whereas thromboelastometry suggested coagulopathy with slight hypofibrinogenemia, clotting factor consumption, and, consequently, an increased risk of bleeding. Unlike conventional laboratory tests, thromboelastometry identified the specific coagulation disorder and thereby guided hemostatic therapy. Both fibrinogen concentrates and vitamin K were administered, and no blood component transfusion was required, even in the presence of thrombocytopenia. Administration of hemostatic drugs, including fibrinogen concentrate and vitamin K, improved thromboelastometric parameters, correcting the complex coagulation disorder. Blood component transfusion was not performed, and there was no bleeding.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Yellow Fever/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Liver Failure/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Thrombelastography/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Hemostatics/administration & dosage , Liver Failure/virology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 842-848, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136295


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly described virus responsible for the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), named by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February/2020. Patients with Covid-19 have an incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of 15.9-29% and sepsis is observed in all deceased patients. Moreover, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is one of the major underlying causes of death among these patients. In patients with DIC, there is a decrease in fibrinogen and an increase in D-dimer levels. Some studies have shown that fibrinogen and one of its end products, D-dimer, might have a predictive value for mortality in patients with non-Covid sepsis secondary to complications of DIC. Therefore, anticoagulation, considering its mortality benefits in cases of non-Covid sepsis, may also have an important role in the treatment of Covid-19. METHODS We reviewed the literature of all studies published by April 2020 on patients infected with Covid-19. Our review was limited to D-dimer and fibrinogen changes and anticoagulation recommendations. RESULTS Anticoagulation therapy can be started following the DIC diagnosis in Covid-19 patients despite the bleeding risks. In addition, the current evidence suggests a routine use of anticoagulation, particularly in patients with higher D-dimer levels (> 3.0 μg/mL). CONCLUSION Covid-19 is a systemic, hypercoagulable disease requiring more studies concerning treatment. Aanticoagulation is still an issue to be studied, but D-dimer rise and disease severity are the indicative factors to start treatment as soon as possible.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO O coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) é o vírus responsável pelo surto recentemente batizado de doença pelo coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) em fevereiro/2020. Os doentes com Covid-19 têm uma incidência de síndrome de dificuldade respiratória aguda (SDRA) de 15,9-29% e sepse é observada em todos os pacientes que vêm a óbito. Além disso, a coagulação intravascular disseminada (DIC) é uma das principais causas subjacentes de morte entre esses pacientes. Em pacientes com DIC, ocorre com uma diminuição do fibrinogênio e um aumento dos níveis de dímero D. Alguns estudos mostraram que o fibrinogênio e um dos seus produtos finais, o dímero D, podem ter um valor preditivo para a mortalidade em pacientes com sepse não relacionada à Covid-19 decorrente de complicações da DIC. Portanto, a anticoagulação, considerando seus benefícios quanto à mortalidade na sepse não relacionada à Covid-19, pode também ter um papel importante no tratamento da Covid-19. MÉTODOS Realizamos uma revisão de todos os estudos publicados até abril de 2020 sobre pacientes infectados com Covid-19. A nossa revisão limitou-se a alterações no dímero D, nos fibrinogênios e recomendações de anticoagulantes. RESULTADOS A terapêutica anticoagulante pode ser iniciada após o diagnóstico de DIC em pacientes com Covid-19 apesar dos riscos de hemorragia. Além disso, a evidência atual sugere o uso rotineiro da anticoagulação, principalmente em pacientes com níveis mais elevados de dímero D (> 3, 0 µg/mL). CONCLUSÃO A Covid-19 é uma doença sistêmica e hipercoagulável que requer mais estudos em relação ao tratamento. A anticoagulação ainda é uma questão a ser estudada, mas o aumento de dímeros D e a gravidade da doença são os fatores indicativos para o início do tratamento o mais rápido possível.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Fibrinogen/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5032, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133784


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implementation of a care protocol based on rapid response teams, for management and resolution of bleeding. Methods A hospital protocol called Hemorrhage Code (Code H) was devised and developed. In a flow line, a multidisciplinary team provides comprehensive, fast and effective care to the patient with a severe hemorrhagic condition. In another flow line, professionals based at the hospital pharmacy focus on identifying patients at risk of bleeding, to avoid this event. Several hospital professionals and sectors were trained, each with specific roles, ensuring full support to the medical and nursing staffs. Results After implementing this protocol, we were able to significantly reduce the number of catastrophic events related to failure in bleeding management. Conclusion Code H is an example of a value-based medicine and precision medicine project by delivering comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, in addition to point-of-care testing introduced in clinical practice, optimizing patient safety and care practices at the hospital. Furthermore, it will be possible to minimize the risk of lawsuits for the hospital and physicians, as well as rationalizing resources with benefits for administrators and payers.

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever a implantação de um protocolo de atendimento nos moldes de times de resposta rápida, para manejo e resolução do sangramento. Métodos Foi idealizado e desenvolvido um protocolo institucional, chamado Código Hemorrágico, ou Código H, no qual, em um fluxo, um time multiprofissional e multidisciplinar foi constituído para atendimento integral, rápido e eficaz do paciente com doença hemorrágica grave. Em um outro fluxo, os profissionais, centralizados na farmácia do hospital, focavam na identificação do paciente com risco de hemorragia, no sentido de evitar o evento. Vários profissionais e setores do hospital foram treinados, e cada um, com funções específicas, deveria oferecer garantia total de apoio e suporte às equipes médica e de enfermagem. Resultados Após a implementação do protocolo, o número de eventos catastróficos relacionados à falha no manejo do sangramento reduziu significativamente. Conclusão O Código H é um exemplo de projeto de medicina baseada em valor e de medicina de precisão, por meio de atendimento integral e multidisciplinar, além de testes point of care introduzidos na prática clínica, com otimização da segurança do paciente e da prática assistencial na instituição. Ainda, por meio dele, deve ser possível minimizar o risco de ações judiciais para o hospital e os médicos, além de racionalizar recursos, com benefícios para administradores e fontes pagadoras.

Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Patient Safety , Patient Care/standards , Hemorrhage/therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(4): 272-278, 20170000. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-877190


O coma mixedematoso é uma emergência endocrinológica rara e consiste na máxima expressão do hipotireoidismo, com alta mortalidade por suas complicações hemodinâmicas e ventilatórias, podendo ser agravadas por distúrbios da coagulação. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente diagnosticada com coma mixedematoso e trombo de veia cava superior. Buscamos salientar os distúrbios de coagulação frequentes no hipotireoidismo grave, que contribuem para o aumento da mortalidade deste grupo de pacientes. O diagnóstico e o tratamento precoce do coma mixedematoso, aliados à instituição imediata da terapia para o fenômeno trombótico encontrado, permitiram a evolução favorável do quadro. O relato, juntamente da bibliografia pesquisada, orientou o raciocínio sobre a relação dos distúrbios de coagulação, que ocorrem no hipotireoidismo descompensado. Apesar de poucos relatos, estes distúrbios podem ser frequentes e devem ser pesquisados, pois contribuem com o aumento da mortalidade.(AU)

Myxedema coma is a rare endocrinological emergency, consisting of the highest expression of hypothyroidism with high mortality due to hemodynamic and ventilatory complications, which may be aggravated by coagulation disorders. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with myxedema coma and superior vena cava thrombus. We sought to emphasize the frequent coagulation disorders in severe hypothyroidism, which contribute to increased mortality in this group of patients. The diagnosis and early treatment of myxedema coma, together with the immediate institution of therapy for the thrombotic phenomenon found, allowed the favorable evolution of the condition. The report, together with the literature, has guided the rationale for the influence of coagulation disorders that occur in decompensated hypothyroidism. Despite the few number of reports, these disorders can be frequent and should be investigated because they contribute to the increase in mortality.(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome , Coma/complications , Hypothyroidism/complications , Myxedema/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Coma/diagnosis , Myxedema/diagnosis
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(2): 243-246, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891375


ABSTRACT Perioperative monitoring of coagulation is vital to assess bleeding risks, diagnose deficiencies associated with hemorrhage, and guide hemostatic therapy in major surgical procedures, such as liver transplantation. Routine static tests demand long turnaround time and do not assess platelet function; they are determined on plasma at a standard temperature of 37°C; hence these tests are ill-suited for intraoperative use. In contrast, methods which evaluate the viscoelastic properties of whole blood, such as thromboelastogram and rotational thromboelastometry, provide rapid qualitative coagulation assessment and appropriate guidance for transfusion therapy. These are promising tools for the assessment and treatment of hyper- and hypocoagulable states associated with bleeding in liver transplantation. When combined with traditional tests and objective assessment of the surgical field, this information provides ideal guidance for transfusion strategies, with potential improvement of patient outcomes.

RESUMO A monitorização perioperatória da coagulação é fundamental para estimar o risco de sangramento, diagnosticar deficiências causadoras de hemorragia e guiar terapias hemostáticas durante procedimentos cirúrgicos de grande porte, como o transplante hepático. Os testes estáticos, comumente usados na prática clínica, são insatisfatórios no intraoperatório, pois demandam tempo e não avaliam a função plaquetária; são determinados no plasma e realizados em temperatura padrão de 37°C. Os métodos que avaliam as propriedades viscoelásticas do sangue total, como o tromboelastograma e a tromboelastometria rotacional, podem suprir as deficiências dos testes estáticos tradicionais, uma vez que permitem avaliar a coagulação de forma rápida e qualitativa, guiando a terapia transfusional de forma adequada. A tromboelastometria rotacional mostrou-se promissora na avaliação e no tratamento de estados de hipercoagulação e hipocoagulação, associados a sangramento no transplante hepático. Estas informações, combinadas com os testes tradicionais e uma avaliação objetiva do campo cirúrgico, promovem um cenário ótimo para guiar as estratégias transfusionais e potencialmente melhorar o desfecho destes pacientes.

Humans , Thrombelastography/instrumentation , Perioperative Care/instrumentation , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Thrombelastography/methods , Thrombelastography/trends , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion/instrumentation , Liver Transplantation
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(6): 758-766, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-722926


The leading cause of preventable death in trauma is uncontrolled bleeding. Some of these deaths may be secondary to the Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma, which is present in 30% of patients on admission to hospital. In recent years, Damage Control Resuscitation has been developed, which aims to give a hemostatic resuscitation and avoid deaths caused by bleeding. This strategy considers control of bleeding with damage control surgery or interventional procedures, early transfusion of all blood products, permissive hypotension and limited use of crystalloids. Several studies have reported that early transfusion of all blood products, with a ratio close to 1:1, may be associated with lower mortality and less requirements of total transfusions in trauma patients at risk of massive bleeding and massive transfusion. These findings must be corroborated in randomized controlled trials, along with determining the optimum ratio between blood products. In stable patients, a restrictive transfusion strategy is safe and appropriate.

Humans , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Fluid Therapy/methods , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Resuscitation/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Combined Modality Therapy/methods
Rev. argent. transfus ; 40(2): 111-120, 2014. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973162


La coagulopatía asociada a transfusión masivaes un importante problema clínico. Los pacientesque presentan hemorragias severas son tratadosen forma empírica guiados por evidencias clínicas.A su vez, la producción de los hemocomponentespor parte del Banco de sangre requiere de tiempo,equipamiento, personal capacitado, además de losinsumos correspondientes, lo que genera un altocosto económico; son un recurso limitado y no estánexentos de efectos adversos. La tromboelastografíaaporta una interpretación fisiopatológica delmotivo del sangrado, y por lo tanto, permitiría unamejor elección de la droga y/o del soporte transfusional.Tanto el método TEG como el métodoROTEM son estudios altamente sensibles y específicos,permiten evaluar el estado hemostáticoen tiempo real y a la cabecera del paciente, lo quederiva en una mejor elección de la terapeútica a implementar.Algunos de los interrogantes a resolverson la injerencia del uso de estas pruebas sobre lamortalidad de pacientes que presentan sangradosmasivos, evaluar el costo/beneficio de la implementaciónde esta técnica dada la necesidad de personalentrenado para el manejo de la técnica y lainterpretación de los resultados, la validación de latécnica y la implementación de protocolos de transfusióny/o drogas hemostáticas para las distintascausas de sangrado masivo.

Coagulopathy secondary to massive transfusionis a well-known clinical problem. Patients with severebleeding are treated empirically, guided onlyby clinical evidence. At the same time, blood banksrequire time, equipment, trained staff in addition tothe appropriate supplies to produce blood products.These are expensive scarce resources and theymay have undesirable side effects. Thromboelastographyprovides an physiopathologic explanationof bleeding, and for this reason it would allow a betterchoice of drugs and/or transfusional support.TEG as well as ROTEM have high sensibility andspecificity. They help to establish the patient’s haemostaticstate at bedside in real time, and thus helpto choose the best treatment. There are still somequestions to be answered, such as the benefit inmortality when this test is used in patients with massivebleeding; the cost benefit of the implementationof this technique given the necessity of trained stafffor the use of the device and the interpretation ofthe results, the validation of the technique and theimplementation of guidelines for transfusion and/oruse of haemostatic drugs in patients with massivebleeding from different causes.

Humans , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemostasis , Monitoring, Physiologic , Thrombelastography
Rev. chil. med. intensiv ; 27(4): 215-223, 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-831361


En trauma, la principal causa de muerte es el sangrado no controlado. Para su prevención es fundamental corregir precozmente la coagulopatía aguda del trauma mediante la reanimación con control de daños. Hay evidencia que la administración precoz de todos los hemoderivados con una relación entre ellos cercana a 1:1, podría mejorar la sobrevida en los pacientes de trauma, aunque estos hallazgos deben corroborarse en estudios clínicos randomizados, junto con determinar cuál es la relación óptima. En pacientes estables una estrategia transfusional restrictiva es segura y adecuada. En el presente artículo se revisará el manejo transfusional de los pacientes de trauma, dando especial énfasis a aquellos que requieren transfusión masiva.

In trauma, the leading cause of death is uncontrolled bleeding. For early prevention is essential the correction the acute coagulopathy of trauma using damage-control resuscitation. There is evidence that early administration of 1:1 transfusion ratios of blood products are associated with increased survival in trauma patients with massive transfusion requirements. Although, these findings must be corroborated in randomized clinical trials, along with determining which is the optimum. In stable patients, restrictive transfusion strategy is safe and appropriate. In this article, we review the transfusion management of trauma patients with special emphasis on those requiring massive transfusion.

Humans , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Blood Transfusion/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Prognosis
Rev. chil. med. intensiv ; 27(4): 224-226, 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-831362


En la actualidad, el trauma constituye, por su alta frecuencia de presentación un problema no solo en su manejo sino que también de salud pública. La mejoría en los diferentes sistemas de rescate permite la recepción de pacientes más graves cuyo requerimiento de transfusiones es mayor y si bien son en grupo minoritario dentro del total de trauma aportan con una alta mortalidad especialmente en las primeras horas siendo la hemorragia y la coagulopatía la causa de ésta. Los recientes conflictos bélicos han planteado un cambio en el manejo transfusional de estos pacientes orientando hacia prácticas que incrementan la relación de GR, plasma fresco congelado (PFC)y plaquetas aportadas, tratando de simular el aporte de sangre total en las primeras horas de ocurrido el accidente.

Trauma is a very important public health problem and also a practice management. The aim of prehospital care of bleeding patient is to deliver the patient to a facility for definitive care. Trauma associated bleeding and coagulopaty is the principal cause of preventible death. Recent military experience suggest that FFP and platelets should be given early and more often to injured patient.

Humans , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Blood Transfusion/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy
Cuad. cir ; 26(1): 42-47, 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-721846


La coagulopatía inducida por el shock hemorrágico se encuentra presente en casi un 25 por ciento de los pacientes ingresados por esta causa. Una vez que la coagulopatía se ha instalado aumenta drásticamente la morbimortalidad. Los paradigmas en la reanimación en el paciente traumatizado han variado dramáticamente en los últimos años, cambiando el uso de grandes volúmenes de cristaloides con el uso precoz de los hemoderivados y otros productos para tratar de revertir la coagulopatía y la "triada de la muerte". El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la fisiopatologia de la coagulopatía en el trauma y las tendencias terapéuticas para revertiría.

Coagulopathy induced by hemorrhagic shock is present in almost 25 percent of patients admitted for this reason. Once the coagulopathy develops patients morbidity and mortality dramatically increases. The paradigms in trauma patients resuscitation have changed considerably in the last years by changing the use of large volumes of crystalloid with the early use of blood products and other products to try to reverse the coagulopathy and the "triad of death." The aim of this paper is to review the pathophysiology of coagulopathy in trauma and therapy trends to reverse it.

Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/complications , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Hemostatic Techniques , Resuscitation/methods , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Multiple Trauma/complications
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(2): 611-617, June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589918


Transfusion therapy is a major resource that can improve the patient's capability to overcome the underlying disease. However, the effects of whole blood infusion, and how they affect the patient's outcome, are not yet clear. For this study, a protocol was developed in order to monitor a group of 15 animals (9 dogs, 6 cats) that received a total of 19 transfusions; 3 animals received more than one transfusion each. The most common indications for blood transfusion included acute blood loss (47 percent), coagulopathy (33 percent) and other anaemias (20 percent). The mean pre-transfusion packed cell volume (PCV) of animals with acute blood loss (18 percent) was higher than in the group of coagulopathy (15 percent) or other anaemias (15 percent). The survival rates at 6 days after transfusion were greater in the coagulopathy (80.0 percent) and other anaemias (66.7 percent) than in the group of acute blood loss (42.9 percent). After transfusion, pulse rate ( p <0.01) and platelet count ( p <0.05) decreased significantly, and there was a significant increase in body temperature of the animals that suffered from hypothermia before the transfusion ( p <0.05). Overall survival was predictable based upon posttransfusion body temperature, observed PCV change, the difference between the obtained and the calculated PCV, and administered transfusion volume ( p <0.05).

A terapia transfusional é um importante recurso que pode auxiliar na recuperação do doente face à patologia primária. No entanto, não estão totalmente esclarecidos os efeitos de uma transfusão sanguínea, e que consequências podem ter no desfecho clínico. Para este estudo, foi desenvolvido um protocolo de forma a monitorizar 15 animais (9 cães e 6 gatos) que receberam um total de 19 transfusões; 3 animais receberam mais do que uma unidade de sangue. As indicações mais comuns para realização da transfusão foram hemorragia aguda (47 por cento), coagulopatia (33 por cento) e outras anemias (20 por cento). O hematócrito pré-transfusional médio dos animais com hemorragia aguda (18 por cento) foi superior ao dos animais com coagulopatia (15 por cento) ou outras anemias (15 por cento). A taxa de sobrevivência ao sexto dia pós-transfusão foi maior no grupo da coagulopatia (80,0 por cento) e de outras anemias (66,7 por cento), do que no grupo da hemorragia aguda (42,9 por cento). Após a transfusão, a frequência de pulso ( p <0,01) e a contagem de plaquetas ( p <0,05) diminuíram significativamente, e houve um aumento significativo da temperatura corporal nos animais com hipotermia antes da transfusão ( p <0,05). A sobrevivência foi predizível com base na temperatura pós-transfusão, a variação do Ht, a diferença entre o Ht real e o Ht esperado, e o volume de transfusão aplicado ( p <0,05).

Animals , Cats , Dogs , Anemia/veterinary , Blood Coagulation Disorders/veterinary , Blood Transfusion/veterinary , Hemorrhage/veterinary , Acute Disease , Anemia/therapy , Blood Pressure , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/therapy , Platelet Count , Survival Analysis
Arq. odontol ; 46(3): 176-180, 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-583658


Os pacientes com transtornos de coagulação sanguínea constituem um grupo que requer atenção e cuidados especiais na prática odontológica. A hemofilia e a doença de von Willebrand são as mais comuns das coagulopatias hereditárias e devem ser detectadas antes que qualquer tratamento odontológico seja realizado. Uma boa anamnese, associada a um bom exame físico e bucal podem ajudar na detecção dessas patologias. O cirurgião-dentista deve estar preparado para oferecer o tratamento adequado a esses pacientes, o qual depende da severidade da doença e do tipo de procedimento a ser realizado. Procedimentos menos invasivos geralmente não necessitam de cuidados especiais e podem ser realizados rotineiramente, desde que alguns cuidados básicos sejam tomados. Cirurgias e técnicas anestésicas de bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior devem ser realizadas com maior precaução, a fim de minimizar os riscos de sangramento e outras complicações. O hematologista deve ser consultado sempre que qualquer tratamento invasivo for planejado.

Humans , Male , Female , Dental Care for Chronically Ill/trends , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , von Willebrand Diseases/complications , Hemophilia A/complications
Medical Journal of Cairo University [The]. 2006; 74 (4 Supp. III): 335-338
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-79406


Patients with end stage liver disease are predisposed to hypomagnesemia which may cause bleeding tendency. There are many evidences suggesting that magnesium is a crucial constituent of the blood coagulation cascade and has a pro-coagulant activity. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of magnesium therapy on thromboelastography [TEG] in patients with end stage liver disease. The study was conducted on thirty patients with end stage liver disease in the intensive care unit. Four grams of magnesium sulfate, diluted in normal saline, were infused to all patients. The TEG findings immediately before and 15 minutes after the magnesium infusion were compared. The TEG findings showed general hypocoagulability before magnesium therapy. The R time and K time were shortened significantly from 1090.7 +/- 376.3 [mean +/- SD] to 870 +/- 211.9 sec and from 659.3 +/- 321.6 to 449.3 +/- 319.6 sec respectively [p<0.05]; the Alpha angle and maximal amplitude showed significant increases from 28.1 +/- 11.3 to 373 +/- 12.6 and from 37.8 +/- 11.4 to 46.6 +/- 13.1 mm respectively after magnesium therapy [p<0.05]. Also, serum magnesium level rises significantly from 1.9 to 3.1 mg. dl-1 [p<0.05]. In conclusion, magnesium therapy improved the overall TEG findings in patients with end stage liver disease who show signs of TEG hypocoagulability and hypomagnesaemia. Further studies will be needed to investigate the effect of magnesium therapy and the improvement of TEG variables on clinical outcome of patients

Humans , Male , Female , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Thrombelastography , Treatment Outcome , Chronic Disease
Alexandria Journal of Pediatrics. 2006; 20 (2): 341-345
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-75696


The aim of this work is to evaluate the coagulation defects and platelet function in beta-thalassemic children before and after splenectomy. Also to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine therapy on the coagulation events and platelet function in these patients. The study included 56 beta-thalassemic children who were admitted at the Hematology Unit in the Pediatric University Hospital - Assiut with 20 sex and age matched children as controls. They were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations in the form of: screening tests for coagulation: PT, APTT TT, PC and fibrinogen, natural anticoagulants studies like protein S, protein C and antithrombin III activity and platelet response to adinosindiphosphate [ADP], ristocetin [Rist], collagen and arachidonic acid [AA]. Nineteen children did splenectomy and these studies were done after 2 months of this manover. L-Carnitine therapy in a dose of 3 gm orally daily for 2 months was given to 20 non-splenectomized beta-thalassernic children and the previous follow up laboratorial studies were done. It was found that platelet response to ADP, Rist, collagen and AA was significantly decreased in non-splenoctomized patients and significantly increased in the splenectomized ones in comparison to controls. The coagulation screen tests showed significant defect in the form of prolonged PT, APTT, TT and low PC with decrease fibrinogen levels in both splenectomized and nonsplenecloinized beta-thalassemic children in comparison to controls with no significant difference between before and after splenectomy. Natural anticoagulants except protein S were significantly lower in both non-splenectomized and splenectomized beta-thalassemic children than those of the controls with no difference between before and after splenectomy. L-Carnitine therapy improved the platelet aggregation in the non splenectomized beta-thalasseinic children with no affection on the coagulation tests and natural anticoagulants. In conclusion, thalassemia major can be complicated by defective platelet aggregation and bleeding tendency. Splenectomy causes increased platelet aggregation which with the decreased levels of natural anticoagulants lead to the liability to thromboembolic complications. L-Carnitine might affect and improve platelet aggregation in non-splenectomized children but it could aggravate the thromboembolic complications in the non-splenectomized ones. Iron overload prevention with iron celation and antioxidants is recommended to prevent platelet aggregation and coagulation defects. Salicylates therapy to cases with thromboembolic complications might decrease thrombus formation and dangerous events

Humans , Male , Female , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Prothrombin Time , Partial Thromboplastin Time , beta-Thalassemia , Blood Transfusion , Carnitine , Iron Overload , Treatment Outcome , Fibrinogen , Protein S , Antithrombin III , Platelet Aggregation