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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009898

ABSTRACT

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging tool that reflects the activity and function of brain neurons by monitoring changes in brain oxygen metabolism based on the neurovascular coupling mechanism. It is non-invasive and convenient, especially suitable for monitoring neonatal brain function. This article provides a comprehensive review of research related to the developmental patterns of brain networks concerning language, music, and emotions in neonates using fNIRS. It also covers brain network imaging in neonatal care, resting-state brain network connectivity patterns, and characteristics of brain functional imaging in disease states of neonates using fNIRS.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Emotions , Language , Technology
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 79-89, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010684

ABSTRACT

Sensory conflict impacts postural control, yet its effect on cortico-muscular interaction remains underexplored. We aimed to investigate sensory conflict's influence on the cortico-muscular network and postural stability. We used a rotating platform and virtual reality to present subjects with congruent and incongruent sensory input, recorded EEG (electroencephalogram) and EMG (electromyogram) data, and constructed a directed connectivity network. The results suggest that, compared to sensory congruence, during sensory conflict: (1) connectivity among the sensorimotor, visual, and posterior parietal cortex generally decreases, (2) cortical control over the muscles is weakened, (3) feedback from muscles to the cortex is strengthened, and (4) the range of body sway increases and its complexity decreases. These results underline the intricate effects of sensory conflict on cortico-muscular networks. During the sensory conflict, the brain adaptively decreases the integration of conflicting information. Without this integrated information, cortical control over muscles may be lessened, whereas the muscle feedback may be enhanced in compensation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Electromyography/methods , Electroencephalography/methods , Brain , Brain Mapping
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1-16, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010677

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes are the largest glial population in the mammalian brain. However, we have a minimal understanding of astrocyte development, especially fate specification in different regions of the brain. Through lineage tracing of the progenitors of the third ventricle (3V) wall via in-utero electroporation in the embryonic mouse brain, we show the fate specification and migration pattern of astrocytes derived from radial glia along the 3V wall. Unexpectedly, radial glia located in different regions along the 3V wall of the diencephalon produce distinct cell types: radial glia in the upper region produce astrocytes and those in the lower region produce neurons in the diencephalon. With genetic fate mapping analysis, we reveal that the first population of astrocytes appears along the zona incerta in the diencephalon. Astrogenesis occurs at an early time point in the dorsal region relative to that in the ventral region of the developing diencephalon. With transcriptomic analysis of the region-specific 3V wall and lateral ventricle (LV) wall, we identified cohorts of differentially-expressed genes in the dorsal 3V wall compared to the ventral 3V wall and LV wall that may regulate astrogenesis in the dorsal diencephalon. Together, these results demonstrate that the generation of astrocytes shows a spatiotemporal pattern in the developing mouse diencephalon.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Astrocytes , Neuroglia/physiology , Diencephalon , Brain , Neurons , Mammals
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 65-78, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010670

ABSTRACT

Interactions between brain-resident and peripheral infiltrated immune cells are thought to contribute to neuroplasticity after cerebral ischemia. However, conventional bulk sequencing makes it challenging to depict this complex immune network. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we mapped compositional and transcriptional features of peri-infarct immune cells. Microglia were the predominant cell type in the peri-infarct region, displaying a more diverse activation pattern than the typical pro- and anti-inflammatory state, with axon tract-associated microglia (ATMs) being associated with neuronal regeneration. Trajectory inference suggested that infiltrated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) exhibited a gradual fate trajectory transition to activated MDMs. Inter-cellular crosstalk between MDMs and microglia orchestrated anti-inflammatory and repair-promoting microglia phenotypes and promoted post-stroke neurogenesis, with SOX2 and related Akt/CREB signaling as the underlying mechanisms. This description of the brain's immune landscape and its relationship with neurogenesis provides new insight into promoting neural repair by regulating neuroinflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Brain/metabolism , Macrophages , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Infarction/metabolism
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 50-64, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010668

ABSTRACT

The organization of the brain follows a topological hierarchy that changes dynamically during development. However, it remains unknown whether and how cognitive training administered over multiple years during development can modify this hierarchical topology. By measuring the brain and behavior of school children who had carried out abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training for five years (starting from 7 years to 12 years old) in pre-training and post-training, we revealed the reshaping effect of long-term AMC intervention during development on the brain hierarchical topology. We observed the development-induced emergence of the default network, AMC training-promoted shifting, and regional changes in cortical gradients. Moreover, the training-induced gradient changes were located in visual and somatomotor areas in association with the visuospatial/motor-imagery strategy. We found that gradient-based features can predict the math ability within groups. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic nature of network recruitment impacted by long-term cognitive training during development.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cognitive Training , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain , Brain Mapping , Motor Cortex
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 157-170, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010660

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated how empathic neural responses unfold over time in different empathy networks when viewing same-race and other-race individuals in dynamic painful conditions. We recorded magnetoencephalography signals from Chinese adults when viewing video clips showing a dynamic painful (or non-painful) stimulation to Asian and White models' faces to trigger painful (or neutral) expressions. We found that perceived dynamic pain in Asian models modulated neural activities in the visual cortex at 100 ms-200 ms, in the orbitofrontal and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices at 150 ms-200 ms, in the anterior cingulate cortex around 250 ms-350 ms, and in the temporoparietal junction and middle temporal gyrus around 600 ms after video onset. Perceived dynamic pain in White models modulated activities in the visual, anterior cingulate, and primary sensory cortices after 500 ms. Our findings unraveled earlier dynamic activities in multiple neural circuits in response to same-race (vs other-race) individuals in dynamic painful situations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Brain Mapping , Pain , Empathy , Racism , Gyrus Cinguli/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain/physiology
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 171-181, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010653

ABSTRACT

Even though retinal images of objects change their locations following each eye movement, we perceive a stable and continuous world. One possible mechanism by which the brain achieves such visual stability is to construct a craniotopic coordinate by integrating retinal and extraretinal information. There have been several proposals on how this may be done, including eye-position modulation (gain fields) of retinotopic receptive fields (RFs) and craniotopic RFs. In the present study, we investigated coordinate systems used by RFs in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) cortex and frontal eye fields (FEF) and compared the two areas. We mapped the two-dimensional RFs of neurons in detail under two eye fixations and analyzed how the RF of a given neuron changes with eye position to determine its coordinate representation. The same recording and analysis procedures were applied to the two brain areas. We found that, in both areas, RFs were distributed from retinotopic to craniotopic representations. There was no significant difference between the distributions in the LIP and FEF. Only a small fraction of neurons was fully craniotopic, whereas most neurons were between the retinotopic and craniotopic representations. The distributions were strongly biased toward the retinotopic side but with significant craniotopic shifts. These results suggest that there is only weak evidence for craniotopic RFs in the LIP and FEF, and that transformation from retinotopic to craniotopic coordinates in these areas must rely on other factors such as gain fields.


Subject(s)
Animals , Macaca , Visual Fields , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Eye Movements , Brain
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006541

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to determine the incidence of encephalopathy among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective observational study conducted in a tertiary hospital in Cebu City, Philippines. This study is a complete enumeration of all records of adult patients admitted for COVID-19 detected through polymerase chain reaction from March 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021. The cases were then classified as to the presence or absence of encephalopathy. @*Results@#The study determined that 6 in every 1000 admitted COVID-19 patients developed encephalopathy. The clinico-demographic profile of patients with encephalopathy were mostly elderly with a mean age of 67, males (55.7%), and obese stage I (61.1%). Encephalopathy was more likely to develop in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (80.1%) and coronary artery disease (40.0%). Most patients who did not have encephalopathy however had a history of CVD. Most patients (66.7%) who developed encephalopathy were dyspneic on presentation. Laboratory examination results showed an increase in fasting blood sugar and elevated levels of LDH, CRP, serum ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer. Majority of patients (66.7%) with encephalopathy were intubated. Taking into consideration the stage of infection and the incidence of encephalopathy, most patients (66.6%) were in the hyperinflammatory stage. The number of hospitalization days and severity of illness did not have any association with developing encephalopathy. Dichotomous categorization of outcomes into deceased and discharged showed that clinical outcomes and the development of encephalopathy were significantly associated, with 66.7% of patients with encephalopathy expiring during their course of hospitalization.@*Conclusion@#The incidence of encephalopathy among admitted COVID-19 patients was 6 in every 1000 patients. Encephalopathy was more common in elderly males who were obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. The most common presentation of patients who developed encephalopathy was dyspnea. Collated laboratory results showed an increase in fasting blood sugar and elevated levels of LDH, CRP, serum ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer. Majority of patients with encephalopathy were intubated and were in the hyperinflammatory stage of COVID-19 infection. Dichotomous categorization of outcomes into deceased and discharged showed that clinical outcomes and the development of encephalopathy were significantly associated, with most patients with encephalopathy expiring during their course of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brain Diseases , Brain , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1310-1316, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521015

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Although COVID-19 is primarily considered a respiratory pathology, it has been observed to impact other bodily systems, including the nervous system. While several studies have investigated anatomical changes in brain structures, such as volume or thickness post-COVID-19, there are no comprehensive reviews of these changes using imaging techniques for a holistic understanding. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature on brain changes observed through neuroimaging after COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines using Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect, and LitCOVID. We selected studies that included adult patients during or after COVID-19 development, a control group or pre-infection images, and morphometric measurements using neuroimaging. We used the MSQ scale to extract information on sample characteristics, measured anatomical structures, imaging technique, main results, and methodological quality for each study. Out of 1126 identified articles, we included 19 in the review, encompassing 1155 cases and 1284 controls. The results of these studies indicated a lower volume of the olfactory bulb and variable increases or decreases in cortical and limbic structures' volumes and thicknesses. Studies suggest that brain changes occur post-COVID-19, primarily characterized by a smaller olfactory bulb. Additionally, there may be variations in cortical and limbic volumes and thicknesses due to inflammation or neuroplasticity, but these findings are not definitive. These differences may be attributed to methodological, geographical, and temporal variations between studies. Thus, additional studies are required to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative view of the evidence.


Aunque el COVID-19 se considera principalmente una patología respiratoria, se ha observado que afecta otros sistemas corporales, incluido el sistema nervioso. Si bien varios estudios han investigado los cambios anatómicos en las estructuras cerebrales, como el volumen o el grosor posteriores a la COVID-19, no hay revisiones exhaustivas de estos cambios que utilicen técnicas de imágenes para una comprensión holística. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar sistemáticamente la literature sobre los cambios cerebrales observados a través de neuroimagen después de COVID-19. Realizamos una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con las pautas PRISMA utilizando Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, Pubmed, Sciencedirect y LitCOVID. Seleccionamos estudios que incluyeron pacientes adultos durante o después del desarrollo de COVID-19, un grupo de control o imágenes previas a la infección y mediciones morfométricas mediante neuroimagen. Utilizamos la escala MSQ para extraer información sobre las características de la muestra, las estructuras anatómicas medidas, la técnica de imagen, los principales resultados y la calidad metodológica de cada estudio. De 1126 artículos identificados, incluimos 19 en la revisión, que abarca 1155 casos y 1284 controles. Los resultados de estos estudios indicaron un menor volumen del bulbo olfatorio y aumentos o disminuciones variables en los volúmenes y espesores de las estructuras corticales y límbicas. Los estudios sugieren que los cambios cerebrales ocurren después del COVID-19, caracterizados principalmente por un bulbo olfatorio más pequeño. Además, pueden haber variaciones en los volúmenes y grosores corticales y límbicos debido a la inflamación o la neuroplasticidad, pero estos hallazgos no son definitivos. Estas diferencias pueden atribuirse a variaciones metodológicas, geográficas y temporales entre estudios. Por lo tanto, se requieren estudios adicionales para proporcionar una visión más completa y cuantitativa de la evidencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1527-1536, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521022

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The 12C6+ heavy ion beam irradiation can cause bystander effects. The inflammatory cytokines, endocrine hormones and apoptotic proteins may be involved in 12C6+ irradiation-induced bystander effects. This study characterized the protective effects and mechanisms of Huangqi decoction (HQD) against 12C6+ radiation induced bystander effects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation model, and high-dose/medium-dose/low-dose HQD groups. HE staining assessed the pathological changes of brain and kidney. Peripheral blood chemical indicators as well as inflammatory factors and endocrine hormones were detected. Apoptosis was measured with TUNEL. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was determined with real-time PCR and Western blot.Irradiation induced pathological damage to the brain and kidney tissues. After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and monocyte, and the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and PCNA decreased. The damage was accompanied by increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as increased neuronal apoptosis. These effects were indicative of radiation-induced bystander effects. Administration of HQD attenuated the pathological damage to brain and kidney tissues, and increased the numbers of WBC, neutrophils, lymphocyte and monocytes, as well as the expression of IL-2, CRH and PCNA. It also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, CORT and ACTH as well as neuronal apoptosis. HQD exhibits protective effects against 12C6+ radiation-induced bystander effects. The underlying mechanism may involve the promotion of the production of peripheral blood cells, inhibition of inflammatory factors and apoptosis, and regulation of endocrine hormones.


La irradiación con haz de iones pesados 12C6+ puede provocar efectos secundarios. Las citoquinas inflamatorias, las hormonas endocrinas y las proteínas apoptóticas pueden estar involucradas en los efectos secundarios inducidos por la irradiación 12C6+. Este estudio caracterizó los efectos y mecanismos protectores de la decocción de Huangqi (HQD) contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. Las ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos control, modelo de irradiación de iones pesados 12C6+ y grupos de dosis alta/media/baja de HQD. La tinción con HE evaluó los cambios patológicos del cerebro y el riñón. Se detectaron indicadores químicos de sangre periférica, así como factores inflamatorios y hormonas endocrinas. La apoptosis se midió con TUNEL. La expresión del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) se determinó mediante PCR en tiempo real y transferencia Western blot. La irradiación indujo daños patológicos en los tejidos cerebrales y renales. Después de la irradiación, disminuyó el número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) y monocitos, y la expresión de interleucina (IL)-2, hormona liberadora de corticotropina (CRH) y PCNA. El daño estuvo acompañado por una mayor expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, corticosterona (CORT) y hormona adrenocorticotrópica (ACTH), así como un aumento de la apoptosis neuronal. Estas alteraciones fueron indicativas de efectos inducidos por la radiación. La administración de HQD atenuó el daño patológico a los tejidos cerebrales y renales, y aumentó el número de leucocitos y monocitos, así como la expresión de IL-2, CRH y PCNA. También disminuyó la expresión de IL-1β, IL-6, CORT y ACTH, así como la apoptosis neuronal. HQD exhibe mecanismos protectores contra los efectos externos inducidos por la radiación 12C6+. El mecanismo subyacente puede implicar la promoción de la producción de células sanguíneas periféricas, la inhibición de factores inflamatorios y la apoptosis y la regulación de hormonas endocrinas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Heavy Ions/adverse effects , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/radiation effects , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Endocrine System/drug effects , Endocrine System/radiation effects , Immunologic Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/radiation effects
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 68-70, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403470

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This case report describes the clinical characteristics and ophthalmic management of a patient who developed corneal perforation due to severe enophthalmos consistent with "silent brain syndrome." A 27-year-old man with a history of congenital hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt was referred with complaints of "sinking of the eyeballs" and progressively decreasing vision in the left eye. Examination revealed severe bilateral enophthalmos in addition to superonasal corneal perforation with iris prolapse in the left eye. The patient underwent therapeutic keratoplasty the next day. Orbital reconstruction with costochondral graft and shunt revision of the intracranial hypotension were performed the next month to prevent further progression.


RESUMO Este relato de caso descreve as características clínicas e o manejo cirúrgico de um paciente que teve perfuração da córnea devido à enoftalmia grave consistente com a "síndrome do cérebro silencioso". Um homem de 27 anos com história de hidrocefalia congênita e derivação ventrículo-peritoneal foi encaminhado com queixas de "afundamento dos globos oculares" e diminuição progressiva da visão no olho esquerdo. O exame revelou enoftalmo bilateral importante, além de perfuração superonasal da córnea com prolapso iriano no olho esquerdo. A paciente foi submetida à ceratoplastia terapêutica no dia seguinte. Foi realizado no mês seguinte a reconstrução da órbita com enxerto costocondral e revisão do shunt para evitar progressão e piora do caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Corneal Perforation , Brain , Corneal Perforation/surgery , Corneal Perforation/etiology
12.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 291-312, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414871

ABSTRACT

Esse trabalho busca relatar o processo de confecção de peças anatômicas para o ensino da anatomia humana a partir de material cadavérico fetal. Os discentes do curso de medicina da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) ­ Campus Toledo participaram do programa de voluntariado acadêmico e deram atenção especial aos aspectos técnicos do processo de dissecação, bem como a experiência subjetiva desse procedimento como ferramenta de aprendizado ativo. O procedimento foi realizado na sala de preparação de cadáver da UFPR ­ Campus Toledo, utilizando instrumental de dissecação e cadáveres humanos fetais com 20, 17 e 14 semanas de idade gestacional, direcionado de modo a expor as partes constituintes do sistema neural. Foram confeccionadas peças de cérebro, cerebelo, tronco encefálico, medula espinal, nervos espinais e suas estruturas associadas. Os voluntários envolvidos foram capazes de produzir material de estudo de qualidade através da dissecação e fortalecer seu conhecimento em anatomia humana e aptidão manual. Também foi dada atenção à importância e às limitações do processo de dissecação como estratégia de aprendizado em cursos da área de saúde. pôde ser observado que a dissecação pode fazer parte de uma formação completa e bem estruturada dos discentes, que por sua vez irão integrar a sociedade e a academia. Além disso, a exposição da topografia neural fetal pode servir de referencial para posteriores estudos que venham a utilizar essas informações.


This work aims to report the confection process of anatomic pieces for teaching human anatomy from fetal cadaveric material. The students of the medicine course of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) ­ Campus Toledo, took part in the academic volunteer program and paid special attention to the technical aspects of the dissection process, as well as the subjective experience of this procedure as an active learning tool. The procedure was performed at the cadaver preparation room of the UFPR ­ Campus Toledo, using dissection tools and human fetal corpses of 20, 17 and 14 weeks of gestational ages, directed so as to expose the constituent parts of the neural system. Pieces of the brain, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and its associated structures were made. The involved voluntaries were able to produce quality study material through dissection, and strengthen their knowledge in human anatomy and manual skill. Attention was also given to the importance and limitations of the dissection process as a learning strategy in health courses. it was observed that dissection can be part of a complete and well-structured training of students, who in turn will integrate society and academia. In addition, the exposure of fetal neural topography can serve as a reference for further studies that use this information


Este trabajo tiene como objetivo relatar el proceso de confección de piezas anatómicas para la enseñanza de la anatomía humana a partir de material cadavérico fetal. Los alumnos del curso de medicina de la Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR) - Campus Toledo, participaron del programa de voluntariado académico y prestaron especial atención a los aspectos técnicos del proceso de disección, así como a la vivencia subjetiva de este procedimiento como herramienta de aprendizaje activo. El procedimiento fue realizado en la sala de preparación de cadáveres de la UFPR - Campus Toledo, utilizando herramientas de disección y cadáveres de fetos humanos de 20, 17 y 14 semanas de edad gestacional, dirigidos de forma a exponer las partes constitutivas del sistema neural. Se realizaron piezas del cerebro, cerebelo, tronco encefálico, médula espinal, nervios espinales y sus estructuras asociadas. Los voluntarios participantes pudieron elaborar material de estudio de calidad mediante la disección y reforzar sus conocimientos de anatomía humana y habilidad manual. También se prestó atención a la importancia y las limitaciones del proceso de disección como estrategia de aprendizaje en los cursos de salud. Se observó que la disección puede formar parte de una formación completa y bien estructurada de los estudiantes, que a su vez integrarán la sociedad y el mundo académico. Además, la exposición de la topografía neural fetal puede servir de referencia para estudios posteriores que utilicen esta información.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dissection/education , Fetus/anatomy & histology , Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Spinal Cord/anatomy & histology , Volunteers/education , Brain/anatomy & histology , Cerebellum/anatomy & histology , Dura Mater/anatomy & histology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Neuroanatomy
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the role of brain functional connectivity and nonlinear dynamic analysis in brain function assessment for infants with controlled infantile spasm (IS).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 14 children with controlled IS (IS group) who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital, from January 2019 to January 2023. Twelve healthy children, matched for sex and age, were enrolled as the control group. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed for both groups to compare the features of brain network, and nonlinear dynamic indicators were calculated, including approximate entropy, sample entropy, permutation entropy, and permutation Lempel-Ziv complexity.@*RESULTS@#Brain functional connectivity showed that compared with the control group, the IS group had an increase in the strength of functional connectivity, and there was a significant difference between the two groups in the connection strength between the Fp2 and F8 channels (P<0.05). The network stability analysis showed that the IS group had a significantly higher network stability than the control group at different time windows (P<0.05). The nonlinear dynamic analysis showed that compared with the control group, the IS group had a significantly lower sample entropy of Fz electrode (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Abnormalities in brain network and sample entropy may be observed in some children with controlled IS, and it is suggested that quantitative EEG analysis parameters can serve as neurological biomarkers for evaluating brain function in children with IS.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Nonlinear Dynamics , Spasms, Infantile , Retrospective Studies , Brain , Electroencephalography
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish a new method for evaluating the brain maturation of preterm infants based on the features of electroencephalographic activity.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted on the video electroencephalography (vEEG) and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) recordings within 7 days after birth of preterm infants who had a postmenstrual age (PMA) of 25-36 weeks and met the inclusion criteria. The background activity of aEEG+conventional electroencephalography (cEEG) was scored according to the features of brain maturation as a new evaluation system and was compared with the aEEG evaluation system. The correlations of the evaluation results of the two methods with gestational age (GA), PMA, and head circumference were evaluated. The intervals of the total scores of aEEG+cEEG and aEEG were calculated for preterm infants with different PMAs and were compared between groups. The consistency of the new scoring system was evaluated among different raters.@*RESULTS@#A total of 52 preterm infants were included. The total scores of aEEG+cEEG and aEEG were positively correlated with GA, PMA, and head circumference (P<0.05), and the correlation coefficient between the total scores of the two systems and PMA and GA was >0.9. The normal score intervals for aEEG+cEEG and aEEG scoring systems were determined in preterm infants with different PMAs as follows: infants with a PMA of less than 28 weeks had scores of 13.0 (11.0, 14.0) points for aEEG+cEEG and 6.0 (4.0, 7.0) points for aEEG; infants with a PMA between 28 and 29+6 weeks had scores of 16.0 (14.5, 17.0) points for aEEG+cEEG and 8.0 (6.0, 8.0) points for aEEG; infants with a PMA between 30 and 31+6 weeks had scores of 18.0 (17.0, 21.0) points for aEEG+cEEG and 9.0 (8.0, 10.0) points for aEEG; infants with between 32 and 33+6 weeks had scores of 22.0 (20.0, 24.5) points for aEEG+cEEG and 10.0 (10.0, 10.8) points for aEEG; infants with a PMA between 34 and 36 weeks had scores of 26.0 (24.5, 27.5) points for aEEG+cEEG and 11.0 (10.0, 12.0) points for aEEG. There were significant differences in the total scores of aEEG+cEEG and aEEG among the different PMA groups (P<0.05). There was a high consistency between different raters when using the scoring system to evaluate the brain maturation of preterm infants (κ=0.86).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The aEEG+cEEG scoring system established in this study can quantitatively reflect the brain maturation of preterm infants, with a good discriminatory ability between preterm infants with different PMAs and high consistency between different raters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Brain , Electroencephalography , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature , Prospective Studies
15.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 699-703, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009818

ABSTRACT

Recent research has highlighted structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of patients with premature ejaculation (PE). These anomalies could play a pivotal role in the physiological mechanisms underlying PE. This study leveraged functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive technique, to explore these neural mechanisms. We conducted resting-state fMRI scans on 36 PE patients and 22 healthy controls (HC), and collected data on Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) scores and intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). Employing a surface-based regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach, we analyzed local neural synchronous spontaneous activity, diverging from previous studies that utilized a volume-based ReHo method. Areas with significant ReHo differences between PE and HC groups underwent surface-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis. Significant discrepancies in ReHo and FC across the cortical surface were observed in the PE cohort. Notably, PE patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the left triangular inferior frontal gyrus and enhanced ReHo in the right middle frontal gyrus. The latter showed heightened connectivity with the left lingual gyrus and the right orbital superior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, a correlation between ReHo and FC values with PEDT scores and IELT was found in the PE group. Our findings, derived from surface-based fMRI data, underscore specific brain regions linked to the neurobiological underpinnings of PE.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Premature Ejaculation , Brain Mapping/methods , Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
16.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 357-362, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009488

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Despite advances in modern medicine, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are still a major medical problem. Early diagnosis of TBI is crucial for clinical decision-making and prognosis. This study aims to compare the predictive value of Helsinki, Rotterdam, and Stockholm CT scores in predicting the 6-month outcomes in blunt TBI patients.@*METHODS@#This cohort study was conducted on blunt TBI patients of 15 years or older. All of them were admitted to the surgical emergency department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran from 2020 to 2021 and had abnormal trauma-related findings on brain CT images. The patients' demographic data such as age, gender, history of comorbid conditions, mechanism of trauma, Glasgow coma scale, CT images, length of hospital stay, and surgical procedures were recorded. The Helsinki, Rotterdam, and Stockholm CT scores were simultaneously determined according to the existing guidelines. The included patients' 6-month outcome was determined using the Glasgow outcome scale extended. M Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16.0. Sensitivity, specificity, negative/positive predictive value and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated for each test. The Kappa agreement coefficient and Kuder Richardson-20 were used to compare the scoring systems.@*RESULTS@#Altogether 171 TBI patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, with the mean age of (44.9 ± 20.2) years. Most patients were male (80.7%), had traffic related injuries (83.1%) and mild TBIs (64.3%). Patients with lower Glasgow coma scale had higher Helsinki, Rotterdam, and Stockholm CT scores and lower Glasgow outcome scale extended scores. Among all the scoring systems, the Helsinki and Stockholm scores showed the highest agreement in predicting patients' outcomes (kappa = 0.657, p < 0.001). The Rotterdam scoring system had the highest sensitivity (90.1%) in predicting death of TBI patients, whereas the Helsinki scoring system had the highest sensitivity (89.8%) in predicting the 6-month outcome in TBI patients.@*CONCLUSION@#The Rotterdam scoring system was superior in predicting death in TBI patients, whereas the Helsinki scoring system was more sensitive in predicting the 6-month outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Cohort Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnosis , Brain Injuries , Prognosis , Glasgow Coma Scale , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/diagnostic imaging , Brain
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with multiple malformations.@*METHODS@#A child who had presented at Shanxi Provincial Children's Hospital in February 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the patient was collected, and whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to screen pathogenic variants associated with the phenotype. Candidate variant was validated by Sanger sequencing of her family members.@*RESULTS@#The child had normal skin, but right ear defect, hemivertebral deformity, ventricular septal defect, arterial duct and patent foramen ovale, and separation of collecting system of the left kidney. Cranial MRI showed irregular enlargement of bilateral ventricles and widening of the distance between the cerebral cortex and temporal meninges. Genetic testing revealed that she has harbored a heterozygous variant of NM_178014.4: c.217A>G (p.Met73Val) in the TUBB gene, which was unreported previously and predicted to be likely pathogenic based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). The child was diagnosed with Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 6 (CDCBM6).@*CONCLUSION@#CDCBM is a rare and serious disease with great genetic heterogeneity, and CDCBM6 caused by mutations of the TUBB gene is even rarer. Above finding has enriched the variant and phenotypic spectrum of the TUBB gene, and provided important reference for summarizing the genotype-phenotype correlation of the CDCBM6.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Abnormalities, Multiple , Blood Group Antigens , Family , Malformations of Cortical Development/genetics , Brain , Mutation
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical features and genetic variant in a child with Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome (CCDS).@*METHODS@#A child who had presented at the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Fudan University on March 5, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the child, and candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. The level of creatine in the brain was determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 1-year-and-10-month male, had presented with developmental delay and epilepsy. Both his mother and grandmother had a history of convulsions. MRS showed reduced cerebral creatine in bilateral basal ganglia and thalamus. The child was found to harbor a hemizygous splicing variant of the SLC6A8 gene, namely c.1767+1_1767+2insA, which may lead to protein truncation. The variant was not found in the public databases. Both his mother and grandmother were heterozygous carriers for the same variant.@*CONCLUSION@#The hemizygous c.1767+1_1767+2insA variant of the SLC6A8 gene probably underlay the CCDS in this child. Discovery of the novel variant has also expanded the mutational spectrum of the SLC6A8 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Brain , Creatine/genetics , Heterozygote , Mothers , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins/genetics
19.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1235-1241, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008955

ABSTRACT

Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a type of psychological visual stimulation experimental paradigm that requires participants to identify target stimuli presented continuously in a stream of stimuli composed of numbers, letters, words, images, and so on at the same spatial location, allowing them to discern a large amount of information in a short period of time. The RSVP-based brain-computer interface (BCI) can not only be widely used in scenarios such as assistive interaction and information reading, but also has the advantages of stability and high efficiency, which has become one of the common techniques for human-machine intelligence fusion. In recent years, brain-controlled spellers, image recognition and mind games are the most popular fields of RSVP-BCI research. Therefore, aiming to provide reference and new ideas for RSVP-BCI related research, this paper reviewed the paradigm design and system performance optimization of RSVP-BCI in these three fields. It also looks ahead to its potential applications in cutting-edge fields such as entertainment, clinical medicine, and special military operations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Electroencephalography/methods , Brain/physiology , Artificial Intelligence , Photic Stimulation/methods
20.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1005-1011, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008927

ABSTRACT

Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is a non-invasive, economical, and well-tolerated neuromodulation technique. However, traditional TES is a whole-brain stimulation with a small current, which cannot satisfy the need for effectively focused stimulation of deep brain areas in clinical treatment. With the deepening of the clinical application of TES, researchers have constantly investigated new methods for deeper, more intense, and more focused stimulation, especially multi-electrode stimulation represented by high-precision TES and temporal interference stimulation. This paper reviews the stimulation optimization schemes of TES in recent years and further analyzes the characteristics and limitations of existing stimulation methods, aiming to provide a reference for related clinical applications and guide the following research on TES. In addition, this paper proposes the viewpoint of the development direction of TES, especially the direction of optimizing TES for deep brain stimulation, aiming to provide new ideas for subsequent research and application.


Subject(s)
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Deep Brain Stimulation , Brain/physiology , Head , Electric Stimulation/methods
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