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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 370-377, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342782

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Dada la importancia que la actividad física y el sueño han adquirido para la salud, se han propuesto diversas recomendaciones para la población infantil. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar cómo se asocia el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de actividad física y de sueño con el exceso de peso. Población y métodos. Para la medición de la actividad física y el sueño, se utilizaron acelerómetros ActiGraph wGT3X-BT®. Se determinó el índice de masa corporal para las categorizaciones de ausencia (peso normal) o presencia (sobrepeso-obesidad) de exceso de peso. Resultados. Participaron 183 escolares (54,1 % eran niñas, edad M = 10,95 ± 1,07). El 85,4 % no cumple con las recomendaciones de actividad física, mientras que el 75,6 % no cumple con las recomendaciones de sueño. Los niños se diferencian significativamente de las niñas en tiempo de actividades físicas moderadas y vigorosas (p = 0,002), mas no así en cantidad de sueño. Los escolares con exceso de peso presentan menos tiempo de actividades de intensidad moderada y vigorosa (p = 0,004) y una menor cantidad de sueño (p = 0,010) que los escolares de peso normal. El no cumplir las recomendaciones de actividad física se asociaría con el exceso de peso (razón de momios [OR, por su sigla en inglés] = 8,178; intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 1,465-45,635; p = 0,017), lo que no se observó en las recomendaciones de sueño. Conclusiones. Un alto porcentaje de escolares no cumplen con las recomendaciones de actividad física y cantidad de sueño. Se observaron asociaciones según el sexo y la presencia de exceso de peso. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias para fomentar el cumplimiento de estas recomendaciones en la población infantil.


Introduction. Given the importance of physical activity and sleep for health, different recommendations have been proposed for the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to determine the association between physical activity and sleep recommendations compliance and excess weight in school children from Temuco, Chile. Population and methods. Physical activity and sleep were measured using ActiGraph wGT3X-BT® accelerometers. Excess weight was categorized on two categories: absence (normal weight) or presence (overweight or obesity) based on body mass index. Results. A total of 183 school children participated (54.1 % were females; mean age = 10.95 ± 1.07). Of them, 85.4 % did not meet physical activity recommendations, whereas 75.6 % did not meet sleep recommendations. Significant differences were observed in favor of boys over girls in relation to moderate and vigorous physical activity (p = 0.002), but this was not the case for amount of sleep. School children with excess weight showed less time spent in moderate and vigorous activity (p = 0.004) and a lower amount of sleep (p = 0.010) than normal weight ones. Non-compliance with physical activity recommendations was associated with excess weight (odds ratio [OR] = 8.178; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.465-45.635; p = 0.017), but this was not observed in relation to sleep recommendations.Conclusions. A high percentage of school children do not meet the recommendations for physical activity and sleep. Associations were observed by sex and presence of excess weight. Strategies are required to promote compliance with these recommendations in the pediatric population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Sleep , Exercise , Schools , Body Mass Index , Chile
2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 207-211, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286715

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la proporción, características clínicas, demográficas y programáticas de casos fatales de coinfección TB/VIH de Cali-Colombia, en 2017. Material y Método: Estudio de corte transversal, con información de las bases de datos del programa de tuberculosis, las historias clínicas y unidades de análisis de mortalidad disponibles. Resultados: Se depuraron 257 casos fatales por TB, el 24,5% (63/257) falleció con coinfección TB/VIH. La mediana de edad fue 43 años (Rango Intercuartílico: 30-52), 73% (46/63) eran hombres, 76,2% (48/63) no pertenecían al régimen contributivo, 28,6% eran habitantes de calle. 81,2% (39/48) eran casos nuevos de TB, 76,6% (37/47), inició tratamiento; al 74,6% (47/63) se les realizó unidad de análisis de mortalidad. La presentación pulmonar fue frecuente (75,9%-44/58), en 60% de los registros se observó desnutrición (Índice de Masa Corporal <20), en 39,7% (25/63) dependencia al alcohol, tabaco o farmacodependencia. Conclusiones: La mortalidad asociada a TB/VIH es prevenible, pero en 2017 representó la cuarta parte de la mortalidad por TB en Cali. Hombres adultos con condiciones de vulnerabilidad social, diagnosticados en estados avanzados de enfermedad, fueron blanco de fatalidad. Mejorar los sistemas de información e integrar los programas de TB/VIH, deben ser estrategias prioritarias para la salud pública en Colombia.


Abstract Objective: To describe the proportion, clinical, demographic and programmatic characteristics of fatal cases of TB/HIV coinfection from Cali-Colombia, in 2017. Material and Method: Cross-sectional study, with information from the TB program databases, clinical records and mortality analysis units available. Results: 257 TB fatal cases were cleared in Cali in 2017, 24.5% (63/257) of these died with TB/HIV coinfection. The median age was 43 years (Interquartile Range: 30-52), 73% (46/63) were men, 76.2% (48/63) did not belong to the contributory health regimen, 28.6% were homeless. 81.2% (39/48) were new TB cases, 76.6% (37/47) started treatment; 74.6% (47/63) had mortality analysis register. Pulmonary presentation was frequent (75.9% -44 / 58), in 60% of the registries malnutrition was observed (Body Mass Index <20), in 39.7% (25/63), dependence on alcohol, tobacco or drug dependence was registered. Conclusions: Mortality associated with TB/HIV is preventable, but in 2017 it represented a quarter of the TB mortality in Cali. Adult men with conditions of social vulnerability, diagnosed in advanced stages of disease, were fatally targeted. Improving information systems and integrating TB/HIV programs should be priority strategies for public health in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis , HIV , Body Mass Index , HIV Infections , Public Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mortality , Health Strategies , Colombia , Social Vulnerability , Malnutrition
3.
Univ. salud ; 23(3): 284-290, sep.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341775

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La baja variabilidad del ritmo cardíaco (VRC) se ha asociado con desbalances autonómicos y riesgo cardiovascular en diversas poblaciones. Objetivo: Relacionar la variabilidad del ritmo cardíaco e índices antropométricos en hombres universitarios jóvenes, físicamente activos con bajo riesgo cardiometabólico. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Participaron 10 hombres de 23,15 ± 2,91 años con un índice de masa corporal (IMC) de 25,48 ± 2,19 kg/m2 y un índice Cintura-Cadera (IC-C) de 0,81±0,02. La VRC en reposo se midió en un período de 5 minutos. Se realizó un análisis correlacional entre el IMC e IC-C con la proporción baja/alta frecuencia (LF/HF), desviación estándar de la variación instantánea de intervalos RR (SD1) y complejidad de los intervalos RR (α-1). Además, se determinó el poder estadístico (1- β) y tamaño del efecto ("d" de Cohen). Resultados: El LF/HF sólo se relaciona significativamente con el IC-C (r=0,638; p=0,047; d=0,80), mientras que SD1 y α-1 no reportaron ninguna asociación con el IMC e IC-C. Conclusiones: Existe un predominio parasimpático que sugiere un mecanismo protector sobre el tejido adiposo intraabdominal relacionado al IC-C. Se requieren otros estudios que expliquen todas las variables moduladoras de la VRC.


Abstract Introduction: Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with autonomic imbalances and cardiovascular risk in various populations. Objective: To relate HRV and anthropometric indices in young, physically active university male students with low cardiometabolic risk. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study, which included 10 men aged 23.15 ± 2.91 years, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25.48 ± 2.19 kg/m2, and a Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) of 0.81 ± 0.02. Resting heart rate variability was measured over a 5 minute period. A correlational analysis was performed between BMI and WHR with the low frequency/high frequency ratio (LF/HF), standard deviation of the instantaneous variation of RR intervals (SD1), and complexity of the RR intervals (α-1). In addition, statistical power (1-β) and effect size (Cohen's "d") were determined. Results: LF/HF is only significantly related to WHR (r=0.638; p=0.047; d=0.80), while SD1 and α-1 did not show any association with BMI and WHR. Conclusions: There is a parasympathetic predominance that suggests a protective mechanism on intra-abdominal adipose tissue related to WHR. Further studies are required to explain all the modulating variables of the heart rate variability.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Heart Rate , Autonomic Nervous System , Waist-Hip Ratio
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 4823-4834, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345740

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar a percepção do peso corporal acima do ideal em adolescentes de Recife/PE e sua associação com o perfil antropométrico e estilo de vida. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 2.480 escolares participantes do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes (Erica). O modelo conceitual também considerou variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas. A percepção do peso foi analisada por meio da pergunta "Na sua opinião o seu peso atual é?", sendo as respostas: "abaixo do ideal", "ideal" e "acima do ideal". As associações foram identificadas por meio da regressão de Poisson. A média da idade foi de 14,7 anos (DP = 1,6), 53,7% eram do sexo feminino e 70,7% eram eutróficos, de acordo com o índice de massa corporal/idade (IMC/I). A percepção do peso foi respondida por 48,8% dos adolescentes. Desses, 36,8% e 63,2% se percebiam com baixo peso e peso acima do ideal, respectivamente. Após os ajustes, as variáveis associadas à percepção do peso acima do ideal foram: sexo feminino, idade entre 12 e 14 anos, escolaridade materna maior que oito anos, IMC/I de eutrofia e de excesso de peso, estágio pós-púbere e realização de café da manhã e refeição com os pais ocasionalmente. Portanto, variáveis demográficas, antropométricas e do estilo de vida se associaram à maior chance de percepção do peso corporal acima do ideal.


Abstract This study investigated the perception of above ideal body weight among adolescents in the city of Recife, Brazil, and its association with anthropometric profile and lifestyle. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 2480 adolescents from the "Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents." The conceptual model also assessed demographic and socioeconomic variables. Body weight perception was analyzed by asking the question: "In your opinion, your current body weight is … ?" Answers included: below ideal, ideal and above ideal body weight. Statistics were identified using Poisson Regression analysis. The mean age was 14.7 years (SD = 1.6), 53.7% were female, and 70.7% were eutrophic according to the body mass index/age (BMI/A). Perception of body weight was answered by 48.8% of the adolescents. 36.8% and 63.2% saw themselves as below and above their ideal weight, respectively. After adjustments, the variables associated with the perception of body weight above the ideal (outcome variable) were the female sex, age 12 to 14 years, mother's schooling > 8 years, BMI/A in the ideal range, being postpubescent, having breakfast and meals with parents occasionally. Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were more likely to be associated with body weight perception above the ideal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Image , Life Style , Body Weight , Brazil , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 4835-4848, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345770

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudo transversal com 2.909 participantes (≥ 18 anos) da linha de base da Coorte de Universidades Mineiras (CUME), Brasil, que verificou a associação entre o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e o excesso de peso. Por meio de questionário virtual, coletaram-se dados sociodemográficos, de estilo de vida, hábitos alimentares, antropométricos e condições clínicas. Considerou-se Índice de Massa Corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2 como excesso de peso. Avaliou-se o consumo diário de bebidas alcoólicas no total em gramas (álcool) e segundo tipo em mililitros (cerveja, vinhos e destiladas). As prevalências de consumo de álcool e excesso de peso foram 73,6% e 40,8%, respectivamente. Houve uma tendência significativa de aumento da prevalência de excesso de peso quanto maior o consumo de cerveja (p de tendência = 0,038), fato não observado para os demais tipos de bebidas. Após análises de sensibilidade, a ingestão de álcool associou-se ao excesso de peso, com tendência de aumento da prevalência quanto maior o consumo diário. Ressalta-se a necessidade de reduzir a visão amplamente aceita de que o consumo leve a moderado de álcool não é nocivo à saúde, adotando cautela nesta proposição. Deve-se considerar a influência da ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas no ganho de peso nas políticas públicas de saúde e de controle do consumo do álcool.


Abstract This is a cross-sectional study with 2,909 participants (aged ≥18 years) from the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais [CUME - Coorte de Universidades Mineiras] which verified the association between alcohol consumption and overweight. Data on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, eating habits, anthropometric factors and clinical conditions were collected through an online questionnaire. Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m² was considered an indicator of overweight. The daily consumption of alcohol was evaluated in grams (alcohol) and according to type in milliliters (beer, wine, hard liquor). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and overweight was 73.6% and 40.8%, respectively. There was a significant tendency of an increase in overweight with higher beer consumption (tendency p value of 0.038), which was not observed for the other types of alcohol. After sensitivity analyses, alcohol consumption was associated to overweight, with a tendency of increase in prevalence with higher daily consumption. There is a crucial need to curb the widely accepted idea that a low or moderate alcohol consumption is not harmful to one's health, and to be cautious of such a proposition. The influence of alcohol consumption regarding weight gain must be considered in public health policies and policies of alcohol consumption control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 289-295, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is recommended for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in remission. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diet quality of patients with CD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with patients with CD and clinical remission using the biological agent infliximab. The diet quality was assessed using the Diet Quality Index-Revised (DQI-R). DQI-R was calculated based on 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR), being classified as "inadequate diet" (≤40 points), "diet requiring modifications" (41 to 64 points) and "healthy diet" (≥65 points). Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) of patients were assessed. For comparison between groups, Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney was used. For correlation between continuous variables, Pearson or Spearman coefficient was used. Values of P<0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients participated in the study. The final DQI-R score was 49.1 points - "diet requiring modifications". No patient received the classification of "healthy diet" (maximum score =59.7), 55.8% presented "diet requiring modifications" and 44.2% "inadequate diet". When comparing the "inadequate diet" and "diet requiring modifications" groups, a lower mean age was observed in the "inadequate diet" group (37.6±14.8 versus 47.4±10.5 y, P=0.02). It was found that 44.2% of the patients were overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m²) and had increased WC (women: WC ≥80 cm and men: WC ≥94 cm). A positive correlation was found between the final DQI-R score and BMI (P=0.046; r=0.346). CONCLUSION: Patients with CD in clinical remission using infliximab are not adopting a diet considered healthy, which points to the need for an individualized nutritional approach.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: É recomendado alimentação saudável para pacientes com doença de Crohn (DC) em remissão. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade da dieta de pacientes com DC. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com pacientes com DC em remissão clínica e em uso do imunobiológico infliximabe. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada pelo índice de qualidade da dieta revisado (IQD-R). O IQD-R foi calculado a partir do recordatório 24 horas, sendo classificado em "dieta inadequada" (≤40 pontos), "dieta que requer modificações" (41 a 64 pontos) e "dieta saudável" (≥65 pontos). Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto ao peso, altura e circunferência da cintura (CC). Para comparação entre grupos foi utilizado o test-t de Student ou Mann-Whitney. Para correlação entre variáveis contínuas foi utilizado o coeficiente de Pearson ou Spearman. Valores de P<0,05 indicaram significância estatística. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 43 pacientes. A pontuação final do IQD-R foi de 49,1 pontos - "dieta que requer modificações". Nenhum paciente recebeu a classificação de "dieta saudável" (pontuação máxima =59,7), 55,8% apresentaram "dieta que requer modificações" e 44,2% "dieta inadequada". Ao comparar os grupos "dieta inadequada" e "dieta que requer modificações", foi observado menor média de idade no grupo "dieta inadequada" (37,6±14,8 versus 47,4±10,5 anos, P=0,02). Verificou-se que 44,2% dos pacientes estavam acima do peso (índice de massa corporal (IMC) ≥25 kg/m²) e possuíam CC aumentada (mulheres: CC ≥80 cm e homens: CC ≥94 cm). Foi encontrada correlação positiva entre a pontuação final do IQD-R e o IMC (P=0,046; r=0,346). CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com DC em remissão clínica e em uso de infliximabe não estão adotando dieta com qualidade considerada saudável o que aponta a necessidade de abordagem nutricional individualizada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infliximab/therapeutic use
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 316-321, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Considering the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and both insulin resistance and obesity, and the prominent role of ghrelin in these metabolic disorders, we explored whether plasma levels of ghrelin were associated with CRC. Moreover, in the patients with CRC the possible correlations between ghrelin and insulin, insulin resistance, and body mass index (BMI) as an indicator of obesity were examined. METHODS: A total of 170 subjects, including 82 cases with CRC and 88 controls were enrolled in this study. Plasma levels of ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured in all the subjects using ELISA and glucose oxidase methods. Furthermore, insulin resistance was assessed by calculating HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: The cases with CRC had decreased ghrelin levels (P<0.001) and a higher HOMA-IR index (P<0.001) than controls. Interestingly, when CRC patients were stratified based on tumor site, lower ghrelin levels and a higher HOMA-IR index were observed in the patients with either colon or rectal cancer vs. controls too. Additionally, there were an age and BMI-independent negative correlation between ghrelin levels and HOMA-IR (r=-0.365, P<0.05), and an age-independent negative correlation between ghrelin levels and BMI (r=-0.335, P<0.05) in the rectal subgroup. CONCLUSION: Our findings support a role for ghrelin in connection with insulin resistance and obesity in CRC susceptibility; however, it needs to be corroborated by further studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Considerando a associação entre câncer colorretal (CCR), a resistência à insulina, à obesidade e o papel proeminente da grelina nessas doenças metabólicas, foi explorado se os níveis plasmáticos de grelina estavam associados ao CCR. Além disso, nos pacientes com CCR foram pesquisadas as possíveis correlações entre a grelina, insulina, resistência insulínica e índice de massa corporal (IMC) como indicadores de obesidade. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos neste estudo 170 indivíduos, sendo 82 com CRC e 88 controles. Os níveis plasmáticos de grelina, insulina e glicose foram medidos em todos os sujeitos utilizando métodos ELISA e glicose oxidase. Além disso, a resistência à insulina foi avaliada pelo cálculo do índice HOMA-IR. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com CRC apresentaram redução dos níveis de grelina (P<0,001) e maior índice HOMA-IR (P<0.001) do que os controles. Curiosamente, quando os pacientes com CRC foram estratificados com base no local do tumor, níveis mais baixos de grelina e maior índice de HOMA-IR foram observados nos indivíduos com câncer de cólon ou retal versus controles também. Além disso, houve uma correlação negativa entre idade e IMC independente entre os níveis de grelina e HOMA-IR (r=-0,365, P<0,05) e uma correlação negativa independente da idade entre os níveis de grelina e IMC (r=-0,335, P<0,05) no subgrupo retal. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados apoiam o papel da grelina em relação à resistência à insulina e à obesidade na suscetibilidade do CRC; no entanto, ela precisa ser corroborada por estudos posteriores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Colorectal Neoplasms , Body Mass Index , Ghrelin , Obesity/complications
8.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 71(3): 189-198, sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353209

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la asociación de valores de presión arterial (PA) con parámetros de adiposidad y nivel de actividad física (NAF) en escolares y adolescentes en la región de la Araucanía en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal y correlacional que consideró una muestra de 1.125 niños, niñas y adolescentes de 6 a 13 años. Se analizaron parámetros de adiposidad: índice de masa corporal, perímetro de cintura y del brazo, pliegue bicipital, tricipital, subescapular y suprailíaco y porcentaje de masa grasa, PA sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) y NAF. Resultados. 60,4% de la muestra esta normotenso; 23,6% pre HTA y 16,0% HTA, sin asociación significativa entre la PA con el sexo (p>0,05). Se encontró para el total de la muestra una correlación significativa entre la PAS con todos los parámetros de adiposidad estudiados (p<0,001; p<0,050). Para la PAD solo el grupo de 6 a 8 años presentó asociación significativa con todos estos parámetros (p<0,001; p<0,050). El NAF se asoció con la clasificación de la PA. Esta asociación tuvo significancia estadística en el grupo de 6 a 8 años (p<0,05). Conclusiones. Se evidencia una elevada frecuencia de PA alta en escolares de una región de Chile. Se identifican asociaciones significativas entre la PA con algunas medidas de adiposidad corporal y el NAF en la muestra de estudio. Esta información puede ser de gran importancia para la predicción de la hipertensión en la infancia en el contexto de atención primaria en salud(AU)


The objective of the study was to determine the association of blood pressure (BP) values with parameters of adiposity and level of physical activity (NAF) in schoolchildren and adolescents in the Araucanía region of Chile. Materials and methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study that considered a sample of 1.125 subjects, boys and girls between 6 and 13 years old. Adiposity parameters were analyzed: body mass index, waist and arm circumference, bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac fold and% fat mass. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) and NAF were also analyzed. Results. 60.4% of the sample is normotensive; 23.6% preHTA and 16.0% HT, without significant association between BP and sex (p> 0.05). For the entire sample, there is a significant correlation between SBP and all the adiposity parameters studied (p <0.001; p <0.050). For DBP, only the 6 to 8-year-old group presented a significant association with all these parameters (p <0.001; p <0.050). The NAF was associated with the PA classification. This association is statistically significant in the 6 to 8-year-old group (p <0.050). Conclusions. A high frequency of high BP is evidenced in schoolchildren from a region of Chile. Significant associations were identified between BP with some measures of body adiposity and NAF in the study sample. This information can be of great importance for the prediction of hypertension in childhood in the context of primary health care(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Body Mass Index , Arterial Pressure , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Exercise , Anthropometry , Adiposity , Waist-Height Ratio
9.
Arch Latinoam Nutr ; 71(3): 178-188, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1353191

ABSTRACT

Los problemas relacionados con los trastornos metabólicos se han incrementado en la actualidad en población joven. Promover un estilo de vida saludable en estudiantes universitarios puede ayudar a prevenir diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y diferentes tipos de cáncer. Objetivo. Calcular el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) de universitarios para identificar la prevalencia de obesidad e hipertensión como factores de riesgo metabólico. Materiales y método. Se utilizó muestreo probabilístico aleatorio simple (n= 282, edad 19,1 ± 1,8, 54,6% mujeres, 48,5% hombres). Se realizaron mediciones de peso y estatura para calcular el IMC, circunferencia de cintura y presión arterial. Resultados. Los resultados promedio para mujeres y hombres respectivamente fueron: IMC 24,0 ±5,5 y 25,2 ±5,2 kg/m2 (p= 0,25); cintura 76,25 ± 11,87 y 82,32 ± 15,85 cm (p= 0,001), indicando un riesgo bajo en 73,1% de mujeres y 82,5% de hombres; y presión arterial 127,73/86,03 y 142,3/94,2 mmHg (p= 0,001). La probabilidad de tener hipertensión arterial fue mayor al tener una relación cintura/estatura (RCE) alterada en mujeres y hombres (OR=3,037; IC95% 1,385-6,657 y OR=3,664; IC95% 1,249-2,179, respectivamente). Conclusiones. La población universitaria presenta factores de riesgo que pueden derivar en enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en un futuro próximo, por lo cual es necesario modificar sus estilos de vida. La RCE es un buen predictor de riesgo de hipertensión en esta población(AU)


The problems related to metabolic disorders have now increased in the young population. Promoting a healthy lifestyle in college students can help prevent diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and different types of cancer. Objective. To calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI) in college students to identify the prevalence of obesity and hypertension as metabolic risk factors. Materials and methods. Simple random probability sampling was used (n = 282, age 19,1 ± 1,8, 54,6% women, 48,5% men). BMI was calculated with weight and height, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Results. The average results for women and men respectively were: BMI 24,0 ± 5,5 and 25,2 ± 5,2 kg/m2 (p = 0,25); waist 76,25 ± 11,87 and 82,32 ± 15,85 cm (p = 0,001), indicating a low risk in 73,1% of women and 82,5% of men; and blood pressure 127,73 / 86,03 and 142,3 / 94,2 mm Hg (p = 0,001). The probability of having arterial hypertension was higher when there was an altered waist / height ratio (WHR) in women and men (OR = 3,037; 95% CI 1,385-6,657 and OR = 3,664; 95% CI 1,249-2,179, respectively). Conclusions. The university population presents risk factors that could lead to chronic diseases. It is necessary to modify their lifestyles to prevent future diseases. WHR is a good predictor of hypertension risk in this population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Chronic Disease , Waist Circumference , Atrial Pressure , Waist-Height Ratio , Noncommunicable Diseases , Students , Universities , Risk Factors , Pediatric Obesity , Life Style
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 234-240, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252246

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic prevalences. Obesity control involves many factors and needs to begin early in childhood. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the association between tracked extracurricular sports practice and weight status; and to analyze tracking of overweight and obesity among school-aged children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study conducted in 13 public schools in Cianorte, Paraná, in 2012-2016. METHODS: The sample comprised 2459 schoolchildren in Cianorte, of mean age 6.3 years at baseline and 9.4 years at follow-up. Body mass index was calculated from body mass and height measurements. The children were grouped as normal weight, overweight or obese. Information on extracurricular sports practice was collected through the dichotomous question "Do you participate in any extracurricular sports?" ("yes" or "no"). RESULTS: Tracking of weight status showed that 75.5% maintained this, with kappa of 0.530. Tracking of extracurricular sports practice showed that 80.9% maintained this, with low concordance (kappa of 0.054). Weight status correlation between baseline and follow-up showed that overweight or obese individuals were 4.65 times (CI: 4.05-5.34) more likely to maintain the same classification or move from overweight to obese at follow-up. Correlation of extracurricular sports practice with overweight or obesity at follow-up was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that overweight or obese children were at higher risk of gaining weight than were normal-weight children. In addition, the proportion of these children who maintained extracurricular sports practices over the years was low. Maintenance of this variable was not associated with weight status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sports , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Overweight/epidemiology
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 127-137, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290900

ABSTRACT

La pérdida de patrones de alimentación tradicionales a favor de otros más occidentales redunda en un descenso de calidad de la dieta alrededor del mundo. Muchos aspectos determinan la calidad dietética, aunque en general pueden resumirse en una dieta moderada, variada, equilibrada y adecuada para cada individuo. Estos aspectos son evaluados por el Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Objetivo: Comparar la calidad de la dieta de población mexicana y española mediante un índice de calidad internacional de la dieta, determinando que factores son en mayor medida responsables de la pérdida de calidad. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal sobre una muestra representativa de sujetos adultos residentes en Querétaro (México) y de sujetos de la misma franja de edad procedentes de la Región de Murcia, en la cuenca mediterránea española. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos, de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y de ingesta con 3 recuerdos de 24 horas y se valoró el DQI-I en la población. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias para el gasto energético y el DQI-I en todos sus aspectos con valores de calidad superiores para la población mexicana. La variedad fue la dimensión más castigada para todos los sujetos, presentando los mexicanos mejores cifras de consumo de vegetales pero peores para las fuentes proteicas. Conclusiones: La muestra mexicana mejoró las cifras de calidad de la española, tal vez por una mayor influencia de conocimientos en nutrición. El 86% de la población podría mejorar sus puntajes de calidad en el DQI-I ajustando sus frecuencias de consumo de alimentos(AU)


The loss of traditional eating patterns in favour of more Western ones results in a decline in dietary quality around the world. Many aspects determine dietary quality, but in general they can be summarised as a moderate, varied, balanced diet suitable for each individual. These aspects are assessed by the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Objective: To compare the quality of the diet of the Mexican and Spanish populations using an international diet quality index, determining which factors are most responsible for the loss of quality. Material and methods: Cross-sectional observational study on a representative sample of adult subjects living in Querétaro (Mexico) and subjects of the same age group from the Region of Murcia, in the Spanish Mediterranean basin. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, food frequency consumption and intake data were collected with 3 24-hour recall and the DQI-I was assessed in the population. Results: Differences were found for energy expenditure and DQI-I in all aspects with higher quality values for the Mexican population. Variety was the most punished dimension for all subjects, with Mexicans presenting better figures for vegetable intake but worse for protein sources. Conclusions: The Mexican sample improved the quality figures of the Spanish sample, perhaps due to a greater influence of nutritional knowledge. Eighty-six percent of the population could improve their DQI-I quality scores by adjusting their food consumption frequencies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Food Quality , Diet , Energy Metabolism , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Eating , Nutritional Transition
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 114-126, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290833

ABSTRACT

La mayoría de los estudios apoyan la tesis de que el desayuno es la comida más importante del día. Un desayuno adecuado contribuye a lograr un patrón dietético global saludable y a mejorar la calidad de la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los principales patrones de desayuno en tres poblaciones universitarias de España, Túnez y Estados Unidos, analizar sus semejanzas y diferencias y estudiar la influencia de factores antropométricos, sociodemográficos y de estilo de vida en la adherencia a cada patrón. Se realizó un estudio transversal con datos de 730 estudiantes matriculados en las Universidades de Castilla-La Mancha, Cartago e Internacional de Florida en 2013. El consumo de alimentos se obtuvo mediante dos recordatorios de 24 horas, no consecutivos, uno de ellos en fin de semana. Los patrones se identificaron mediante análisis factorial exploratorio. La adherencia de los estudiantes a cada patrón se evaluó usando las puntuaciones factoriales. Se obtuvieron cuatro patrones para cada país. El principal patrón de los universitarios españoles incluyó pan, tomate, sal y aceite de oliva (varianza explicada: 20,85%); el principal de los tunecinos contenía pan, mermelada, nata y mantequilla (varianza explicada: 12,73%) y el principal de los americanos incluyó huevos, leche entera y azúcares (varianza explicada: 10,77%). Género, peso, IMC o comer fuera de casa fueron factores que influyeron en la adherencia a diferentes patrones. El estudio mostró la coexistencia de patrones tradicionales con otros occidentalizados y modelos transicionales intermedios. No se determinó un patrón generalizable asociado a mejores resultados del IMC(AU)


Most studies support the conclusion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. An adequate breakfast contributes to achieving a healthy global dietary pattern and improving quality of diet. The objective of this study was to determine the main breakfast patterns of three university populations from Spain, Tunisia, and The United States of America, analyze their similarities and differences, and study the impact of anthropometric, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the adherence to each pattern. A cross-sectional study was developed with data from 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, University of Carthage, and Florida International University, during 2013. Food consumption data were obtained by means of two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls including one weekend day. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify breakfast patterns. Factor scores were used to assess students' adherence to each pattern. Four breakfast patterns were obtained for each country. The main pattern of the Spanish students included bread, tomato, salt, and olive oil (explained variance: 20.85%); the main model of the Tunisians included bread, jam, cream and butter (explained variance: 12.73%); and the first pattern of the Americans was characterized by eggs, whole milk and sugars (explained variance: 10.77%). Gender, weight, BMI or eating out of home were factors that influenced the adherence to different patterns. Breakfast patterns obtained in this work showed the coexistence of traditional models with westernized and transitional ones. It was not determined a generalizable pattern associated with better BMI results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Breakfast , Life Style , Body Mass Index , Nutrients , Anthropometry , Metabolism
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 104-113, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290827

ABSTRACT

Con el fin de identificar la asociación entre factores familiares (estructura, funcionalidad y contexto socioeconómico) y la presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad abdominal en escolares, se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en 120 niños escolares (5-11 años) y sus madres que acudieron a un servicio de atención pediátrica en la ciudad de Colima, México. El sobrepeso se definió con el indicador IMC con un puntaje Z > +1 desviación estándar y la obesidad abdominal como circunferencia de cintura > del percentil 75 por sexo y edad. Se evaluó tamaño y tipo de familia, tipo de hogar, relación de los padres y funcionalidad familiar. Las asociaciones se analizaron con regresión logística múltiple. Se encontró 33% de sobrepeso y 33,7% de obesidad abdominal. El menor tamaño de la familia, la mayor marginalidad de la colonia (barrio) de residencia, la percepción de problemas en la economía familiar, el mayor peso al nacer y la mayor edad se asociaron con el sobrepeso. Mientras que el menor tamaño de la familia, el mayor peso al nacer y la mayor edad se asociaron con obesidad abdominal. Para programas de prevención de sobrepeso y obesidad abdominal, sugerimos incluir un enfoque de sistemas familiares que considere el tamaño de la familia y variables del contexto socioeconómico, ya que condicionan su dinámica de interacción(AU)


To identify the association between family factors (structure, functionality, and socioeconomic context) and the presence of overweight and abdominal obesity in school children, an analytical cross-sectional study was performed in 120 schoolchildren (5-11 years old) and their mothers assisting to a pediatric care service at Colima City, Mexico. Overweight was defined with the BMI indicator with a Z-score > +1 standard deviation and abdominal obesity as a waist circumference > 75th percentile by sex and age. Family size and type, type of home, parents' relationship, and family functionality were evaluated. Associations were analyzed with multiple logistic regression. Overweight was present in 33%, and abdominal obesity in 33.7% of the children. A smaller family size, greater neighborhood marginality, a perception of problems in the family economy, a larger birth weight and older age were associated with overweight. A smaller family size, higher birth weight and older age were associated with abdominal obesity. We suggest a family systems approach, including family size and variables of socioeconomic context -which determine their interaction dynamics-, in programs for overweight and abdominal obesity prevention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Overweight , Feeding Behavior , Obesity, Abdominal , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Mass Index , Pediatric Obesity
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(2): 85-93, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290813

ABSTRACT

Tradicionalmente se han utilizado algunos índices antropométricos para el diagnóstico de exceso de peso en niños y adolescentes que han mostrado algunas desventajas por lo que se han postulado otros indicadores. En ese sentido, se plantea estimar el nivel de asociación entre indicadores antropométricos y la presencia de dislipidemia en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y de corte transversal en 123 adolescentes (68,2% mujeres, edad promedio 14,5 años) y 122 adultos jóvenes (70,5% mujeres, edad promedio 21 años) de la ciudad de Caracas. Se calcularon Índices de Masa Corporal (IMC), Índice Cintura­Talla (ICT), Índice de Masa Corporal Abdominal (IMCA) e Índice de Masa Tri-Ponderal (IMT). Se obtuvo una muestra de sangre por punción venosa, en ayuno de 12 a 14 horas, a partir de la cual se cuantificó Colesterol Total, Lipoproteína de alta densidad y Triglicéridos. Se calculó la concentración de Lipoproteína de baja densidad por la fórmula de Friedewald, así como el índice LDL-C/HDL-C y el índice LogTg/HDL. Para el análisis e interpretación de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva univariante y multivariante. Los resultados revelaron que los índices antropométricos IMCA e IMT no mostraron mejor desempeño en predecir dislipidemia que los indicadores IMC, Circunferencia de Cintura (CC) e ICT en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Los indicadores antropométricos de adiposidad abdominal, CC e ICT, tendieron a presentar mayores OR, ABC, sensibilidad y especificidad independientemente del grupo de estudio. En general, la capacidad de los indicadores antropométricos evaluados en predecir la presencia de dislipidemia en adultos jóvenes fue adecuada, situación que no se presentó en los adolescentes(AU)


Traditionally, some anthropometric indices have been used for the diagnosis of excess weight in children and adolescents, which have shown some disadvantages for which other indicators have been postulated. In this sense, it is proposed to estimate the level of association between anthropometric indicators and the presence of dyslipidemia in adolescents and young adults. An observational, descriptive cross-sectional investigation was carried out in 123 adolescents (68,2% women, media age 14,5 years) and 122 young adults (70,5% women, media age 21 years) from the city of Caracas. Body Mass Indices (BMI), Waist-Height Ratio (WHR), Abdominal Body Mass Index (BMAI) and Tri-Ponderal Mass Index (TMI) were calculated. A blood sample was obtained by venipuncture, fasting for 12 to 14 hours, from which Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein and Triglycerides were quantified. The low-density lipoprotein concentration was calculated by the FriedEwald formula, as well as the LDL-C / HDL-C index and the LogTg / HDL index. Univariate and multivariate descriptive statistics were used for the analysis and interpretation of the data. The results revealed that the BMI and TMI anthropometric indices did not show better performance in predicting dyslipidemia than the BMI, Waist Circumference (WC) and WHR indicators in adolescents and young adults. The anthropometric indicators of abdominal adiposity, WC and WHR, tended to present higher OR, AUC, sensitivity and specificity regardless of the study group. In general, the capacity of the anthropometric indicators evaluated to predict the presence of dyslipidemia in young adults was adequate, a situation that did not occur in adolescents(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Waist Circumference , Waist-Height Ratio , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Obesity, Abdominal , Pediatric Obesity
15.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-13, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284386

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son la causa de muerte más frecuente en las mujeres en todo el mundo. La deficiencia de estrógenos debido a la menopausia se asocia con un mayor riesgo a padecer esta patología.Objetivo: Analizar los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en mujeres perimenopausicas con al menos un factor de riesgo cardiovascular modificable mayor (diabetes, hipertensión, dislipemia) con edades comprendidas entre los 45 y 60 años de dos servicios de atención primaria urbanos.Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal en dos centros de salud de la ciudad de Ourense (Centro de Salud Novoa Santos y Centro de Salud A Ponte). Las variables analizadas fueron: Actividad estrogénica, tratamiento farmacológico, hábito tabáquico, calidad de vida, índice de masa corporal (IMC), colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidad (cHDL), lipoproteína de baja densidad (cLDL) y triglicéridos, tensión arterial sistólica (TAS), tensión arterial diastólica (TAD), frecuencia cardíaca (FC). El estudio contó con la aprobación del Comité Ético de Galicia. El análisis de los datos se efectuó a través del software libre R.Resultados: Participaron 316 mujeres, de las cuales el 64,9% eran menopáusicas. La edad media de la muestra fue de 53,35 ± 4,35 años. El valor medio del IMC fue de 28,125 ± 5,54 Kg/m2. Un 27,8% afirmó presentar hábito tabáquico. El 77,2% de las mujeres de la muestra presentaban niveles de colesterol total ≥200 mg/dl. En relación al cLDL, en el 72,6% de la población estudiada era ≥130 mg/dl. Se observó una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre el IMC y los niveles de triglicéridos, cHDL, TAS, TAD y FC.Conclusiones: Las mujeres perimenopáusicas presentaban una elevada prevalencia hábito tabáquico, obesidad y sobrepeso, a pesar de sufrir al menos un factor de riesgo cardiovascular. Por otra parte mostraron una baja calidad de vida tanto en la dimensión física como mental


Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in women worldwide. Estrogen deficiency due to menopause is associated with an increased risk of this pathology.Objective: To analyze cardiovascular risk factors in perimenopausal women with at least one major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia) between the ages of 45 and 60 of two urban primary care services.Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study in two health centers in the city of Ourense (Novoa Santos Health Center and A Ponte Health Center). The variables analyzed were: estrogenic activity, pharmacological treatment, smoking habit, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (cHDL), low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) and triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (TAS), diastolic blood pressure (TAD), heart rate (FC). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Galicia. Data analysis was performed through the free R software.Results: 316 women participated, of whom 64.9% were menopausal. The average age of the sample was 53.35 ± 4.35 years. The average BMI value was 28,125 ± 5.54 Kg/m2. 27.8% said they had a smoking habit. 77.2% of the women in the sample had total cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL. In relation to the cLDL, in 72.6% of the population studied it was ≥130 mg/dL. A statistically significant correlation was observed between BMI and triglyceride, cHDL, TAS, TAD and FC levels.Conclusion: Perimenopausal women had a high prevalence of smoking habit, obesity and overweight, despite suffering at least one cardiovascular risk factor. On the other hand they showed a low quality of life in both the physical and mental dimensión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Menopause , Body Mass Index , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Quality of Life , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Lipids/analysis
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 105-110, maio-ago. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252353

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional em relação à presença de cáries dentárias em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade, do município de Cajamar, São Paulo. Trata-se de estudo transversal com crianças entre 4 a 6 anos (n=1642), acompanhadas pelo Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE) do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo. A classificação do estado nutricional foi baseada no Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e a avaliação das condições bucais, por meio do índice ceo-d e critério para Risco de Cárie. A análise do estado nutricional, faixa etária e sexo conforme o número de cáries, foi feita por meio dos testes Mann-Whitney U e Kruskal-Wallis (p<0,05). Observou-se maior prevalência de meninos entre 4 a 6 anos. Em todas as faixas etárias a prevalência de excesso de peso foi de aproximadamente 30% e eutrofia em torno de 70%. 65% (n=1068) das crianças não apresentavam risco de cárie (A) e 28,8% (n=475), alto risco (D, E e F). Das 1162 crianças sem cáries, 0,2% eram magras (n=2), 67,2% (n=781) eutróficas e 32,7% (n=380) possuíam excesso de peso. A frequência de 1 a 5 cáries maior entre meninas e de 6 ou mais cáries, entre meninos. Segundo estado nutricional, o número médio do número de cáries foi de 2,17 para magreza, 0,93 para eutrofia e 0,65 para excesso de peso (p<0,010). Conclui-se que houve diferença entre número cáries e estado nutricional, na qual crianças com déficit nutricional apresentavam maior número de cáries dentárias comparadas às eutróficas ou com excesso de peso, sugerindo-se a inclusão do estado nutricional na avaliação odontológica.


This article aims at evaluating the nutritional status in relation to the presence of dental caries in children aged 4 to 6 years in the city of Cajamar, in the state of São Paulo. It is a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 6 years (n=1642) accompanied by the School Health Program of the City of Cajamar, São Paulo. The nutritional status classification was based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the evaluation of oral conditions, through the ceo-d index, and criteria for risk for caries. The analysis of the nutritional status, age, and sex according to the number of caries was made through the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p<0.05). A higher prevalence was observed among boys aged 4 to 6 years. In all age groups, there was a prevalence of 30% of overweight children, and eutrophy of approximately 70%. A total of 65% (n=1068) of the children presented no risk of caries (A), whereas 28.8% (n=475) showed high risk (D, E, and F). Among the 1162 children with no caries, 0.2% were thin (n=2); 67.2% (n=781) eutrophic; and 32.7% (n=380) were overweight. Girls presented a higher frequency of 1 to 5 caries while boys presented frequency of having 6 or more caries. According to the nutritional status, the average number of caries was 2.17 for thin individuals; 0.93 for eutrophic individuals; and 0.65 for overweight individuals (p<0.010). It could be concluded that there was a difference between the number of caries and the nutritional status, in which children with nutritional deficit presented a higher number of dental caries when compared to eutrophic or overweight ones, suggesting the inclusion of the nutritional status in the dental evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Nutrition Assessment , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Thinness , Nutrition Programs/organization & administration , Body Mass Index , Public Health/education , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/diagnosis , Dentistry , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Diet, Healthy
17.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 99-106, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292979

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad, la obesidad es conside-rada una pandemia, cuya incidencia se ha triplicado en los últimos 30 años, y ha ge-nerado problemas de salud pública cada vez mayores. Tomando como base las guías de la Asociación Americana de Endocrinólogos (AACE), la Sociedad para la Obesidad, la Sociedad Americana de Cirugía Bariátrica y Metabólica (ASMBS), la Asociación para Medicina de la Obe-sidad y la Asociación Americana de Anes-tesiólogos, se realiza el presente docu-mento, con el fin de que se constituya en la hoja de ruta que guíe el procedimiento a seguir en los pacientes que padecen de esta enfermedad crónica y que acuden al Hospital General San Francisco (HGSF)1. La obesidad se caracteriza por el uso de varios medicamentos debido a las co-morbilidades relacionadas: enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, enfermedad renal crónica, hígado graso no alcohólico, síndrome metabólico y varios tipos de cánceres2. Este protocolo contiene el más alto nivel de evidencia disponible hasta la fecha, en relación al manejo quirúrgico y no quirúrgico del paciente con diagnóstico de obesidad, incluyendo temas como la identificación de los pacientes candidatos para los pro-cedimientos bariátricos, tipo de proce-dimientos que deberían ser ofertados, el manejo preoperatorio, transoperatorio y el cuidado post operatorio de seguimiento2-4.Desde la publicación por parte de la Ame-rican Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) en el año 2013 de las guías de manejo del paciente con obe-sidad, se ha evidenciado un incremento significativo en las publicaciones que avalan excelentes resultados para el tra-tamiento de los pacientes con obesidad y con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 mediante la cirugía bariátrica y metabólica 2,5,6. En el año 2016 la publicación del Diabetes Sur-gery Summit (DSS2)7 marca diferencia en el manejo de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, es así que las mismas han crecido sustancialmente y la evidencia demuestra que el manejo metabólico ba-riátrico de estos pacientes es superior al manejo médico y cambios de estilo de vida cuando se evalúa el control glucémico y remisión de las comorbilidades. Con la evaluación previa del equipo mul-tidisciplinario, tendremos información científica del más alto nivel que nos per-mita tener un paciente con recuperación óptima aplicando los criterios de En-hanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery (ERASB)8. En el Ecuador, la obesidad se ha conver-tido en un problema de salud pública, es así que en la población pediátrica ha au-mentado desde el año 1986 pasando del 8,0% al 26,0% para el año 2012 en el grupo de 11 a 19 años. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en población adulta en el Ecuador es del 62,8%, según el sexo es 5,5% mayor en las mujeres (65,5%) que en los hombres (60,0%), y el mayor índice de obesidad y sobrepeso se pre-senta entre la cuarta y quinta décadas de vida, con prevalencias superiores a 73,0%9,10.


Currently, obesity is considered a pan-demic, the incidence of which has tripled in the last 30 years, and has generated in-creasing public health problems. Based on the guidelines of the American As-sociation of Endocrinologists (AACE), the Obesity Society, the American So-ciety for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), the Association for Obesity Medicine and the American Association of Anesthesiologists, this document is intended to serve as a roadmap to guide the procedure to be followed in patients suffering from this chronic disease who come to San Francisco General Hospital (HGSF)1.Obesity is characterized by the use of se-veral medications due to related comor-bidities: cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, meta-bolic syndrome and several types of can-cers2. This protocol contains the highest level of evidence available to date, in relation to the surgical and non-surgical management of the patient with a diag-nosis of obesity, including issues such as the identification of candidate patients for bariatric procedures, type of proce-dures that should be offered, preopera-tive, trans-operative management and fo-llow-up post-operative care2-4.Since the publication by the American So-ciety for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) in 2013 of the guidelines for the management of patients with obesity, there has been a significant increase in publications that support excellent results for the treatment of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus through bariatric and metabolic surgery2,5,6. In 2016 the pu-blication of the Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS2)7 makes a difference in the mana-gement of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is so that the same have grown substantially and the evidence shows that bariatric metabolic management of these patients is superior to medical manage-ment and lifestyle changes when glycemic control and remission of comor-bidities are evaluated. With the previous evaluation of the multidisciplinary team, we will have scientific information of the highest level that will allow us to have a patient with optimal recovery applying the criteria of Enhanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery (ERASB)8.In Ecuador, obesity has become a public health problem; thus, in the pediatric population it has increased since 1986 from 8,0% to 26,0% in 2012 in the 11 to 19 years age group. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult po-pulation in Ecuador is 62,8%, according to sex is 5,5% higher in women (65,5%) than in men (60,0%), and the highest rate of obesity and overweight occurs between the fourth and fifth decades of life, with prevalences higher than 73,0%9,10.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bariatric Surgery , Weight Reduction Programs , Obesity Management , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Body Weight , Weight Loss , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Body Mass Index , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Metabolism
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 157-163, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285317

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered a global public health problem, with changes in lifestyle being the effective way to treat the disease. To date, there is no recommended standard of assessment to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) of patients with NAFLD, so that dietary therapy can be properly guided. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the REE of patients with NAFLD through indirect calorimetry and compare with different predictive formulas of REE and with REE by electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Assess body composition through BIA, with NAFLD staging and the presence of comorbidities. METHODS: They were evaluated in patients with NAFLD over 18 years of age treated at the Gastroenterology outpatient clinic of a tertiary level hospital in southern Brazil. NAFLD staging was performed using liver biopsy or a non-invasive method. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in all patients. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Comorbidities as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were evaluated. To estimate energy expenditure at rest, Harris-Benedict, Jeor Mifflin-St, World Health Organization and Schofield formulas were used. BIA was used to assess resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body mass, and to measure RMR, indirect calorimetry was also used. Associations between categorical variables were tested with Pearson's χ2 test and between groups with McNemar's test. The level of significance assumed was 5%. The degree of agreement between the REE measurement methods was assessed using the Blan-Altman test. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients were evaluated, 70.5% male, with a mean age of 59 years and a mean BMI of 33.08 kg/m2 ±5.13. The average RMR per CI was 1,753 kcal ±614.58. When comparing the RMR estimate by different formulas with indirect calorimetry, only the Jeor Mifflin-St formula showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001), with a difference of +318.49 kcal. BIA and Harris Benedict's formula presented values closer to CI, 1,658 and 1,845 kcal respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the Jeor Mifflin-St formula should not be used to estimate the RMR in patients with NAFLD. In the absence of indirect calorimetry, some alternatives can be used safely in this population, such as BIA and the predictive formulas of Harris Benedict, Schofield and the World Health Organization.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) é considerada, atualmente, um problema de saúde pública global, sendo a mudança no estilo de vida a forma efetiva de tratar a doença. Até o momento não há um padrão de avaliação recomendado para determinar o gasto energético de repouso (GER) de pacientes com DHGNA, para que se possa nortear adequadamente a conduta dietoterápica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o GER de pacientes com DHGNA através da calorimetria indireta (CI) e comparar com diferentes fórmulas preditivas do GER e com GER através da bioimpedância elétrica (BIA). Avaliar a composição corporal através da BIA, com o estadiamento da DHGNA e com a presença de comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em pacientes com DHGNA maiores de 18 anos de idade atendidos no ambulatório de Gastroenterologia de um Hospital de nível terciário do Sul do Brasil. O estadiamento da DHGNA foi realizado através de biópsia hepática ou método não invasivo. Peso, altura e índice de massa corporal (IMC) foram determinados em todos os pacientes. Para avaliação da atividade física foi utilizada a versão curta do International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Foram avaliadas as comorbidades hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e dislipidemia. Para a estimativa do gasto energético de repouso utilizou-se as fórmulas de Harris-Benedict, de Jeor Mifflin-St, da Organização Mundial de Saúde e de Schofield. A BIA foi utilizada para avaliação do GER e da massa corporal, e para aferição do GER também se utilizou a CI. Associações entre variáveis categóricas foram testadas com teste χ2 de Pearson e entre grupos com teste de McNemar. O nível de significância assumido foi de 5%. O grau de concordância entre os métodos de mensuração do GER foi aferido pelo teste de Blan-Altman. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 67 pacientes, sendo 70,5% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 59 anos e média de IMC 33,08 kg/m2 ±5,13. O GER médio por CI foi de 1.753 kcal ±614,58. Ao comparar a estimativa do GER por diferentes fórmulas com a calorimetria indireta, apenas a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (P=0,0001), com uma diferença de +318,49 kcal. A BIA e a fórmula de Harris Benedict apresentaram valores mais próximos à CI, 1.658 e 1.845 kcal respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos que a fórmula de Jeor Mifflin-St não deva ser utilizada para estimativa do GER em pacientes com DHGNA. Na ausência da CI algumas alternativas podem ser utilizadas com segurança nesta população, como a BIA e as fórmulas preditivas de Harris Benedict, de Schofield e da Organização Mundial de Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Basal Metabolism , Calorimetry, Indirect , Body Mass Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Energy Metabolism , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 351-355, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288681

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare the serum levels of vitamin D and minerals in children with or without isolated distal radius fractures. Methods The present prospective clinical study included 50 children (aged between 5 and 15 years) with isolated distal radius fractures who were admitted to our emergency unit between February and May 2018 as the study group (group A), and 50 healthy children with no history of fracture as the control group (group B). Peripheral venous blood samples were obtained and analyzed for measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in both groups. Patient characteristics and peripheral venous blood samples were compared between the groups. Results The mean age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution were similar in both groups. There were no statistical differences in the blood analyses, including Ca, Mg, P, ALP, and PTH. However, the serum levels of 25(OH)D were statistically lower in group A when compared to group B (p < 0.001), and the number of patients with 25(OH)D insufficiency was statistically higher in group A than in group B (p = 0.012). Conclusion Children with isolated distal radius fracture should be informed about vitamin D deficiency, and, in children with low levels of vitamin D, supplementation may be considered.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar os níveis séricos de vitamina D e minerais de crianças com ou sem fraturas isoladas da extremidade distal do rádio. Métodos Este estudo clínico prospectivo incluiu 50 crianças (com idade entre 5 e 15 anos) com fratura isolada distal do rádio que deram entrada em nossa unidade de emergência entre fevereiro e maio de 2018 como grupo de estudo (grupo A), e 50 crianças saudáveis sem histórico de fratura como grupo controle (grupo B). Foram obtidas e analisadas amostras de sangue venoso periférico para medições de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25(OH)D), Cálcio (Ca), Magnésio (Mg), Fósforo (P), fosfatase alcalina (FA) e hormônio da paratireoide (HPT) em ambos os grupos. As características dos pacientes e as amostras de sangue venoso periférico foram comparadas entre os grupos. Resultados A média de idade, altura, peso, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e distribuição de gênero foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos. Não houve diferenças estatísticas nas análises sanguíneas, incluindo Ca, Mg, P, FA e HPT. No entanto, os níveis séricos de 25(OH)D foram estatisticamente menores no grupo A do que no grupo B (p < 0,001), e o número de pacientes com insuficiência de 25(OH)D foi estatisticamente maior no grupo A do que no grupo B (p = 0,012). Conclusão Crianças com fratura isolada distal do rádio devem ser informadas sobre deficiência de vitamina D, e, em crianças com baixos níveis de vitamina D, a suplementação pode ser considerada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Parathyroid Hormone , Radius Fractures , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Calcium , Alkaline Phosphatase
20.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(1): e271, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289386

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de ovario poliquístico se asocia con frecuencia a alteraciones cardiometabólicas; y su asociación con el fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal ha sido poco estudiada en Cuba. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal en mujeres de edad mediana con síndrome de ovario poliquístico y su asociación con la resistencia a la insulina, trastornos del metabolismo de la glucosa y ateroesclerosis subclínica. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, en 30 mujeres. Se tomaron variables clínicas: edad, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura y cadera, índice cintura/cadera, tensión arterial, además de concentraciones de glucosa, insulina, colesterol total, triglicéridos, HDL-c y LDL-c, e índice HOMA-IR. La aterosclerosis subclínica se evaluó por doppler carotideo y ecocardiograma (hipertrofia ventricular izquierda y grasa epicárdica). El fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal se definió como triglicéridos elevados (≥ 1,7 mmol/L) y circunferencia de la cintura ≥ 80 cm. Resultados: La frecuencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal fue 43,3 por ciento (13/30). Los valores medios de circunferencia abdominal, tensión arterial, así como de glucemia (p < 0,003), insulinemia (p = 0,028), triglicéridos (p < 0,0001), e índice HOMA-IR (p = 0,012) fueron más elevados en el grupo de mujeres con esa condición. A pesar de no haber diferencias significativas la frecuencia de mujeres con incremento del grosor íntima-media carotídeo y de grasa epicárdica fue superior en aquellas con el fenotipo. Conclusiones: La presencia del fenotipo hipertrigliceridemia-obesidad abdominal es frecuente en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, y se asocia con alteraciones del metabolismo de la glucosa y la resistencia a la insulina. Este pudiera ser utilizado en la práctica clínica como un marcador de riesgo para alteraciones cardiometabólicas(AU)


Introduction: The polycystic ovary syndrome is frequently associated to cardiometabolic alterations; and its relation with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype has been poorly studied in Cuba. Objective: Identify the frequency of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in middle age women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its association with insulin resistance, disorders in the glucose metabolism and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study in 30 women. As clinical variables there were used: age, weight, size, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, waist/hip index, blood pressure; glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c concentrations, and HOMA-IR index. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by a carotid doppler and an echocardiogram (left ventricular hypertrophy and epicardial fat). The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as high triglycerides levels (≥ 1.7 mmol/L) and CC ≥ 80 cm. Results: The frequency of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 43.3 percent (13/30). The mean values of abdominal circumference, blood pressure, as well as glycemia (p < 0.003), insulinaemia (p = 0.028), triglycerides (p < 0.0001), and HOMA-IR index (p = 0.012) were higher in the group of women with that condition. Although there were not significant differences, the frequency of women with increase of the carotid intima-media thickness and epicardical fat was higher in those with the phenotype. Conclusions: The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is frequent in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, and it is associated with alterations of the glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. This can be used in the clinical practice as a marker of risk for cardiometabolic alterations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hypertriglyceridemia/diagnosis , Obesity, Abdominal/etiology , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
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