Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 9.980
Filter
1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 639-642, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376770

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Research on scientific fitness exercises for the elderly has an important practical significance and can improve the physical fitness and health of the elderly. Chinese research on scientific conditioning exercises for the elderly is still lacking, especially when comparing results between different sports approaches in the elderly. Objective To study the effects of different types of exercise on the physical performance and health of the elderly. Methods 329 healthy elderly volunteers (161 men) with a mean age of 64.5 years from 6 different sports activities were selected. The following indicators of body shape and physical function were evaluated before and after training: height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, vital capacity, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All indicators were collected following the standardized methods of China's national fitness monitoring system. Exercise intensity was monitored with the subject's target heart rate. Physical exercises were performed for 30 to 40 minutes, 3 to 4 times a week. Results The type of physical exercise has a significant association with human performance and health. Conclusion Exercise and fitness programs positively correlate with human performance and health. Evidence level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução A pesquisa sobre exercícios de aptidão científica para idosos tem um importante significado prático, podendo melhorar a aptidão física e a saúde dos idosos. Atualmente, a pesquisa chinesa sobre exercícios de condicionamento científico para idosos ainda é deficiente, principalmente ao comparar resultados entre diferentes abordagens esportivas nos idosos. Objetivo Estudar os efeitos de diferentes tipos de exercícios no desempenho físico e na saúde dos idosos. Métodos 329 idosos voluntários saudáveis (161 homens) com idade média de 64,5 anos, de 6 diferentes atividades esportivas foram selecionados. Os seguintes indicadores de forma corporal e função física foram avaliados antes e após os treinos: altura, peso, circunferência da cintura, circunferência do quadril, capacidade vital, frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica e pressão arterial diastólica. Todos os indicadores foram coletados seguindo os métodos padronizados do sistema nacional de monitoramento de condicionamento físico da China. A intensidade do exercício foi monitorada com a frequência cardíaca alvo do indivíduo. Os exercícios físicos foram executados entre 30 a 40 minutos, 3 a 4 vezes por semana. Resultados O tipo de exercício físico tem uma associação significativa com o desempenho humano e a saúde. Conclusão Os programas de exercícios e condicionamento físico têm uma correlação positiva com o desempenho humano e a saúde. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação de resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción La investigación sobre ejercicios científicos de acondicionamiento físico para ancianos tiene un significado práctico importante y puede mejorar la condición física y la salud de las personas mayores. Actualmente, aún falta investigación china sobre ejercicios de acondicionamiento científico para personas mayores, especialmente cuando se comparan los resultados entre diferentes enfoques deportivos en ancianos. Objetivo Estudiar los efectos de diferentes tipos de ejercicio sobre el rendimiento físico y la salud de los adultos mayores. Métodos Se seleccionaron 329 voluntarios adultos mayores sanos (161 hombres) con una edad media de 64,5 años, de 6 actividades deportivas diferentes. Se evaluaron los siguientes indicadores de forma corporal y función física antes y después del entrenamiento: altura, peso, circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia de la cadera, capacidad vital, frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial sistólica y presión arterial diastólica. Todos los indicadores se recopilaron siguiendo los métodos estandarizados del sistema nacional de seguimiento del estado físico de China. La intensidad del ejercicio se controló con la frecuencia cardíaca objetivo del sujeto. Los ejercicios físicos se realizaron durante 30 a 40 minutos, 3 a 4 veces por semana. Resultados El tipo de ejercicio físico tiene una asociación significativa con el rendimiento humano y la salud. Conclusión Los programas de ejercicio y acondicionamiento físico tienen una correlación positiva con el rendimiento y la salud humana. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise , Physical Fitness/physiology , Health of the Elderly , Blood Pressure/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology
3.
Rev. APS ; 25(Supl 1): 135-146, 2022-05-06.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370872

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a síndrome da apneia-hipopneia obstrutiva do sono (SAHOS) é o distúrbio respiratório do sono mais comum, associado a condições facilmente identificáveis, como a hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Objetivo: determinar prevalência de rastreamento positivo para SAHOS e identificar fatores associados em hipertensos em serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Métodos: estudo transversal com 326 hipertensos adscritos a uma unidade de APS. Foram obtidas variáveis antropométricas, clínicas e sociodemográficas e utilizados os questionários Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults, para identificar o letramento em saúde; a Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, para a adesão medicamentosa e o Snoring, Tiredness, Observed Apnea, High Blood Pressure, Bodymass index, Age, Neck Circumference, and Gender -STOP-Bang, para rastreamentoda SAHOS. Resultados: o sexo feminino foi majoritário (66,3%). A média temporal de tratamento para hipertensão arterial sistêmica alcançou 12,51 ± 9,83 anos. Constatou-se prevalência de 86,5% de rastreio positivo para SAHOS e o sexo masculino e a obesidade como fatores associados a essa condição (p<0,01). Conclusão: o rastreamento sistemático da SAHOS na APS deve ser incorporado à prática dos profissionais de saúde, assim como é feito para outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis 1.


Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common sleep breathing disorder, associated with easily identifiable conditions such as systemic arterial hypertension. Objective: To determine the prevalence of positive screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) and to identify associated factors in the hypertensive population in the Primary Health Care (PHC) service. Method: This was a cross-sectional study with 326 hypertensive individuals assigned to a PHC unit in a medium-sized city in the state of Minas Gerais. Anthropometric, clinical, and sociodemographic variables were obtained. The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults questionnaire was used to identify literacy in health; the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used for medication adherence; and the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed Apnea, High Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, Age, Neck Circumference, and Gender -STOP-Bang questionnaire was used for the screening of OSAHS. Results: The majority was female (66.3%) and the treatment time average for high blood pressure was 12.51 ± 9.83 years. The study identified the prevalence of 86.5% of positive screening for OSAHS, and male sex and obesity as factors associated with this condition (p <0.01). Conclusion: The systematic screening of OSAHS in PHC services should be incorporated into the practice of health professionals, as itis done for other chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Primary Health Care , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Mass Screening , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Hypertension
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 99-103, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360561

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the vena cava distensibility index and pulse pressure variation as dynamic parameters for estimating intravascular volume in critically ill children. Methods: Patients aged 1 month to 18 years, who were hospitalized in the present study's pediatric intensive care unit, were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to central venous pressure: hypovolemic (< 8mmHg) and non-hypovolemic (central venous pressure ≥ 8 mmHg) groups. In both groups, vena cava distensibility index was measured using bedside ultrasound and pulse pressure variation. Measurements were recorded and evaluated under arterial monitoring. Results: In total, 19 (47.5%) of the 40 subjects included in the study were assigned to the central venous pressure ≥ 8 mmHg group, and 21 (52.5%) to the central venous pressure < 8 mmHg group. A moderate positive correlation was found between pulse pressure variation and vena cava distensibility index (r = 0.475, p < 0.01), while there were strong negative correlations of central venous pressure with pulse pressure variation and vena cava distensibility index (r = -0.628, p < 0.001 and r = -0.760, p < 0.001, respectively). In terms of predicting hypovolemia, the predictive power for vena cava distensibility index was > 16% (sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 94.7%) and that for pulse pressure variation was > 14% (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 89.5%). Conclusion: Vena cava distensibility index has higher sensitivity and specificity than pulse pressure variation for estimating intravascular volume, along with the advantage of non-invasive bedside application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Blood Pressure , Central Venous Pressure , Ultrasonography
7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 15-25, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, which is the main sedative in the intensive care unit. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and adverse events of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability in pediatric cardiac surgery. Sources: Databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, WANFANG STATA and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for articles about the application of DEX in maintaining hemodynamic stability during and after pediatric cardiac surgery up to 18th Feb. 2021. Only randomized controlled trials were included and random-effects model meta-analysis was applied to calculate the standardized mean deviation (SMD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Summary of the findings: Fifteen articles were included for this meta-analysis, and 9 articles for qualitative analysis. The results showed that preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery of DEX in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery were effective in maintaining systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and reducing heart rate (HR) (SBP: SMD = -0.35,95% CI: -0.72, 0.01; MAP: SMD = -0.83, 95% CI: -1.87,0.21; DBP: SMD = -0.79,95% CI: -1.66,0.08; HR: SMD = -1.71,95% CI: -2.29, -1.13). In addition, the frequency of Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in the DEX treatment group was lower than that in the placebo group. Conclusions: The application of DEX for preoperative prophylaxis and postoperative recovery in pediatric cardiac surgery patients are effective in maintaining hemodynamic stability, and the clinical dose of DEX is not significantly related to the occurrence of pediatric adverse events which may be related to individual differences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Dexmedetomidine/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(1): 19-23, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360714

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the association between orthostatic changes in blood pressure and mortality in elderly cardiopath patients. METHODS: A cohort of 455 elderly cardiopath patients, monitored at a referral outpatient cardiology clinic in Pernambuco, Brazil, from October 2015 to July 2018. The exposure groups were formed according to their orthostatic changes in blood pressure following the requirements of the Brazilian Guidelines for Hypertension. RESULTS: Orthostatic hypotension was present in 46 patients (10.1%), 91 had orthostatic hypertension (20%), and 318 had no orthostatic alterations (69.9%). There were 52 deaths during follow-up. The results demonstrated that there was no statistically significant association between orthostatic hypotension and overall mortality (HR 1.30; 95%CI 0.53-3.14; p=0.567) nor between orthostatic hypertension and overall mortality (HR 0.95; 95%CI 0.65-1.39; p=0.34). Survival in relation to the exposure groups presented no statistically significant difference (p=0.504). CONCLUSION: There was a low frequency of orthostatic hypotension and a mild high frequency of orthostatic hypertension when compared with previous studies, and no association was observed with overall mortality or with the survival time of elderly patients with heart disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Heart Diseases , Hypertension , Hypotension, Orthostatic/diagnosis , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Determination
9.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56397, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363820

ABSTRACT

According to different researches, 30% of university graduates have a low level of health, and studying at university is one of the factors of its deterioration, besides the first year is considered critical. The purpose of research is to study the dynamics of physical development, physical fitness and functional state of young men during the first year of university studies. For the survey we used standard measurements and index calculations for 11 indicators of physical development, 9 indicators of physical fitness and 15 indicators of functional status. We calculated the arithmetic mean (M), the standard error of the mean (m), then evaluated differences by the Student criterion (t) for independent samples and considered them as reliable atр < 0.05. It is shown that during the first year of studies, young men have an increase in the Erismann index, the corpulence (Rohrer's) index, the body mass index and a decrease in the Pignet index. There is also an increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic pressure, while vital capacity of the lungs, the vital index, time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m decrease. The dynamics of physical development is expressed in a change in mass-growth indices and indicates an increase in body weight. The dynamics of physical fitness is expressed in a decrease of the time of hanging on the bar and the speed of running 1000 m. The dynamics of the functional state is expressed in a decrease of vital capacity of the lungs, vital index, increase in the coefficient of endurance, adaptive capacity and diastolic blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Students , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Health Status , Physical Fitness/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Motor Skills/physiology , Physical Endurance/physiology , Running/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Cardiovascular System , Body Mass Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Functional Status , Indicators and Reagents , Men
10.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 15-20, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391822

ABSTRACT

The Chilean workforce has over 200,000 people that are intermittently exposed to altitudes over 4000 m. In 2012, the Ministry of Health provided a technical guide for high altitude workers that included a series of actions to mitigate the effects of hypoxia. Previous studies have shown the positive effect of oxygen enrichment at high altitudes. The Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Arrays (ALMA) radiotelescope operate at 5,050 m (Array Operation Site, AOS) and is the only place in the world where Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) and Liquid Oxygen technologies have been installed at a large scale. Here we discuss our experience using oxygen supplementation at ALMA, to prevent the malaise and/or risks associated with exposure at 5,050 m. Antenna operators experienced chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH, shiftwork 8 days HA*6 days rest SL) over 4 years. Studies to define normal O2 saturation values were performed in OSF and AOS by continuous recording during the shift. The outcomes showed no differences between production procedures (PSA or Liquid oxygen) in regulating oxygen availability at AOS facilities. As a result, big-scale installations have difficulties reaching the appropriate oxygen concentration due to leaks in high mobility areas. In addition, the PSA plant requires adequation and maintenance to operate at a very high altitude.


La fuerza laboral chilena cuenta con más de 200.000 personas que están expuestas intermitentemente a altitudes superiores a los 4000 m. En 2012, el Ministerio de Salud entregó una guía técnica para trabajadores de altura que incluía una serie de acciones para mitigar los efectos de la hipoxia. Estudios anteriores han demostrado el efecto positivo del enriquecimiento de oxígeno en altitudes elevadas. El radiotelescopio Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Arrays (ALMA) opera a 5.050 m (Array Operation Site, AOS) y es el único lugar en el mundo donde se han instalado tecnologías de adsorción por cambio de presión (PSA) y oxígeno líquido a gran escala. Aquí discutimos nuestra experiencia usando suplementos de oxígeno en ALMA, para prevenir el malestar y/o los riesgos asociados con la exposición a 5.050 m. Los operadores de antena experimentaron hipoxia hipobárica intermitente crónica (CIHH, trabajo por turnos 8 días HA*6 días descanso SL) durante 4 años. Se realizaron estudios para definir valores normales de saturación de O2 en OSF y AOS mediante registro continuo durante el turno. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias entre los procedimientos de producción (PSA u oxígeno líquido) en la regulación de la disponibilidad de oxígeno en las instalaciones de AOS. Como resultado, las instalaciones a gran escala tienen dificultades para alcanzar la concentración de oxígeno adecuada debido a fugas en áreas de alta movilidad. Además, la planta de PSA requiere de adecuación y mantenimiento para operar a gran altura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Models, Molecular , Desert , Absorption , Altitude , Telescopes
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in renal epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) in essential hypertensive nephropathy.@*METHODS@#Four-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (control group) were both randomized into 4 groups (n=5) for observation at 4, 6, 10 and 30 weeks of age. Blood pressure of the rats was monitored using a noninvasive tail artery blood pressure measurement instrument. The percentage of Th17 cells in the splenocytes was analyzed using flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-17A, iNOS, Arg-1, E-cadherin, and α-SMA in the kidneys of the rats were detected using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, and plasma levels of IL-17A were regularly detected using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#At the age of 6 weeks, the SHRs began to show significantly higher blood pressure with greater Th17 cell percentage in the splenocytes and high renal expression and plasma level of IL-17A than WKY rats (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). At 30 weeks, renal expression of E-cadherin mRNA and protein was significantly lower and the expression of Arg-1 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in SHR than in WKY rats (P < 0.01). Compared with the WKY rats, the SHRs showed significantly higher mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS at 6 and 10 weeks (P < 0.05 or 0.01) and higher α-SMA mRNA and protein expressions since 10 weeks of age (P < 0.05 or 0.01). In SHRs older than 10 weeks, renal IL-17A mRNA and protein expression levels were negatively correlated with those of E-cadherin (r=-0.731, P < 0.05; r=-0.827, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with those of α-SMA (r=0.658, P < 0.05; r=0.968, P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#IL-17A is closely correlated with the progression of renal EMT in SHR and plays its role possibly by mediating M1/M2 polarization of renal infiltrating macrophages.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Cadherins/metabolism , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Hypertension , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Kidney , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY
12.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 126-138, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929192

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the quality of care of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A total of 173 235 patients with type 2 diabetes in 2017 were included in the analysis. Profiles of risk factors and intermediate outcomes were determined. The patients had a mean age of 66.43 ± 8.12 (standard deviation (SD)) years and a mean diabetes duration of 7.95 ± 5.53 (SD) years. The percentage of patients who achieved the target level for HbA1c (< 7.0%) was 48.6%. Patients who achieved the target levels for blood pressure (BP) < 130/80 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) < 2.6 mmol/L reached 17.5% and 34.0%, respectively. A total of 3.8% achieved all three target levels, and the value increased to 6.8% with an adaptation of the BP target level (< 140/90 mmHg) for those over 65 years. Multivariable analysis identified the factors associated with a great likelihood of achieving all three target levels: male, young age, short diabetes duration, low body mass index, macrovascular complications, no microvascular complications, prescribed with lipid-lowering medication, and no prescription of antihypertensive medication. In conclusion, nearly 50% and one-third of the patients with diabetes met the target levels for HbA1c and LDL-c, respectively, with a low percentage achieving the BP target level. The percentage of patients who achieved all three target levels needs significant improvement.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Pressure , China/epidemiology , Cholesterol, LDL/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Annals of African Medical Research ; 5(1): 1-5, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1381153

ABSTRACT

The long-term effects of certain clinical factors on cognition cannot be overemphasized. The morbidity of Cognitive Impairment (CI) in patients with type 2 diabetes has been found to increase when associated with some clinical factors. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between CI and Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as CI and Blood Pressure (BP), among type 2 diabetic patients attending the primary care unit of a tertiary hospital. It was a descriptive hospital-based crosssectional study. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) before the commencement of the study. Data was collected from 274 adult type 2 diabetic patients attending the Family Medicine clinics of the hospital, from March through May 2017. Interviewer-administered structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess CI among respondents. The BMI and BP of participants were obtained following standard procedure. Data was collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 (SPSS- 21). The elderly constituted a higher proportion of participants 55.4%. Respondents were mainly females (70.8%), married (78.8%), and educated (78.1%). The clinical factor that had a statistically significant association with CI was the BMI of participants with a chi-square value (χ2) of 11.139 and a p-value of 0.048. Blood pressure had no statistically significant association with CI (χ2 of 5.181 and p-value of 0.159). CI is common in our clinics with a prevalence of 27% seen in this study. BMI had a statistically significant association with CI while BP was not. Hence, maintaining a normal weight may help in controlling CI. Physicians in primary care should routinely screen type 2 diabetic patients for CI as well as control risk factors for it.


Subject(s)
Primary Prevention , Cognitive Dysfunction , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hospitals
17.
Niger. Postgrad. Med. J. ; 29(3): 206-213, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1381142

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is the largest contributor to the global burden of disease. Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease include blood pressure variability (BPV), but evidence on BPV is lacking among older Nigerians. We reported BPV in a cohort of older persons at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of respondents aged >50 years within the Ibadan Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry at the UCH, Ibadan, Nigeria. Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Results: Among 639 respondents, 332 (52.0%) were female. The blood pressure (BP) variables were strongly associated with age. Compared with younger age groups, mean diastolic BP (DBP) was less at an older age, whereas mean pulse pressure was greater. During the wake-up and sleep periods, mean DBP and mean arterial BP were less with each increasing age category, whereas mean pulse pressure was larger with each increasing age category. BP dipping, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BP decreased with age. Overall, timed BPV increased significantly with increasing age. The prevalence of white­coat hypertension was greater among older participants than younger participants. Most respondents in the 50­59 years' age group were non-dippers (55.8%), whereas 33.7% of older respondents were reverse-dippers. Conclusion: Older persons experienced a greater abnormal circadian blood variation and greater BPV than younger people. In Nigeria, follow­up data are needed to determine the prognostic significance of these data in this population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Hypertension
18.
Sahel medical journal (Print) ; 25(1): 15-20, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379323

ABSTRACT

Background: Offspring of hypertensive parents have been reported to have alteration on their sympathovagal balance and have exaggerated response to stressful conditions. Many Christians observe a period of fasting at the beginning of every year, which imposes some stress on their bodies. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of 21-day intermittent fasting on some cardiovascular parameters in offspring of hypertensive and normotensive parents. Materials and Methods: Eighty young adults (20­28 years) were divided into equal number of male and female offspring of hypertensive and normotensive parents based on questionnaire. Their body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded 1 week before the fasting period began and then weekly for 3 weeks, in which they fasted. Results: The weight, BMI, and WC reduced during fasting, but the reductions were not significant (P > 0.05). The SBP and DBP were higher in male offspring of hypertensive parents than all other groups. SBP was also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in males than females before fast and during fast. Fasting significantly reduced the SBP in the male offspring of both hypertensive and normotensive parents. The HR reduced in the females during fast but increased from a lower level in males to a value not significantly different from prefasting level. Conclusion: Fasting reduces the high SBP and DBP in male offspring of hypertensive parents, which is beneficial to their cardiovascular system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Fasting , Heredity , Young Adult , Hypertension , Heart Rate
19.
S. Afr. j. clin. nutr. (Online) ; 35(3): 88-93, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398063

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies in children and adults have reported variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) over time. Furthermore, there has been a reported association of 25(OH)D with BMI, BP and lipid levels in some cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Methods: This is a longitudinal study of a group of adolescents with measurements of 25(OH)D, BP, anthropometry and lipids at the ages of 11, 12 13, 15 and 18­20 years. For age-related changes, year 12 participants (n = 261) were matched with year 18­20 participants (n = 368), resulting in 200 paired participants. Longitudinal analyses using the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) comprised the following groups of participants, Year 11 (n = 288), Year 12 (n = 253), Year 13 (n = 292), Year 15 (n =238) and Year 18­20 (n = 368). The relationship of 25(OH)D with BMI, BP and lipid levels over a period of 10 years was assessed. Results: There were significant increases in mean BMI and BP, and decreases in 25(OH)D levels with age (all p-values < 0.0001).In females, systolic BP was significantly higher in older participants (18­20) years than younger participants (12 years), but 25(OH)D was significantly higher in younger than older participants. In males, there was significant increase in BP in participants between age 12 years and 18­20 years. 25(OH)D, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) were significantly lower in 18­20-year-old participants compared with 12-year-old participants. Longitudinally, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with LDL-C. Conclusion: There is evidence of changes in 25(OH)D, BMI and BP in adolescents over a period of 10 years. After adjusting for covariates, BMI and LDL-C were significantly negatively associated with 25(OH)D, which suggests that vitamin D status might be associated positively with favourable lipid profiles in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Vitamin D , Blood Pressure , Adolescent , Life Style , Lipids
20.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 15(4): 1-15, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1398519

ABSTRACT

Context and objective. Major handicap for operational conditioning of troops, hypertension requires innovative approaches for its prevention and management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of adapted physical activity (APA) on BP level of sedentary soldiers from Kinshasa garrison and the rate of hypertension control in those with high BP. Methods. Open, parallel randomized controlled trial carried out at Camp Lt-Colonel Kokolo (CVEC) from June 2016 to October 2017) in sedentary soldiers (57.6 %, hypertensives) allocated for 8 weeks to APA (n=119) or control (n=110). The randomization procedure used permuted blocks of four consecutive participants. The outcomes were baseline-adjusted betweengroup difference in BP level (all participants), in rate of BP control among hypertensives. Results. At the last available visit in 226 participants (119 vs 107), the baseline-adjusted BP difference between active and control group by intentionto-treat was 5.1 (95 % CI 1.2 -10.8)/3.0 (0.1-6.9) mmHg lower in the active group. The effect of APA was also significant across pre-specified categories of participants based on age, officers' rank, and hypertension status. Among 129 analyzed drug treated hypertensives (68 vs 61), the rate of BP control remained unchanged in the control group (43.8 to 44.3%) but increased (43.5% to 85.3 %) in the active group yielding a baseline-adjusted between group difference of 40.7 (32.2; 49.2) %. The probability to achieve hypertension control was greater (HR: 3.38 [95% CI: 1.48- 4.84] in the active group. PP analysis of 122 soldiers (80 vs 42) with data at all scheduled visits yielded confirmatory results for BP reduction and for hypertension control by APA. The changes in BP were positively correlated with concomitant reductions in heart rate. Conclusion. Exercise training induced a significant BP reduction in sedentary militaries and improved the control rate among those with drug treated hypertension


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Pressure , Exercise , Hypertension , Military Personnel , Disease Prevention
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL