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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabis , Morus , Brain , Goats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia , Brain , RNA, Messenger , Cattle , Neuroglobin
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 398-405, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377382

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The high number of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis makes it necessary to conduct studies aimed at improving their quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate brain compliance, using the Brain4care method for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, among patients with ESRD before and at the end of the hemodialysis session, and to correlate ICP with the dialysis quality index (Kt/V). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a renal replacement therapy center in Brazil. METHODS: Sixty volunteers who were undergoing hemodialysis three times a week were included in this study. Brain compliance was assessed before and after hemodialysis using the noninvasive Brain4care method and intracranial pressure wave morphology was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 60 ESRD volunteers, 17 (28%) presented altered brain compliance before hemodialysis. After hemodialysis, 12 (20%) exhibited normalization of brain compliance. Moreover, 10 (83%) of the 12 patients whose post-dialysis brain compliance became normalized were seen to present good-quality dialysis, as confirmed by Kt/V > 1.2. CONCLUSIONS: It can be suggested that changes to cerebral compliance in individuals with ESRD occur frequently and that a good-quality hemodialysis session (Kt/V > 1.2) may be effective for normalizing the patient's cerebral compliance.


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Brain , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 85-90, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362717

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una mujer en la quinta década de la vida que ingresa al servicio de urgencias con manifestaciones gastrointestinales consistentes en vómito e hipo. Después de múltiples estudios e intervenciones por especialistas, se piensa en el origen central de los síntomas. Se realiza una resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite el enfoque del caso y posterior confirmación del diagnóstico de una enfermedad dentro del espectro de la neuromielitis óptica, positiva para anticuerpos anti-acuaporinas-4. El tratamiento con esteroide y anticuerpo monoclonal (Rituximab) llevan a un control adecuado de la enfermedad.


We present a case report of a woman in her 50s admitted to the emergency room with gastrointestinal manifestations consisting of vomiting and hiccups. After a series of studies and interventions by specialists, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed in order to find the central origin of the symptoms. This allows the approach of the case and subsequent confirmation of the diagnosis of Neuromyelitis optica, positive for anti-acuaporin-4 antibodies. Finally, it seems that treatment with steroids and monoclonal antibodies leads to proper control of the disease.


Se apresenta o caso de uma mulher na quinta década de vida que ingressa ao serviço de urgências com manifestações gastrointestinais consistentes em vômito e soluço. Depois de múltiplos estudos e intervenções por especialistas, se pensa na origemcentral dos sintomas. Se realiza uma ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral que permite o enfoque do caso e posterior confirmação do diagnóstico de uma doença dentro do espectro da neuromielite óptica, positiva para anticorpos anti-acuaporinas-4. O tratamento com esteroide e anticorpo monoclonal (Rituximab) levam a um controle adequado da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica , Vomiting , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Aquaporins , Hiccup , Antibodies
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 3-12, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360141

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The correlation between angioarchitecture and clinical presentation of brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) remains a subject of debate. Objective: The main purpose of the present study was to assess the correlation between angioarchitectural characteristics of bAVM and clinical presentation. Methods: A retrospective review of all consecutive patients presenting a bAVM who underwent a cerebral angiography at Beneficencia Portuguesa Hospital in São Paulo between January 2006 and October 2016 was carried out. Patients were divided in five groups: group 1 - hemorrhage; group 2 - seizure; group 3 - headache; group 4 - progressive neurological deficits (PND); group 5 - incidental). Results: A total of 183 patients were included, with group 1 comprising 56 cases, group 2 49 cases, group 3 41 cases, group 4 28 cases, and group 5 9 cases. Regarding hemorrhage presentation, a statistical correlation was observed with female gender (P < 0.02), Spetzler-Martin 3B (P < .0015), and lesions with low flow (P < 0.04). A positive association was found between group 2 and age less than 36 years (P < 0.001), male sex (P < 0.018), presence of superficial lesions not classified as SM 3B (P < 0.002), presence of venous ectasia (p <0.03), and arterial steal phenomenon (P < 0.03). Group 4 was associated with older age (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Angioarchitectural characteristics can be correlated with some clinical presentations as well as with some clinical data, making it possible to create predictive models to differentiate clinical presentations.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A correlação entre a angioarquitetura e a apresentação clínica da Malformação Arteriovenosa do cérebro (MAVc) permanece um assunto de debate. Objetivos: Correlacionar as características angioarquiteturais das MAVc com a apresentação clínica. Métodos: Estudou-se pacientes consecutivos atendidos no Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa-SP, entre 2006 a 2016. Após análise geral, criaram-se cinco grupos de acordo com a apresentação clínica: 1- Hemorragia; 2 - Epilepsia; 3 - Cefaléia; 4 - Déficit Neurológico Progressivo (DNP) e 5 - Incidental. Características epidemiológicas (clínica e topografia) e angioarquiteturais (Classificação de Spetzler-Martin Modificada - SMM; Fluxo intranidal; Aneurismas arteriais, intranidais e venosos; Ectasia venosa; Congestão venosa; "Roubo" arterial; Vascularização dural; Drenagem Venosa Profunda) foram analisadas. Resultados: 183 pacientes foram incluídos e analisados globalmente. Após essa etapa, foram divididos nos grupos: 1 - 56 casos (30,6%); 2 - 49 casos (26,7%); 3 - 41 casos (22,4%); 4 - 28 casos (15,3%) e 5 - 9 casos (4,9%). Principais achados foram referentes a apresentação hemorrágica, na qual observamos correlação estatística positiva com o sexo feminino (P<0,02), lesões classificadas como SMM 3B (P<0,0015) e baixo fluxo (P<0,04). Relacionado à epilepsia, encontramos significância estatística que possibilitou a correlação com pacientes com idade inferior a 36 anos (P<0,001), sexo masculino (P<0,018), lesões superficiais (P<0,002), presença de ectasia venosa (P<0,003) e "roubo" arterial (P<0,01). Pacientes com DNP se apresentam com idade superior aos demais (P<0,01). Conclusões: Após análise multivariada, foi possível separar as MAV em grupos de acordo com as características angioarquiteturais, comprovando que algumas dessas características estão fortemente relacionadas a determinada manifestação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/complications , Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Brain , Brazil , Cerebral Angiography , Retrospective Studies
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 29-46, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922666

ABSTRACT

A large number of putative risk genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. The functions of most of these susceptibility genes in developing brains remain unknown, and causal relationships between their variation and autism traits have not been established. The aim of this study was to predict putative risk genes at the whole-genome level based on the analysis of gene co-expression with a group of high-confidence ASD risk genes (hcASDs). The results showed that three gene features - gene size, mRNA abundance, and guanine-cytosine content - affect the genome-wide co-expression profiles of hcASDs. To circumvent the interference of these features in gene co-expression analysis, we developed a method to determine whether a gene is significantly co-expressed with hcASDs by statistically comparing the co-expression profile of this gene with hcASDs to that of this gene with permuted gene sets of feature-matched genes. This method is referred to as "matched-gene co-expression analysis" (MGCA). With MGCA, we demonstrated the convergence in developmental expression profiles of hcASDs and improved the efficacy of risk gene prediction. The results of analysis of two recently-reported ASD candidate genes, CDH11 and CDH9, suggested the involvement of CDH11, but not CDH9, in ASD. Consistent with this prediction, behavioral studies showed that Cdh11-null mice, but not Cdh9-null mice, have multiple autism-like behavioral alterations. This study highlights the power of MGCA in revealing ASD-associated genes and the potential role of CDH11 in ASD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Brain , Cadherins/genetics , Gene Expression , Mice , Mice, Knockout
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922568

ABSTRACT

Due to its complex pathogenesis and lack of effective therapeutic methods, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a severe public health problem worldwide. Recent studies have discovered the function of central nervous system lymphatic drainage, which provides a new strategy for the treatment of AD. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been considered as a cure for AD for hundreds of years in China, and its effect on scavenging β-amyloid protein in the brain of AD patients has been confirmed. In this review, the mechanism of central nervous system lymphatic drainage and the regulatory functions of CHM on correlation factors were briefly summarized. The advances in our understanding regarding the treatment of AD via regulating the central lymphatic system with CHM will promote the clinical application of CHM in AD patients and the discovery of new therapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Brain , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans
8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 237-243, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in the functional connectivity (FC) in the right insula between migraine without aura (MWoA) and healthy controls by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), and to observe the instant alteration of FC in MWoA during electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at Shuaigu (GB8).@*METHODS@#A total of 30 patients with MWoA (PM group) and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent rs-fMRI scans. The PM group underwent a second rs-fMRI scan while receiving EA at GB8. The right insula subregions, including the ventral anterior insula (vAI), dorsal anterior insula (dAI) and posterior insula (PI), were selected as the seed points for FC analysis.@*RESULTS@#Aberrant FC, including dAI with right postcentral gyrus, PI with left precuneus, was found among PM before EA (PMa), PM during EA (PMb) and HC. Meanwhile, decreased FC between dAI and the right postcentral gyrus was found in the PMa compared to the HC and PMb. Increased FC between the PI and left precuneus was found in the PMa compared to the HC and PMb. Correlation analysis showed that the FC value of the right postcentral gyrus in PMa was negatively correlated with the scores of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. The FC value of the left precuneus in PMa was positively correlated with the visual analogue scale score.@*CONCLUSION@#The alteration of FC between the right insula subregions and multiple brain regions may be an important index for MWoA. EA at GB8 was able to adjust the FC between the right insula subregions and parietal lobe, namely, the right dAI and right postcentral gyrus, and the right PI and left precuneus, thereby rendering an instant effect in the management of MWoA.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Migraine without Aura
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 440-452, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929115

ABSTRACT

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with, or resembling that associated with, actual or potential tissue damage. The processing of pain involves complicated modulation at the levels of the periphery, spinal cord, and brain. The pathogenesis of chronic pain is still not fully understood, which makes the clinical treatment challenging. Optogenetics, which combines optical and genetic technologies, can precisely intervene in the activity of specific groups of neurons and elements of the related circuits. Taking advantage of optogenetics, researchers have achieved a body of new findings that shed light on the cellular and circuit mechanisms of pain transmission, pain modulation, and chronic pain both in the periphery and the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent findings in pain research using optogenetic approaches and discuss their significance in understanding the pathogenesis of chronic pain.


Subject(s)
Brain , Chronic Pain , Humans , Neurons , Optogenetics , Spinal Cord
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 519-532, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929106

ABSTRACT

Functional hubs with disproportionately extensive connectivities play a crucial role in global information integration in human brain networks. However, most resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies have identified functional hubs by examining spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level-dependent signal within a typical low-frequency band (e.g., 0.01-0.08 Hz or 0.01-0.1 Hz). Little is known about how the spatial distributions of functional hubs depend on frequency bands of interest. Here, we used repeatedly measured R-fMRI data from 53 healthy young adults and a degree centrality analysis to identify voxelwise frequency-resolved functional hubs and further examined their test-retest reliability across two sessions. We showed that a wide-range frequency band (0.01-0.24 Hz) accessible with a typical sampling rate (fsample = 0.5 Hz) could be classified into three frequency bands with distinct patterns, namely, low-frequency (LF, 0.01-0.06 Hz), middle-frequency (MF, 0.06-0.16 Hz), and high-frequency (HF, 0.16-0.24 Hz) bands. The functional hubs were mainly located in the medial and lateral frontal and parietal cortices in the LF band, and in the medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, and several cerebellar regions in the MF and HF bands. These hub regions exhibited fair to good test-retest reliability, regardless of the frequency band. The presence of the three frequency bands was well replicated using an independent R-fMRI dataset from 45 healthy young adults. Our findings demonstrate reliable frequency-resolved functional connectivity hubs in three categories, thus providing insights into the frequency-specific connectome organization in healthy and disordered brains.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Connectome/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Rest , Young Adult
11.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 303-317, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929085

ABSTRACT

Understanding the connection between brain and behavior in animals requires precise monitoring of their behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) space. However, there is no available three-dimensional behavior capture system that focuses on rodents. Here, we present MouseVenue3D, an automated and low-cost system for the efficient capture of 3-D skeleton trajectories in markerless rodents. We improved the most time-consuming step in 3-D behavior capturing by developing an automatic calibration module. Then, we validated this process in behavior recognition tasks, and showed that 3-D behavioral data achieved higher accuracy than 2-D data. Subsequently, MouseVenue3D was combined with fast high-resolution miniature two-photon microscopy for synchronous neural recording and behavioral tracking in the freely-moving mouse. Finally, we successfully decoded spontaneous neuronal activity from the 3-D behavior of mice. Our findings reveal that subtle, spontaneous behavior modules are strongly correlated with spontaneous neuronal activity patterns.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Mice , Neuroimaging , Rodentia
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 275-289, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929084

ABSTRACT

How to quickly predict an individual's behavioral choices is an important issue in the field of human behavior research. Using noninvasive electroencephalography, we aimed to identify neural markers in the prior outcome-evaluation stage and the current option-assessment stage of the chicken game that predict an individual's behavioral choices in the subsequent decision-output stage. Hierarchical linear modeling-based brain-behavior association analyses revealed that midfrontal theta oscillation in the prior outcome-evaluation stage positively predicted subsequent aggressive choices; also, beta oscillation in the current option-assessment stage positively predicted subsequent cooperative choices. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence for the three-stage theory of decision-making and strengthen the feasibility of predicting an individual's behavioral choices using neural oscillations.


Subject(s)
Aggression/physiology , Brain , Electroencephalography , Interpersonal Relations
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 166-180, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929081

ABSTRACT

Neuroscientists have emphasized visceral influences on consciousness and attention, but the potential neurophysiological pathways remain under exploration. Here, we found two neurophysiological pathways of heart-brain interaction based on the relationship between oxygen-transport by red blood cells (RBCs) and consciousness/attention. To this end, we collected a dataset based on the routine physical examination, the breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, and an attention network test (ANT) in 140 immigrants under the hypoxic Tibetan environment. We combined electroencephalography and multilevel mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between RBC properties and consciousness/attention. The results showed that RBC function, via two independent neurophysiological pathways, not only triggered interoceptive re-representations in the insula and awareness connected to orienting attention but also induced an immune response corresponding to consciousness and executive control. Importantly, consciousness played a fundamental role in executive function which might be associated with the level of perceived stress. These results indicated the important role of oxygen-transport in heart-brain interactions, in which the related stress response affected consciousness and executive control. The findings provide new insights into the neurophysiological schema of heart-brain interactions.


Subject(s)
Awareness , Brain , Consciousness , Humans , Oxygen , Visual Perception
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 291-294, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928811

ABSTRACT

Vascular damage is followed by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression at high levels, which is an important mechanism for cerebral radiation necrosis (CRN) development. Antiangiogenic agents (Bevacizumab) alleviates brain edema symptoms caused by CRN through inhibiting VEGF and acting on vascular tissue around the brain necrosis area. Many studies have confirmed that Bevacizumab effectively relieves symptoms caused by brain necrosis, improves patients' performance status and brain necrosis imaging. Considering that the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy is mainly related to the duration of drug action, low-dose antiangiogenic agents can achieve favorable efficacy. Prevention is the best treatment. The occurrence of CRN is associated with tumor-related factors and treatment-related factors. By controlling these factors, CRN can be effectively prevented.
.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Brain/metabolism , Consensus , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Necrosis/etiology , Radiation Injuries/etiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association between functional dyspepsia (FD) and serum levels of brain-gut peptides including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nesfatin-1, and ghrelin in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 38 children with FD who attended Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from November 2019 to December 2020 were enrolled as the FD group. Thirty-four healthy children were enrolled as the control group. Serum samples were collected from all of the children. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum levels of CGRP, ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 for comparison between the two groups. The scores of clinical symptoms were determined for the children with FD. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation of symptom scores with the serum levels of brain-gut peptides.@*RESULTS@#The FD group had significantly higher serum levels of nesfatin-1 and CGRP than the control group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the serum level of ghrelin between the two groups (P>0.05). The serum level of nesfatin-1 was positively correlated with the symptom score of early satiety (rs=0.553, P<0.001), but was not significantly correlated with the total score of FD (rs=0.191, P=0.250). The serum level of CGRP was positively correlated with the scores of abdominal pain (rs=0.479, P=0.002) and belching (rs=0.619, P<0.001) and the total score of FD (rs=0.541, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CGRP and nesfatin-1 may play an important role in the pathophysiological process of FD.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Brain , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Child , Dyspepsia/diagnosis , Ghrelin , Humans
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928609

ABSTRACT

The perinatal period is the key period for the development of brain and central nervous system, and different events in this period will have a profound influence on brain development. Glucocorticoids, antibiotics, magnesium sulfate, caffeine, pulmonary surfactant, and mild hypothermia treatment are commonly used drugs or treatment methods in the perinatal period and are closely associated with the prognosis of neonatal neurodevelopment. This article reviews the latest research on the effect of perinatal treatments on neonatal neurodevelopment, so as to provide a reference for clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
Brain , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928561

ABSTRACT

In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in evaluating neonatal brain development, diagnosing neonatal brain injury, and predicting neurodevelopmental prognosis. Based on current research evidence and clinical experience in China and overseas, the Neonatologist Society of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has developed a consensus on the indications and standardized clinical process of neonatal brain MRI. The consensus has the following main points. (1) Brain MRI should be performed for neonates suspected of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, intracranial infection, stroke and unexplained convulsions; brain MRI is not considered a routine in the management of preterm infants, but it should be performed for further evaluation when cranial ultrasound finds evidence of brain injury; as for extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight infants without abnormal ultrasound findings, it is recommended that they should undergo MRI examination at term equivalent age once. (2) Neonates should undergo MRI examination in a non-sedated state if possible. (3) During MRI examination, vital signs should be closely monitored to ensure safety; the necessity of MRI examination should be strictly evaluated for critically ill neonates, and magnetic resonance compatible incubator and ventilator can be used. (4) At present, 1.5 T or 3.0 T equipment can be used for neonatal brain MRI examination, and the special coil for the neonatal head should be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio; routine neonatal brain MRI sequences should at least include axial T1 weighted image (T1WI), axial T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging, and sagittal T1WI or T2WI. (5) It is recommended to use a structured and graded reporting system, and reports by at least two reviewers and multi-center collaboration are recommended to increase the reliability of the report.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , Consensus , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child featuring complex cortical dysplasia and other brain malformations (CDCBM3).@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from the patient and his parents. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the family trio. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband, a 1-year-and-2-month old Chinese boy, had presented with motor developmental delay, lissencephaly, severe cognitive impairments, absent speech and congenital laryngomalacia. WES revealed that he has harbored a heterozygous missense variant of the KIF2A gene, namely NM_001098511.2: c.952G>A, p.Gly318Arg (GRCh37/hg19). The highly conserved residue is located around the ATP nucleotide-binding pocket in the kinesin motor domain (PM1). The variant was not found in the Genome Aggregation Database and the 1000 Genomes Project (PM2), and was predicted to be deleterious on the gene product by multiple in silico prediction tools (PP3). This variant was unreported previously and was de novo in origin (PS2). Based on the ACMG guidelines, it was categorized as likely pathogenic (PS2+PM1+PM2+PP3). Furthermore, the congenital laryngomalacia found in our patient was absent in previously reported CDCBM3 cases.@*CONCLUSION@#The novel variant of the KIF2A gene probably underlay the disorders in the proband. Above finding has expanded the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of CDCBM3.


Subject(s)
Asians/genetics , Brain , China , Humans , Infant , Kinesins/genetics , Male , Malformations of Cortical Development/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with dysgenesis of corpus callosum and other brain malformations.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the fetus and its parents. Suspected pathogenic variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#A novel de novo missense variant c.758T>A (p.L253Q) of the TUBB2B gene was identified, which was unreported previously. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics, the c.758T>A variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the leucine at position 253 was highly conserved among various species, and the c.758T>A variant may impact the formation of hydrogen bonds between Leu253 and Asp249 and Met257 residues, which in turn may affect the combination of GTP/GDP and function of the TUBB2B protein.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.758T>A variant of the TUBB2B gene probably underlay the fetal malformations in this Chinese family. Above discovery has enriched the spectrum of TUBB2B gene variants and provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Brain , Female , Fetus/abnormalities , Humans , Malformations of Cortical Development/genetics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Tubulin/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928238

ABSTRACT

Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a revolutionary human-computer interaction technology, which includes both BCI that can output instructions directly from the brain to external devices or machines without relying on the peripheral nerve and muscle system, and BCI that bypasses the peripheral nerve and muscle system and inputs electrical, magnetic, acoustic and optical stimuli or neural feedback directly to the brain from external devices or machines. With the development of BCI technology, it has potential application not only in medical field, but also in non-medical fields, such as education, military, finance, entertainment, smart home and so on. At present, there is little literature on the relevant application of BCI technology, the current situation of BCI industrialization at home and abroad and its commercial value. Therefore, this paper expounds and discusses the above contents, which are expected to provide valuable information for the public and organizations, BCI researchers, BCI industry translators and salespeople, and improve the cognitive level of BCI technology, further promote the application and industrial transformation of BCI technology and enhance the commercial value of BCI, so as to serve mankind better.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Electroencephalography , Humans , Technology , User-Computer Interface
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