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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbofuran/toxicity , Birds , Cattle
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Reproduction , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Buffaloes , Progesterone , Cattle , Lipopolysaccharides , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pasteurella multocida
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202850, dic. 2023. tab, fig
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1517878

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La prueba de provocación oral (PPO) para el diagnóstico de alergia a las proteínas de la leche de la vaca (APLV) presenta riesgos y requiere de recursos. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar condiciones y pruebas complementarias para identificar una alta probabilidad de APLV. Población y métodos. Análisis secundario sobre estudio de pacientes atendidos en una unidad de alergia entre 2015 y 2018. Se determinaron las probabilidades prepruebas asociadas a los síntomas y sus combinaciones, y las probabilidades pospruebas luego de realizadas pruebas cutáneas y determinación de inmunoglobulina E (IgE) sérica. Resultados. Se evaluó la información de 239 pacientes. Se observaron probabilidades mayores al 95 % en pacientes con angioedema y combinación de urticaria y vómitos. Usando puntos de corte propuestos por Calvani et al., la combinación de vómitos con rinitis, sin angioedema, también superó el 95 %. Conclusión. Se ofrece una metodología para identificar pacientes en los que puede diagnosticarse APLV sin realización de PPO.


Introduction. The oral food challenge (OFC) for the diagnosis of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) poses risks and requires resources. Our objective was to assess conditions and complementary tests used to identify a high probability of CMPA. Population and methods. Secondary analysis of a study of patients seen at a unit of allergy between 2015 and 2018. Pre-testing probabilities associated with symptoms and their combinations and post-testing probabilities after skin prick testing and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were determined. Results. The data from 239 patients were assessed. A probability greater than 95% was observed for angioedema and a combination of urticaria and vomiting. Based on the cut-off points proposed by Calvani et al., the combination of vomiting with rhinitis, without angioedema, also exceeded 95%. Conclusion. A methodology is provided to identify patients in whom CMPA may be diagnosed without an OFC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant , Milk Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Milk Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Angioedema/complications , Vomiting , Cattle , Skin Tests/methods , Milk Proteins/adverse effects
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202851, dic. 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518181

ABSTRACT

La leche humana es el estándar de oro para la nutrición del bebé y debe iniciarse en la primera hora de vida. La leche de vaca, de otros mamíferos o las bebidas vegetales no se deben ofrecer antes del año de vida. Sin embargo, algunos niños requieren, al menos en parte, de fórmulas infantiles. Aun con las sucesivas mejoras a lo largo de la historia mediante la incorporación de oliogosacáridos, probióticos, prebióticos, sinbióticos y postbióticos, las fórmulas infantiles siguen siendo perfectibles para reducir la brecha de salud entre los bebés amamantados y aquellos alimentados con fórmula. En este sentido, se espera que la complejidad de las fórmulas siga aumentando a medida que se conozca mejor cómo modular el desarrollo de la microbiota intestinal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión no sistemática del efecto de los diferentes escenarios lácteos sobre la microbiota intestinal.


Human milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition, and breastfeeding should be started within the first hour of life. Cow's milk, other mammalian milk, or plant-based beverages should not be offered before 1 year of age. However, some infants require, at least in part, infant formulas. Even with subsequent enhancements throughout history, with the addition of oligosaccharides, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics, infant formulas still have room for improvement in reducing the health gap between breastfed and formula-fed infants. In this regard, the complexity of infant formulas is expected to continue to increase as the knowledge of how to modulate the development of the gut microbiota is better understood. The objective of this study was to perform a non-systematic review of the effect of different milk scenarios on the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Milk Hypersensitivity , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Breast Feeding , Cattle , Infant Formula , Mammals , Milk, Human
5.
RFO UPF ; 28(1): 38-49, 20230808. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509411

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a qualidade da obturação e a resistência de união de dois cimentos endodônticos, AH Plus e Bio-C Sealer, em dentes humanos e bovinos. Métodos: Os canais radiculares de 60 dentes unirradiculares [30 humanos (H) e 30 bovinos (B)] foram preparados e obturados por condensação lateral da guta-percha e AH Plus (grupos AP-H e AP-B) ou Bio-C Sealer (grupos BC-H e BC-B). Seis fatias de 1,5 mm de espessura foram obtidas de cada raiz. Os espécimes foram observados em estereomicroscópio para avaliar a qualidade da obturação, considerando possíveis espaços vazios no material obturador. Posteriormente, as fatias radiculares foram avaliadas em termos de resistência de união por push-out e modo de falha. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Mann-Whitney e coeficientes de correlação de Spearman (α=5%). Resultados: A qualidade de obturação fornecida por AP e BC foi semelhante em ambos os substratos de dentina. No entanto, ao comparar dentes humanos e bovinos, os escores de espaços vazios foram maiores nas amostras bovinas, para ambos os cimentos. AP teve maior resistência de união à dentina humana e bovina do que BC. No entanto, não houve diferença significativa na resistência de união entre os substratos dentinários, para ambos os cimentos testados. Além disso, houve uma correlação positiva e moderada entre os valores de resistência de união de dentes humanos e bovinos. O modo de falha misto foi o mais prevalente. Conclusão: AP e BC fornecem qualidade de obturação semelhante, mas o primeiro apresenta maiores valores de resistência de união à dentina humana e bovina. A utilização de dentes bovinos como substitutos de amostras humanas parece ser adequada em estudos relacionados à resistência de união, mas não naqueles que testam a qualidade da obturação endodôntica.(AU)


Objective: This study aimed to compare the filling quality and bond strength of two endodontic sealers, AH Plus and Bio-C Sealer, in human and bovine teeth. Methods: The root canals of 60 [30 human (H) and 30 bovine (B)] single-rooted teeth were prepared and filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus (groups AP-H and AP-B) or Bio-C Sealer (groups BC-H and BC-B). Six 1.5-mm-thick slices were obtained from each root. The specimens were observed under a stereomicroscope to assess filling quality, considering possible voids within the filling material. Subsequently, root slices were evaluated in terms of push-out bond strength and failure mode. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlation coefficients (α=5%). Results: The filling quality provided by AP and BC was similar in both dentin substrates. However, when comparing human and bovine teeth, void scores were greater in the bovine samples, for both sealers. AP had higher bond strength to human and bovine dentin than BC. However, there was no significant difference in bond strength between dentin substrates, for both sealers tested. Also, there was a positive and moderate correlation between the bond strength values of human and bovine teeth. The mixed failure mode was the most prevalent. Conclusion: AP and BC provide similar filling quality, but the first presents higher bond strength values to human and bovine dentin. The use of bovine teeth as substitutes for human samples seems adequate in studies related to bond strength, but not in those testing root canal filling quality.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Cementation/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Restoration Failure , Gutta-Percha/chemistry
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 134-145, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430518

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Understanding species intraocular parameters using computed tomography (CT) scanning is initial and crucial step in ophthalmology. There is a lack of studies that have specialized in estimating the cattle and pig eyes using CT scans. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the anatomical and computed tomography features of cattle and pig eyes and its internal structures. Animal heads that not suffer from any diseases related to the eye were disarticulated. CT scan was performed. Moreover, 10 % fixed buffered formalin Specimens were used for the anatomical description of the eye and the optic nerve in particular. The values of length, width of the lens and globe, radio density of the optic nerve, lens, the anterior chamber, the vitreous chamber, and orbital dimensions were measured. Statistically, all parameters of cattle optic nerve increased significantly than that of the pig except for radiodensity, and angle of the optic nerve. Furthermore, all intraocular parameters of cattle increased significantly than that of the pig except the radiodensity of aqueous and vitreous humor. There was no significant difference between species in the opening angle of the orbit. This study's findings represent a first step toward developing CT reference values for cattle and pigs intraocular structural assessments.


Comprender los parámetros intraoculares de especies mediante la tomografía computarizada es un paso inicial y crítico en oftalmología. Faltan estudios enfocados en la estimación de ojos de bovinos y porcinos mediante tomografías computarizadas. Por tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las características anatómicas y de tomografía computarizada de los bulbos oculares de bovinos y porcinos y sus estructuras internas. Se desarticularon cabezas de animales que no padecieran alguna enfermedad relacionada con el ojo. Se realizó una tomografía computarizada. Se fijaron las muestras en formalina tamponada al 10 % para la descripción anatómica del bulbo ocular y del nervio óptico en particular. Se midieron los valores de longitud del bulbo ocular, ancho del lente y la radio densidad del nervio óptico, lente, cámara anterior, cámara vítrea y dimensiones orbitarias. Estadísticamente, todos los parámetros del nervio óptico del ganado aumentaron significativamente con respecto al del cerdo, excepto la radio densidad y el ángulo del nervio óptico. Además, todos los parámetros intraoculares del ganado bovino aumentaron significativamente respecto a los del cerdo, excepto la radio densidad del humor acuoso y cuerpo vítreo. No hubo diferencia significativa entre especies en el ángulo de apertura de la órbita. Los hallazgos de este estudio representan un primer paso hacia el desarrollo de valores de referencia de tomografía computarizada para evaluaciones estructurales intraoculares de ganado vacuno y porcino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Swine/anatomy & histology , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 37-44, jan.-jun. 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1426591

ABSTRACT

O trabalho foi realizado em uma fazenda de exploração leiteira em Castrolanda, no município de Castro ­ PR. O sistema de manejo é free-stall, com 220 vacas da raça Holandesa com RHA305 de 6.740 litros. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 18 vacas de pré-parto, 4 dias antes da data prevista para o parto; e nos dias 4, 7 e 12 pós-parto, mediante punção venosa coccígea, utilizando-se SnapTest digital Ketovet®, constituindo 72 amostras, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2020. Em 4 vacas o BHB do sangue total apresentou-se acima do limite para cetose subclínica no quarto dia após o parto e 17 apresentaram-se acima do limite no sétimo dia, declinando em seguida, principalmente devido às intervenções clínicas. As médias e desvios-padrão foram: D - 4: 0,89 ± 0,257061; D 4: 1,05 ± 0,283279; D 7: 1,81 ± 0,456131; e D 12: 1,19 ± 0,437762. O benefício do monitoramento de BHB foi a imediata intervenção clínica, evitando-se a severidade por instalação de quadro clínico e as enfermidades concomitantes.(AU)


The study was carried out on a dairy farm in Castrolanda, in the county of Castro - PR. The management system is free stall, with 220 Holstein cows with RHA305 of 6,740 liters. Blood samples were collected from 18 pre-calving cows, 4 days before the expected date of calving; and on days 4, 7 and 12 postpartum, by means of coccygeal venipuncture, using SnapTest digital Ketovet®, constituting 72 samples, from February to May 2020. In 4 cows the BHB of whole blood was shown above the limit for subclinical ketosis on the fourth day after delivery and 17 presented above the limit on the seventh day, then declining mainly due to clinical interventions. The means and standard deviations were D -4: 0.89 ± 0.257061; D 4: 1.05 ± 0.283279; D 7: 1.81 ± 0.456131; and D 12: 1.19 ± 0.437762. The benefit of monitoring BHB was immediate clinical intervention, avoiding clinical ketosis and concomitant illnesses.(AU)


El estudio se realizó en una explotación lechera de Castrolanda, en la comarca de Castro - PR. El sistema de manejo es estabulación libre, con 220 vacas Holstein con RHA305 de 6.740 litros. Se recogieron muestras de sangre de 18 vacas pre- parto, 4 días antes de la fecha prevista de parto; y en los días 4, 7 y 12 postparto, mediante venopunción coccígea, utilizando SnapTest digital Ketovet®, constituyendo 72 muestras, desde febrero a mayo de 2020. En 4 vacas la BHB de sangre total se mostró por encima del límite para cetosis subclínica en el cuarto día después del parto y 17 presentaron por encima del límite en el séptimo día, disminuyendo después debido principalmente a intervenciones clínicas. Las medias y desviaciones estándar fueron D -4: 0,89 ± 0,257061; D 4: 1,05 ± 0,283279; D 7: 1,81 ± 0,456131; y D 12: 1,19 ± 0,437762. El beneficio de monitorizar la BHB fue la intervención clínica inmediata, evitando la cetosis clínica y las enfermedades concomitantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle/physiology , Ketone Bodies/analysis , Ketosis/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis
8.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 52: e20220054, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1442090

ABSTRACT

Introduction: fluoride toothpaste is widely used by the population. Objective: dentifrices with a high concentration of sodium fluoride and the presence of tricalcium phosphate were developed, providing additional protection to patients vulnerable to the development of caries. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different dentifrices on the surface and internal hardness and enamel wear after artificial caries, pH cycling, and toothbrushing. Material and method: enamel blocks (4x4 mm) were obtained from 20 bovine teeth. The specimens were submitted to artificial caries lesion and then to pH cycling and brushing according to the dentifrice: Colgate Total 12 and Clinpro + Tricalcium Phosphate. Result: after this period, they were submitted to analysis of superficial and internal hardness and profilometry. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed. The data obtained were evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to evaluate the mineral recovery and profilometry, and two-way repeated measures ANOVA to evaluate the superficial and internal hardness. Conclusion: analyzing the surface hardness, after caries induction, there was a significant reduction in hardness that was partially recovered regardless of the dentifrice used. For internal hardness, Clinpro obtained lower values on the control side and up to 90 micrometers on the test side. As for profilometry, Colgate Total 12 showed greater wear when compared to Clinpro. It was concluded that Clinpro promoted lower internal hardness, however, Colgate Total 12 resulted in greater surface wear of tooth enamel.


Introdução: dentifrícios fluoretados são amplamente utilizados pela população. Foram desenvolvidos dentifrícios com alta concentração de fluoreto de sódio e presença de tricálcio fosfato, fornecendo proteção adicional a pacientes vulneráveis ao desenvolvimento da cárie. Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes dentifrícios na dureza superficial, interna e desgaste do esmalte após cárie artificial, ciclagem de pH e escovação. Material e método: blocos de esmalte (4x4 mm) foram obtidos a partir de 20 dentes bovinos. Os espécimes foram submetidos à lesão de cárie artificial e, em seguida, à ciclagem de pH e escovação de acordo com o dentifrício: Colgate Total 12 e Clinpro + Tricálcio Fosfato. Após este período, foram submetidos à análise de dureza superficial e interna e perfilometria. Foi realizada microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Resultado: os dados obtidos foram avaliados por ANOVA um critério para avaliar a recuperação mineral e perfilometria, ANOVA dois critérios medidas repetidas para avaliar a dureza superficial e interna. Conclusão: analisando a dureza superficial, após a indução da cárie houve uma redução significativa na dureza que foi parcialmente recuperada independente do dentifrício utilizado. Para dureza interna, Clinpro obteve valores menores no lado controle e até 90 micrômetros no lado teste. Quanto à perfilometria, o Colgate Total 12 apresentou maior desgaste quando comparado ao Clinpro. Concluiu-se que Clinpro promoveu menor dureza interna, porém, o Colgate Total 12 resultou em maior desgaste superficial do esmalte dentário.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Remineralization , Toothpastes , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Dental Enamel , Fluorine , Dental Caries , Dentifrices
9.
Braz. dent. sci ; 26(1): 1-9, 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1416950

ABSTRACT

Objective: to investigate the antimicrobial effects of toothpastes containing bioactive surface pre-reacted glass particles (S-PRG) on S. mutans biofilms adherence, initial colonization and maturation. Material and Methods: a reference UA 159 and a clinical S. mutans (SM6) strain were used. Bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated into the groups (n=5): toothpastes containing 0%; 1%; 5%; 20%; 30% S-PRG; positive control dentifrice (NaF+triclosan); and negative control (distilled water). For biofilm development, samples were placed in a 24-well plate containing artificial saliva (4h), followed by adding 1mL of artificial saliva, BHI broth and 225µL of S. mutans suspension. Treatments with toothpastes were applied previously or after 4h and 24h of biofilm formation. Samples were incubated for 48h at 37°C in 5%CO2 and biofilm was detached and seeded in Petri dishes for determining the number of viable cells. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (5%). Results: significantly lower microorganisms' adherence (p<0.05) was obtained for all S-PRG toothpastes, with similar results to NaF+triclosan for SM6 and 20 and 30%S-PRG groups exhibiting higher inhibition effect than the NaF+Triclosan for UA159. Antibacterial effect on the early-stage biofilm was also observed for the S-PRG groups, but was not superior to the NaF+Triclosan toothpaste. For the mature biofilm, the effective antimicrobial potential of S-PRG toothpastes was observed only for the SM6 clinical strain, but was not higher than the positive control. Conclusion: experimental S-PRG toothpastes were effective to inhibit S. mutans biofilm growth by exhibiting antimicrobial activity, being promising agents to prevent cariogenic biofilm development (AU)


Objetivo: investigar o efeito de dentifrícios contendo S-PRG sobre a colonização inicial e maturação de biofilmes de S. mutans. Material e Métodos: uma cepa de referência (UA 159) e uma cepa clínica de S. mutans (SM6) foram utilizadas. Espécimes de esmalte bovino foram alocados nos grupos (n=5): dentifrícios contendo 0%; 1%; 5%; 20% e 30%S-PRG; controle positivo (NaF+triclosan); e controle negativo (água destilada). Os espécimes foram inseridos em uma placa de 24 poços contendo saliva artificial (4h), seguido por adição de 1mL de saliva artificial, BHI, 225µL de suspensão de S. mutans e foram tratados com suspensões de dentifrícios antes ou depois de 4 e 24h da formação do biofilme. Os espécimes foram incubados por 48h e o biofilme foi removido dos espécimes e semeado em placas de Petri para contagem de UFC/mL. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (5%). Resultados: houve diminuição na adesão de microrganismos para os grupos tratados com S-PRG (p<0.05). Para SM6, os dentifrícios contendo S-PRG apresentaram resultados semelhantes ao NaF+triclosan e para a cepa UA159 o dentifrício com 30%S-PRG apresentou efeito superior. Efeito antimicrobiano no biofilme recém-formado (4h) foi observado para os grupos contendo S-PRG, mas não foi observado efeito superior ao NaF+Triclosan. Para o biofilme maduro, efeito antimicrobiano do S-PRG foi observado apenas para a cepa clínica, mas não superior ao efeito do NaF+Triclosan. Conclusão: dentifrícios contendo S-PRG foram eficazes na inibição do desenvolvimento de biofilmes de S. mutans, sendo promissores agentes para prevenir o desenvolvimento de biofilme cariogênico. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus mutans , Biofilms , Dental Enamel , Dental Plaque , Dentifrices
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0058, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521784

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever e validar um modelo oftalmológico para treinamento de transplante e microssutura de córnea utilizando globo ocular bovino. Métodos Para a montagem do modelo de treinamento, o globo ocular foi disposto sob o campo cirúrgico, apoiado sobre um recipiente plástico cilíndrico comum de 3,5cm de diâmetro, para a retirada da córnea. Foi realizada uma incisão circular superficial, e, posteriormente, uma tesoura Castroviejo curva de 9 cm foi utilizada para remoção completa da córnea, que foi recolocada em sua posição original, para que, em seguida, fossem confeccionados nove pontos equidistantes, usando fio de nylon 10-0. Por fim, foram avaliados os seguintes critérios: tempo de realização das suturas; evolução do tempo e da qualidade a cada teste; e destreza e aperfeiçoamento da realização das suturas. Resultados O modelo descrito demonstrou-se viável e adequado para o treinamento de microssuturas na córnea, possibilitando aperfeiçoamento e ganho de habilidades cirúrgicas. Conclusão O modelo de treinamento microcirúrgico apresentado possui alta viabilidade para a simulação de cirurgias oftalmológicas e textura semelhante à do olho humano real, o que o torna próximo à realidade.


ABSTRACT Objective To describe and validate an ophthalmic model for corneal transplantation and micro suture training using a bovine eyeball as a model. Methods For the training model, the eyeball was placed under the sanitary field placed on the ends of a common 3.5cm diameter cylindrical plastic container for corneal removal. A superficial circular incision was made, then 9cm curved Castroviejo scissors were used for complete corneal removal. The cornea was replaced in its original position, and 10-0 nylon thread was used to perform the sutures, with 9 equidistant stitches. Finally, the following criteria were evaluated: suturing time, time and quality progression in each attempt, dexterity and suturing improvement. Results The described model proved to be feasible and suitable for corneal micro suture training, allowing improvement and gain of dexterity in the sport. Conclusion The presented microsurgical training model has a high feasibility for the simulation of ophthalmic surgeries, in addition to a texture similar to the real human eye, which makes it close to reality.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ophthalmology/education , Corneal Transplantation/education , Models, Animal , Simulation Training/methods , Microsurgery/education , Teaching Materials , Cattle , Suture Techniques/education , Education, Medical , Models, Anatomic
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39048, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428234

ABSTRACT

In intensive beef cattle production systems, silage, corn, soy bean, and their coproducts are commonly used as feed. However, these ingredients are highly susceptible to contamination by fungi and mycotoxins, which may lead to immunological challenges and reduce animal production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of mycotoxin contamination of diet on intake, digestibility, and performance of heifers. Twenty non-pregnant (Nellore) heifers (age, >18 months; initial body weight, 348±30 kg) were used and randomly distributed in two treatments: (1) control (non-contaminated diet) and (2) zearalenone-contaminated diet (300 ppb). The diet comprised 70% corn silage and 30% concentrate. Individual dry matter intake and digestibility were estimated using external and internal markers. Heifer body weight was evaluated every week without fasting to calculate performance. The experimental design was completely randomized. Each animal was considered one experimental unit. Assumptions were tested for variance analyses (error normality, independence of errors, and homogeneity of variances) (p<0.05). There were no differences in dry matter intake (p=0.96) and digestibility (p=0.62). Performance (kg/day) did not vary as a function of zearalenone ingestion (p=0.68). Therefore, contamination of diet with 300 ppb zearalenone did not affect the intake, digestibility, and performance of feedlot-finished heifers.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Mycotoxicosis , Animal Feed
12.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 52: e20230005, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1522087

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dentin adhesives provide union between the dental substrate and composite resin, but this union can be influenced by the cleaning agent. Objective: Evaluate the use of ozonated water as a cavity cleaning solution. Material and method: 40 bovine dental crowns were selected, divided into four groups: AD (dentin cleaning with distilled water) and AO (dentin cleaning with ozonized distilled water). Each group was divided into two storage periods (24h and 30 days) kept at 37 °C. The selected universal system adhesive was employed according to the manufacturer's instructions and light cured for 20 seconds. At that time, three cylinders were made (Tygon matrix with an internal diameter of 2 mm and a height of 2 mm) of composite resin in the crowns in the cervical, médium, and incisal regions and light cured for 30 seconds. After storage, the bonding strength was tested by micro-shear, and fracture type analysis was performed. The data were submitted to statistical analysis using the Shapiro-Wilk test with a significance level of 95%, ANOVA, and Turkey. Result: There was a statistically significant difference between the bond strength values, only in the intergroup analysis for the time of 24 hours, between the middle third of the groups (LDAO24 = 2.70 (± 2.39); LDAO30 = 3.82 (± 2.31)). The predominant fracture type for both groups was an adhesive fracture, except in the medium and incisal thirds of the AD, which was a cohesive dentin fracture. Conclusion: The utilization of ozone did not change the bond strength adhesive.


Introdução: Os adesivos dentinários proporcionam união entre o substrato dental e resina composta, porém esta união pode ser influenciada pelo agente de limpeza. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência na resistência de união (RU) de um sistema adesivo universal associado à da água ozonizada como solução de limpeza cavitária. Material e método: Foram selecionadas 40 coroas de dentes anteriores bovinos divididos em 4 grupos: AD (limpeza dentinária com água destilada) e AO (limpeza dentinária com água destilada ozonizada). Cada grupo foi subdividido em outros dois grupos de acordo com o tempo de armazenamento (24h e 30 dias) armazenados a 37ºC. A limpeza dentinária foi realizada por meio de uma seringa de 60mL de cada solução e fricção por 10 segundos. O sistema adesivo universal selecionado foi aplicado de acordo com as instruções do fabricante e fotoativado por 20 segundos. Em seguida, foram confeccionados 3 cilindros (matriz Tygon com um diâmetro interno de 2 mm e 2 mm de altura) de resina composta nas coroas nas regiões cervical, média e incisal e fotoativados por 30 segundos. Após o armazenamento foi realizado o teste de RU por microcisalhamento e análise do tipo de fratura. Os dados coletados foram submetidos a análise estatística através do teste de Shapiro Wilk com nível de significância de 95%, ANOVA e Tukey. Resultado: Houve diferença estatística significativa entre os valores de RU apenas na análise intergrupos para o tempo de 24 horas, entre o terço médio dos grupos (LDAO24 = 2,70 (± 2,39); LDAO30 = 3,82 (± 2,31)). O tipo de fratura predominante para ambos os grupos em todos os tempos foi de fratura adesiva, com exceção ao terço médio e incisal do AD, que foi fratura coesiva de dentina. Conclusão: A utilização do ozônio não alterou a resistência de união adesiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Ozone , Analysis of Variance , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Composite Resins , Shear Strength
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 514-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984751

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the oncologic and surgical safety of the fused fascia method for immediate breast reconstruction with implants. Methods: The clinical data of 343 patients with immediate breast reconstruction with implants in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital from 2014-2017 were retrospectively analyzed to compare the 5-year local recurrence-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival of patients with breast reconstruction by fusion fascia and other methods, and to analyze the complication incidences of implant removal between different implant groups. Results: Of the 343 patients with breast reconstruction, 95 were in the fused fascia group (fascia group) and 248 were in the non-fascia group (25 in the bovine pericardial patch group and 223 in the muscle flap group). At a median follow-up of 49 months, the differences in 5-year local recurrence-free survival (90.1% and 94.9%, respectively), 5-year disease-free survival (89.2% and 87.6%, respectively), and 5-year overall survival (95.2% and 95.1%, respectively) between patients in the fascial and non-fascial groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The complication incidence of implant removal was 24.0% (6/25) in the patch group and 2.1% (2/95) and 2.2% (5/223) in the fascia and muscle flap groups, respectively. Conclusion: Immediate breast reconstruction with fused fascial combined with implant is safe and feasible, less invasive than muscle flaps, more economical and with fewer complications than patches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Female , Mastectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Breast Implants/adverse effects , Feasibility Studies , Mammaplasty/methods , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Treatment Outcome , Postoperative Complications/surgery
14.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e236508, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1398929

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the resistance of the union between a glass fiber post and radicular dentine after cleaning the root with 17% EDTA and filling with different endodontic cements. Methods: Forty uniradicular bovine incisors were removed to obtain root lengths of 18 mm. Endodontic treatment was performed on all roots using different filling cements (zinc oxide and eugenol-based, OZE; cement based on epoxy resin, AH) and cleaning solutions (saline, SA or EDTA), which made it possible to obtain four groups: OZESA, OZEEDTA, AHSA and AHEDTA. Subsequently, 12 mm of filling material was removed from the roots, and they were prepared to receive fiber posts luted with resin cement. To execute the mechanical cycles (2x106 cycles, 90 N, 4 Hz), coronal reconstruction was performed with a silicon matrix. The roots were then sliced (2-mm thick) to perform the push-out test. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (one factor and two factors) and Tukey's test (α=0,05). Results: Bond strength (Mpa) was significantly higher for OZEEDTA (9,18) and AHEDTA (8,70) than for OZESA (6,06) AHSA (8,7). OZEEDTA also presented the highest values in the cervical region (15,18) but was significantly lower in the apical region (2,99). However, AHEDTA had a homogeneous bond strength in all thirds. Conclusion: Regardless of the endodontic cement used, EDTA was used as an irrigating solution, culminating in a higher bond strength between the glass fiber post and dentin


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement , Efficacy , Edetic Acid , Tooth, Nonvital , Endodontics
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339362

ABSTRACT

Abstract The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.


Resumo O telencéfalo refere-se à parte anterior e mais desenvolvida do prosencéfalo, consistindo principalmente dos hemisférios cerebrais. O estudo determinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator indutível por hipóxia (HIF-1α) no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos e comparou a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de Ngb e HIF-1α nos dois animais. Imuno-histoquímica (IHC), reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e Western blot (WB) foram empregados para investigar a expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos. As expressões de mRNA e proteínas de Ngb e HIF-1α mostraram-se positivas em diferentes tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque e bovino. A expressão de Ngb nos tecidos do iaque foi registrada mais alta em comparação com o gado, enquanto a expressão do HIF-1α foi encontrada mais alta no gado do que no iaque. A expressão de HIF-1α em alguns tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque foi consistente com o gado. Os resultados documentaram que o HIF-1α pode ter um efeito sinérgico direto ou indireto na expressão de Ngb no telencéfalo de iaque para melhorar a adaptação à hipóxia. É sugerido que o iaque pode precisar de mais expressão de Ngb para adaptação, mas a expressão de HIF-1α parece ser regulada para baixo durante a adaptação de longo prazo, e as causas específicas desse fenômeno precisam ser verificadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Telencephalon , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Cattle , Adaptation, Physiological , Neuroglobin
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia , Brain , RNA, Messenger , Cattle , Neuroglobin
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
19.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 53(1): 1-18, 2023. mapas, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1410661

ABSTRACT

This study presented relevant aspects about the Amazonian environment and how it impacts the thermal comfort of domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) raised in the Eastern Amazon. Furthermore, strategies for monitoring and mitigating animal heat stress are presented, based on research results with the species. Although domestic buffaloes are considered adaptable animals, exposure to intense solar radiation causes thermal discomfort. This condition is expressed in biophysical indicators, in metabolic, endocrine, behavioral responses, and in body thermographic patterns. Therefore, the biometeorological monitoring of production is crucial to support decision-making regarding environmental management strategies, genetic selection of thermotolerant individuals, and increase in animal welfare. Lastly, the use of silvopastoral systems can help to provide higher thermal comfort, which is a condition that directly impacts the productivity of milk and meat buffaloes when they are raised in tropical regions, such as in the Eastern Amazon.


Objetivou-se apresentar aspectos relevantes sobre o ambiente amazônico e como este impacta no conforto térmico de búfalos domésticos (Bubalus bubalis) criados na Amazônia Oriental. Adicionalmente, são apresentadas estratégias para monitoramento e mitigação do estresse térmico animal, a partir de resultados de pesquisa com a espécie. Apesar dos búfalos domésticos serem considerados animais adaptáveis, a exposição à intensa radiação solar provoca desconforto térmico. Essa condição é expressa em indicadores biofísicos, nas respostas metabólicas, endócrinas, comportamentais e nos padrões termográficos corporais. Assim, o monitoramento biometeorológico da produção é crucial para subsidiar tomadas de decisão em relação a estratégias de manejo ambiental, seleção genética de indivíduos termotolerantes e incremento do bem-estar animal. Por fim, o uso de sistemas silvipastoris pode auxiliar na oferta de maior conforto térmico, que é uma condição que impacta diretamente na produtividade de bubalinos de leite e carne, quando estes são criados em regiões tropicais, como na Amazônia Oriental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Animal Welfare , Buffaloes , Amazonian Ecosystem , Solar Radiation
20.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 6-6, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Recent studies indicate that the timing of introduction of potentially allergenic food is crucial for the development of food allergy in children. This cross-sectional study aimed to clarify the reality of allergen food intake in a general population of young children in Japan.@*METHODS@#A questionnaire survey of caregivers was conducted at health checkups for 1.5-year (18-month)-old and 3-year-old children in the fall of 2020. The caregivers were asked about (1) the presence/absence of allergic disease symptoms based on the ISAAC questionnaire, and (2) foods that caregivers avoided giving their children. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were periformed to determine factors associated with food avoidance.@*RESULTS@#Questionnaires were distributed to 1720 caregivers, and 1603 (93%) responded. The responders consisted of 771 and 832 caregivers who participated in 1.5-year-old and 3-year-old checkups, respectively. The prevalence of allergic diseases was comparable to recent epidemiological studies in Japan, indicating that the population may be representative. At 1.5 years old, more than 50% of the children were not exposed to peanuts, tree nuts, fish eggs, shellfish, and buckwheat. At 3 years old, the avoidance rates of the foods had decreased but were still between 18.8% and 32.0%. On the other hand, the avoidance rates of chicken egg and cow's milk, the top 2 common allergenic foods in Japan, were much lower at 2.8% and 1.5% at 1.5 years, and they decreased to 1.4% and 0.7% at 3 years old, respectively. Ordinal logistic analysis showed that avoidance of chicken egg, cow's milk, and wheat was associated with food allergy diagnosis and chicken egg avoidance with eczema, but avoidance of other foods showed no associations with any risk factors for food allergy.@*CONCLUSION@#Caregivers avoided giving various foods, independent of allergy risk factors, to their young children. Since delayed introduction of an allergenic food has been reported to increase the risk of developing an allergy to the food, the results warrant future investigation of the development of food allergies in relation to current eating habits and recommendations.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Food Hypersensitivity/complications , Risk Factors , Food , Allergens
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