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International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 40-40, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010695


Candida albicans is the most abundant fungal species in oral cavity. As a smart opportunistic pathogen, it increases the virulence by switching its forms from yeasts to hyphae and becomes the major pathogenic agent for oral candidiasis. However, the overuse of current clinical antifungals and lack of new types of drugs highlight the challenges in the antifungal treatments because of the drug resistance and side effects. Anti-virulence strategy is proved as a practical way to develop new types of anti-infective drugs. Here, seven artemisinins, including artemisinin, dihydroartemisinin, artemisinic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid, artesunate, artemether and arteether, were employed to target at the hyphal development, the most important virulence factor of C. albicans. Artemisinins failed to affect the growth, but significantly inhibited the hyphal development of C. albicans, including the clinical azole resistant isolates, and reduced their damage to oral epithelial cells, while arteether showed the strongest activities. The transcriptome suggested that arteether could affect the energy metabolism of C. albicans. Seven artemisinins were then proved to significantly inhibit the productions of ATP and cAMP, while reduced the hyphal inhibition on RAS1 overexpression strain indicating that artemisinins regulated the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway to inhibit the hyphal development. Importantly, arteether significantly inhibited the fungal burden and infections with no systemic toxicity in the murine oropharyngeal candidiasis models in vivo caused by both fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains. Our results for the first time indicated that artemisinins can be potential antifungal compounds against C. albicans infections by targeting at its hyphal development.

Animals , Mice , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Hyphae , Artemisinins/pharmacology
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 32-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003631


Background and Objectives@#Oral candidiasis (OC) is a well-known local side effect of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of OC and its association with ICS-related factors in out-patient asthma and COPD patients of the Departments of Pulmonology and Pediatric Pulmonology of the Philippine General Hospital (PGH).@*Methods@#This is a cross-sectional study conducted from October 2019 to January 2020. Data was collected through a two-part questionnaire accomplished by doctors and patients with asthma or COPD. Results. A total of 67 patients were included in the study. Oral candidiasis was observed in 4 (5.97%) ICS users, and the prevalence was 1.65% to 14.59% (95% CI, SE: 0.028946).@*Conclusion@#This study determined the prevalence of oral candidiasis in asthma and COPD patients and its association with ICS-related factors, including the dosage, medication, device, and duration of therapy. The prevalence of OC in ICS users in PGH cannot be interpreted as high or low due to the small number of respondents, but is consistent with OC prevalence found in related literature. Increased prevalence was observed in adult females with asthma under low dose ICS therapy with Fluticasone/Salmeterol DPI for more than a year. There was no statistically significant correlation among OC prevalence, age, sex, and components of ICS-therapy including dosage, medication, device, frequency, and duration of therapy. A large-scale study is recommended for more accurate assessment of OC prevalence in the population and to determine statistically significant associations among the factors. It is also recommended to quantifiably measure patient compliance, inhalation technique and instruction, and its association to OC prevalence. Findings may be used to strengthen patient education, preventive measures, and disease management to facilitate improved compliance and effective treatment outcomes.

Candidiasis, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22452, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439503


Abstract Candidiasis is one of the most common fungal infections of oral cavity in humans, causing great oral discomfort, pain and aversion to food. To develop more effective antifungal systems for the treatment of oral candidiasis, an oral mucoadhesive wafer containing sertaconazole solid dispersion (STZ-SD) was developed in this study. Dispersion of STZ in Soluplus® as a solubility enhancement excipient was done by melting, solvent evaporation and freeze drying method at various STZ to Soluplus® ratios. The optimized STZ-SD was then incorporated in the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) gel, xanthan gum gel, or their combination to prepare the lyophilized wafers. The swelling capacity, porosity, and mechanical, release and mucoadhesive properties of the wafers, together with their antifungal activity, were then evaluated. The melting method sample with the ratio of 8:1 showed the best results in terms of saturation solubility and dissolution rate. The STZ-SD-composite wafer exhibited higher hardness and mucoadhesion, as compared to those made of the SCMC polymer. The STZ-SD-wafer also exhibited a greater antifungal effect when compared to the STZ-wafer. The present study, thus, suggested that the STZ-SD-wafer could serve as a novel effective delivery system for oral candidiasis treatment.

Mouth/pathology , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Food/classification , Freeze Drying/classification , Gingiva/abnormalities
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 7(3): 3-12, Sept. - Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1437810


Introduction: candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that can provoke diseases ranging from oral infections to life-threatening systemic disorders. It is now recognized that oral bacteria, such as the genus Streptococcus, establish synergistic relationships with C. albicans, which could potentially increase the fungi's virulence and pathogenicity. Objective: this narrative review aimed to discuss the Candida-Streptococcus mechanisms of interactions and their contribution to increasing oral candidiasis severity. In addition, it provides a background of biofilm formation and potential therapeutical targets. Sources of Data: searches for papers in English were performed in the Pubmed database until May 2022. MeSH and free terms related to the field were used. In vitro studies were selected, tabulated, and qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed descriptively. Synthesis of Data: among the early colonizers bacteria, evidence pointed out that S. gordonnii and S. oralis have major implications in oral candidiasis, in which mixed biofilms increase the infection severity and challenge the host's defense. On the other hand, the outcomes of the interaction between C. albicans and S. mitis, S. sanguinis, or S. mutans remain little explored in the oral candidiasis scenario, albeit evidence pointed out an enhanced fungus population and virulence factors. Conclusion: overall, considering the polymicrobial profile of the infection and the potential to increase Candida-related disease severity, therapeutical strategies should also consider bacteria management.

Introdução: candida albicans é um patógeno fúngico que pode provocar doenças que variam de infecções orais a distúrbios sistêmicos com risco de vida. Hoje se reconhece que as bactérias orais, como o gênero Streptococcus, estabelecem relações sinérgicas com C. albicans, o que pode potencialmente aumentar a virulência e patogenicidade do fungo. Objetivo: esta revisão narrativa teve como objetivo discutir os mecanismos de interação Candida-Streptococcus e sua contribuição para o agravamento da candidíase oral. Além disso, fornece uma breve explanação sobre a formação do biofilme e potenciais alvos terapêuticos. Fonte dos dados: foi realizada pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed para a busca de artigos publicados em Inglês até maio de 2022. Para isso, foram utilizados descritores relacionados ao tema. Estudos in vitro foram selecionados, tabulados e seus resultados quantitativos e qualitativos analisados descritivamente. Síntese dos dados: entre as bactérias denominadas colonizadores iniciais, evidências apontam que S. gordonnii e S. oralis têm implicações importantes na candidíase oral, na qual biofilmes mistos aumentam a gravidade da infecção e desafiam a defesa do hospedeiro. Por outro lado, os desfechos das interações entre C. albicans e S. mitis, S. sanguinis ou S. mutans permanecem pouco explorados no cenário da candidíase oral, apesar de evidências apontarem um aumento dapopulação fúngica e de fatores de virulência. Conclusão: de maneira geral, considerando o perfil polimicrobiano da infecção e o potencial agravamento das doenças provocadas por Candida spp, as estratégias terapêuticas não devem estar focadas apenas no fungo, mas também devem considerar o manejo da bactéria.

Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Oral , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguis , Biofilms , Streptococcus oralis , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus gordonii
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 110(1): 48-55, abr. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391345


El objetivo de la presente revisión fue analizar y compa- rar las publicaciones sobre la prevalencia de manifestaciones bucales de pacientes infectados por el Virus de la Inmuno- deficiencia Humana, Virus del Papiloma Humano y sífilis. Se seleccionaron los artículos más relevantes y se abordó la incidencia según sexo, edad, distribución geográfica y locali- zaciones anatómicas frecuentes. Se encontró que las lesiones orales más prevalentes producidas por el Virus de la Inmu- nodeficiencia Humana son la candidiasis oral, la leucoplasia vellosa y enfermedades periodontales, entre otras. La sífilis presentó una frecuencia de 7,5% de manifestaciones orales en la etapa primaria, 92,5% en la secundaria y rara vez lesio- nes en la terciaria. Las formas más prevalentes fueron parches mucosos, pápulas y úlceras. Las lesiones orales benignas rela- cionadas con el Virus del Papiloma Humano halladas fueron la verruga vulgar, el papiloma plano, el condiloma acuminado y la hiperplasia epitelial focal. La prevalencia de carcinomas orofaríngeos y orales fue del 33,6% y del 22,2% respectiva- mente. Se encontraron similitudes en el comportamiento se- xual y las vías de transmisión de las enfermedades analizadas, y se observó que son más prevalentes en adultos jóvenes de sexo masculino y en países en vías de desarrollo (AU)

The aim of this review was to analyze and compare pub- lications on the prevalence of oral manifestations in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Human Pap- illoma Virus and syphilis. The most reliable studies were se- lected, and incidence was evaluated according to gender, age, geographic location and frequent anatomic sites. It was found that the most prevalent Human Immunodeficiency Virus oral lesions were oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and perio- dontal diseases, among others. Syphilis had a 7.5% preva- lence of oral manifestations in the primary stage, 92.5% in the secondary, and rarely lesions in the tertiary. The most prevalent forms were mucous patches, papules and ulcers. The benign oral lesions related to the Human Papilloma Vi- rus were verruca vulgaris, squamous papilloma, condyloma acuminatum and multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. The preva- lence of oropharyngeal and oral carcinomas were 33.6% and 22.2%, respectively. Similarities were found in sexual behavior and transmis- sion routes of the diseases analyzed, which were more preva- lent among young adult males, and in developing countries (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Oral Manifestations , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Periodontal Diseases , Candidiasis, Oral , Syphilis , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , HIV Infections , Papillomavirus Infections , Age and Sex Distribution
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(2): e3162, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289399


Introducción: Las enfermedades de la cavidad bucal en los pacientes con VIH/sida pueden verse agravadas dependiendo de la respuesta inmunitaria del paciente y los niveles de linfocitos. Objetivo: Relacionar los niveles de linfocitos T CD4 y las principales lesiones bucales en pacientes con el VIH/sida del Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue (Lima, Perú), durante el 2018. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico y de corte transversal, entre julio y octubre del 2018, en 65 pacientes hospitalizados, a los cuales se realizó un examen clínico de la cavidad bucal. Se evaluó la presencia de manifestaciones bucales asociadas al VIH/sida; también se clasificó el nivel de linfocitos T CD4 en tres categorías (> 500 cel/mm3, entre 200-500 cel/mm3 y < 200 cel/mm3). Resultados: Un 70,8 por ciento de los pacientes no se encontraba con tratamiento antirretroviral al momento del examen. El nivel promedio de linfocitos T CD4 fue 237,65 cel/mm3, con mayor prevalencia en mujeres. El 56,9 por ciento de los pacientes presentaron lesiones bucales, el sexo masculino fue el más afectado (91 por ciento). La lesión más frecuente fue la candidiasis bucal (44,6 por ciento) y la categoría que presentó mayor frecuencia de lesiones bucales fue la < 200 cel/mm3 (38,5 por ciento; p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El sexo masculino presentó la mayor cantidad de lesiones bucales asociadas a bajos niveles de linfocitos T CD4. La mayor parte de lesiones bucales se presentaron en un nivel de linfocitos T CD4 < 200 cel/mm3. La candidiasis bucal fue la lesión que más se evidenció al momento de realizar el examen clínico(AU)

Introduction: Oral diseases may be aggravated in HIV/AIDS patients depending on their immune response and lymphocyte levels. Objective: Describe the relationship between CD4 T lymphocyte levels and the main oral lesions in HIV/AIDS patients from Hipólito Unanue National Hospital in Lima, Peru, during the year 2018. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted of 65 hospitalized patients from July to October 2018. The patients underwent oral clinical examination. Evaluation was performed of the presence of HIV/AIDS-related oral manifestations, and CD4 T lymphocyte levels were classified into three categories: > 500 cell/mm3, 200-500 cell/mm3 and < 200 cell/lmm3. Results: Of the total patients studied, 70.8 percent were not under antiretroviral treatment at the moment of the examination. Average CD4 T lymphocyte level was 237.65 cell/mm3, with higher results among women. 56.9 percent of the patients had oral lesions. Males were more commonly affected (91 percent). The most frequent lesion type was oral candidiasis (44.6 percent), whereas the category presenting the highest frequency of oral lesions was < 200 cell/mm3 (38.5 percent; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Male patients presented the largest number of oral lesions associated to low CD4 T lymphocyte levels. Most of the oral lesions were found at a CD4 T lymphocyte level < 200 cell/mm3. Oral candidiasis was the lesion most commonly found by the clinical examination(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Candidiasis, Oral/etiology , T-Lymphocytes , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Mouth/injuries , Cross-Sectional Studies
Natal; s.n; 2021. 75 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1537198


A Candidose é uma patologia que pode ter manifestações locais e também sistêmicas e acontece pela proliferação de fungos do gênero Candida. O tratamento desta patologia é realizado com antifúngicos mas, devido a resistência dos fungos causadores desta enfermidade se faz necessário conhecer outros antifúngicos. A ação antimicrobiana do extrato hidroetanólico de Spondias mombin L. já é conhecida e é fundamental que seja pesquisado a atividade antibiofilme das substâncias, uma vez que estes fungos causam adoecimento quando se acumulam e proliferam. Sabendo disso é que o presente estudo teve por objetivo principal investigar a ação antifúngica e antibiofilme do extrato hidroetanólico (EH) de Spondias mombin L. e das frações de taninos, flavonoides e ácidos fenólicos, frente a fungos do gênero Candida, de importância clínica. Para isto, determinou-se a concentração inibitória mínima por meio do uso de discos e pela técnica da microdiluição em caldo, concentração inibitória mínima de aderência, determinação da curva de morte dos fungos e atividade antibiofilme das frações de ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides e tanino, frente aos fungos Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida Krusei e Candida Glabrata, utilizando como controle positivo a Nistatina (100.000 UI), em triplicata. Foi visto que, a atividade antifúngica e antibiofilme do EH e de suas frações analisadas existe, porém, quando comparamos as frações com o EH este último apresentou melhor atividade em suas maiores concentrações (500 µg/mL e 250 µg/mL) e quando traçamos o comparativo entre a ação antifúngica e antibiofilme das substâncias testadas e do grupo controle, tivemos melhores resultados do grupo controle frente aos fungos testados. Desta forma foi possível concluir que o extrato hidroetanólico apresentam resultados superiores de atividade antifúngica frente a todos os microrganismos testados, exceto C. krusei e antibiofilme frente a, pelo menos, uma das espécies de Candida e que este extrato teve resultados muito semelhantes e, por vezes, superior ao grupo controle (AU).

Candidosis is a pathology that can have local as well as systemic manifestations and happens due to the proliferation of fungi of the Candida genus. The treatment of this pathology is carried out with antifungal agents, but due to the resistance of the fungi that cause this disease, it is necessary to know other antifungal agents. The antimicrobial action of the hydroethanolic extract of Spondias mombin L. is already known and it is essential that the antibiofilm activity of the substances be researched, since these fungi cause illness when they accumulate and proliferate. Knowing that, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal and antibiofilm action of the hydroethanolic extract (EH) of Spondias mombin L. and its fractions, against fungi of the genus Candida, of clinical importance. For this, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined through the use of disks and the technique of microdilution in broth, minimum inhibitory concentration of adhesion, determination of the fungal death curve and antibiofilm activity of the fractions of phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannin, against the fungi Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida Krusei and Candida Glabrata, using nystatin (100,000 IU) as a positive control, in triplicate. It was seen that the antifungal and antibiofilm activity of EH and its analyzed fractions exists, however, when we compare the fractions with EH, the latter showed better activity at its highest concentrations (500 µg/mL e 250 µg/mL) and when we draw the comparison between the antifungal and antibiofilm action of the tested substances and the control group, we had better results than the control group against the tested fungi. Thus, it was possible to conclude that the hydroethanolic extract presented superior results of antifungal activity against all tested microorganisms, except C. krusei and antibiofilm against at least one of the Candida species and that this extract had very similar results and, for times higher than the control group (AU).

Candidiasis, Oral/pathology , Anacardiaceae/microbiology , Phytotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance
Ribeirão Preto; s.n; 2021. 75 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1373487


É notório o papel do diabetes mellitus como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças bucais, como a candidíase bucal, cárie e a periodontite. Assim, este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a formação de biofilme por cepas de Candida spp. provenientes de diabéticos e não diabéticos em ambiente sem e com suplementação de glicose. Trata-se de um estudo experimental laboratorial in vitro, em três etapas. Etapas um e dois, de obtenção e identificação de 48 cepas de Candida spp., sendo que 32 de C. albicans e 16 de C. glabrata, com auxílio da técnica de PCR. Ainda, a etapa três, de processamento microbiológico, com a avaliação da capacidade de formação de biofilme por três ensaios distintos: I) determinação do número de unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC/mL); II) matéria seca dos biofilmes; III) taxa de crescimento de biofilme em fundo de placa de poliestireno. Inicialmente, objetivando simular as características observadas in vivo, o fundo das placas de cultivo recebeu 400 µL de saliva humana para formação da película adquirida. Decorrida a incubação a 37 °C por 24 h, a saliva foi descartada e cada poço de cultura recebeu suspensão padronizada das leveduras (106 UFC/mL) em Saubouraud Dextrose Broth sem suplementação e com suplementação de glicose a 2 e 10 mg/mL, e as placas foram incubadas a 37 °C por 48 h. Para avaliação do número de UFC/mL, o biofilme aderido foi coletado, diluído seriamente e cultivado em placas de Petri com Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Após incubação os resultados foram expressos em log UFC/mL. Para a avaliação da matéria seca, a solução remanescente foi liofilizada e mensurada em balança de precisão. A taxa de crescimento de biofilme foi avaliada por microscopia Operetta CLS High Content e o FilmTracer(TM) LIVE/DEAD Biofilm Viability kit, conforme o protocolo do fabricante. Posteriormente, 10 imagens por poço foram obtidas e digitalizadas com ampliação de 40 ×. A área recoberta por biofilme (µm2) das imagens foi avaliada com auxílio do software Harmony High Content Imaging. Os dados apresentaram distribuição não normal, e a comparação entre as cepas de diabéticos e não diabéticos foi realizada pelo teste U Mann-Whitney. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis one way foi utilizado para verificar diferenças entre as condições de suplementação de glicose. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de α = 5%. Os valores de UFC/mL mostraram um maior crescimento das cepas de C. albicans dos pacientes diabéticos em relação aos não diabéticos nas três suplementações (p < 0,001). Por outro lado, acerca da matéria seca em 10 mg/mL e da taxa de crescimento de biofilme sem suplementação de glicose e a 2 mg/mL, os resultados indicaram uma formação de biofilme maior para cepas de C. albicans dos não diabéticos (p < 0,001). Em conclusão, cepas de C. albicans e C. glabrata provenientes de diabéticos e não diabéticos em ambiente sem e com suplementação de glicose apresentaram resultados distintos quanto à formação de biofilme, por diferentes técnicas

The role of diabetes mellitus is notorious as a risk factor for development of oral diseases, such as oral candidiasis, dental caries, and periodontitis. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate biofilm formation by Candida spp. strains from diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in environment without and with glucose supplementation. This is an in vitro experimental laboratory study, in three stages. Stages one and two of obtainment and identification of 48 Candida spp. strains, with 32 of C. albicans and 16 of C. glabrata, with the help of PCR technique. Also, stage three, of microbiological processing, with evaluation of biofilm formation capacity by three different assays: I) determination of the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL); II) biofilm dry matter; III) biofilm growth rate on the bottom of polystyrene plates. Initially, aiming to simulate the characteristics observed in vivo, the bottom of the cultivation plates received 400 µL of human saliva for formation of acquired pellicle. After the incubation at 37 °C for 24 h, the saliva was discarded and each culture well received standardized suspension of yeast (106 CFU/mL) in Saubouraud Dextrose Broth without supplementation and with glucose supplementation at 2 and 10 mg/mL, and the plates were incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. To assess the number of CFU/mL, the adhered biofilm was collected, seriously diluted, and cultivated in Petri dishes with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. After the incubation, the results were expressed in log CFU/mL. To assess the dry matter, the remaining solution was lyophilized and measured on a precision scale. The biofilm growth rate was evaluated by Operetta CLS High Content microscopy and FilmTracer(TM) LIVE/DEAD Biofilm Viability kit, according to manufacturer's protocol. Later, 10 images per well were obtained and digitalized with 40 × magnification. The area covered by biofilm (µm2) of the images was assessed with the help of Harmony High Content Imaging software. Data showed non-normal distribution, and the comparison among the diabetic and non-diabetic strains was performed by Mann-Whitney U test. Kruskal-Wallis one-way test was used to verify differences between conditions of glucose supplementation. The level of statistical significance adopted was α = 5%. The values of CFU/mL showed greater growth of the diabetic patient's strains in relation to the non-diabetic ones (p < 0.001). On the other hand, regarding dry matter at 10 mg/mL and the growth rate of biofilm without glucose supplementation and at 2 mg/mL, the results indicated a higher biofilm formation for strains of C. albicans from non-diabetic individuals (p <0.001). In conclusion, C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in environment without and with glucose supplementation showed different results concerning the biofilm formation, using different techniques

Humans , Candida albicans/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida glabrata/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Glucose/pharmacology , Candidiasis, Oral
Archives of Orofacial Sciences ; : 17-24, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962315


ABSTRACT@#Methanolic extract from the leaves of Acanthus ilicifolius L. (A. ilicifolius L.) is a potent inhibitor of Candida albicans (C. albicans) growth and anti-inflammatory. C. albicans causes oral candidiasis in immunosuppressive condition. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling via p38 appears to discriminate between yeast and hyphal cells of C. albicans. Activation of p38 MAPK by hyphae results in the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The p38 MAPK activation is known to impair corticosteroid action. The research was conducted to investigate the effect of methanolic extract A. ilicifolius L. treatment of oral candidiasis with the immunosuppressive condition through enhancement of p38 MAPK expression in the epithelial cells. Immunosuppressed conditions were obtained when 16 healthy male Rattus norvergicus (Wistar) was given oral administration of dexamethasone and tetracycline for 14 days and induced with C. albicans (ATCC-10231) 1 McFarland. The subjects were divided into four groups (n = 4/group): immunosuppression (IS), immunosuppression with oral candidiasis without treatment (ISC), immunosuppression with oral candidiasis and nystatin treatment (ISC+N), and immunosuppression with oral candidiasis and A. ilicifolius L. treatment (ISC+AI), and were treated for 14 days. Later, the rats were euthanised, and their tongue were biopsied. The p38 MAPK expression was subjected to immunohistochemical examination, observed under a microscope (400× magnification) and statistically analysed (one-way ANOVA, LSD-test, p < 0.05). The p38 MAPK expression of ISC+AI (36.05 ± 1.54) was higher than IS (26 ± 2.32), ISC (26.4 ± 3.71), IS+N (34.2 ± 0.99). Significant differences existed between ISC+AI and ISC+N to IS and ISC (p < 0.05). No significant differences were present between IS and ISC; ISC+AI and ISC+N (p > 0.05). Therefore, this treatment could enhance p38 MAPK expression in oral candidiasis with the immunosuppressed condition.

Acanthaceae , Candidiasis, Oral , Immunosuppression Therapy , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 33(2): 104-111, Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130740


ABSTRACT Candida dubliniensis (Cd) and Candida albicans (Ca) are the most frequently isolated yeasts in HIV+ patients. Some of the enzymes produced by these yeasts are considered virulence factors since they contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. The aim of the present study was to compare production of enzymes such as phospholipase (Ph), proteinase (P), and hemolysin (H) by Cd and Ca strains isolated from periodontal HIV-positive patients receiving and not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using paper points, and a sample of oral mucosa was taken using a swab. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used to isolate 39 strains of Candida, including 25 strains of Cd and 14 strains of Ca, obtained from 33 periodontal pocket samples and 6 oral mucosa samples collected from 15 HIV+ patients (8 receiving and 7 not receiving HAART). Malt egg-yolk agar, albumin agar and blood agar were used to evaluate pH, P and H production respectively. The strains were inoculated in duplicate and incubated at 37 ºC. Colony and halo diameters were measured. A greater proportion of Ca was observed in patients not receiving HAART, and a higher proportion of Cd was observed in those under HAART, Chi2 p< 0.001. Phospholipase production was observed in 92.9% percent of isolated Ca strains but in none of the isolated Cd strains. Proteinase production was high in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. Hemolysin production was observed in all the studied strains, though it was significantly higher (p=0.04) in Ca and Cd strains isolated from patients not receiving HAART. To sum up, the proportion of Candida dubliniensis strains was highest in the subgingival biofilm of patients receiving HAART, and Cd strains were found to express fewer virulence factors than Ca strains.

RESUMEN Las levaduras más aisladas en pacientes VIH+ son Candida dubliniensis (Cd) y Candida albicans (Ca). Algunas de sus enzimas constituyen factores de virulencia ya que favorecen la diseminación tisular. El objetivo fue comparar la producción de enzimas como fosfolipasa (F), proteinasa (P) y hemolisina (H) en cepas de Cd y Ca aisladas de pacientes VIH+ tratados y no tratados con antirretrovirales (TARGA). Se realizó la toma del biofilm de placa subgingival con conos de papel y la muestra de la mucosa bucal con hisopo. Se aislaron y tipificaron por métodos fenotípicos y moleculares 39 cepas: 25 de Cd y 14 Ca, obtenidas 33 de bolsas periodontales y 6 de mucosa bucal de 15 pacientes VIH+ (8 con y 7 sin tratamiento). Se utilizó agar malta con yema de huevo, agar albúmina y agar sangre para demostrar la producción de F, P y H, respectivamente. Se inocularon por duplicado e incubaron a 37°C. Se midieron los diámetros de las colonias y los de hidrólisis alrededor de las mismas. Se observó mayor proporción de Ca en los pacientes sin tratamiento y mayor proporción de Cd en los con tratamiento; Chi2 p< 0.001. El 92,9% de las Ca estudiadas, fueron productoras de fosfolipasa. En tanto que ninguna Cd produjo la enzima. En cuanto a la producción de proteinasa se observa una alta producción tanto en las cepas de Ca, como en las Cd aisladas en los pacientes no tratados. Todas las cepas estudiadas produjeron hemolisina, observándose una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0,04) en ambas especies a favor de la alta producción de la enzima en las cepas obtenidas de pacientes no tratados. Podemos concluir que en el biofilm subgingival, en los pacientes bajo TARGA, se aíslan mayor proporción de Candida dubliniensis las cuales expresan menos factores de virulencia.

Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/enzymology , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/enzymology , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , HIV Infections/complications , Biofilms/growth & development , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Gingiva/microbiology , Phenotype , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , Candida albicans/genetics , Candidiasis, Oral/complications , HIV Infections/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence Factors/genetics , Genotype , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-16, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247638


Justificativa e Objetivos: A candidíase oral tem uma ocorrência comum em pacientes imunocomprometidos. No entanto, outras infecções emergentes tornaram-se cada vez mais habituais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência, os determinantes de virulência e a suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras que colonizam a mucosa de pacientes imunocomprometidos na região Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 60 pacientes HIV positivos atendidos no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado/Hospital Dia do Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes, vinculado à Universidade Federal de Alagoas. As amostras foram coletadas em regiões subgengivais e semeadas em CHROMagar para confirmação presuntiva de Candida spp., seguido por PCR e sequenciamento. Além disso, testamos os determinantes de virulência fosfolipase e protease e avaliamos in vitro a concentração inibitória mínima dos antifúngicos anfotericina B e fluconazol. Este projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de ética em pesquisa do Centro de Estudos Superiores de Maceió. Resultados: Aproximadamente 63% dos pacientes foram colonizados por leveduras. A espécie C. albicans foi predominante, enquanto as espécies de Candida não-albicans representaram 49% dos isolados, sendo C. dubliniensis e C. parapsilosis as mais comuns. Entretanto, C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola e Naganishia liquefaciens também foram encontrados. Os determinantes da virulência protease e/ou fosfolipase também foram produzidos por Candida spp. e alguns isolados oportunistas incomuns como Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens e Saitozyma podzolica. Além disso, a maioria dos isolados de Candida spp. e algumas espécies oportunistas incomuns apresentaram altos valores de concentração inibitória mínima. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos indicam que C. albicans continua a ser a espécie predominante na cavidade oral de pacientes imunodeficientes e, juntamente com outras espécies incomuns, pode apresentar alta resistência aos antifúngicos testados.(AU)

Background and Objectives: Oral candidiasis has a common occurrence in immunocompromised patients. However, other emergent infections have become increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, virulence determinants and the antifungal susceptibility of yeast colonizing the mucosa of immunocompromised patients in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: Samples from sixty HIV-positive patients seen at the Specialized Service / Hospital Dia - Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes from the Federal University of Alagoas were collected from subgingival sites and seeded on CHROMagar for presumptive confirmation of Candida spp. followed by PCR and sequencing. In addition, we tested virulence determinants, phospholipase and protease and evaluated in vitro the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of antifungals amphotericin B and fluconazole. This project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Center for Higher Studies in Maceió. Results: Approximately 63% of the patients were colonized by yeasts, with C. albicans as the predominant species, while non-Candida albicans species accounted for 49% of the isolates, with C. dubliniensis and C. parapsilosis being the commonest, but C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola and Naganishia liquefaciens were also found. The virulence determinants protease and/or phospholipase were also produced by Candida spp. and some uncommon opportunistic isolates such as Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens and Saitozyma podzolica. Furthermore, most of Candida spp. strains and some uncommon opportunistic species showed high values of minimal inhibitory concentration. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavity of immunodeficient patients and along with other unusual species may present high resistance to the antifungals tested.(AU)

Justificación y Objetivos: La candidiasis oral acomete con frecuencia a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Sin embargo, otras infecciones emergentes se han vuelto cada vez más comunes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la prevalencia, la producción de determinantes de virulencia y la susceptibilidad a antifúngicos de levaduras que colonizan la mucosa de pacientes inmunocomprometidos en la región Nordeste de Brasil. Métodos: Se colectaron muestras de sesenta pacientes VIH positivos atendidos en el Servicio de Atención Especializado/Hospital Día del Hospital Universitario Prof. Alberto Antunes, vinculado a la Universidad Federal de Alagoas. Se colectaron las muestras en las regiones subgingivales y las sembraron en CHROMagar para la presunta confirmación de Candida spp. seguido de PCR y secuenciación. Además, analizamos los determinantes de virulencia fosfolipasa y proteasa y evaluamos in vitro la concentración mínima inhibitoria de los antifúngicos anfotericina B y fluconazol. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación del Centro de Estudios Superiores de Maceió. Resultados: Aproximadamente el 63% de los pacientes fueron colonizados por levaduras, y la C. albicans fue la especie predominante, mientras que las especies de Candida no-albicans representaron el 49% de los aislamientos, de las cuales la C. dubliniensis y la C. parapsilosis fueron las más comunes. Sin embargo, también se encontraron C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola y Naganishia liquefaciens. Los determinantes de virulencia de proteasa y/o fosfolipasa también fueron producidos por Candida spp. y algunos aislados oportunistas inusuales como Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens y Saitozyma podzolica. Además, la mayoría de los asilados de Candida spp. y algunas especies oportunistas inusuales mostraron valores altos de concentración mínima inhibitoria. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos indican que C. albicans continúa siendo la especie predominante en la cavidad oral de pacientes inmunodeprimidos y, junto con otras especies poco comunes, puede presentar una alta resistencia a los antifúngicos evaluados.(AU)

Humans , Virulence , Yeasts/virology , Candida , Candidiasis, Oral , Virulence Factors , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Antifungal Agents , Prevalence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 287-291, set 24, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358182


Introduction: the oral condition of patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is extremely important for clinical status monitoring, as lesions in the oral mucosa may imply complications and worsening of the health status of these patients. A higher probability of adherence, colonization, and bacterial infection in the oral cavity of patients in the ICU has also been reported. The poor oral hygiene conditions of these patients may be related to the reduction of salivary flow and difficulties in maintaining oral hygiene in a hospital environment, which rarely employs dentists on staff. Objective: to analyze the dental condition of patients admitted to the ICU of Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methodology: a total of 73 patients were evaluated through an oral examination performed with a wooden spatula and sterile gauze under natural light, and data were collected and analyzed. Results: The most commom oral lesions were tongue-coating (41%) and ulcerations in the oral mucosa caused by trauma or dehydration (19.1%). The occurrence of pseudomembranous candidiasis (8.2%), dehydration of the lips and mucosa (26%), and angular cheilitis (9.5%) was additionally recorded. It was observed that 31.5% patients had more than 10 days of hospitalization and of these, 26% presented pseudomembranous candidiasis. This clinical condition was not seen in patients with a shorter hospital stay. Conclusions: this study suggest a possible association between the length of stay of these patients and the clinical conditions presented. Thus, the results of this study may guide preventive and curative measures implemented by dental surgeons who may, in the future, be part of the multidisciplinary team of professionals working in the hospital environment, especially in ICUs.

Introdução: a condição oral de pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) é de extrema importância na evolução do quadro clínico desta população, já que lesões na mucosa oral podem implicar em complicações e agravo do estado de saúde destes indivíduos. Tem sido relatado também maior probabilidade de aderência, colonização e infecção bacteriana na cavidade oral de pacientes que se encontram em leitos de UTI. As condições precárias de higiene oral que estes pacientes normalmente apresentam podem estar relacionadas à redução do fluxo salivar e às dificuldades de higienização oral inerentes ao ambiente hospitalar, o qual geralmente não conta com cirurgiões-dentistas integrando a equipe de profissionais da instituição. Objetivo: a presente pesquisa visou analisar a condição odontológica de pacientes internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital Geral Roberto Santos. Metodologia: setenta e três foram avaliados através de um exame bucal, realizado com espátula de madeira e gaze estéril sob a iluminação de luz natural e seus dados foram coletados e analisados. Resultados: as lesões orais mais comuns foram saburra lingual (41%) e ulcerações na mucosa oral provocadas por trauma ou ressecamento (19,1%). A ocorrência de candidíase pseudomembranosa (8,2%), lábios e mucosas desidratados (26%) e queilite angular foi adicionalmente registrada. Foi observado que dos 31,5% dos pacientes com mais de 10 dias de internação, 26% apresentaram candidíase pseudomembranosa. Essa condição clínica não foi observada em pacientes com menor tempo de internação. Conclusão: o presente estudo sugere uma possível associação entre o tempo de internação destes pacientes e as condições clínicas apresentadas. Desta forma, a descrição dos resultados desta investigação pode contribuir para nortear os cuidados preventivos e curativos a serem adotados por cirurgiões-dentistas que futuramente integrem a equipe multidisciplinar de profissionais que atuam no ambiente hospitalar, em especial, nas unidades de terapia intensiva.

Humans , Male , Female , Candidiasis, Oral , Dental Service, Hospital , Intensive Care Units , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 266-272, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132372


Abstract The treatment of choice for chronic atrophic candidiasis (CAC), also known as denture stomatitis, is topical antifungal therapy. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and assess the antifungal susceptibility of Candida species from mucosal sites in denture wearers with a diagnosis of CAC and determine the prevalence of associated variables. The sample consisted of 44 patients wearing complete or partial dentures who had a clinical diagnosis of CAC. Using sterile cotton swabs, specimens were collected from the oral mucosa of all patients and grown at 30ºC for 48 h in CHROMagar Candida, as a means of isolating and screening the species. The complementary identification of the species was performed using the VITEK 2 automated system (BioMérieux), as well as the determination of their susceptibility to antifungal agents. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. STATA 13.1 was used for statistical analysis (α = 5%). Of 44 patients with CAC, 33 (75%) had lesions classified as Newton type II. Yeasts were isolated in 38 cases. The most prevalent species was Candida albicans. None of the isolates were resistant to the antifungals tested. Our findings suggest that current indications for antifungal agents are appropriate. Also, antifungal susceptibility testing and proper fungal identification can help dentists to determine the optimal course of treatment for CAC.

Resumo O tratamento de escolha para candidíase atrófica crônica (CAC), também conhecida como estomatite protética, é a terapia antifúngica tópica. Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar, identificar e avaliar a susceptibilidade antifúngica de espécies de Candida de locais mucosos em portadores de prótese com diagnóstico de CAC e determinar a prevalência de variáveis associadas. A amostra consistiu em 44 pacientes portadores de próteses completas ou parciais que tiveram um diagnóstico clínico de CAC. Usando swab estéril, foram coletados espécimes da mucosa oral de todos os pacientes e cultivados a 30ºC durante 48 h em CHROMagar Candida, como forma de isolamento e triagem das espécies. A identificação complementar das espécies foi realizada no sistema automatizado VITEK 2 (BioMérieux), bem como a determinação da susceptibilidade delas a agentes antifúngicos. Os dados foram analisados usando o teste do qui-quadrado. O STATA 13.1 foi utilizado para análise estatística (α = 5%). Dos 44 pacientes com CAC, 33 (75%) apresentaram lesões classificadas como Newton tipo II. As leveduras foram isoladas em 38 casos. A espécie mais prevalente foi Candida albicans. Nenhum dos isolados foi resistente aos antifúngicos testados. Nossas descobertas sugerem que as indicações atuais para os agentes antifúngicos são apropriadas. Além disso, testes de susceptibilidade antifúngicos e identificação fúngica adequada podem ajudar os dentistas a determinar o curso ótimo de tratamento para CAC.

Humans , Candida , Candidiasis, Oral , Candida albicans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Antifungal Agents
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(1): 30-33, jan.-abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1102370


As próteses removíveis são consideradas facilitadoras em potencial da estomatite protética, caracterizada por aspectos hiperplásicos e eritematosos na mucosa de suporte. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar as principais manifestações orais da estomatite protética em um paciente geriátrico associada a candidíase oral pseudomembranosa. Paciente do gênero masculino, setenta e quatro anos, apresentava uma lesão exofítica, na região de palato com dois centímetros de extensão, além da presença de candidíase pseudomembranosa, fazia o uso de uma prótese parcial superior removível há aproximadamente dez anos. Foi levantada a hipótese diagnóstica de estomatite protética associada a candidíase pseudomembranosa. A terapêutica instituída consistiu no uso de antifúngico por um período de quinze dias e biópsia incisional. O exame histopatológico confirmou o diagnóstico de hiperplasia fibrosa inflamatória. Foi recomendado a confecção de uma nova prótese para que fosse evitado a recorrência da lesão, e o paciente também foi instruído quanto a sua higiene oral evitando-se desta forma a recorrência da candidíase. O cirurgião-dentista deve ser capaz de reconhecer e diagnosticar a estomatite protética em sua prática diária e tratar o paciente de acordo com a sua etiologia, oferecendo desta forma para o paciente um maior conforto e melhores condições de vida(AU)

Removable total dentures are considered potential facilitators of prosthetic stomatitis, characterized by hyperplastic and erythematous aspects in the supporting mucosa. This paper aims to report the main oral manifestations of prosthetic stomatitis in an elderly patient associated with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis. A seventyseven-year-old male patient presented with an exophytic lesion in the palate region of two centimeters in length, in addition to the presence of pseudomembranous candidiasis, and had been using a removable upper partial denture for approximately ten years. The diagnostic hypothesis of prosthetic stomatitis associated with pseudomembranous candidiasis was raised. The therapy instituted consisted of the use of antifungal for a period of fifteen days and incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia. It was recommended to make a new prosthesis to avoid recurrence of the lesion, and the patient was also instructed as to its oral hygiene, thus avoiding the recurrence of candidiasis. The dentist should be able to recognize and diagnose prosthetic stomatitis in his daily practice and treat the patient according to its etiology, thus offering the patient greater comfort and better living conditions(AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Stomatitis, Denture , Dental Prosthesis , Stomatitis , Stomatitis, Denture/diagnosis , Stomatitis, Denture/therapy , Candidiasis, Oral
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e1965, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126482


RESUMEN Introducción: Algunos tipos de cáncer suelen ser tratados con fármacos quimioterapéuticos que afectan de forma indirecta la cavidad bucal, los cuales susceptibilizan al paciente a contraer infecciones bucales como candidiasis bucal. Se ha evidenciado que una condición oncológica facilita una infección bucal por Candida albicans, sin embargo, otras especies de Candida se les relaciona poco. Objetivo: Identificar especies de Candida spp. en cavidad bucal de pacientes sometidos a quimioterapia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se tomaron 60 muestras de igual número de pacientes por conveniencia de un Instituto Oncológico en Barranquilla, Colombia. Previo a un examen clínico de diagnóstico de candidiasis bucal. Se tomaron hisopados en las superficies infectadas para realizar un examen directo -tinción de Gram y cultivo en agar dextrosa Sabouraud con cloranfenicol incubadas a 37 ºC durante 48 h y posteriormente cultivadas en medio CHROMagar® Candida- para identificación de diferentes especies. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva y de correlación. Resultados. El 55 por ciento de los pacientes correspondió al sexo femenino, con edades mayores a 60 años. El cáncer de mama fue el más frecuente en el 30 por ciento. La quimioterapia aplicada a todos fue el 5-fluorouracilo combinado con ciclofosfamida. El tipo clínico de candidiasis atrófica en lengua fue más frecuente en el 37 por ciento, seguida de candidiasis pseudomembranosa en lengua en el 33 por ciento. El 90 por ciento de muestras presentó algún tipo de Candida, crecimiento de una única especie y cultivos mixtos con más de una especie de Candida. Se evidenció el 13,3 por ciento de C. albicans y otro 13,3 por ciento de Candida spp. no albicans. Ninguno de los diagnósticos oncológicos tuvo una asociación estadísticamente significativa con las especies de Candida. Conclusiones: Se evidencia que la especie de C. albicans en candidiasis bucal en pacientes con cáncer, fue la más frecuente, con predominio en mayor proporción cultivos mixtos de Candida no albicans (C. glabrata, C. tropicalis) poco relacionados con este tipo de enfermedad(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Some types of cancer are often treated with chemotherapeutic drugs which indirectly affect the oral cavity, thus making the patient vulnerable to infections such as oral candidiasis. Oral infection by Candida albicans has been found to be fostered by oncological conditions, but other Candida species have not been sufficiently analyzed in such a context. Objective: Identify Candida spp. in the oral cavity of patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 60 samples of an equal number of patients selected by convenience sampling at an Oncological Institute in Barranquilla, Colombia, following diagnostic clinical examination for oral candidiasis. Swab samples were taken from the infected surfaces to perform direct examination - Gram staining and Sabouraud dextrose agar culture with chloramphenicol incubated at 37ºC for 48 h and then cultured in CHROMagar® Candida medium - for identification of various species. Analysis was based on correlation and descriptive statistics. Results: Of the total patients evaluated 55 percent were female and aged over 60 years. Breast cancer prevailed with 30%. The chemotherapy applied in all cases was 5-fluorouracil combined with cyclophosphamide. Atrophic candidiasis of the tongue was the most common clinical type with 37 percent, followed by pseudomembranous candidiasis of the tongue with 33 percent. Of the samples examined, 90 percent contained some sort of Candida, growth of a single species and mixed cultures with more than one Candida species. C. albicans represented 13.3 percent and non-albicans spp. another 13.3 percent. None of the oncological diagnostic analyses had a statistically significant association to Candida species. Conclusions: The species C. albicans was the most commonly found in oral candidiasis among cancer patients, with a predominance of non-albicans Candida spp. (C. glabrata, C. tropicalis) mixed cultures, a fact not generally related to this condition(AU)

Humans , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e113, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132680


Abstract Here, the prevalence of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis among diabetic patients compared to healthy ones was summarized through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, Embase, and the grey literature were searched without restriction, until May 2020. Eligibility criteria were established, data were extracted, and quality assessment was conducted by two trained examiners. Qualitative synthesis was based on the recommendations of Fowkes and Fulton. Two meta-analyses were performed on studies investigating patients with: a) oral candidiasis and b) denture stomatitis. Out of 6034 screened studies, seven were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis; of these, three evaluated oral candidiasis and four evaluated denture stomatitis. Qualitative synthesis showed that the main methodological problems of the studies included sample size, source of controls, matching, and randomization. Diabetic patients had a similar chance of developing oral candidiasis to non-diabetic patients (OR1.40 [0.96; 2.04], p = 0.08, I2 = 94%). However, diabetic patients had a higher chance to present denture stomatitis compared to non-diabetic patients (OR 1.92 [1.42, 2.59] p < 0.0001, I2 = 0%). Therefore, diabetic patients have a higher chance of developing denture stomatitis compared to non-diabetic patients. However, for all analyses, the certainty of the evidence was considered to be very low.

Humans , Stomatitis, Denture/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 505-509, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1097201


Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica no tratamento da candidíase oral em pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids. Método: estudo experimental, qualitativo e descritivo com 18 pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids que manifestavam a candidíase oral, maiores de 18 anos, que estavam em tratamento no Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle. Este grupo subdividiu-se em um grupo controle, composto por sete pessoas, que recebeu tratamento com a terapia fotodinâmica e antifúngicos, e um grupo experimental, com 11, que recebeu apenas a terapia fotodinâmica. A evolução do tratamento de cada participante foi acompanhada por registros fotográficos em duas consultas, inicial e final. Esta pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do hospital, parecer número 2.431.107. Resultados: a maioria dos participantes apresentou melhora clínica, ainda que discreta, e em apenas um houve piora clínica. Conclusão: a terapia fotodinâmica antimicrobiana pode ser eficaz no tratamento da candidíase oral em pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids

Objective: evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of oral candidiasis in people living with HIV/ aids. Method: experimental, qualitative and descriptive study with 18 people living with HIV/aids who presented oral candidiasis, over 18 years of age, who were being treated at the Gaffrée and Guinle University Hospital. This group was subdivided into a control group, composed of seven people, who received treatment with photodynamic and antifungal therapy, and an experimental group, with 11, who received only the photodynamic therapy. The evolution of the treatment of each participant was followed by photographic registers in two appointments, initial and final. This research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee from the hospital, dictum number 2.431.107. Results: most of the participants showed clinical improvement, albeit discrete, and in only one there was clinical worsening. Conclusion: antimicrobial photodynamic therapy may be effective in the treatment of oral candidiasis in people living with HIV/Aids

Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia antimicrobiana de la terapia fotodinámica en el tratamiento de la candidiasis bucal en personas que viven con VIH/sida. Método: estudio experimental, cualitativo y descriptivo con 18 personas viviendo con VIH/sida que manifestaban la candidiasis bucal, mayores de 18 años, que estaban en tratamiento en el Hospital Universitario Gaffrée y Guinle. Este grupo se subdividió en grupo control, compuesto por siete personas, que recibió tratamiento con la terapia fotodinámica y antifúngicos, y un grupo experimental, con 11, que recibió sólo la terapia fotodinámica. La evolución del tratamiento de cada participante fue acompañada por registros fotográficos en dos consultas, inicial y final. La investigación fue aprobada por el Comité de Ética en Investigación del lugar, dictamen número 2.431.107. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes presentó mejoría clínica, aunque discreta, y en apenas uno hubo empeoramiento clínico. Conclusión: la terapia fotodinámica antimicrobiana puede ser eficaz en el tratamiento de la candidiasis bucal en personas que viven con el VIH/Sida

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Photochemotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Candidiasis, Oral/therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , HIV , Drug Resistance, Fungal
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(4): 1-7, 2020. tab
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1121326


Objective: Oral candidiasis is an infection that occurs in the oral cavity and is caused by candida species, often Candida albicans. This infection commonly occurs in a condition of immunosuppression caused by dexamethasone. Due to the side effects of antifungal therapy, developing a standardized immunosuppressed animal model to induce oral candidiasis for new therapies is required. The aim of this study is to observe oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed Wistar rats post dexamethasone injection at 7.2 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg doses. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group, treatment group 1 (injected with dexamethasone at a concentration of 7.2 mg/kg), and treatment group 2 (at a concentration of 16 mg/kg) for five days. Immunosuppression status was observed by leukocyte count and all the subjects' palates were inoculated with C. albicans 0.1 ml of 15x108 UFC/ml 24 hours later. The subjects' tongues were observed and confirmed by laboratory examination on day 10. A statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA, Kruskal­Wallis, Tukey HSD, and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: A significant clinical appearance of the subjects' tongues was observed only between C and T1 (p=0.023; p<0.05). Significant hyphal formation was observed between C and T1 (p= 0.037; p<0.05) and between C and T2 (p=0.007; p<0.05), and no significant difference was observed between T1 and T2. A significant increase in the colony count was also observed in similar results. Conclusion: Dexamethasone injection at doses of 7.2 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg is effective in triggering immunosuppression to induce oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed Wistar rats. (AU)

Candidíase oral é uma infecção que ocorre na cavidade oral e é causada por espécies de Candida, freqüentemente Candida albicans. Esta infecção geralmente ocorre em uma condição de imunossupressão causada por dexametasona. Devido aos efeitos colaterais de terapia antifúngica, o desenvolvimento de um padrão de modelo animal imunossuprimido para induzir candidíase oral para testar novas terapias se faz necessário. O objetivo deste estudo é observar candidíase oral em ratos Wistar imunossuprimidos pós-injeção de dexametasona utilizando doses de 7,2 mg /kg e 16 mg / kg. Material e métodos: Vinte e um ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle, tratamento grupo 1 (injetado com dexametasona na concentração de 7,2 mg / kg), e tratamento grupo 2 (concentração de 16 mg / kg) por cinco dias. A imunossupressão foi observada pela contagem de leucócitos e todos os palatos dos animais foram inoculados com C. albicans 0,1 ml de 15x108 UFC / ml após 24horas. As línguas dos animais foram observadas e confirmadas por exame laboratorial após 10 dias. A análise estatística foi realizada usando os testes de ANOVA um fator, kruskal ­ Wallis, Tukey HSD e de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Significante diferença na aparência clínica da língua dos animais foi observada apenas entre C e T1 (p = 0,023; p <0,05). Significativa diferença na formação de hifas foi observada entre C e T1(p = 0,037; p <0,05) e entre C e T2 (p = 0,007; p <0,05), e nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada entre T1 e T2. Um aumento significativo na contagem de colônias foi também observado com resultados semelhantes. Conclusão: Injeção de dexametasona utilizando doses de 7,2 mg / kg e 16 mg / kg é eficaz no desencadeamento da imunossupressão para induzir candidíase oral em ratos Wistar imunossuprimidos. (AU)

Rats , Candidiasis, Oral , Dexamethasone , Immunosuppression Therapy
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 1-7, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980148


Background and Objectives@#Oral candidiasis (OC) is a well-known local side effect of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of OC and its association with ICS-related factors in out-patient asthma and COPD patients of the Departments of Pulmonology and Pediatric Pulmonology of the Philippine General Hospital (PGH). @*Methods@#This is a cross-sectional study conducted from October 2019 to January 2020. Data was collected through a two-part questionnaire accomplished by doctors and patients with asthma or COPD. Results. A total of 67 patients were included in the study. Oral candidiasis was observed in 4 (5.97%) ICS users, and the prevalence was 1.65% to 14.59% (95% CI, SE: 0.028946).@*Conclusion@#This study determined the prevalence of oral candidiasis in asthma and COPD patients and its association with ICS-related factors, including the dosage, medication, device, and duration of therapy. The prevalence of OC in ICS users in PGH cannot be interpreted as high or low due to the small number of respondents, but is consistent with OC prevalence found in related literature. Increased prevalence was observed in adult females with asthma under low dose ICS therapy with Fluticasone/Salmeterol DPI for more than a year. There was no statistically significant correlation among OC prevalence, age, sex, and components of ICS-therapy including dosage, medication, device, frequency, and duration of therapy. A large-scale study is recommended for more accurate assessment of OC prevalence in the population and to determine statistically significant associations among the factors. It is also recommended to quantifiably measure patient compliance, inhalation technique and instruction, and its association to OC prevalence. Findings may be used to strengthen patient education, preventive measures, and disease management to facilitate improved compliance and effective treatment outcomes.

Candidiasis, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4,Supl): 441-445, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047354


A Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática (FPI) é uma doença crônica do interstício pulmonar que se manifesta por fibrose progressiva com alta prevalência de insuficiência respiratória. Como toda doença crônica e progressiva, a FPI necessita de acompanhamento por uma equipe multiprofissional de Cuidados Paliativos (CP) a fim de proporcionar um cuidado integral, considerando todas as queixas e necessidades do paciente. Em uma enfermaria de CP de um hospital terciário, um paciente do sexo masculino, 77 anos, foi admitido por FPI avançada para controle de sintomas e cuidados de fim de vida. Durante a oroscopia realizada pela equipe, recebeu diagnóstico de candidíase oral, onde foi solicitada avaliação do cirurgião-dentista. Na avaliação odontológica, queixou-se de língua ressecada e perda do paladar. Paciente acamado, dispneico em repouso, em uso contínuo de máscara de venturi e lábios ressecados, com presença de placas brancas ressecadas (resíduos alimentares) em palato duro e mole, mucosa jugal e gengival, língua ressecada com saburra e hipossalivação. Foi realizada a higiene oral, prescrição de substituto salivar e hidratante labial. O procedimento foi longo e intermitente devido à dificuldade do paciente de se manter sem o suporte de oxigênio. Após o procedimento, o paciente relatou melhora de 90% dos sintomas bucais. Conclusão: O caso apresentou as alterações bucais e os cuidados odontológicos em um paciente com FPI e também evidenciou a importância da avaliação especializada realizada pelo cirurgião-dentista inserido em uma equipe multiprofissional em CP, que, além do diagnóstico diferencial, proporcionou alívio dos sintomas bucais e conforto ao paciente em sua fase final de vida

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease manifested by progressive fibrosis with a high prevalence of respiratory failure. As all chronic and progressive diseases, IPF needs follow-up by a multidisciplinary Palliative Care (PC) team in order to provide comprehensive care considering all patient's complaints and needs. In a PC inpatient unit of a tertiary hospital, a 77-year-old male patient was admitted because of advanced IPF for symptom control and end-of-life care. During the oroscopy done by the team, he was diagnosed with oral candidiasis, where evaluation by the dentist was requested. In the dental evaluation, he complained of dry tongue and taste loss. Bedridden patient, dyspnea at rest, in continuous use of venturi mask and dry lips, dry white plaques (food residues) in hard and soft palate, jugal and gingival mucosa, dry tongue with oral coating and hyposalivation. Oral hygiene was performed, salivary substitute and lip moisturizer were prescribed. The procedure was long and intermittent due to the difficulty of the patient with staying without oxygen support. After the procedure, the patient reported 90% improvement in oral symptoms. Conclusion: The case showed the oral disorders and dental care in a patient with IPF and highlighted the importance of specialized evaluation performed by the dentist inserted in a multidisciplinary PC team which, besides the differential diagnosis, provided symptom relief of the mouth and comfort to the patient in his end of life

Oral Manifestations , Palliative Care , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Oral Hygiene , Patient Care Team , Respiratory Insufficiency , Candidiasis, Oral , Chronic Disease , Dentists , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnosis, Oral , Lung Diseases