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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 44: e257594, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1558739

ABSTRACT

Addictive behaviors related to Internet are becoming more common and this tool has been essential once it enables home office, entertainment, homeschooling, and easy access to information. Despite the easiness brought by technology, the exaggerated use has affected users in different ways, including in the development of psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to assess internet addiction, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attention, impulsivity, and stress in 48 adolescents (26 young women and 22 young men), aged from 15 to 18 years, with a mean age of 16.74 (0.61), mostly students of public schools, during COVID-19, to investigate correlations between these variables according to sex and sociodemographic aspects. To assess the factors, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT); the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP-IV) Questionnaire ; the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale for brazilian adolescents (EDAE-A); the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11); and a sociodemographic questionnaire were applied. The data collection was performed in schools located in southern Brazil. The results indicated that 12 out of 48 adolescents were considered addicted to the Internet. Moreover, Internet addiction was a predictor of depression in regression analysis (p<0.001). In addition, participants classified as more addicted to the Internet scored lower averages in general attention (p<0.035) and higher averages in behavioral symptoms of inattention and ADHD (p<0.050), stress (p<0.003), anxiety (p<0.016), and depression (p<0.015), with effect sizes ranging from moderate to high. Therefore, the intense internet use by adolescents might cause psychological consequences such as depression in adolescents. Family support and professional intervention might help in the reduction of symptoms and consequences of internet addiction as well as in its prevention.(AU)


A dependência de internet é cada vez mais comum, pois essa ferramenta tem se tornado imprescindível, uma vez que possibilita home office, entretenimento, educação domiciliar e fácil acesso às informações. No entanto, o uso exagerado da tecnologia afeta os usuários de diversas formas, inclusive no desenvolvimento de transtornos psiquiátricos. Este estudo visou avaliar a dependência de internet, depressão, ansiedade, hiperatividade, atenção, impulsividade e estresse em 48 adolescentes (26 meninas e 22 meninos) de 15 a 18 anos, com idade média de 16,74 (0,61), estudantes de escolas públicas do Sul do Brasil durante a covid-19, para investigar correlações entre as variáveis anteriores de acordo com gênero e aspectos sociodemográficos. Para avaliar, aplicou-se o Internet Addiction Test (IAT), um teste de atenção, escala SNAP IV, escala de depressão, ansiedade e estresse para adolescentes (EDAE-A), escala de impulsividade de Barratt e um questionário sociodemográfico. Os resultados indicaram que 12 adolescentes foram considerados viciados em internet, e que a dependência desta foi preditora da depressão na análise de regressão (p < 0,001). Ainda, os participantes classificados como adictos tiveram médias mais baixas em atenção geral (p < 0,035) e mais altas em sintomas comportamentais de desatenção e hiperatividade (p < 0,050), estresse (p < 0,003), ansiedade (p < 0,016) e depressão (p < 0,015), com efeitos que variaram de moderado a alto. Portanto, o uso intenso da internet por adolescentes pode ter consequências psicológicas, como a depressão. Bom apoio familiar e intervenção profissional podem ajudar na redução dos sintomas e consequências, bem como na prevenção da dependência.(AU)


La adicción a Internet es cada vez más habitual, puesto que esta herramienta es esencial para el trabajo remoto, el entretenimiento, la educación domiciliar y el fácil acceso a la información. Sin embargo, su uso exagerado afecta a la vida de las personas de diferentes maneras, incluso en el desarrollo de trastornos psiquiátricos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la adicción a Internet, depresión, ansiedad, hiperactividad, atención, impulsividad y estrés en 48 adolescentes (26 muchachas y 22 muchachos), de entre 15 y 18 años, con una edad promedio de 16,74 (0,61), en su mayoría estudiantes de escuelas públicas del Sur de Brasil, durante la pandemia de la COVID-19, para investigar las correlaciones entre las variables mencionadas según género y aspectos sociodemográficos. Para evaluar los factores, se aplicaron el Test de Adicción a Internet (TAI), un test de atención, la escala SNAP IV, la Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés para adolescentes (EDAE-A), la escala de impulsividad de Barratt y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Los resultados indicaron que 12 adolescentes fueron considerados adictos a Internet, además, la adicción a Internet fue un predictor de la depresión en el análisis de regresión (p<0,001). Igualmente, los participantes clasificados como más adictos a Internet tuvieron promedios más bajos en atención general (p<0,035), y más altos en síntomas conductuales de falta de atención e hiperactividad (p<0,050), estrés (p<0,003), ansiedad (p<0,016) y depresión (p<0,015), con efectos que varían de moderado a alto. Por lo tanto, el uso intenso podría producir consecuencias psicológicas como la depresión en los adolescentes. Tener un buen apoyo familiar e intervención profesional puede ayudar a reducir los síntomas y las consecuencias de la adicción a Internet, así como prevenirla.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent , Internet Addiction Disorder , Technology Addiction , Mental Disorders , Perception , Personality Development , Psychological Phenomena , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychomotor Performance , Psychopathology , Psychotherapy , Rejection, Psychology , Self Concept , Sleep Wake Disorders , Social Adjustment , Social Alienation , Social Environment , Social Isolation , Social Sciences , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stress, Psychological , Task Performance and Analysis , Therapeutics , Time , Work Simplification , Physicians' Offices , Bipolar Disorder , Boredom , Computer Communication Networks , Shyness , Activities of Daily Living , Computers , Exercise , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Comorbidity , Cerebral Cortex , Child Advocacy , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Public Health , Reproducibility of Results , Adolescent Behavior , Behavior, Addictive , Time Management , Cognition , Communications Media , Consumer Behavior , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Neurocognitive Disorders , Wit and Humor , Counseling , Education, Distance , Affect , Culture , Adolescent Health , Depressive Disorder , Displacement, Psychological , Economics , Emotions , Equipment and Supplies , Disease Prevention , Exercise Test , Cerebrum , Family Conflict , Fear , Sedentary Behavior , Executive Function , Pandemics , Cognitive Dysfunction , Social Media , Financing, Personal , Mindfulness , Social Skills , Smartphone , Patient Health Questionnaire , Procrastination , Neuroticism , Academic Performance , Academic Success , Virtual Reality , Cyberbullying , Online Social Networking , Screen Time , Frustration , Data Analysis , Internet-Based Intervention , Psychological Distress , Social Comparison , Social Interaction , COVID-19 , Sluggish Cognitive Tempo , Exergaming , Social Deprivation , Sociodemographic Factors , Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder , Oppositional Defiant Disorder , Amygdala , Hostility , House Calls , Ergonomics , Impulsive Behavior , Interpersonal Relations , Introversion, Psychological , Anger , Learning , Limbic System , Loneliness , Mental Processes , Motivation , Motor Activity , Movement , Neurology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1004-1008, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514328

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: For the purposes of teaching anatomy, the use of cadaver preparations is considered the most efficient way of ensuring that students retain knowledge. Nevertheless, in Ecuador the use of animal specimens in universities must comply with the internationally accepted principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (3Rs). Plastination is an alternative technique which allows organs to be conserved in the long term and complies with the 3Rs. The object of the present work was to use cold-temperature silicone plastination with Biodur® products to obtain long-lasting, easy-to-handle canine organs for use as tools for the teaching of animal anatomy. Six canine cadavers were obtained from local animal protection charities. The hearts, brains and kidneys of the cadavers were dissected and fixed with formaldehyde 10 %. They were then dehydrated with acetone at -20 °C. The specimens were impregnated with Biodur® S10:S3 (-20 °C) and finally cured with Biodur® S6. We plastinated six hearts, twelve kidneys, four brains and one encephalic slice of canine. The application of cold-temperature plastination to canine organs followed the parameters established for the conventional protocol, enabling us to obtain organs of brilliant appearance, free of odours, in which the anatomical form was preserved. Thus the technique helped us to comply with the 3Rs, as we obtained easy-to-handle teaching models to replace fresh or formaldehyde-fixed samples for the teaching-learning of the canine anatomy.


En la enseñanza de la Anatomía, el uso de preparaciones cadavéricas se considera el método que permite a los estudiantes retener el conocimiento de una forma más eficiente. No obstante, en Ecuador, el uso de especímenes animales en las universidades se debe realizar bajo el principio internacional de reemplazo, reducción y refinamiento (3Rs). La técnica de plastinación es una técnica alternativa que permite preservar órganos a largo plazo y que se adapta al principio de las 3Rs. El objetivo del trabajo fue utilizar la técnica de plastinación en silicona al frío con productos Biodur® para obtener órganos caninos duraderos y manejables útiles como herramienta para la enseñanza de la anatomía animal. Se obtuvieron seis cadáveres de caninos de fundaciones locales para la protección animal. Se realizaron disecciones de corazones, cerebros y riñones de los cadáveres caninos. Los órganos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. A continuación, se llevó a cabo la deshidratación con acetona a -20 °C. Los especímenes fueron impregnados con S10:S3 Biodur® (-20 °C) y al final fueron curados con Biodur® S6. Se lograron plastinar seis corazones, doce riñones, cinco encéfalos y un tallo encefálico de canino. La técnica de plastinación al frío utilizada para obtener órganos de canino conservó los parámetros empleados en el protocolo convencional y permitió obtener órganos que presentaron aspecto brillante, ausencia de olores y mantuvieron la forma anatómica. Por lo que, la técnica facilitó cumplir con el principio de las 3Rs al obtenerse modelos didácticos fáciles de manipular que pueden reemplazar muestras frescas o formolizadas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la anatomía del canino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Organ Preservation/methods , Cryopreservation , Plastination , Anatomy, Veterinary/education , Silicones , Tissue Preservation/methods , Cold Temperature , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology
3.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244422, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431118

ABSTRACT

Funções executivas (FE) referem-se ao conjunto de habilidades que, de forma integrada, coordenam o comportamento e a cognição. Assim, o comprometimento no desenvolvimento das FE está ligado a vários desfechos negativos ao longo da vida. Portanto, a avaliação dessas habilidades na infância é essencial para identificar e prevenir prejuízos na vida adulta. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar evidências de validade do Teste Informatizado para Avaliação das Funções Executivas (Tafe) pelo critério de idade e pelo padrão de correlação entre medidas do TAFE e outras medidas de FE. Para isso, foi utilizada uma amostra de 51 crianças, entre 4 e 10 anos de idade, matriculadas em uma escola privada na cidade de Goiânia (GO), da pré-escola ao 4º ano do ensino fundamental. Como instrumentos, foram utilizados, além do Tafe, as tarefas de Bloco de Corsi, Teste de Trilhas A e B, Teste de Trilhas Pré-Escolares, Teste de Stroop Pré-Escolares e Subteste Dígitos da Escala Wechsler de Inteligência. Foram conduzidas análises estatísticas Kruskal Wallis para verificar a evidência de validade por relação com idade e análises de correlação não paramétrica de Spearman para avaliar as evidências de validade convergente. O instrumento investigado mostrou-se efetivo para discriminar entre as diferentes faixas etárias, assim, sensível ao desenvolvimento das FE. Os resultados obtidos no Tafe correlacionaram-se aos obtidos em outros testes que também avaliaram FE, mostrando claros padrões de convergência. Logo, as análises dos resultados fornecem evidências de validade ao Tafe, derivadas a partir de diferentes estratégias de investigação.(AU)


Executive functions (EF) refer to the set of skills that, in an integrated way, coordinate behavior and cognition. Thus, the commitment in developing EF is linked to several negative outcomes throughout life. Therefore, the assessment of these abilities in childhood is essential to identify and prevent possible harm in adult life. This study aimed to investigate evidences of validity of the Computerized Test for Evaluation of Executive Functions (TAFE) by the age criterion and by the pattern of correlation between TAFE measures and other EF measures. To this end, a sample of 51 children, between 4 and 10 years old, enrolled in a private school in the municipality of Goiânia (GO), from preschool to the 4th year of elementary school, was used. As instruments, in addition to TAFE, the tasks of Corsi Block, Trails Test A and B, Preschool Trails Test, Preschool Stroop Test and the Digits Subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale were used. Kruskal Wallis statistical analyzes were conducted to verify the evidence of validity by age criteria and Spearman's nonparametric correlation analysis to assess evidence of convergent validation. The instrument investigated was effective to discriminate between different age groups, thus being sensitive to the development of EF. The results obtained in TAFE were correlated with those obtained in other tests that also assess FE, showing patterns of convergence. Therefore, the analysis of the results provides validation evidence to TAFE, derived from different investigation methods.(AU)


Las funciones ejecutivas (FE) se refieren al conjunto de habilidades que coordinan la conducta y la cognición. Así, el deterioro en el desarrollo de FE está relacionado con varios resultados negativos durante la vida. Por tanto, la valoración de estas habilidades en la infancia es fundamental para identificar y prevenir posibles daños en la vida adulta. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la evidencia de validez de la Prueba Computarizada para Evaluación de Funciones Ejecutivas (Tafe) por el criterio de edad y convergencia entre las medidas Tafe y otras medidas de FE. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 51 niños, de entre 4 y 10 años de edad, matriculados en un colegio privado de Goiânia (Goiás, Brasil) desde la preescolar hasta 4.º de primaria. Como instrumentos, además del Tafe, se utilizaron las tareas de Bloque de Corsi, el Test de los senderos A y B, el Test de los Senderos Preescolares, el Test de Stroop Preescolar y la Subprueba de Dígitos de la Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos de Kruskal Wallis para verificar la validez por criterios de edad y análisis de correlación no-paramétrica de Spearman para evaluar la evidencia de validez convergente. Tafe demostró ser efectivo para discriminar entre diferentes grupos de edad, así es sensible al desarrollo de FE. Los resultados en Tafe se correlacionaron con los obtenidos en otras pruebas de FE, lo que muestra claros patrones de convergencia. Por tanto, el análisis aporta evidencias de validez para Tafe, derivadas de diferentes estrategias de investigación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cognition , Pliability , Inhibition, Psychological , Memory, Short-Term , Perception , Aptitude Tests , Play and Playthings , Play Therapy , Primary Health Care , Problem Solving , Psychological Phenomena , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Mental Recall , Recreation , Retention, Psychology , Attention , Schools , Auditory Perception , Social Adjustment , Social Support , Speech Perception , Stress, Psychological , Task Performance and Analysis , Technology , Therapeutics , Thinking , Wechsler Scales , Behavior , Behavioral Sciences , Neurosciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Child Care , Child, Preschool , Environmental Monitoring , Organizations , Child Health , Cognitive Dissonance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Consciousness , Intuition , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Self Efficacy , Creativity , Recognition, Psychology , Personal Autonomy , Access to Information , Comprehension , Growth and Development , Discrimination, Psychological , Education , Emotions , Planning , Cerebrum , Resilience, Psychological , Executive Function , Stroop Test , Mindfulness , Spatial Memory , Self-Control , Metacognition , Wechsler Memory Scale , Memory and Learning Tests , Self-Management , Mentalization , Frustration , Systematic Review , Emotional Regulation , Multidimensional Scaling Analysis , Self-Testing , Functional Status , Social Interaction , Cognitive Training , Processing Speed , Psychological Growth , Higher Nervous Activity , Human Activities , Imagination , Language Development , Language Development Disorders , Learning , Mental Processes , Motor Activity , Neuropsychological Tests , Neuropsychology
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246224, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431120

ABSTRACT

O isolamento social provocado pela pandemia de covid-19 exigiu uma intensificação no estabelecimento de parâmetros para o trabalho do neuropsicólogo com suas especificidades. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é levantar reflexões sobre a prática neuropsicológica infantil via internet baseada na nossa experiência prática vivenciada no período, relacionando com as referências teóricas da abordagem histórico-cutural e outros trabalhos que discorrem sobre as particularidades dessa modalidade de atendimento. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica em fontes reconhecidas, como SciELO e Google Acadêmico, utilizando-se marcadores como "neuropsicologia on-line" e "teleneuropsicologia", entre outros, em português, inglês e espanhol. Os trabalhos encontrados foram utilizados como fundamento para discutir as ideias aqui apresentadas, a partir da experiência dos autores durante esse período. Considera-se que os neuropsicólogos precisam enfrentar a possível necessidade do trabalho on-line, considerando que as situações vividas durante a pandemia tendem a aumentar a necessidade de avaliações e intervenções neuropsicológicas. Ao mesmo tempo, se prevê que essa via de trabalho deve se intensificar após o isolamento, dentro do que se tem denominado como "o novo normal". Para isso, é essencial que haja esforço por parte da comunidade neuropsicológica para mostrar como essa área de trabalho pode ser útil para crianças, seus pais e professores. Conclui-se que é preciso ter a noção de que nenhuma via ou metodologia de trabalho é absolutamente completa, sendo essencial a instrumentalização das vantagens e desvantagens de todas elas.(AU)


The social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic demanded intensification in the establishment of parameters for the neuropsychologist's work with its specificities. Thus, the aim of this article is to raise reflections on child neuropsychological practice via the internet, based on our practical experience in this period, relating to the theoretical references of the cultural-historical approach and other works that discuss the particularities of this type of care. For this, a bibliographic research was carried out in recognized sources such as SciELO and Google Scholar, using markers such as "online neuropsychology" and teleneuropsychology, among others, in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The works found were used as a basis for discussing the ideas presented here which are based on the authors' experience during this period. It is considered that neuropsychologists need to face the possible need for online work, considering that situations experienced during the pandemic tend to increase the need for neuropsychological assessments and interventions. At the same time, it is expected that this work path should intensify after isolation, within of what has been called "the new normal". For this, an effort by the neuropsychological community is essential to show how this area of work can be useful for children, their parents and teachers. It is concluded that it is necessary to have the notion that no way or work methodology is absolutely complete, being essential the instrumentalization of the advantages and disadvantages of all of them.(AU)


El aislamiento social provocado por la pandemia de Covid-19 exigió una intensificación en el establecimiento de parámetros para el trabajo del neuropsicólogo con sus especificidades. Así, el objetivo de este artículo es plantear reflexiones sobre la práctica neuropsicológica infantil a través de internet, a partir de nuestra experiencia práctica en este período, en relación con los referentes teóricos del enfoque histórico-cultural y otros trabajos que discuten las particularidades de este tipo de cuidado. Para esto, se realizó una investigación bibliográfica en fuentes reconocidas como SciELO y Google Académico, utilizando marcadores como "neuropsicología en línea" y teleneuropsicología, entre otros, en portugués, inglés y español. Los trabajos encontrados sirvieron de base para discutir las ideas aquí presentadas a partir de la experiencia de los autores durante este período. Se considera que los neuropsicólogos necesitan enfrentar la posible necesidad de trabajo en línea, considerando que las situaciones vividas durante la pandemia tienden a incrementar la necesidad de evaluaciones e intervenciones neuropsicológicas. Al mismo tiempo, se espera que esta vía de trabajo se intensifique después del aislamiento, dentro de lo que se ha denominado "la nueva normalidad". Para esto, un esfuerzo de la comunidad neuropsicológica es fundamental para mostrar cómo esta área de trabajo puede ser útil para los niños, sus padres y profesores. Se concluye que es necesario tener la noción de que ninguna vía o metodología de trabajo es absolutamente completa, siendo imprescindible la instrumentalización de las ventajas y desventajas de todas ellas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation , Online Systems , Remote Consultation , Culture , Internet-Based Intervention , History , Neuropsychology , Parent-Child Relations , Aptitude Tests , Practice, Psychological , Problem Solving , Psychological Tests , Psychology , Quality of Life , Attention , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Wechsler Scales , Behavior , Mainstreaming, Education , Adaptation, Psychological , Family , Child , Child Development , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Parenting , Cognition , Coronavirus Infections , Communication , Competency-Based Education , Compliance , Early Intervention, Educational , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Recognition, Psychology , Dementia , Growth and Development , Videoconferencing , Evaluation of Research Programs and Tools , Cerebrum , Interdisciplinary Studies , Spatial Memory , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Behavior Rating Scale , Patient Health Questionnaire , Memory and Learning Tests , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Frontal Lobe , Egocentrism , Clinical Reasoning , COVID-19 , Cognitive Training , Family Support , Human Development , Information Services , Intelligence Tests , Language Development , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Processes , Neurologic Examination , Neuronal Plasticity , Neuropsychological Tests
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e380523, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1429533

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In this study, the aim to assess the combined effects of prone-positioning (PP) and minimal-flow (MF) general anesthesia on regional cerebral oxygenation (RCO) and systemic hemodynamics. Methods: This is a randomized prospective study aiming to evaluate changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic parameters in MF systemic anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery in PP. Patients were randomized to MF or normal-flow (NF) anesthesia. In the operating room, pulse rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), peripheral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (spO2), and right- and left-side RCO (assessed by nearinfrared spectroscopy, NIRS) were measured perioperatively. Results: Overall, 46 patients were included (24 in the MF group and 22 in the NF group). The amount of anesthetic gas consumption was significantly lower in the low-flow (LF) group. In both groups, the mean pulse rate showed a decrease after PP. Before induction, RCO was significantly higher both at the right- and left-sides in the LF group compared to the NF group. This difference continued throughout the operation on the left-side and disappeared 10 min after intubation on the right-side. On the left side, mean RCO decreased after PP in both groups. Conclusion: MF anesthesia in PP did not reduce cerebral oxygenation compared to NF and was safe in terms of systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygenation , Prone Position , Cerebrum/physiology , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Anesthesia, General
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-15, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468904

ABSTRACT

Background: The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim: The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method: The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results: Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion: This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Contexto: O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo: O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método: O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados: Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão: Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Young Adult , Adult , Cattle , Cattle , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Cerebrum/physiology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/analysis , Biochemical Phenomena , Neuroglobin/analysis
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-7, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468980

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico [...].


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Goats , Cannabis/chemistry , Cerebrum/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Morus/chemistry
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39043, 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428229

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the brain base arteries of the Myrmecophaga tridactyla using ten cadavers of adults from this species, including five male and five female specimens. The arterial vascular bed was perfused via the thoracic aorta with a dyed natural latex solution, and the animals were fixed and preserved with a 10% formaldehyde buffered solution. The encephala were removed, and their vessels dissected. Basilar artery formation occurred by anastomosis of the thick ventral spinal artery with vertebral arteries. The basilar artery formed two arterial islands and gave bulbar and pontine branches, and cranial, middle, and caudal cerebellar arteries and ended by forking into its terminal branches, the caudal communicating arteries. The blood supply of the encephalon derived solely from the vertebrobasilar system, and the arterial circle of the brain was closed caudally and rostrally. The absence of participation of internal carotid arteries in encephalon irrigation, the island formations by the basilar artery, and the fusiform shape of the arterial circle of the brain are peculiar characteristics of the vascular anatomy of the brain base of M. tridactyla.


Subject(s)
Xenarthra , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Vermilingua
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e264324, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529206

ABSTRACT

O estudo teve como objetivo identificar os argumentos da estratégia de persuasão dos discursos apresentados na audiência pública sobre a Arguição de Descumprimento de Preceito Fundamental-ADPF 442, realizada em 2018, cujo propósito era discutir sobre a interrupção voluntária da gravidez até a 12ª semana. Para tal, foi realizada uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, analítico-descritiva e documental. O objeto de análise foi o registro da audiência, apresentado em vídeo, disponibilizado na plataforma digital YouTube, e em ata lavrada pelo STF, ambos de acesso público. A partir de uma análise do discurso, identificou-se os argumentos utilizados na estratégia de persuasão, que foram sistematizados em quatro categorias de argumentos para cada um dos dois grupos identificados: o grupo pró e o grupo contra a descriminalização do aborto. As três primeiras categorias, Saúde mental, Direito e Saúde pública, mesmo com diferenças na forma de apresentar o argumento, se repetem nos dois grupos. Todavia, a quarta categoria, Pressupostos, se diferenciou. No grupo pró descriminalização do aborto, apresentou-se como Pressupostos filosóficos e científicos, e no grupo contra, como Pressupostos morais. Por fim, a defesa da saúde mental das mulheres foi o principal argumento numa forma de humanizar o sofrimento vivido pelas que desejam abortar e não encontram o suporte do Estado para assegurar sua dignidade, cidadania e efetiva igualdade, garantidas constitucionalmente.(AU)


The study aimed to identify the arguments of the persuasion strategy of the speeches presented at the public hearing on the Action Against the Violation of Constitutional Fundamental Rights -ADPF 442, held in 2018, whose purpose was to discuss the voluntary interruption of pregnancy until the 12th week. To this end, a qualitative, analytical-descriptive, and documentary research was carried out. The object of analysis was the video recording of the hearing available on the YouTube platform, and in minutes drawn up by the STF, both of which are public. Based on a discourse analysis, the arguments used in the persuasion strategy were identified, which were systematized into four categories of arguments for each of the two identified groups: the group for and the group against the decriminalization of abortion. The first three categories, Mental Health, Law and Public Health, even with differences in the way of presenting the argument, are repeated in both groups. However, the fourth category, Assumptions, differed. In the group for the decriminalization of abortion, it was presented as Philosophical and Scientific Assumptions, whereas the group against, as Moral Assumptions. Finally, the defense of women's mental health was the main argument in a way of humanizing the suffering experienced by those who wish to have an abortion and do not find the support of the State to guarantee their dignity, citizenship, and effective equality, constitutionally guaranteed.(AU)


El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los argumentos de la estrategia de persuasión de los discursos presentados en la audiencia pública sobre el Argumento por Incumplimiento de un Percepto Fundamental -ADPF 442, realizada en 2018, con el objetivo de discutir la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo hasta la 12.ª semana. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una investigación cualitativa, analítico-descriptiva y documental. El objeto de análisis fue la grabación de la audiencia, que está disponible en la plataforma digital YouTube, y actas levantadas por el Supremo Tribunal Federal -STF, ambas de acceso público. A partir de un análisis del discurso se identificaron los argumentos utilizados en la estrategia de persuasión, los cuales se sistematizaron en cuatro categorías de argumentos para cada uno de los dos grupos identificados: el grupo pro y el grupo en contra de la despenalización del aborto. Las tres primeras categorías ("salud mental", "derecho" y "salud pública") aún con diferencias en la forma de presentar el argumento se repiten en ambos grupos. Pero difiere la cuarta categoría "supuestos". En el grupo a favor de la despenalización del aborto se presentó como "supuestos filosóficos y científicos", y en el grupo en contra, como "supuestos morales". Finalmente, la defensa de la salud mental de las mujeres fue el principal argumento en un intento por humanizar el sufrimiento que viven aquellas que desean abortar y no encuentran el apoyo del Estado para garantizar su dignidad, ciudadanía e igualdad efectiva, preconizadas por la Constitución.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Criminal , Mental Health , Abortion , Anxiety , Pain , Parity , Pregnancy, Unwanted , Prejudice , Psychology , Public Policy , Rape , Religion , Reproduction , Safety , Audiovisual Aids , Sex , Sex Education , Sex Offenses , Social Behavior , Suicide , Obstetric Surgical Procedures , Torture , Violence , Public Administration , Unified Health System , Brazil , Pregnancy , Bereavement , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Abortion, Eugenic , Christianity , Women's Health , Patient Compliance , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Abortion, Induced , Condoms , Abortion, Legal , Communications Media , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal , Contraceptive Devices , Contraceptive Devices, Male , Feminism , Life , Advertising , Crime , Personal Autonomy , Patient Rights , Legal Intervention , Death , Information Dissemination , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Wedge Argument , Beginning of Human Life , Sexology , Depression , Reproductive Rights , Disease Prevention , Family Development Planning , Health of Specific Groups , Violence Against Women , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Equipment and Supplies , Cerebrum , Family Planning Services , Fertilization , Fetal Distress , Health Communication , Fetus , Social Networking , Reproductive Health , Sexual Health , Sexism , Social Discrimination , Help-Seeking Behavior , Public Service Announcements as Topic , Political Activism , Freedom , Sadness , Psychological Distress , Internet Use , Gender Equity , Citizenship , Document Analysis , Guilt , Human Rights , Anencephaly , Love , Mental Disorders , Morale
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508224

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La epilepsia y la enfermedad de Parkinson han sido descritos como trastornos de redes neurales. El estudio de la conectividad por modalidades moleculares puede ser más relevante fisiológicamente que los basados en señales hemodinámicas. Objetivo: Proponer una metodología para la descripción de patrones de conectividad funcional a partir de la perfusión cerebral por tomografía por emisión de fotón único. Métodos: La metodología incluye cuatro pasos principales: preprocesamiento espacial, corrección del volumen parcial, cálculo del índice de perfusión y obtención de la matriz de conectividad funcional mediante el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Se implementó en 25 pacientes con distintos trastornos neurológicos: 15 con epilepsia farmacorresistente y 10 con enfermedad de Parkinson. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los índice de perfusión de varias regiones de los hemisferios ipsilateral y contralateral tanto en pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo frontal como en pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo temporal. Igual resultado se obtuvo en los pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson con distintos estadios de la enfermedad. Para cada grupo se identificaron patrones de conectividad funcional que involucran a regiones relacionadas con la patología en estudio. Conclusiones: Con el desarrollo de esta metodología se ha demostrado que la tomografía por emisión de fotón único aporta información valiosa para estudiar la organización de las redes funcionales del cerebro. Futuras investigaciones con mayor número de pacientes contribuirían a hacer inferencias sobre los correlatos neurales de los distintos trastornos cerebrales(AU)


Introduction: Epilepsy and Parkinson's disease have been described as disorders of neural networks. The study of connectivity by molecular modalities may be more physiologically relevant than those based on hemodynamic signals. Aim: The aim of the present work is to propose a methodology for the description of functional connectivity patterns from brain perfusion by single photon emission tomography. Methods: The methodology includes four main steps: spatial preprocessing, partial volume correction, calculation of the perfusion index and obtaining the functional connectivity matrix using Pearson's correlation coefficient. It was implemented in 25 patients with different neurological disorders: 15 with drug-resistant epilepsy and 10 suffering Parkinson's disease. Results: Significant differences were found between the perfusion indexes of various regions of the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres in both patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The same result was obtained in Parkinson's disease patients with different stages of the disease. For each group, functional connectivity patterns involving regions related to the pathology under study were identified. Conclusions: With the development of this methodology, it has been demonstrated that single photon emission tomography provides valuable information to study the organization of functional brain networks. Future research with a larger number of patients would contribute to make inferences about the neural correlates of the different brain disorders(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Epilepsy , Cerebrum/blood supply , Functional Neuroimaging , Patients
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1594-1601, dic. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421826

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Anatomy education has gathered together a great many of many new modalities and was modified from classical lecture-based and laboratory practice system to the blended modules. In the scope of the present study, we develop a new, practical, cost- effective and efficient three dimensional (3D) educational model, which aimed to be helpful for the detection and better understanding of basic neuroanatomy education. Tractographic imaging, fiber dissection, microscopic anatomy and plastination techniques were applied to the white matter regions of the two brains. After the photographs that were taken were converted to 3D images, the specimens were plastinated. By way of establishing an educational model as a whole, we applied it to 202 second-year medical students. The students were separated into two groups when they attended to the theoretical lecture. Group 1 took the classical laboratory education; on the other hand, Group 2 received the newly designed educational model. Pre and post-tests were introduced to each group before and after laboratory sessions, respectively. The success scores were put to comparison. The average achievement scores of each group showed increase significantly (p<0.05) after the laboratory sessions, besides the increase in the post-test results of Group 2 was more statistically significant (p<0.05). Consequently, this new educational model enriched by newly designed unified methods could be regarded as useful for grasping and improving the basic neuroanatomy knowledge.


La educación en anatomía ha reunido una gran cantidad de nuevas modalidades, modificándose el sistema clásico de la práctica del laboratorio y de las clases basadas en conferencias, hacia los módulos combinados. En el ámbito del presente estudio, desarrollamos un modelo educativo tridimensional (3D) nuevo, práctico, rentable y eficiente, que pretendía ser útil para la detección y una mejor comprensión de la educación básica en neuroanatomía. Se tomaron imágenes tractográficas, disección de fibras, anatomía microscópica y técnicas de plastinación en los cerebros. Después de convertir las fotografías que se tomaron en imágenes 3D, se plastinaron los especímenes. A modo de establecer un modelo educativo en su conjunto, lo aplicamos a 202 estudiantes de segundo año de medicina. Los estudiantes fueron separados en dos grupos cuando asistieron a la clase teórica. El Grupo 1 tomó la educación clásica de laboratorio; por su parte, el Grupo 2 recibió el nuevo modelo educativo diseñado para el estudio. Se introdujeron pruebas previas y posteriores a cada grupo, antes y después de las sesiones de laboratorio. Se compararon las puntuaciones. Los puntajes promedio de rendimiento de cada grupo mostraron un aumento significativo (p<0,05) después de las sesiones de laboratorio. Además, se obtuvo un aumento en los resultados positivos, posteriores a la prueba del Grupo 2, siendo estadísticamente significativo (p<0,05). En consecuencia, este modelo educativo, enriquecido por métodos unificados de nuevo diseño, podría considerarse útil para captar y mejorar los conocimientos básicos de neuroanatomía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Models, Educational , Education, Medical/methods , Neuroanatomy/education , Dissection , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , White Matter/anatomy & histology , Plastination , Microscopy , Nerve Fibers
12.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 1-1, ene.-mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374125
13.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 35-42, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362074

ABSTRACT

Introduction Fluorescence guidance with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a safe and reliable tool in total gross resection of intracranial tumors, especially malignant gliomas and cases of metastasis. In the present retrospective study, we have analyzed 5-ALA-induced fluorescence findings in different central nervous system (CNS) lesions to expand the indications of its use in differential diagnoses. Objectives To describe the indications and results of 5-ALA fluorescence in a series of 255 cases. Methods In 255 consecutive cases, we recorded age, gender, intraoperative 5-ALA fluorescence tumor response, and 5-ALA postresection status, as well the complications related to the method. Postresection was classified as '5-ALA free' or '5-ALA residual'. The diagnosis of histopathological tumor was established according to the current classification of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results There were 195 (76.4%) 5-ALA positive cases, 124 (63.5%) of whom underwent the '5-ALA free' resection. The findings in the positive cases were: 135 gliomas of all grades; 19 meningiomas; 4 hemangioblastomas; 1 solitary fibrous tumor; 27 metastases; 2 diffuse large B cell lymphomas; 2 cases of radionecrosis; 1 inflammatory disease; 2 cases of gliosis; 1 cysticercosis; and 1 immunoglobulin G4-related disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Aminolevulinic Acid , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods , Postoperative Care , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Preoperative Care , Retrospective Studies , Neuronavigation/methods , Cerebrum/surgery , Cerebrum/pathology , Intraoperative Care , Latin America/epidemiology
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e188941, fev. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380208

ABSTRACT

Canine Distemper is a disease caused by Canine morbillivirus (CM), a pantropic virus that can affect the central nervous system (CNS), causing demyelination. However, the pathogenesis of this lesion remains to be clarified. Brain samples of 14 naturally infected dogs by CM were analyzed to evaluate the presence of oxidative stress and demyelination. RT-PCR assay was performed to confirm a diagnosis of canine distemper in the brain, immunohistochemistry anti-CM was used to localize the viral proteins in the tissue, and anti-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) was a marker of a product of lipid peroxidation. The results showed the presence of viral proteins in the demyelinated area with the presence of 4-HNE. Our results suggest that the CM virus infection causes oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation, which causes tissue damage and demyelination. In conclusion, oxidative stress plays a significant role in canine distemper pathogenesis in the CNS.(AU)


A cinomose canina é uma doença causada pelo Morbilivírus canino (CM), um vírus pantrópico que pode afetar o sistema nervoso central (SNC), causando desmielinização. No entanto, a patogênese dessa lesão não está totalmente esclarecida. RT-PCR e imuno-histoquímica foram realizadas para confirmação do diagnóstico de cinomose em amostras de encéfalo de 14 cães naturalmente infectados. Após confirmação, foi realizada uma avaliação do estresse oxidativo por imuno-histoquímica com uso de anti-4-hidroxi-nonenal (4HNE) como marcador de produtos resultantes da peroxidação lipídica. Os resultados sugerem que a infecção pelo CM causa estresse oxidativo no tecido, levando a peroxidação lipídica, a qual causa danos ao tecido, culminando com desmielinização. Conclui-se que o estresse oxidativo tem papel importante na patogênese da cinomose canina no sistema nervoso central.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , Central Nervous System Infections/veterinary , Distemper/diagnosis , Dogs/virology , Immunohistochemistry/instrumentation , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Demyelinating Diseases/veterinary , Morbillivirus/pathogenicity , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Cerebrum/virology
15.
Macaé; s.n; 01.jan.2022. 21 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1553996

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Os ácidos graxos essenciais (AGE) ômega-3 dos tipos ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) e ácido docosa-hexaenoico (DHA), são benéficos para o sistema nervoso central (SNC) - com estudos demonstrando seu papel na mielinização, formação de sinapses, além da relação de sua deficiência com o desenvolvimento de patologias neurológicas e psiquiátricas. Portanto, o presente trabalho objetiva avaliar sistematicamente os efeitos da ingestão de EPA/DHA no SNC de humanos em diferentes faixas etárias e estados de saúde neurológica e psiquiátrica. Metodologia: Foi adotado o método PRISMA, a busca por estudos foi realizada na base de dados científicos Medline, sendo incluídos artigos publicados entre 2010-2021, publicados em língua inglesa, ensaios clínicos aleatórios (randomizados), e estudos observacionais. Resultados:11 artigos foram selecionados e, em seguida, categorizados por temas. No desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor infantil, observou-se, com a suplementação, benefícios na aquisição da linguagem e obtenção de escores levemente melhores em testes neurológicos. Em adultos saudáveis, houve indícios de aumento na eficácia do processamento neural. No TDAH em crianças, melhores resultados em testes de atenção. Em indivíduos com esquizofrenia, houve menor perda da espessura cortical. Em idosos com déficit de memória ou doença de Alzheimer, maior oxigenação cerebral, menos inflamação e desaceleração da perda de massa cerebral. Conclusão: Constata-se, pela análise dos estudos, que os AGs EPA/DHA beneficiam o SNC por meio de efeitos no neurodesenvolvimento, função cognitiva, prevenção de doenças e como estratégia terapêutica adjuvante. (AU)


Objective: The omega-3 essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are beneficial to the central nervous system (CNS), with studies demonstrating their role in myelination and synaptogenesis. Furthermore, its deficiency was correlated with the development of neurological and psychiatric pathologies. Therefore, the present work aims to systematically evaluate the effects of EPA/DHA ingestion on the CNS of humans in different age groups and neurological and psychiatric health status. Methodology: This study was conducted observing the PRISMA method; the search for studies was performed in the scientific database Medline. The inclusion criteria were articles published between 2010-2021, published in English, randomized clinical trials with humans, and observational studies. Results: 1 1 articles were selected and then categorized by topic. It was observed that in children's neuropsychomotor development the EPA/DHA supplementation benefited language acquisition and provided slightly better scores in neurological tests. In healthy adults, there was found evidence of an increase in the effectiveness of neural processing. In children with ADHD, the consumption of EPA/DHA was linked with better scores on tests of attention. In individuals with schizophrenia, there was less loss of cortical thickness. In older adults with memory deficits or Alzheimer's disease, results such as an increase in brain oxygenation, less inflammation, and slower brain mass loss were found. Conclusion: From the analysis of the studies, it appears that the ingestion of EPA/DHA benefits the CNS through effects on neurodevelopment, cognitive function, disease prevention, and as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Population , Health Status , Database , Diet , Cerebrum
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21530, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Therapeutically, piracetam has been used for decades as a cognitive enhancer for memory- related neuronal disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective potential of piracetam on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced neuronal deficit using both in-vitro and in-vivo experimental models. For the in-vitro analysis, EOC-20 murine microglial cells were induced with a neuronal toxicity of 100 µg/ml of LPS, and the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) productions were determined. For in-vivo neuroprotective analysis, groups of mice were treated orally with two doses of piracetam (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 30 days. Neuronal toxicity was induced by four intraperitoneal injections of LPS (250 µg/kg/day). The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was measured for oxidative stress, and catalase reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GRD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined as the antioxidant parameters. The result of the cell viability study was that pre-treatment with piracetam significantly protected the LPS-induced cell loss, and attenuated the ROS generation and NO production in LPS-induced EOC-20 cells. Moreover, the treatment of piracetam significantly reduced the MDA levels and improved catalase, GSH, GRD, and SOD activities in LPS-induced mice brains. The overall results from this study supported the neuroprotective effects of piracetam against LPS-induced neuronal toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Piracetam/analysis , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Neuroprotection/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Cerebrum/abnormalities , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/chemically induced , Antioxidants/adverse effects
17.
In. Alonso Texeira Nuñez, Felicita; Ferreiro Paltre, Patricia B; González Brandi, Nancy Beatriz. Adolescencias: una mirada integral. Montevideo, Bibliomédica, c2022. p.60-62, ilus, graf.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1416853
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379057

ABSTRACT

La audición funcional ­para fines prácticos­ consiste en la posibilidad de despertar sensaciones precisas en regiones específicas del cerebro, a partir del procesamiento y extracción de mensajes ocultos en los cambios en la presión de las moléculas del aire que nos rodea. Medir la funcionalidad de la audición en un ser humano se convierte en un reto titánico que implica que nuestra vida profesional transcurra analizando información tanto subjetiva como objetiva de nuestros pacientes, ambas con un valor diagnóstico innegable. En cuanto a la primera, la historia clínica, las observaciones de la conducta auditiva del paciente, los reportes de la casa, la escuela y la terapia, o de estudios como la audiometría tonal y la logoaudiometría, resultan fundamentales no solo para el diagnóstico, sino para el seguimiento de nuestros pacientes. Sin embargo, en el caso de los pacientes más pequeños, o ante la necesidad de evaluar aspectos como la presión del oído medio, la función de las células ciliadas, o la presencia de microfónica coclear, la utilidad de esas herramientas subjetivas se encuentra limitada y entonces los registros, trazos, curvas y cifras relativas a intensidades, presiones, latencias, frecuencias, amplitudes y demás datos obtenidos a través de estudios objetivos, son los recursos que usamos para diagnosticar e iniciar la habilitación o rehabilitación de nuestros pacientes.


Functional hearing ­ for practical purposes ­ consists of the possibility of awakening precise sensations in specific regions of the brain from the processing and extraction of hidden messages in changes in the pressure of the molecules of the air that surrounds us. Measuring the functionality of hearing in a human being becomes a titanic challenge that implies that our professional life is spent analyzing both subjective and objective information from our patients, both with an undeniable diagnostic value: as for the first, the clinical history, observations of the patient's listening behavior, reports from home, school and therapy, or studies such as pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry, are essential not only for diagnosis but also for the follow-up of our patients. However, in the case of smaller patients, or when faced with the need to evaluate aspects such as middle ear pressure, hair cell function, or the presence of cochlear microphonics; The usefulness of these subjective tools is limited and therefore the records, traces, curves and figures related to intensities, pressures, latencies, frequencies, amplitudes and other data obtained through objective studies are the resources we use to diagnose and start the investigation. rehabilitation or rehabilitation of our patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Audiometry , Audiology , Hearing , Audiometry, Speech , Brain , Audiology/methods , Ear, Middle , Cerebrum
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20007, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394052

ABSTRACT

Abstract The prolonged entry of large amounts of calcium into the mitochondria through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUC) may cause the permeability transition pore (mPTP) to open, which contributes to the pathogenesis of several diseases. Tissue-specific differences in mPTP opening due to variable expression of MCUC components may contribute to disease outcomes. We designed this study to determine differential mPTP opening in mitochondria isolated from different regions of mouse brain and kidney and to compare it with the expression of MCUC components. mPTP opening was measured using mitochondria isolated from the left/right brain hemispheres (LH/RH, respectively) and from kidney cortex/medulla, while the expression level of MCUC components was assessed from total cellular RNA. Interestingly, LH mitochondria showed less calcium-induced mPTP opening as compared to RH mitochondria at two different calcium concentrations. Conversely, mPTP opening was similar in the renal cortex and renal medulla mitochondria. However, the kidney mitochondria demonstrated bigger and faster mPTP opening as compared to the brain mitochondria. Furthermore, asymmetric mPTP opening in the LH and RH mitochondria was not associated with the expression of MCUC components. In brief, this study demonstrates thus far unreported asymmetric mPTP opening in mouse brain hemispheres that is not associated with the mRNA levels of MCUC components.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Brain , Calcium/agonists , Cerebrum/abnormalities , Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore/analysis , Mice , Mitochondria , 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/adverse effects , Kidney Cortex
20.
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 4(1): 154-170, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1391854

ABSTRACT

Aim. Neuroauriculotherapy (NAT) is a branch of medicine, which, thanks to its diagnostic and therapeutic value, is a powerful tool at the service of both physician and patient. In our experience, as it is discussed in this article, neuroauriculotherapy can have successful applications in voice science and in phoniatrics. The aim of this article is to open a discussion about possible applications of neuroauriculotherapy in voice medicine. Introduction. From the diagnostic point of view, it is possible to explore, with a palpeur (i.e., a tool that provides a constant pressure) or a "spot-hunter", the presence of a perturbation into a particular organ or area, and its return to normal during treatment. Indeed, at the level of the ear auricle, representations of an organ, its in-nervation, its muscular components, etc., are fixed. These spots or voxels correspond absolutely to the respective sensory, motor, visceral, among other spots. Therefore, if any abnormal potential comes from the periphery, it will illuminate the spots both at the cortical level and in the pavilion ­a real display with a constantly active touch screen. The spot can be treated with needles in the context of a neurophysiological strategy to send a message to the brain.Reflection. NAT appears to be a good method to improve the treatment of voice problems, enhancing the results of other therapies based on drugs or rehab and in-ducing relaxation. In neuroauriculotherapy, the ear is used to give the brain orders in a process which has a logical basis in neurophysiology.Conclusion. Diseases of the vocal tract can be dysfunctional or organic. According to our clinical experience, we can say that neuroauriculotherapy can be used in both cases. Neuroauriculotherapy is also extremely effective in voice therapy, both alone and in combination with other therapies, as there is no conflict among them


Objetivo. La neuroauriculoterapia (NAT) es una rama de la medicina que, gracias a su valor diagnóstico y terapéutico, constituye una poderosa herramienta al servicio del médico y del paciente. En nuestra experiencia, como se comenta en este artículo, la neuroauriculoterapia puede tener aplicaciones exitosas en la ciencia de la voz y en foniatría. El objetivo de este artículo es abrir una discusión sobre las posibles aplica-ciones de la neuroauriculoterapia en la medicina de la voz.Introducción. Desde el punto de vista del diagnóstico, es posible explorar, con un palpeur (i.e., una herramienta que proporciona una presión constante) o un "spot-hunter", la presencia de una perturbación en un órgano o área en particular, y su retorno a la normalidad durante el tratamiento. En efecto, a nivel del pabellón auricular se fijan representaciones de un órgano, su inervación, sus componentes musculares, etc. Estos puntos o vóxeles corresponden absolutamente a los respectivos puntos sensoriales, motores, viscerales, entre otros. Por lo tanto, si algún potencial anormal proviene de la periferia, iluminará los puntos tanto a nivel cortical como en el pabellón ­una pantalla real con una pantalla táctil constantemente activa. El punto se puede tratar con agujas en el contexto de una estrategia neurofisiológica para enviar un mensaje al cerebro.Reflexión. NAT parece ser un buen método para mejorar el tratamiento de los problemas de voz, potenciando los resultados de otras terapias basadas en fármacos o rehabilitación e induciendo a la relajación. En neuroauriculoterapia se utiliza el oído para dar órdenes al cerebro en un proceso que tiene una base lógica en la neurofisiología.Conclusión. Las enfermedades del tracto vocal pueden ser disfuncionales u orgáni-cas. Según nuestra experiencia clínica, podemos decir que la neuroauriculoterapia se puede utilizar en ambos casos. La neuroauriculoterapia también es extremadamente eficaz en la terapia de la voz, tanto sola como en combinación con otras terapias, ya que no existe conflicto entre ellas


Subject(s)
Voice Disorders , Ear/physiology , Auriculotherapy/methods , Neurophysiology , Voice , Voice Training , Volition , Brain , Apoptosis , Diagnosis , Cerebrum , Ear Auricle , Dysphonia , Auriculotherapy/trends
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