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Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 114-121, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971160


Objective: To investigate the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) combined with autologous Meek microskin transplantation on patients with extensive burns. Methods: The prospective self-controlled study was conducted. From May 2019 to June 2022, 16 patients with extensive burns admitted to the 990th Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support Force met the inclusion criteria, while 3 patients were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, and 13 patients were finally selected, including 10 males and 3 females, aged 24-61 (42±13) years. A total of 20 trial areas (40 wounds, with area of 10 cm×10 cm in each wound) were selected. Two adjacent wounds in each trial area were divided into hUCMSC+gel group applied with hyaluronic acid gel containing hUCMSCs and gel only group applied with hyaluronic acid gel only according to the random number table, with 20 wounds in each group. Afterwards the wounds in two groups were transplanted with autologous Meek microskin grafts with an extension ratio of 1∶6. In 2, 3, and 4 weeks post operation, the wound healing was observed, the wound healing rate was calculated, and the wound healing time was recorded. The specimen of wound secretion was collected for microorganism culture if there was purulent secretion on the wound post operation. In 3, 6, and 12 months post operation, the scar hyperplasia in wound was assessed using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). In 3 months post operation, the wound tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining to observe the morphological changes and for immunohistochemical staining to observe the positive expressions of Ki67 and vimentin and to count the number of positive cells. Data were statistically analyzed with paired samples t test and Bonferronni correction. Results: In 2, 3, and 4 weeks post operation, the wound healing rates in hUCMSC+gel group were (80±11)%, (84±12)%, and (92±9)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than (67±18)%, (74±21)%, and (84±16)% in gel only group (with t values of 4.01, 3.52, and 3.66, respectively, P<0.05). The wound healing time in hUCMSC+gel group was (31±11) d, which was significantly shorter than (36±13) d in gel only group (t=-3.68, P<0.05). The microbiological culture of the postoperative wound secretion specimens from the adjacent wounds in 2 groups was identical, with negative results in 4 trial areas and positive results in 16 trial areas. In 3, 6, and 12 months post operation, the VSS scores of wounds in gel only group were 7.8±1.9, 6.7±2.1, and 5.4±1.6, which were significantly higher than 6.8±1.8, 5.6±1.6, and 4.0±1.4 in hUCMSC+gel group, respectively (with t values of -4.79, -4.37, and -5.47, respectively, P<0.05). In 3 months post operation, HE staining showed an increase in epidermal layer thickness and epidermal crest in wound in hUCMSC+gel group compared with those in gel only group, and immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells in wound in hUCMSC+gel group compared with those in gel only group (t=4.39, P<0.05), with no statistically significant difference in the number of vimentin positive cells in wound between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: The application of hyaluronic acid gel containing hUCMSCs to the wound is simple to perform and is therefore a preferable route. Topical application of hUCMSCs can promote healing of the autologous Meek microskin grafted area in patients with extensive burns, shorten wound healing time, and alleviate scar hyperplasia. The above effects may be related to the increased epidermal thickness and epidermal crest, and active cell proliferation.

Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hyaluronic Acid/therapeutic use , Hyperplasia , Ki-67 Antigen , Prospective Studies , Umbilical Cord , Vimentin
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 71-74, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971152


On May 13, 2020, a 56-year-old man with extensive burns caused by flames and heavy metal-containing hydrothermal fluids was admitted to the General Hospital of Western Theater Command. After being admitted to the hospital, most of the burn wounds healed after treatments such as debridement, expansion, skin grafting, anti-shock, anti-infection, fluid replacement, and wound dressing change, etc. However, in the middle and late stages of treatment, the patient's burn wounds gradually showed repeated skin ulceration and inflammation. After excluding the cause of physical, bacterial infection and others, IgG4-related skin diseases was finally diagnosed by histopathological examination of tissue biopsy and concentration measurement of IgG4 in interstitial fluid, and the condition was improved after hormone treatment. This suggests that extensive burns may lead to the occurrence of autoimmune skin diseases. For the diagnosis of such diseases, it is necessary to combine clinical manifestations, serological examinations, and histopathological biopsy, etc. to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and draw correct conclusions.

Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Wound Healing , Treatment Outcome , Burns/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Skin Ulcer , Metals, Heavy
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 532-537, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940956


Objective: To explore the clinical effects of autologous follicular unit extraction (FUE) transplantation in the treatment of small area secondary cicatricial alopecia (hereinafter referred to as cicatricial alopecia) after burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out. According to the adopted treatment methods, 18 patients (12 males and 6 females, aged (29±6) years) who received autologous FUE transplantation for small area cicatricial alopecia after burns from March 2017 to November 2019 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University were included in FUE transplantation group, and 18 patients (13 males and 5 females, aged (33±5) years) who were treated with expanded flap transplantation for small area cicatricial alopecia after burns by the same surgery team during the same period in the same hospital were included in expanded flap transplantation group. All the patients were followed up for more than 1 year. At the last follow-up, the follicular unit density in the transplanted area was measured by Folliscope hair detection system and the hair survival rate was calculated; the visual analogue scale (VAS) method was adopted to evaluate the treatment effect; patients were asked their satisfaction with the treatment effect and the occurrence of complications during follow-up; the hair growth and the scalp thickness, pain, pruritus, pigmentation, and surface roughness of the transplanted area were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with Fisher's exact probability test and independent sample t test. Results: At the last follow-up, the follicular unit density in the transplanted area of patients in FUE transplantation group was (46.8±2.0)/cm2, which was significantly higher than (42.5±4.3)/cm2 in expanded flap transplantation group (t=3.84, P<0.01); the hair survival rates of patients were similar between the two groups (P>0.05). At the last follow-up, VAS scores evaluating the treatment effect of patients were similar between the two groups (P>0.05); the satisfaction score of patients toward the treatment effect in FUE transplantation group was 8.6±1.1, which was significantly higher than 7.6±0.8 in expanded flap transplantation group (t=2.89, P<0.01). During the follow-up, no inflammation or infection occurred in patients of the two groups, but only 2 patients in expanded flap transplantation group had postoperative pain. At the last follow-up, the transplanted area of patients in the two groups was covered with new hair, and the hair growth direction was basically consistent with the surrounding normal hair; scalp thickness, pain, pruritus, pigmentation, and surface roughness of the transplanted area of patients were similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: Autologous FUE transplantation has better long-term follicular unit density and patients' satisfaction than expanded flap transplantation in the treatment of small area cicatricial alopecia after burns, showing better postoperative effect and a good prospect of clinical application.

Female , Humans , Male , Alopecia/surgery , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Hair Follicle , Pain/complications , Pruritus/complications
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 454-461, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936032


Objective: To explore the effects of expanded frontal-parietal pedicled flap in reconstructing cervical scar contracture deformity in children after burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From January 2015 to December 2020, 18 male children with cervical scar contracture deformity after burns who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Zhengzhou First People's Hospital, aged 4 to 12 years, including 10 cases with degree Ⅱ cervical scar contracture deformity and 8 cases with degree Ⅲ scar contracture deformity, and were all reconstructed with expanded frontal-parietal pedicled flap. The surgery was performed in 3 stages. In the first stage, a cylindrical skin and soft tissue expander (hereinafter referred to as expander) with rated capacity of 300 to 500 mL was placed in the frontal-parietal region. The expansion time was 4 to 6 months with the total normal saline injection volume being 2.1 to 3.0 times of the rated capacity of expander. In the second stage, expander removal, scar excision, contracture release, and flap transfer were performed, with the flap areas of 18 cm×9 cm to 23 cm×13 cm and the secondary wound areas of 16 cm×8 cm to 21 cm×11 cm after scar excision and contracture release. After 3 to 4 weeks, in the third stage, the flap pedicle was cut off and restored. The rated volume of placed expander, total normal saline injection volume, type of vascular pedicle of flap, survival of flap and reconstruction of scar after the second stage surgery were recorded. The neck range of motion and cervico-mental angle were measured before surgery and one-year after surgery. The appearance of neck, occurrence of common complications in the donor and recipient sites of children, and satisfaction of children's families for treatment effects were followed up. Data were statistically analyzed with paired sample t test. Results: All the patients successfully completed the three stages of operation. The rated volume of implanted expander was 300 mL in 6 children, 400 mL in 9 children, and 500 mL in 3 children, with the volume of normal saline injection being 630 to 1 500 mL. The type of vascular pedicle of flap was double pedicle in 13 cases and was single pedicle in 5 cases. All the flaps in 17 children survived well, and the secondary wounds after neck scar excision and contracture release were all reconstructed in one procedure. In one case, the distal blood supply of the single pedicled flap was poor after the second stage surgery, with necrosis of about 2.5 cm in length. The distal necrotic tissue was removed on 10 days after the operation, and the wound was completely closed after the flap was repositioned. In the follow-up of 6 months to 3 years post operation, the cervical scar contracture deformity in 18 children was corrected without recurrence. The flap was not bloated, the texture was soft, and the appearances of chin and neck were good. The range of motion of cervical pre-buckling, extension, left flexion, and right flexion, and cervico-mental angle in one year after operation were improved compared with those before operation (with t values of 43.10, 22.64, 27.96, 20.59, and 88.42, respectively, P<0.01). The incision in the frontal donor site was located in the hairline, the scar was slight and concealed. No complication such as cranial depression was observed in expander placement site, and the children's families were satisfied with the result of reconstruction. Conclusions: Application of expanded frontal-parietal pedicled flap in reconstructing the cervical scar contracture deformity in children after burns can obviously improve the appearance and function of neck, with unlikely recurrence of postoperative scar contractures, thus it is an ideal method of reconstruction.

Child , Humans , Male , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Saline Solution , Skin Transplantation , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 328-334, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936014


Objective: To explore the clinical effects of free transplantation of expanded thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps in reconstructing cervical cicatrix contracture deformity after burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From May 2018 to April 2021, 11 patients with cervical cicatrix contracture deformity after burns who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, including 3 males and 8 females, aged 5 to 46 years, with a course of cervical cicatrix contracture deformity of 5 months to 8 years. The degree of cervical cicatrix contracture deformity was degree Ⅰ in one patient, degree Ⅱ in nine patients, and degree Ⅲ in one patient. In the first stage, according to the sizes of neck scars, one rectangular skin and soft tissue expander (hereinafter referred to as expander) with rated capacity of 200 to 600 mL was placed in the back. The expansion time was 4 to 12 months with the total normal saline injection volume being 3.0 to 3.5 times of the rated capacity of expander. In the second stage, free expanded thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps with areas of 10 cm×7 cm to 24 cm×13 cm were cut out to repair the wounds with areas of 9 cm×6 cm to 23 cm×12 cm which was formed after cervical cicatectomy. The main trunk of thoracodorsal artery and vein were selected for end-to-end anastomosis with facial artery and vein, and the donor sites were directly closed. The survival of flaps and healing of flap donor sites were observed on the 14th day post surgery. The appearances and cicatrix contracture deformity of the flaps, recovery of cervical function, and scar hyperplasia of donor sites were followed up. Results: On the 14th day post surgery, the flaps of ten patients survived, while ecchymosis and epidermal necrosis occurred in the center of flap of one patient and healed 2 weeks after dressing change. On the 14th day post surgery, the flap donor sites of 11 patients all healed well. During the follow-up of 6-12 months post surgery, the flaps of ten patients were similar to the skin around the recipient site in texture and color, while the flap of one patient was slightly swollen. All of the 11 patients had good recovery of cervical function and no obvious scar hyperplasia nor contracture in the flaps or at the donor sites. Conclusions: Application of expanded thoracodorsal artery perforator flaps can restore the appearance and function of the neck, and cause little damage to the donor site in reconstructing the cervical cicatrix contracture deformity after burns, which is worthy of clinical reference and application.

Female , Humans , Male , Arteries , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Hyperplasia , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 321-327, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936013


Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of free transplantation of expanded ilioinguinal flaps in the reconstruction of severe scar contracture after extensive burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. From August 2017 to October 2021, 7 patients with severe scar contracture deformity caused by extensive burns were hospitalized in Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University & Wuhan Third Hospital, including 5 males and 2 females, aged 26-65 years, with scar area of 20 cm×4 cm-34 cm×14 cm. In the first stage, the rectangular skin and soft tissue expander (hereinafter referred to as the expander) with rated capacity of 500-600 mL were embedded above the inguinal ligament, and then normal saline was injected after stitch removal for expansion to meet the needs of repair surgery. In the second stage, the scar was removed by surgical excision to correct the deformity and release the adhesion and contracture; after the removal of the expanders, the expanded ilioinguinal free flaps were harvested. When a larger flap was needed, the paraumbilical perforator flap was harvested at the same time, and the flaps were transplanted to the secondary wound after scar resection. The number of embedded expanders, the total amount of injected normal saline, the expansion time, the complications of skin and soft tissue expansion, the number, area, thickness, and anastomotic vascular pedicles of the expanded ilioinguinal flaps being resected, the type of flaps used, the repair method of flap donor sites, and the survival of flaps after operation were observed and recorded. The long-term repair effect and donor site condition were followed up. At the last follow-up, the patients' satisfaction with the curative effect of each surgical site was investigated according to the grade 5 score of Likert scale. Results: A total of 10 expanders were embedded in 7 patients, of which 4 patients had 1 each and 3 patients had 2 each. The total volume of normal saline injected was 800-1 800 (1 342±385) mL, and the expansion time was 4-24 (11±5) months. One patient had the expander exposed due to infection after the expander being inserted, while the other patients had no complications of skin and soft tissue expansion. Totally 10 expanded ilioinguinal flaps with the area of 22 cm×6 cm-36 cm×16 cm ((326±132) cm2) and the thickness of 0.6-1.1 (0.77±0.16) cm were harvested. Among the 10 expanded ilioinguinal flaps, 5 were pedicled with the superficial circumflex iliac artery, 3 with the superficial abdominal artery with relatively large caliber, 1 with the common trunk of the superficial circumflex iliac artery and the superficial abdominal artery, and 1 flap was anastomosed with the superficial circumflex iliac artery and bridged the superficial abdominal artery for intra-arterial supercharge. Unilateral expanded ilioinguinal flap combined with ipsilateral paraumbilical perforator flap were harvested in 4 cases, bilateral expanded ilioinguinal flaps were harvested in 1 case, and unilateral expanded ilioinguinal flap was harvested in 2 cases. Except for 1 case being transplanted with autologous split-thickness scalp to repair the flap donor site after combined resection of bilateral expanded ilioinguinal flaps, the donor sites of the other patients were sutured directly. All the flaps survived after operation without tip necrosis or wound residue. Follow-up for 3-30 (15±10) months showed that the flap was soft and not bloated, the function and appearance of the recipient area were significantly improved compared with those before operation, and the appearance of the donor sites was good. At the last follow-up, the patients' satisfaction with the treatment effect of the surgical site scored 4-5 (4.5±0.4). Conclusions: The expanded ilioinguinal flap can be obtained in a large area. It has the advantages of rich blood supply, less damage to the donor site, concealed location, and being convenient to be resected and transplanted in combination with the paraumbilical perforator flap. It is suitable for the clinical reconstruction and treatment of severe scar contracture deformity after extensive burns.

Female , Humans , Male , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Saline Solution , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 251-255, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936002


Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of in situ perforation of preserved split scar matrix in combination with scalp transplantation and vacuum sealing drainage in the treatment of hypertrophic scar in non-functional sites after burns. Methods: A retrospective observational study was used. From June 2017 to June 2019, 33 patients (24 males and 9 females, aged 8-50 years) who met the inclusion criteria with hypertrophic scars in non-functional sites outside the face after burns were treated in General Hospital of TISCO (the Sixth Hospital of Shanxi Medical University). All patients underwent scalp transplantation after perforation of retained split scar matrix in situ (with scar thinning area of 90-500 cm2), and then the vacuum sealing drainage was performed. The hematoma and infection of wounds were observed on the 7th day after operation. At the same time, the survival rate of skin grafting was observed and calculated. The flatness and thickness of the scar in the operative area were observed in 12 months after operation, and the itching and pain of the patients were recorded. Vancouver Scar Scale was used to score the scar of patients before operation and at 3, 6 and 12 months after operation. The healing time and hair growth of donor site were observed. Data were statistically analyzed with repeated analysis of variance, paired sample t test and bonferroni correction. Results: On the 7th day after operation, local subcutaneous hematoma appeared in the wound of 2 patients, which healed after dressing change; no infection occurred. On the 7th day after operation, the survival rate of skin grafting of patients was 94.6%-99.0%(96.8±1.2)%. Scar flatness was well, the thickness of scar was not significantly higher than that of normal skin in 12 months after operation, and the symptoms of itching pain of patients disappeared or significantly relieved. Vancouver Scar Scale scores of patients before operation and at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation were 12.1±2.8, 8.5±1.5, 7.6±1.6, 6.7±1.3, respectively, and the scores of 3, 6, and 12 months after operation were all significantly lower than that before operation (with t values of 4.48, 4.06, and 3.97, respectively, P<0.01). All the donor sites of the head healed well in 4-7 days after operation. By 3-6 months after operation, all patients had good hair growth in the donor site and achieved no scar healing. Conclusions: The treatment of hypertrophic scar in non-functional sites outside the face after burns by in situ perforation of preserved split scar matrix in combination with scalp transplantation and vacuum sealing drainage can effectively improve the appearance of hypertrophic scar in non-functional areas after burn and reduce its degree of hyperplasia, with scar-free donor site healing.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Burns/surgery , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/surgery , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Scalp/surgery , Skin Transplantation
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200094, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180821


Resumo O diagnóstico da síndrome compartimental em regiões que não são frequentemente afetadas, por possuírem uma boa relação continente-conteúdo, pode se tornar difícil, uma vez que o cirurgião terá dificuldades em alcançar um diagnóstico apenas por um sinal ou sintoma isolado. Assim, muitas vezes, pode-se protelar a conduta adequada, desencadeando danos ao paciente. A paciente era uma mulher, de 29 anos, que foi atendida com dor em mão esquerda por queimadura, com lesão em região anterior à tabaqueira anatômica de tamanho significativo. A paciente já havia sido submetida a cirurgia na sua cidade de origem com desbridamento de pele e tecido subcutâneo há 30 dias, com evolução sem melhora do quadro doloroso. Estava em uso de antibioticoterapia (ceftriaxona 1 g de 12 em 12 horas) e analgesia com dose terapêutica de morfina de 8 em 8 horas.

Abstract In areas that are not commonly affected by compartment syndrome because they have a good content/container ratio, diagnosis of the condition can be a challenge, since surgeons will find it difficult to make a diagnosis on the basis of an isolated sign or symptom. As a result, the correct treatment can very often be delayed, causing harm to the patient. In this case, the patient was a 29-year-old woman who was seen for a painful left hand secondary to a large burn injury to the area anterior of the anatomical snuffbox. She had already undergone surgery in her home town 30 days previously, with debridement of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but the pain had not improved. She was on antibiotic therapy (ceftriaxone, 1g every 12 hours) and analgesia, with therapeutic morphine doses every 8 hours.

Humans , Female , Adult , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Compartment Syndromes/physiopathology , Burns/surgery , Compartment Syndromes/diagnosis , Fasciotomy , Hand
Rev. bras. queimaduras ; 20(1): 3-8, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379924


OBJETIVO: Analisar as utilizações e do desfecho imediato da MRD Integra® no fechamento cutâneo de lesões extensas em crianças atendidas no serviço de Cirurgia Pediátrica do Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2017. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, analítico e vertical que avaliou os arquivos de todas as crianças submetidas a aplicação de MRD no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2017, totalizando 155 pacientes. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 155 pacientes submetidos ao implante de MRD, totalizando 191 implantes. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (58,06%) e pré-púberes (32,02%). Os diagnósticos mais prevalentes foram queimadura em fase aguda (35,97%), retração cicatricial (32,8%) e retração cicatricial e cicatriz hipertrófica (14,28%). A pega total do implante foi observada em 68,42% dos pacientes, numa média de 19,16 dias. O número de implantes submetidos ao tratamento conjunto com curativos de pressão negativa (CPN) foi de 86 (46,24%). A porcentagem média de pega parcial foi de 82,30%. Dos 191 implantes, 58 tiveram complicações (30,36%). CONCLUSÕES: As MRD são uma opção atual para cobertura cutânea em crianças, com utilizações diversas, taxa aceitável de complicações e bom resultado imediato.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the uses and the immediate outcome of MRD Integra® in the cutaneous closure of extensive lesions in children seen at the Pediatric Surgery service of Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão from January 2002 to December 2017. METHODS: This is a retrospective, analytical and vertical study that evaluated the files of all children submitted to the application of MRD from January 2002 to December 2017, totaling 155 patients. RESULTS: 155 patients submitted to MRD implantation were analyzed, totaling 191 implants. Most patients were male (58.06%) and prepubertal (32.02%). The most prevalent diagnoses were acute burns (35.97%), scar retraction (32.8%) and scar retraction and hypertrophic scarring (14.28%). Total implant take-up was observed in 68.42% of patients, with an average of 19.16 days. The number of implants submitted to joint treatment with negative pressure dressings (CPN) was 86 (46.24%). The average percentage of partial catch was 82.30%. Of the 191 implants, 58 had complications (30.36%). CONCLUSIONS: MRDs are a current option for skin coverage in children, with different uses, an acceptable rate of complications and a good immediate result.

Humans , Child , Health Profile , Burns/surgery , Skin, Artificial/supply & distribution , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202662, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287894


ABSTRACT Background: tissue expanders have high relevance in plastic surgery and among indications it is worth mentioning their use in the treatment of burn reconstruction. Although it shows good results, its use requires special care because some complications can interrupt the reconstruction process. The objective of this study was to report the experience of the Clinics Hospital (University of Sao Paulo) with the use of tissue expanders to treat burn sequelae, establishing the incidence of complications, and identifying risk factors for their occurrence. Methods: a retrospective, observational, and analytical study, evaluating the use of expanders in burns sequelae treatment from 2009 to 2018. Results: 245 expanders were placed in 84 patients, 215 were female, with a mean age of 19.96 years, being 40% in the trunk and 20% in the scalp, with a predominance of rectangular shape in 76.7% of cases. Complications were classified as major and minor.Complications occurred in 17.95% of cases, and extrusion and infection were the most common. There was a higher incidence of complications in expanders used in the upper and lower limbs as well as in those who did not undergo concomitant expansion (p <0.05), with an even higher chance of major complications in patients submitted to additional expansion. From 2009 to 2018, we observed a decrease in the incidence of complications. Conclusion: the complication rate (17.95%) is similar to other studies of the literature, there was a higher rate of complication with expanders placed in the limbs and a higher rate of major complications when additional expansion was done.

RESUMO Introdução: os expansores teciduais são de importante relevância na cirurgia plástica, e dentre suas indicações destaca-se seu uso no tratamento de sequelas de queimaduras. Ainda que apresente bons resultados, seu uso requer cuidados especiais pois a incidência de complicações não é desprezível. Objetivo: relatar a experiência do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP com a utilização de expansores teciduais para tratamento de sequelas de queimaduras, estabelecendo a incidência de complicações e identificando possíveis fatores de risco para ocorrência das mesmas. Método: estudo retrospectivo, observacional e analítico, avaliando o uso de expansores no tratamento de sequelas de queimaduras no período de 2009 a 2018 no Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP. Resultados: no período de análise estabelecido, foram colocados 245 expansores, sendo 215 em pacientes do sexo feminino, com idade média de 19,96 anos, sendo 40% em tronco e 20% em couro cabeludo, predominando uso do retangular em 76,7% dos casos. As complicações foram divididas em maiores e menores. As complicações ocorreram em 17,95% dos casos, sendo extrusão e infecção as de maior incidência. Houve maior incidência de complicação em expansores utilizados nos membros superiores e inferiores bem como naqueles que não realizaram expansão concomitante (p<0,05), havendo ainda maior chance de complicações absolutas nos pacientes submetidos à expansão adicional. Observou-se também diminuição no número de complicações entre 2009 e 2018. Conclusão: a taxa de complicação (17,95%) é semelhante a da literatura, observando-se maior taxa de complicação nos expansores colocados em membros e maior taxa de complicações absolutas quando realizada expansão adicional.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Burns/surgery , Tissue Expansion Devices , Tissue Expansion , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e03764, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1287974


RESUMO Objetivo Explorar a percepção dos profissionais de saúde sobre barreiras e facilitadores e as estratégias de enfrentamento para a implantação do Modelo de Manejo da Sede no pré-operatório do paciente queimado. Método Qualitativo, ancorado no referencial teórico Knowledge Translation. A técnica de grupo focal foi escolhida para coleta de dados, sendo formada por oito profissionais-chave, a fim de identificarem barreiras e facilitadores na implantação da evidência e apontarem estratégias de enfrentamento para os nós críticos encontrados. Utilizou-se a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo Temática para avaliar os dados. Resultados Emergiram cinco categorias: Estrutura física, ambiente e insumos; Particularidades do paciente queimado; Recursos humanos; Atitude da equipe; Capacitação e educação da equipe. As estratégias de enfrentamento foram levantadas para cada barreira identificada. Conclusão As principais barreiras identificadas foram encontradas nas categorias Recursos humanos e Atitude da equipe. Já os principais facilitadores foram Particularidades do paciente queimado e Capacitação e educação da equipe. A identificação possibilitou o planejamento das estratégias de enfrentamento sobre nós críticos, proporcionando a sustentação das evidências científicas na prática clínica.

RESUMEN Objetivo Explotar la percepción de los profesionales de salud sobre barreras y facilitadores y las estrategias de enfrentamiento para la implantación del Modelo de Manejo de la Sede en la fase pre operatoria del paciente quemado. Método Cualitativo, basado en el modelo teórico Knowledge Translation. Se eligió la técnica de grupo focal para recopilación de datos, compuesta de ocho profesionales, con la finalidad de identificar barreras y facilitadores en la implantación de la evidencia e identificar estrategias de enfrentamiento para los ejes críticos encontrados. Se utilizó la técnica de Análisis de Contenido Temático para evaluar los datos. Resultados se produjeron cinco clases: Estructura física, ambiente y materiales: Particularidades del paciente quemado; Recursos humanos, Actitud del equipo; Capacitación y Educación del equipo. Se crearon estrategias de enfrentamiento para cada barrera identificada. Conclusión las principales barreras fueron identificadas en las categorías Recursos Humanos y Actitud del equipo. Sin embargo, los principales facilitadores fueron Particularidades del paciente quemado y Capacitación y Educación del equipo. Identificarlo posibilitó la planificación de las estrategias de enfrentamiento sobre los ejes críticos además de sostener las evidencias científicas en la práctica clínica.

ABSTRACT Objective To explore the perception of health care professionals about barriers and facilitators, and coping strategies for the implementation of the Thirst Management Model in the preoperative period of the burned patient. Method This is a qualitative study, anchored in the conceptual framework Knowledge Translation. The focus group technique was chosen for data collection, composed by eight key professionals, to identify barriers and facilitators in evidence implementation and to point out coping strategies for the critical nodes found. Thematic Content Analysis technique was used to evaluate the data. Results Five categories emerged: Physical structure, environment and supplies; Particularities of the burned patient; Human Resources; Team attitude; Team training and education. Coping strategies were raised for each barrier identified. Conclusion The main barriers identified were found in the Human Resources and Team Attitude categories. The main facilitators were Particularities of the burned patient and Team training and education. The identification allowed planning coping strategies for critical nodes, providing support for scientific evidence in clinical practice.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Perioperative Nursing , Thirst , Burns/surgery , Evidence-Based Nursing , Attitude of Health Personnel , Focus Groups
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 501-507, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888569


As one of the three major debridement procedures in burn surgery, eschar dermabrasion is optimal to manage fresh deep partial-thickness burn wounds. Despite decades' application in clinic, considerable discrepancies exist in various units on the timing, instruments, procedures, selection of post-operative dressings, and patterns of post-operative dressing change, etc., leading to inconsistent clinical outcomes. After thorough review of relative literature, screening and analysis of high-level evidence articles and multiple in-depth discussions, the expert team of Chinese Burn Association has formed an instructional expert consensus, hoping to provide scientific and standardized guidance for application of eschar dermabrasion in burn wounds.

Humans , Bandages , Burns/surgery , Consensus , Dermabrasion , Wound Healing
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 895-900, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880186


Natural dermal matrix has good biocompatibility and can serve as " biological template" in wound repair. According to the source of material, natural dermal matrix can be divided into acellular dermal matrix (ADM), denatured dermal matrix, and scar dermal matrix. ADM is a biological material prepared by removing cellular components from the skin and retaining extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermis. ADM possesses abundant natural biological information, low immunogenicity, and excellent regenerative capacity, which has greatly promoted the development of wound healing specialty as dermal substitute. Denatured dermis matrix is a layer of dermal tissue made by superficial tangential excision or dermabrasion on deeply burned wounds. The retained denatured dermis can recover gradually after transplantation of autologous skin on its surface, with similar structure, morphology, and biomechanics to healthy dermis. Scar dermal matrix is a kind of dermal scaffold made of autologous split-thickness scar tissue, possessing the characteristics of high survival rate, good texture, and slight scar reaction. Scar dermal matrix can effectively reduce secondary damage to the donor site when repairing scar contracture deformity. Based on the research progress at home and abroad and the opinions of domestic experts, this paper summarizes the indications, application methods, contraindications, and considerations of different types of natural dermal matrix in application of wound repair.

Humans , Acellular Dermis , Burns/surgery , Consensus , Skin Transplantation , Skin, Artificial , Wound Healing
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 504-508, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047913


Introdução: Lesões geradas por queimaduras representam um importante problema de saúde pública, constituindo a quarta causa de morte na infância no Brasil e Estados Unidos. Além disso, poucas são as doenças que trazem prejuízos tão importantes, com considerável morbidade pelo desenvolvimento de sequelas físicas e psicossociais. Diante disso, o objetivo deste estudo é traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças de 0-18 anos atendidas em um hospital escola de Curitiba, Paraná. Métodos: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo realizado através da análise de 625 prontuários de internação de crianças de 0-18 anos vítimas de queimaduras, entre janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2017. Foram coletadas informações sobre idade, sexo, tempo de internação, óbito, região corporal atingida, extensão da superfície corporal, grau de profundidade, agente etiológico e abordagem terapêutica. Resultados: A maior parte da amostra era composta por lactentes (43%), com média de idade de 12,6 anos. O sexo mais afetado foi o masculino e os pacientes permaneceram cerca de 14,5 dias internados. No estudo, 98% das queimaduras apresentaram como etiologia o agente térmico, principalmente por líquido quente. Em relação ao grau de profundidade, a maioria das queimaduras foram de 2º grau (61,3%), atingindo até 25% de superfície corporal queimada (SCQ), sendo o tronco o mais afetado. Dentre as modalidades de tratamento, 44% dos pacientes necessitaram de intervenção cirúrgica com debridamento e enxertia. Conclusão: Crianças mais novas são mais propensas a sofrerem queimaduras principalmente no ambiente domiciliar e, além disso, uma equipe preparada e capacitada é de crucial importância no prognóstico destes doentes.

Introduction: Injuries caused by burns represent a significant public health problem, constituting the fourth leading cause of childhood death in Brazil and the United States. In addition, few diseases carry such substantial losses as burns, with considerable morbidity due to the development of physical and psychosocial sequelae. This study aimed to outline the epidemiological profile of 0­18-year-old children treated for burns at a teaching hospital in Curitiba, Paraná. Methods: This cross-sectional, retrospective study involved analysis of 625 medical records of 0­18-year-old children who were victims of burns from January 2010 to December 2017. Information was collected on age, sex, length of hospitalization, death, body region affected, burned body surface area (BSA), depth, etiologic agent, and therapeutic approach. Results: A plurality of the sample were infants (43%), and the average age of the sample was 12.6 years. Most of the sample was comprised males, and the patients remained hospitalized for an average of 14.5 days. Of the burns, 98% were caused by thermal agents, particularly hot liquids. Most burns were second-degree burns (61.3%), reaching up to 25% of the BSA, and the most affected region was the trunk. Among the treatment modalities, 44% of the patients needed surgical intervention with debridement and grafting. Conclusion: Younger children are more prone to burns, especially in the home environment. A prepared and qualified team is of crucial importance for optimizing outcomes in these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Surgery, Plastic , Health Profile , Burns , Multiple Trauma , Health Surveys , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Surgery, Plastic/statistics & numerical data , Burns/surgery , Burns/therapy , Multiple Trauma/surgery , Multiple Trauma/therapy , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 399-404, jul.-sep. 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047163


Introdução: A Úlcera de Marjolin é definida como a malignização de cicatrizes, geralmente, crônicas, decorrentes de diversos tipos de lesão, sendo mais comum lesões por queimaduras. Métodos: Foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico nas plataformas BVS, PubMed, SciELO e Cochrane, tendo como critério de inclusão estudos publicados nos últimos 5 anos, que envolvem a espécie humana, disponíveis na web nos idiomas inglês ou português. Resultados: Analisados um total de 31, dos quais apenas 6 compuseram a amostra final. Discussão: As úlceras de Marjolin são encontradas em cicatrizes antigas de queimaduras, podem ocorrer em qualquer local, sendo mais comuns em membros superiores e inferiores. O diagnóstico inicia-se com a suspeita clínica baseada em características das lesões: lesões ulcerativas crônicas que não cicatrizam, com bordas elevadas e endurecidas e odor desagradável, podendo apresentar descarga purulenta. Esse só pode ser efetivado, entretanto, por meio do histopatológico da lesão. O período de latência entre a injúria da lesão e a sua malignização é, em média, de 30 a 35 anos. O tratamento deve ser individualizado, uma vez que depende de diversos fatores. Contudo, considera-se o padrão ouro a excisão cirúrgica. Conclusão: O conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde acerca dessa condição faz-se imprescindível para o melhor prognóstico do paciente. De modo que possíveis casos de malignização não tenham o seu diagnóstico subestimado, permita a terapêutica adequada à minimização das recidivas, e medidas profiláticas sejam efetivadas, no que tange à prevenção da queimadura e à minoração de fatores de risco para a malignização.

Introduction: Marjolin's ulcer is defined as a malignancy within scars that is usually chronic and results from several lesion types, with burn injuries being the most common. Methods: A bibliographic survey was conducted of the Virtual Health Library, PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and Cochrane databases using the inclusion criteria of studies published in the last 5 years, human studies, and published in English or Portuguese. Results: A total of 31 studies were analyzed, of which only 6 were included in the final sample. Discussion: Marjolin's ulcer is found in old burn scars and can occur anywhere, but it is more common in the upper and lower limbs. The diagnosis begins with the clinical suspicion based on lesion characteristics: chronic unhealed ulcerative lesions with high and hardened edges, an unpleasant odor, and purulent discharge. However, the diagnosis can only be made histopathologically. The latency period between injury and malignancy is 30­35 years. Although treatment should be individualized since it depends on several factors, surgical excision is considered the gold standard. Conclusion: Knowledge about this condition is essential to better patient prognosis and prevent underestimation of possible cases of malignancy, allowing for appropriate therapy to minimize recurrence and enabling prophylactic measures to prevent burn injury and reduce risk factors for malignancy.

Humans , Female , Adult , History, 21st Century , Skin Ulcer , Surgery, Plastic , Wound Healing , Burns , Burns, Electric , Carcinoma , Skin Ulcer/surgery , Surgery, Plastic/adverse effects , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Burns/surgery , Burns/complications , Carcinoma/surgery , Carcinoma/complications
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(2): 291-294, apr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015994


Introdução: As queimaduras constituem uma das lesões traumáticas mais graves e seu tratamento requer uma abordagem multidisciplinar, em que o papel do cirurgião plástico é fundamental. Restabelecer a função de proteção da pele, mas também recuperar a estética da área, queimada são objetivos desafiadores que o cirurgião plástico procura atingir. Relato de Caso: Paciente feminino de 27 anos submetida a mastopexia com inclusão de implantes, em que se aproveitou a pele retirada da mama para realizar um enxerto de espessura total em região mandibular e submentoniana para tratamento de cicatriz. A paciente teve uma integração completa do enxerto, sem evidenciar-se áreas de epidermólise. Os resultados estéticos foram excelentes, conseguindo a satisfação da paciente e melhoria das áreas discrômicas e hipertróficas cicatriciais. Conclusão: O enxerto autólogo a partir da pele da mama constitui uma boa alternativa para o tratamento de sequelas de queimaduras em face, possibilitando ótimos resultados estéticos.

Introduction: Burns are one of the most severe traumatic injuries and their treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, where the role of the plastic surgeon is vital. The plastic surgeon is entrusted with the challenging goal of restoring the skin's protective function and simultaneously recovering the aesthetic aspect of the burnt area. Case report: A 27-year-old woman underwent a mastopexy with inclusion of implants, where the skin removed from the breast was used as a full-thickness graft in the mandibular and submental area for the treatment of a scar. The patient showed complete integration of the graft, and no areas of epidermolysis were observed. The aesthetic results were excellent, and the patient was completely satisfied; moreover, an improvement in the dyschromic and hypertrophic cicatricial areas was observed. Conclusion: An autologous graft using breast skin is a good alternative for the treatment of sequelae of burns on the face and provides excellent aesthetic results.

Humans , Female , Adult , Biological Dressings/adverse effects , Burns/surgery , Burns/physiopathology , Cicatrix/complications , Patient Satisfaction , Facial Injuries/surgery , Facial Injuries/complications , Cicatrix/surgery
Gac. méd. espirit ; 20(2): 28-39, mayo.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953653


RESUMEN Fundamento: El niño quemado es por definición un paciente quirúrgico, traumatizado y extremadamente complejo por las repercusiones vitales, funcionales, estéticas y psicológicas que presenta. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de las quemaduras de los niños en el Servicio de Quemados del Hospital Provincial General Camilo Cienfuegos de Sancti Spíritus para el manejo adecuado en la atención de urgencias. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de corte transversal; la población de estudio fueron los 94 menores de 18 años atendidos en el servicio. Se tuvo en cuenta la edad, el sexo, el agente causal, el lugar de ocurrencia, la extensión y profundidad de las lesiones. Resultados: La edad que predominó fue de 0-4 años con incidencia superior en los varones. La mayor parte de las lesiones se produjeron en la casa y los agentes etiológicos fueron: los líquidos calientes o hirvientes y los metales calientes; siguió en frecuencia el indicador calle con el rozamiento y los accidentes por los rayos de bicicleta. Según su profundidad predominaron las quemaduras dérmicas A y AB y la extensión menor de 5 %. Conclusiones: La edad más frecuente en que se presentaron lesiones por quemaduras en la edad pediátrica fue de 0-4 años con mayor incidencia en los varones. Las quemaduras que predominaron fueron las dérmicas A y AB. La etiología más frecuente: las escaldaduras y los metales calientes y las lesiones de segundo grado. Es importante por ello el correcto manejo de urgencia del paciente quemado pediátrico, así como tener en cuenta medidas para la prevención de las quemaduras de los niños en la comunidad.

ABSTRACT Background: The burned child is by definition a surgical patient, traumatized and extremely complex due to the vital, functional, aesthetic and psychological repercussions that he presents. Objective: To describe the behavior of the burns of children in the Burns Service at Camilo Cienfuegos General Provincial Hospital of Sancti Spíritus for the adequate management of emergency care. Methodology: A descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out; the population studied was 94 children under 18 years assisted in the service. Age, sex, causal agent, place of occurrence, extent and depth of injuries were taken into account. Results: The predominant age was 0-4 years with a higher incidence in males. Most of the injuries occurred in the house and the etiological agents were: hot or boiling liquids and hot metals; followed by the indicator referred to frictions and accidents by bicycle spokes in the street. According to their depth, the skin burns A and AB predominated and the extension was less than 5%. Conclusions: The most frequent age in which burns injuries occurred in the pediatric age was 0-4 years with the highest incidence in males. The prevailing burns were skin burns A and AB. The most frequent etiology: scalds and hot metals and second degree injuries. Therefore, the correct emergency management of the burned pediatric patient is important, as well as taking into account some measures for the prevention of burns of children in the community.

Humans , Burns/surgery , Burns/psychology , Child
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 33(1): 104-109, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883645


Introdução: São muitos os pacientes queimados que, apesar de um complexo tratamento multidisciplinar, são levados ao óbito. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar o perfil epidemiológico, ressaltando as principais complicações que acometem os pacientes queimados. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que analisou prontuários de pacientes queimados atendidos no Hospital Metropolitano de Urgência e Emergência no Estado do Pará, no período de janeiro de 2007 até dezembro de 2012. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (69,1%), entre 18 e 30 anos (35,5%), procedente de outros hospitais (35,8%), trabalhador da construção civil (21,2%). As complicações mais encontradas foram insuficiência respiratória (69,4%), insuficiência renal (57,1%) e sepse (38,8%). Conclusões: Os dados obtidos são similares aos encontrados na literatura nacional e internacional, evidenciando a necessidade de prevenção e fiscalização de trabalhadores da construção civil, bem como de implementar protocolos de tratamento para melhorar a assistência ao paciente queimado.

Introduction: Despite complex multidisciplinary treatment, many burn patients die. This study aimed to determine epidemiologic profiles of burn patients, highlighting major complications. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of burn patients managed at the Metropolitan Hospital for Urgent and Emergent Care, Pará State, between January 2007 and December 2012. Results: most patients were males (69.1%) aged 18 to 30 years (35.5%), referred from other hospitals (35.8%), and employed as construction workers (21.2%). The most frequent complications were respiratory (69.4%) and renal failure (57.1%), followed by sepsis (38.8%). Conclusions: The data obtained were similar to those reported in national and international literature, highlighting the need for burn prevention and inspection of construction sites, as well as implementation of treatment protocols to improve care for burn patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , History, 21st Century , Patients , Burn Units , Burns , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mortality , Epidemiology and Biostatistics , Invasion of Deaths , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Burn Units/statistics & numerical data , Burns/surgery , Burns/complications , Burns/mortality , Burns/therapy , Burns/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 32(2): 245-251, 2017. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847378


Introdução: A mão representa 3% da superfície corporal total, porém seu envolvimento em trauma grave, como uma queimadura, pode levar a sequelas funcionais graves. O presente estudo descreve os procedimentos no atendimento de pacientes na fase aguda com queimaduras envolvendo as mãos. Métodos: 122 pacientes com queimaduras térmicas envolvendo uma ou ambas as mãos foram incluídos no estudo, entre agosto de 2011 a julho de 2014. No exame físico inicial, determinou-se a extensão e a profundidade da lesão; as queimaduras profundas e circulares, com sinais e sintomas de perfusão inadequada, tiveram escarotomias realizadas para evitar perda de extremidade. As queimaduras de espessura parcial profunda ou de espessura total no dorso das mãos foram submetidas à excisão tangencial até 5 dias após o trauma; e o enxerto de pele parcial foi realizado em todos os pacientes antes do 15º dia do trauma. Resultados: Os homens representaram a maioria (58% da casuística). Em relação ao agente das queimaduras, os líquidos inflamáveis corresponderam a 46,7% das internações. Em 50,8% dos casos, as queimaduras eram de espessura parcial profunda ou de espessura total e necessitaram de procedimento operatório. Não foi identificada perda de enxerto no grupo. As escarotomias foram realizadas em 12,3% dos pacientes. Conclusão: A mão queimada necessita de atenção e cuidados locais adequados, juntamente com excisão precoce e enxertia de pele.

Introduction: The hand represents 3% of total body surface, but its involvement in severe trauma, such as burns, can lead to serious functional sequelae. The present study describes procedures in the care of patients in the acute phase with burns involving the hands. Methods: 122 patients with thermal burns involving one or both hands were included in the study between August 2011 and July 2014. On initial physical examination, the extent and depth of the lesions were determined; deep and circular burns, with signs and symptoms of inadequate perfusion, had escharotomies performed to avoid the loss of extremity. Burns of partial deep thickness or full thickness on the back of the hands received tangential excision within 5 days after the trauma; partial skin grafting was performed on all patients before the 15th day of the trauma. Results: Men represented the majority of cases (58%). In relation to the burn agent, flammable liquids caused 46.7% of admissions. In 50.8% of the cases, the burns were of partial deep thickness or of total thickness and required an operative procedure. No graft loss was identified in the group. Escharotomies were performed in 12.3% of the patients. Conclusion: The burned hand needs proper local attention and care, along with early excision and skin grafting.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Patients , Personal Satisfaction , Wounds and Injuries , Burns , Tissue Transplantation , Skin Transplantation , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Free Tissue Flaps , Hand , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Burns/surgery , Burns/therapy , Tissue Transplantation/rehabilitation , Skin Transplantation/methods , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Plastic Surgery Procedures/rehabilitation , Transplants/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps/surgery , Hand/surgery