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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4996-5013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008074

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) gene is closely related to immune response, signal transduction, growth and disease development in mammals. However, only the Drosophila TMED gene has been reported on insects. We identified the TMED family genes of silkworm, Tribolium castaneum, tobacco moth and Italian bee from their genomes, and found that the TMED family gene composition patterns of one α-class, one β-class, one δ-class and several γ-classes arose in the common ancestor of pre-divergent Hymenoptera insects, while the composition of Drosophila TMED family members has evolved in a unique pattern. Insect TMED family γ-class genes have evolved rapidly, diverging into three separate subclasses, TMED6-like, TMED5-like and TMED3-like. The TMED5-like gene was lost in Hymenoptera, duplicated in the ancestors of Lepidoptera and duplicated in Drosophila. Insect TMED protein not only has typical structural characteristics of TMED, but also has obvious signal peptide. There are seven TMED genes in silkworm, distributed in six chromosomes. One of seven is single exon and others are multi-exons. The complete open reading frame (ORF) sequences of seven TMED genes of silkworm were cloned from larval tissues and registered in GenBank database. BmTMED1, BmTMED2 and BmTMED6 were expressed in all stages and tissues of the silkworm, and all genes were expressed in the 4th and 5th instar and silk gland of the silkworm. The present study revealed the composition pattern of TMED family members, their γ class differentiation and their evolutionary history, providing a basis for further studies on TMED genes in silkworm and other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Genes, Insect/genetics , Moths/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Drosophila , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Mammals/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4982-4995, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008073

ABSTRACT

The aldo-keto reductase super family (AKRs) has a wide range of substrate specificity. However, the systematic identification of insect AKR gene family members has not been reported. In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to predict the phylogenetic evolution, physical and chemical properties, chromosome location, conserved motifs, and gene structure of AKR family members in Bombyx mori (BmAKR). Transcriptome data or quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to analyze the expression level of BmAKR genes during different organizational periods and silkworm eggs in different developmental states. Moreover, Western blotting was used to detect the expression level of the BmAKR in silkworm eggs. The results showed that 11 BmAKR genes were identified. These genes were distributed on 4 chromosomes of the silkworm genome, all of which had the (α/β) 8-barrel motif, and their physical and chemical characteristics were relatively similar. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BmAKR genes could be divided into 2 subgroups (AKR1 and AKR2). Transcriptome data analysis showed that the expression of BmAKR genes were quite different in different tissues and periods. Moreover, the expression analysis of BmAKR genes in silkworm eggs showed that some genes were expressed significantly higher in nondiapause eggs than in diapause eggs; but another gene, BmAKR1-1, was expressed significantly higher in diapause eggs than in nondiapause eggs. The detection of protein level found that the difference trend of BmAKR1-1 in diapause eggs and non-diapause eggs was consistent with the results of qRT-PCR. In conclusion, BmAKR1-1 was screened out as candidates through the identification and analysis of the BmAKR genes in silkworm, which may regulate silkworm egg development is worthy of further investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Phylogeny , Diapause , Genes, Insect , Gene Expression Profiling , Insect Proteins/metabolism
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4950-4964, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008071

ABSTRACT

Molting is an important physiological phenomenon of many metamorphosis insects, during which the old and new epidermis are separated by enzymes present in the molting fluid. Various proteomic studies have discovered the presence of Bombyx mori carboxypeptidase A (Bm-CPA) in the molting fluid of silkworm, but its function remains unclear. In order to better understand the role of Bm-CPA in the molting process of silkworm, Bm-CPA was analyzed by bioinformatics analysis, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, antibody preparation, immunofluorescence staining, and expression in Pichia pastoris. The results showed that Bm-CPA had a conserved M14 zinc carboxypeptidase domain and glycosylation site. Its expression was regulated by ecdysone 20E, and large expression was observed in the epidermis of the upper cluster stage. Immunofluorescence staining showed that Bm-CPA was enriched in the epidermis during the molting stage, and the inhibitor of Bm-CPA led to the larval death due to the inability to molt. We also successfully obtained a large number of recombinant Bm-CPA proteins by Pichia pastoris expression in vitro. These results may facilitate further understanding the molting development process of silkworm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Molting/genetics , Bombyx/genetics , Carboxypeptidases A/metabolism , Proteomics , Larva/metabolism , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Insect Proteins/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4275-4294, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008026

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to prepare tandem multimeric proteins of BmSPI38, a silkworm protease inhibitor, with better structural homogeneity, higher activity and stronger antifungal ability by protein engineering. The tandem multimeric proteins of BmSPI38 were prepared by prokaryotic expression technology. The effects of tandem multimerization on the structural homogeneity, inhibitory activity and antifungal ability of BmSPI38 were explored by in-gel activity staining of protease inhibitor, protease inhibition assays and fungal growth inhibition experiments. Activity staining showed that the tandem expression based on the peptide flexible linker greatly improved the structural homogeneity of BmSPI38 protein. Protease inhibition experiments showed that the tandem trimerization and tetramerization based on the linker improved the inhibitory ability of BmSPI38 to microbial proteases. Conidial germination assays showed that His6-SPI38L-tetramer had stronger inhibition on conidial germination of Beauveria bassiana than that of His6-SPI38-monomer. Fungal growth inhibition assay showed that the inhibitory ability of BmSPI38 against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans could be enhanced by tandem multimerization. The present study successfully achieved the heterologous active expression of the silkworm protease inhibitor BmSPI38 in Escherichia coli, and confirmed that the structural homogeneity and antifungal ability of BmSPI38 could be enhanced by tandem multimerization. This study provides important theoretical basis and new strategies for cultivating antifungal transgenic silkworm. Moreover, it may promote the exogenous production of BmSPI38 and its application in the medical field.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Bombyx/chemistry , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3269-3280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981464

ABSTRACT

Bombyx Batryticatus is a precious traditional Chinese animal drug commonly used in clinical practice in China, which has the effects of extinguishing wind, stopping convulsions, dispelling wind, relieving pain, resolving phlegm, and dissipating mass. The processing of Bombyx Batryticatus has a long history. As early as in the Liu Song period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, there was a record of the processing of Bombyx Batryticatus with rice swill. In addition to the processing with bran, honey bran, and ginger juice, which are still used today, there are also processing methods such as rendering, flour processing, wine processing, salt processing, oil processing, charcoal, and red dates processing in ancient times. After processing, the fishy smell of Bombyx Batryticatus can be removed, and avoid nausea and vomiting caused by the direct taking. Furthermore, processing can also facilitate the removal of surface hairs and toxicity reduction, making the medicinal material crispy and easy to crush. Previous studies have shown that the main chemical constituents of Bombyx Batryticatus include protein polypeptides, sterols, and flavonoids, with anticonvulsant, anticoagulation, antithrombotic, anti-cancer, hypnotic, hypoglycemic, and other pharmacological effects. This paper reviewed the processing historical evolution, chemical constituents, and pharmacological effects of Bombyx Batryticatus to lay a foundation for the research on the processing mechanism, quality control, and active core substances of Bombyx Batryticatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , China , Evolution, Chemical , Flavonoids , Fruit
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2160-2185, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981347

ABSTRACT

Starting with the relationship between mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings as food and metabolites, this study systematically compared the chemical components, screened out differential components, and quantitatively analyzed the main differential components based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and UPLC-Q-TRAP-MS combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). Moreover, the in vitro enzymatic transformation of the representative differential components was studied. The results showed that(1) 95 components were identified from mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings, among which 27 components only exist in mulberry leaves and 8 components in silkworm droppings. The main differential components were flavonoid glycosides and chlorogenic acids.(2) Nineteen components with significant difference were quantitatively analyzed, and the components with significant differences and high content were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin.(3) The crude protease in the mid-gut of silkworm significantly metabolized neochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid, which may be an important reason for the efficacy change in mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. This study lays a scientific foundation for the development, utilization, and quality control of mulberry leaves and silkworm droppings. It provides references for clarifying the possible material basis and mechanism of the pungent-cool and dispersing nature of mulberry leaves transforming into the pungent-warm and dampness-resolving nature of silkworm droppings, and offers a new idea for the study of nature-effect transformation mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Morus/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1655-1669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981161

ABSTRACT

Deacetylation of chitin is closely related to insect development and metamorphosis. Chitin deacetylase (CDA) is a key enzyme in the process. However, to date, the CDAs of Bombyx mori (BmCDAs), which is a model Lepidopteran insect, were not well studied. In order to better understand the role of BmCDAs in the metamorphosis and development of silkworm, the BmCDA2 which is highly expressed in epidermis was selected to study by bioinformatics methods, protein expression purification and immunofluorescence localization. The results showed that the two mRNA splicing forms of BmCDA2, namely BmCDA2a and BmCDA2b, were highly expressed in the larval and pupal epidermis, respectively. Both genes had chitin deacetylase catalytic domain, chitin binding domain and low density lipoprotein receptor domain. Western blot showed that the BmCDA2 protein was mainly expressed in the epidermis. Moreover, fluorescence immunolocalization showed that BmCDA2 protein gradually increased and accumulated with the formation of larval new epidermis, suggesting that BmCDA2 may be involved in the formation or assembly of larval new epidermis. The results increased our understandings to the biological functions of BmCDAs, and may facilitate the CDA study of other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Metamorphosis, Biological/genetics , Larva/metabolism , Gene Expression , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Chitin
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1589-1596, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970631

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect of Bombyx Batryticatus extract(BBE) on behaviors of rats with global cerebral ischemia reperfusion(I/R) and the underlying mechanism. The automatic coagulometer was used to detect the four indices of human plasma coagulation after BBE intervention for quality control of the extract. Sixty 4-week-old male SD rats were randomized into sham operation group(equivalent volume of normal saline, ip), model group(equivalent volume of normal saline, ip), positive drug group(900 IU·kg~(-1) heparin, ip), and low-, medium-, and high-dose BBE groups(0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 mg·g~(-1)·d~(-1) BBE, ip). Except the sham operation group, rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion(BCCAO/R) to induce I/R. The administration lasted 7 days for all the groups. The behaviors of rats were examined by beam balance test(BBT). Morphological changes of brain tissue were observed based on hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. Immunofluorescence method was used to detect common leukocyte antigen(CD45), leukocyte differentiation antigen(CD11b), and arginase-1(Arg-1) in cerebral cortex(CC). The protein expression of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-10(IL-10) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The non-targeted metabonomics was employed to detect the levels of metabolites in plasma and CC of rats after BBE intervention. The results of quality control showed that the BBE prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), prothrombin time(PT), and thrombin time(TT) of human plasma, which was similar to the anticoagulation effect of BBE obtained previously. The results of behavioral test showed that the BBT score of the model group increased compared with that of the sham operation group. Compared with the model group, BBE reduced the BBT score. As for the histomorphological examination, compared with the sham operation group, the model group showed morphological changes of a lot of nerve cells in CC. The nerve cells with abnormal morphology in CC decreased after the intervention of BBE compared with those in the model group. Compared with the sham operation group, the model group had high average fluorescence intensity of CD45 and CD11b in the CC. The average fluorescence intensity of CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in CC in the low-dose BBE group compared with those in the model group. The average fluorescence intensity of CD45 and CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in medium-and high-dose BBE groups compared with those in the model group. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was higher and the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was lower in the model group than in the sham operation group. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was lower and the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 was higher in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BBE groups than in the model group. The results of non-targeted metabonomics showed that 809 metabolites of BBE were identified, and 57 new metabolites in rat plasma and 45 new metabolites in rat CC were found. BBE with anticoagulant effect can improve the behaviors of I/R rats, and the mechanism is that it promotes the polarization of microglia to M2 type, enhances its anti-inflammatory and phagocytic functions, and thus alleviates the damage of nerve cells in CC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Male , Animals , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Bombyx , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Saline Solution/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion , Neurons
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4087-4096, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008604

ABSTRACT

To understand the current quality status and rearing situation of Bombyx Batryticatus, the authors collected 102 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus from different main producing areas and five major Chinese medicine markets from 2016 to 2018, and measured the properties and quality of the silk gland, to clarify the quality status of Bombyx Batryticatus from different producing areas and markets. In addition, 35 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus from 2019 to 2022 were used to verify the silk gland after revision. Moreover, Beauveria Bassiana was inoculated in the silkworm of 4-5 instars, and standardized rearing was carried out until they die. The death rate and the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus were measured to determine the differences in Bombyx Batryticatus of different instars, and explore the rationality of the infection age of Bombyx Batryticatus in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The results revealed that in the 102 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus, the qualification rate of silk gland was low; the content of total ash far exceeded the standard; the content of beauvericin varied greatly. The qualification rate of the silk gland of the 35 batches of Bombyx Batryticatus was only 47.49%, which could be increased to 73.00% if the number of silk gland was 2 to 4. The death rate of Bombyx Batryticatus at different infection ages was quite different, with uneven quality. Generally, the yield of Bombyx Batryticatus inoculated on the first day of the fifth instar was high with good quality. Therefore, in combination with the quality and actual production of Bombyx Batryticatus, the following suggestions were proposed for revision of Bombyx Batryticatus in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2025): The number of silk gland should be revised as 2-4 bright brown or bright black silk glands, after which, the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus could be guaranteed, and the "quality identification based on character" could also be reflected scientifically; the content determination index that the content of beauvericin shall not be less than 0.017% should be added to better control the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus; the infection age should be revised as the first day of the fifth instar to narrow the age span, which could better fit the actual production and ensure the quality of Bombyx Batryticatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Silk , Larva
11.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 547-554, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979395

ABSTRACT

Aims@#This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial properties of the sericin protein Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains.@*Methodology and results@#Sericin protein was extracted from the cocoons of B. mori races A, B, C, D, F1-1, F1-2 and S. ricini from Indonesia using a degumming process. The extracted sericin protein was evaluated as anti-microbials using Kirby Breuer disc diffusion, spectrometer measurement in decreasing OD value and imaging scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tests revealed that sericin protein from B. mori was more capable of inhibiting bacteria S. aureus than E. coli. Sericin protein from S. ricini was also capable of strongly inhibiting both S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. The sericin proteins of B. mori and S. ricini were found to reduce the number of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria as the OD value decreased at a concentration of 9%. The SEM imaging suggests that sericin B. mori and S. ricini proteins caused changes in cell morphology in S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, resulting in bacterial cell function disruption and death.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#Bombyx mori and S. ricini sericin proteins were found to act against S. aureus and E. coli bacteria. Therefore, sericin protein has a greater antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strain S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Sericins , Bombyx , Lepidoptera , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4342-4350, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921510

ABSTRACT

The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has been widely used in basic research, gene therapy and genetic engineering due to its high efficiency, fast speed and convenience. Meanwhile, the discovery of novel CRISPR/Cas systems in the microbial community also accelerated the emergence of novel gene editing tools. CRISPR/Cpf1 is the second type (V type) CRISPR system that can edit mammalian genome. Compared with the CRISPR/Cas9, CRISPR/Cpf1 can use 5'T-PAM rich region to increase the genome coverage, and has many advantages, such as sticky end of cleavage site and less homologous recombination repair. Here we constructed three CRISPR/Cpf1 (AsCpf1, FnCpf1 and LbCpf1) expression vectors in silkworm cells. We selected a highly conserved BmHSP60 gene and an ATPase family BmATAD3A gene to design the target gRNA, and constructed gHSP60-266 and gATAD3A-346 knockout vectors. The efficiency for editing the target genes BmATAD3A and BmHSP60 by AsCpf1, FnCpf1 and LbCpf1 were analyzed by T7E1 analysis and T-clone sequencing. Moreover, the effects of target gene knockout by different gene editing systems on the protein translation of BmHSP60 and BmATAD3A were analyzed by Western blotting. We demonstrate the CRISPR/Cpf1 gene editing system developed in this study could effectively edit the silkworm genome, thus providing a novel method for silkworm gene function research, genetic engineering and genetic breeding.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Endonucleases/genetics , Gene Editing , /genetics
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2130-2137, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827971

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to study the degradation of chemical compositions after the silkworm excrement being expelled from the silkworm, and to determine its main metabolic compositions and their changing relationships. This research is based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Based on the systematic analysis of the main chemical compositions contained in silkworm excrement, the principal compositions analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) on commercial silkworm excrement and fresh silkworm excrement were analyzed for differences. The S-plot chart of OPLS-DA was used to select and identify the chemical compositions that contributed significantly to the difference. At the same time, the relative peak areas of the different compositions were extracted by Masslynx to obtain the relative content of different compositions in fresh silkworm excrement. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the chemical compositions between fresh silkworm excrement and commercial silkworm excrement. The difference compositions were mainly flavonoid glycosides and Diels-Alder type composition, and two types of compounds are degradated during the storage of silkworm sand. In this study, the chemical compositions of fresh silkworm excrement were systematically identified and analyzed for the first time by mass spectrometry, and it was found that some chemical compositions of silkworm excrement were degradated with time during storage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 623-630, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008547

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of Faeces Bombycis(FB) on the intestinal microflora in rats with syndrome of damp retention in middle-jiao, and to explore its mechanism in regulating intestinal microflora from the perspective of microorganisms contained in FB. The contents of antidiuretic hormone(ADH) and C-reactive protein(CRP) in serum and aquaporin 3(AQP3) in jejunum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Illumina Miseq platform was used for high-throughput sequencing of the rat feces and FB. The ELISA results showed that as compared with the normal control group, the contents of ADH and CRP in the model group were significantly increased(P<0.05), and the content of AQP3 was significantly decreased(P<0.05). After drug administration, the ADH, CRP and AQP3 contents were recovered. Sequencing of rat feces showed that the ACE, Chao1 and Shannon indexes of the intestinal microflora were the lowest in the model group. As compared with the normal control group, the levels from phylum to genus were all significantly changed in model group, and Proteobacteria, Acinetobacter, Anaerobacter, Pseudomonas, and Parabacteroides levels were significantly increased(P<0.05), while Marvinbryantia level was significantly decreased(P<0.05). As compared with the model group, Proteobacteria was significantly decreased in the FB low and high dose groups(P<0.05), and Acinetobacter, Anaerobacter, Pseudomonas, Parabacteroides levels were significantly decreased in the low, medium and high dose groups(P<0.05), while Lachnoanaerobaculum, Intestinimonas and Marvinbryantia were increased significantly in the high dose group(P<0.05). Sequencing analysis of FB showed that the relative abundance of Leclercia, Pantoea, Brachybacterium, Shimwellia, Hartmannibacter, Klebsiella, Serratia, Aurantimonas, Paenibacillus and Bacillus was high in the FB, but they were basically not present or little in the rat feces. In conclusion, FB may play a role in the treatment of "syndrome of damp retention in middle-jiao" by balancing the intestinal microflora, and this effect may be related to the metabolites of microorganisms in the FB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aquaporin 3/analysis , Bombyx/chemistry , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Feces/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Vasopressins/blood
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5051-5057, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008362

ABSTRACT

In order to comprehensively analyze the pollution level and bioaccessibility of different types of heavy metals and hazardous elements in animal medicine,this paper selected Bombyx Batryticatus as the research object,and used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS) to detect As,Cu,Hg,Pb,Ni,Cr,Zn and Cd. Based on the artificial gastrointestinal digestion model and the health risk assessment model of Chinese medicinal materials,the pollution level,in vivo and in vitro transfer rate and health risk grade of eight harmful elements in the above-mentioned medicinal materials of Bombyx Batryticatus were obtained respectively. The test result was found that under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metals,the unqualified rate was 50% for Bombyx Batryticatus,which including 2 batches of As and 4 batches of Cr exceeded the MRL. In artificial gastrointestinal digestion solution,the transfer rates of heavy metals As,Cu,Hg,Pb,Ni,Cr,Zn and Cd were 36. 849%,72. 372%,41. 152%,75. 354%,46. 603%,27. 981%,19. 707% and 76. 282%,respectively. The data of risk assessment model showed that the total THQ values of the most polluted batches for adults and children was 0. 021 548 and 0. 018 418,respectively. After digestion,the THQ values decreased to 0. 012 599 for adults and 0. 010 769 for children,which were still higher than the THQ standard values of animal medicine Bombyx Batryticatus. However,the CR value of carcinogenic risk is less than 1×10-6,so the potential non-carcinogenic risk caused by taking this batch of Bombyx Batryticatus medicines is higher and the carcinogenic risk can be ignored. To sum up,heavy metals and hazardous elements in Bombyx Batryticatus still exceed the standard,but the health risk level caused by heavy metals still needs to be investigated according to different medicinal materials,in order to provide data support for further improving the quality and safety of animal medicine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Child , Humans , Bombyx , China , Environmental Pollution , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Risk Assessment
16.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 723-735, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the causative allergens and clinical characteristics of Korean adult patients with food allergy (FA). METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional single-institutional study enrolled Korean adult patients (n = 812) suspected of having FA. For diagnosis, causality assessment history taking, ImmunoCAP specific immunoglobulin E measurement and/or skin prick test were performed. RESULTS: Among 812 patients, 415 were diagnosed as having FA. The most common causative allergen was fruit, with a diagnosis of pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS: 155, 37.3%), followed by crustaceans (111, 26.7%), wheat (63, 15.1%), fruits in patients without PFAS(43, 10.3%), buckwheat (31, 7.4%), peanut (31, 7.4%), walnut (25, 6.0%), red meat due to reaction to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) (8, 1.9%), and silkworm pupa (13, 3.1%). Allergy to egg, milk, fish, or shellfish was rare in Korean adults. One-third of patients with FA exhibited multiple FAs (238/415, 57.3%); the average number of causative allergens was 2.39. About 129 patients (31.0%) were diagnosed as having anaphylaxis; in these patients, wheat was the most frequent causative food. Twenty patients were further diagnosed with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA); all were due to wheat. In particular, crustaceans, wheat, PFAS, buckwheat, and red meat (α-Gal) were also frequent causes of anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Wheat, fruits with or without PFAS, and crustaceans are important and frequent causative allergens in Korean adult FA; these allergens differ from those found in childhood FA. It is notable that non-classic allergies, such as PFAS, FDEIA, and α-Gal allergy, are the important causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adult FA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Allergens , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Bombyx , Diagnosis , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Korea , Milk , Ovum , Pollen , Pupa , Red Meat , Retrospective Studies , Shellfish , Skin , Triticum
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 102-113, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771396

ABSTRACT

The biogenic monoamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an ancient intracellular signaling molecule widely distributed in all animals with nervous systems, and has been implicated in principal behaviors. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TRH) induces a highly specific catalytic reaction that converts L-tryptophan (tryptophan) to 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) that is subsequently used as a substrate by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) to form 5-HT. Five-HT is an ancient intracellular signaling molecule that is widely distributed in the animal kingdom and has been implicated in regulating the behaviors of animals with nervous systems. However, the role of TRH in Lepidoptera is not well understood. In this study, we cloned 1 667 bp cDNAs of Bombyx mori TRH (BmTRH), which contains a 1 632 bp open reading frame (ORF). Homology analysis revealed that BmTRH shared high amino acid identity with Homo sapiens TPH and Drosophila TRH (DmTRH). The high homology (70%) of BmTRH with DmTRH suggested that BmTRH could have a function similar to DmTRH. Gene expression analysis revealed that BmTRH was mainly expressed in head and central nervous (CNS). Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analyses showed that BmTRH was detected only in larval nervous tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that BmTRH could likely function in the regulation of neural activities in B. mori. The transcripts of B. mori decarboxylase (BmDDC) and B. mori phenylalanine hydroxylase (BmPAH) whose proteins had TRH activity, were also expressed in the CNS tissues, indicating that unlike in Drosophila, two distinct mechanisms likely regulate 5-HT synthesis in silkworm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Bombyx , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Insect Proteins , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Tryptophan Hydroxylase
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 435-444, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771363

ABSTRACT

Genes belonging to the elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL) family affect many physiological functions in organism. In this paper, Bmelo424 gene, a member of the ELOVL family in silkworm, was cloned and its ORF was 558 bp. Its protein sequence was predicted to have four transmembrane domains, six serine phosphorylation sites, eight threonine phosphorylation sites and four tyrosine phosphorylation sites, and its subcellular localization was in the endoplasmic reticulum. Secondary structure analysis showed that the percentage of alpha-helix and beta-strand was 26.7% and 20% respectively. The results of fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that Bmelo424 gene was expressed in all tissues of silkworm, especially with the highest expression in head. By heterologous expression of Bmelo424 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the effect of Bmelo424 gene on fatty acid elongation was studied. GC-MS results indicated that the fatty acid content of C16:1n-7 in S. cerevisiae with pYES2-Bmelo424 recombinant plasmid increased significantly, whereas the content of C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9 decreased. The results of temperature stress revealed that Bmelo424 gene could improve the low temperature adaptability of S. cerevisiae, but its high temperature adaptability decreased. This provides a reference for exploring the function of Bmelo424 gene in silkworm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetyltransferases , Amino Acid Sequence , Bombyx , Cloning, Molecular , Fatty Acids , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1546-1556, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771774

ABSTRACT

Identifying and comparing the chemical constituents of wild silkworm cocoon and silkworm cocoon is of great significance for understanding the domestication of silkworm. In this study, we used high temperature and high pressure and methanol-water system to extract cocoon chemical constituents. We used UHPLC-MS to identify and compare cocoon chemical constituents of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains. The cocoon metabolic fingerprints of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains were obtained by using the UHPLC-MS in the positive ion mode and negative ion mode. By annotation, we found that cocoon chemical compounds with high abundances contained amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, organic acids, and lignans. PLS-DA showed that the cocoon components were significantly different among the wild silkworm and two domestic silkworm strains Dazao and Haoyue. Proline, leucine/isoleucine and phenylalanine showed significantly higher abundances in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain than in those of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Haoyue strain. The flavonoid secondary metabolites are abundant in the Dazao cocoon, including quercetin, isoquercetin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O- rutinoside, and kaempferol. The other secondary metabolites, alkaloids, terpenes and lignans, showed higher abundances in the wild silkworm cocoon than in the domestic silkworm cocoon, including neurine, candicine, pilocarpidine, artemisiifolin, eupassopin, and eudesobovatol. By exposing cocoons to UV light and observing the green fluorescence of flavonoids, we found that Dazao cocoon had the most flavonoids, and Haoyue cocoon had least flavonoids and wild silkworm cocoon had mediate flavonoids. Alkaloids and organic acids are good anti-insect and antimicrobial agents, which have high abundance in the wild silkworm cocoon and could enhance the defense ability of wild silkworm cocoon. Flavonoids are abundant in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain, which the main factors are leading to the yellow-green cocoon of Dazao.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids , Mass Spectrometry
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 845-848, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777487

ABSTRACT

National-level famous traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) doctor Professor Fan Yong-sheng has high-level accomplishments in the treatment of arthralgia. According to clinical diagnosis and dialectic,TCM with appropriate medicinal properties were flexibly applied,with a remarkable efficacy. Especially in the application of insect drugs,he has accumulated abundant clinical experience.According to the main syndromes of arthralgia and pathogenic site,patient' s constitution,Scorpio,Scolopendra,Pheretima,Vespae Nidus,Bombyx Batryticatus,Manis Squama,Bungarus Parvus,Zaocys,Agkistrodon,Cicadae Periostracum,Aspongopus,Eupolyphaga Steleophaga,Silkworm Sand were properly selected. Attention was also paid to the compatibility between insect drugs and antirheumatic drugs,blood-activating drugs and tonifying drugs. In the premise of safe and effective application in the treatment of arthralgia,insect drugs show such efficacies as antipyretic,activating collaterals and relieving pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Arthralgia , Bombyx , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
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