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1.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3881, ene.-dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1431838

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comprobar la tasa de evaluación correcta mediante la comparación visual directa de las medidas de dilatación cervical en modelos de cuello uterino de consistencia dura. Método: estudio aleatorizado abierto con 63 estudiantes de obstetricia a los que se les asignó usar o no la comparación visual directa con una guía de dilatación. Los estudiantes estimaron de forma ciega la dilatación cervical en simuladores con diferentes dilataciones. El resultado primario fue la tasa de evaluación correcta. Resultados: los estudiantes realizaron 441 pruebas. Se observó una mayor tasa de evaluación correcta en el grupo experimental que en el grupo control (47,3% versus 27,2%; p < 0,001; Odds Ratio = 2,41; intervalo de confianza del 95% = 1,62-3, 58). Conclusión: la comparación visual directa aumentó la precisión de la evaluación de la dilatación cervical en modelos de simulación de cuello, lo que podría ser beneficioso en el entrenamiento de laboratorio. Registro Brasileño de Ensayos Clínicos n.º U1111-1210-2389.


Objective: to verify the correct assessment rate when using direct visual comparison in the cervical dilation measures in hard-consistency cervix simulation models. Method: an open-label and randomized study conducted with 63 Obstetrics students that were designated either to use direct visual comparison in a dilation guide or not. The students estimated cervical dilation blindly in simulators with different dilations. The primary outcome was the correct assessment rate. Results: the students performed 141 tests. A higher correct assessment rate was found in the Experimental Group than in the Control Group (47.3% versus 27.2%; p<0.001; Odds Ratio = 2.41; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.62-3.58). Conclusion: the direct visual comparison increased precision of the cervical dilation assessment in cervix simulation models, with the possibility of being beneficial in laboratory training. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials No. U1111-1210-2389.


Objetivo: verificar a taxa de avaliação correta com o uso da comparação visual direta nas medidas de dilatação cervical em modelos de simulação de colo com consistência dura. Método: estudo randomizado aberto com 63 estudantes de obstetrícia que foram designados para usar comparação visual direta em um guia de dilatação ou não. Os estudantes estimaram cegamente a dilatação cervical em simuladores com diferentes dilatações. O desfecho primário foi a taxa de avaliação correta. Resultados: os estudantes realizaram 441 testes. Foi encontrada maior taxa de avaliação correta no grupo experimental do que no grupo controle (47,3% versus 27,2%; p <0,001; Odds Ratio = 2,41; intervalo de confiança de 95% = 1,62-3,58). Conclusão: a comparação visual direta aumentou a precisão da avaliação da dilatação cervical em modelos de simulação de colo, podendo ser benéfica no treinamento em laboratório. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos nº U1111-1210-2389.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Students, Medical , Labor Stage, First , Cervix Uteri , Dilatation , Obstetrics/education
2.
Femina ; 51(8): 486-490, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512460

ABSTRACT

A mortalidade materna é inaceitavelmente alta. A hemorragia pós-parto encontra- se na primeira posição no mundo, tendo como principal causa específica a atonia uterina. Eventualmente, as medidas iniciais e a terapia farmacológica não são efetivas no controle do sangramento, impondo a necessidade de tratamentos invasivos, cirúrgicos ou não. Entre esses, o tamponamento uterino com balão requer recursos locais mínimos e não exige treinamento extensivo ou equipamento muito complexo. Entretanto, algumas dificuldades podem ocorrer durante a inserção, infusão ou manutenção do balão na cavidade uterina, com especificidades relacionadas à via de parto. Após o parto vaginal, a dificuldade mais prevalente é o prolapso vaginal do balão. Na cesárea, as principais dificuldades são a inserção e o posicionamento do balão na cavidade uterina, principalmente nas cesáreas eletivas. Este artigo revisa e ilustra as principais dificuldades e especificidades relacionadas ao tamponamento uterino com balões.


Maternal mortality is unacceptably high. Postpartum hemorrhage is ranked first in the world, with the main specific cause being uterine atony. Eventually, initial measures and pharmacological therapy are not effective in controlling bleeding, imposing the need for invasive treatments, surgical or not. Among these, uterine balloon tamponade requires minimal local resources and does not require extensive training or very complex equipment. However, some difficulties may occur during insertion, infusion, or maintenance of the balloon in the uterine cavity, with specificities related to the mode of delivery. After vaginal delivery, the most prevalent difficulty is vaginal balloon prolapse. In cesarean section, the main difficulty is the insertion and positioning of the balloon in the uterine cavity, especially in elective cesarean sections. This article reviews and illustrates the main difficulties and specificities related to uterine balloon tamponade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Uterine Balloon Tamponade/instrumentation , Cervix Uteri/injuries , Postpartum Hemorrhage/mortality , Natural Childbirth , Obstetrics
3.
Femina ; 51(8): 454-461, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512456

ABSTRACT

O sangramento uterino anormal é diagnóstico sindrômico comum no consultório do ginecologista e pode comprometer substancialmente a qualidade de vida. O objetivo no diagnóstico de sangramento uterino anormal é distinguir pacientes com causas estruturais (anatômicas), como pólipo, adenomiose, leiomioma, malignidade e hiperplasia, de pacientes que apresentam anatomia normal, nas quais o sangramento pode ser devido a alteração dos mecanismos de coagulação, distúrbios ovulatórios, distúrbios primários do endométrio, iatrogenia, ou ter outra causa não classificada. O diagnóstico se inicia a partir de anamnese detalhada e exame físico geral e ginecológico completos, seguidos da solicitação de exames complementares (laboratoriais e de imagem), conforme indicado. O exame de imagem de primeira linha para identificação das causas estruturais inclui a ultrassonografia pélvica. Histerossonografia, histeroscopia, ressonância magnética e amostragem endometrial para exame de anatomia patológica são opções que podem ser incluídas no diagnóstico a depender da necessidade. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a relevância dos exames de imagem na investigação das causas de sangramento uterino anormal.


Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office and may substantially affect quality of life. The aim in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding is to distinguish women with anatomic causes such as polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia from women with normal anatomy where the cause may be coagulopathy, ovulatory disorders, endometrial, iatrogenic and not otherwise classified. Diagnosis begins with a thorough history and physical examination followed by appropriate laboratory and imaging tests as indicated. The primary imaging test for the identification of anatomic causes include ultrasonography. Saline infusion sonohysterography, magnetic resonance, hysteroscopy, endometrial sampling are options that can be included in the diagnosis depending on the need. The aim of this article is to present the relevance of imaging exams in the investigation of the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Physical Examination/methods , Polyps/diagnostic imaging , Uterus/pathology , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Endometrium/physiopathology , Adenomyosis/complications , Gynecology/methods , Hyperplasia/complications , Leiomyoma/complications , Medical History Taking/methods
5.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(4)out-dez. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1537329

ABSTRACT

O melanoma cervical primário é um diagnóstico raro e frequentemente desafiador, especialmente na presença de lesões amelanóticas, cuja confirmação deve ser feita por métodos imuno-histoquímicos. Apesar do tratamento agressivo, o prognóstico para essa doença costuma ser ruim. Relato do caso: Mulher, 79 anos, com histórico de sangramento vaginal decorrente de uma lesão cervical maligna. Inicialmente, a colposcopia revelou uma lesão ulcerada no exocérvix e a biópsia confirmou ser um tumor maligno. No entanto, após uma histerectomia abdominal radical, o exame histopatológico mostrou tratar-se de uma neoplasia maligna epitelioide, confirmada como um melanoma maligno do colo do útero por meio de exame imuno-histoquímico. A paciente recebeu quimioterapia adjuvante e radioterapia, mas eventualmente apresentou recorrência e veio a óbito. Conclusão: O presente relato avalia uma paciente com um diagnóstico incomum de melanoma cervical que, apesar do tratamento agressivo, teve um desfecho desfavorável. No entanto, uma vigilância cutânea minuciosa deve ser realizada para diagnosticá-lo corretamente como primário.


Primary cervical melanoma is a rare and often challenging diagnosis, particularly in the presence of amelanotic lesions, where confirmation should be made through immunohistochemical methods. Despite aggressive treatment, the prognosis for this disease is typically poor. Case Report: A 79-year-old woman with a history of vaginal bleeding from a malignant cervical lesion. Initially, colposcopy examination revealed an ulcerated lesion of the exocervix, and biopsy confirmed a malignant neoplasm. However, following a radical abdominal hysterectomy, histopathological examination displayed a malignant epithelioid neoplasm, confirmed a malignant melanoma of the cervix through immunohistochemical assays. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but eventually experienced recurrence and died. Conclusion: The present report assesses a patient with an uncommon diagnosis of cervical melanoma, which, despite aggressive treatment, had an unfavorable outcome. However, thorough skin surveillance should be performed to correctly diagnose it as primary


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cervix Uteri , Melanoma
6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 55, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515541

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To compare the coverage of cervical cancer screening in Brazil in 2013 and 2019, investigating the factors associated with having the test performed and the reasons given for not doing it. Additionally, a comparison is made concerning the time taken to receive the test result in SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde) and in the private health services. METHODS Using data from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), prevalence rates and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated to determine the frequency of recent cervical cancer screenings among women aged between 25 and 64 years old in Brazil, for both 2013 and 2019. Poisson regression models were employed to compare the prevalence of the outcome according to sociodemographic characteristics. The reasons for not having the test and the time between performing and receiving the result were also analyzed. RESULTS The findings revealed an increase in the coverage of preventive cervical cancer exams in Brazil from 78.7% in 2013 to 81.3% in 2019. Additionally, there was a decline in the proportion of women who had never undergone the exam, from 9.7% to 6.1%. Prevalence of test uptake was higher among white women, those with higher levels of education and income, and those residing in the South and Southeast regions of the country. The most commonly cited reasons for not taking the test were the impression it was unnecessary (45% in both 2013 and 2019) and never having been asked to undergo the test (20.6% in 2013 and 14.8% in 2019). CONCLUSIONS Despite the high coverage of screening achieved in the country, there is great inequality in access to the test, and a non-negligible number of women are at greater risk of dying from a preventable disease. Efforts must be made to structure an organized screening program that identifies and captures the most vulnerable women.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Comparar a cobertura do rastreamento do câncer de colo do útero no Brasil em 2013 e 2019, investigar os fatores associados à realização do exame e os motivos informados para não ter realizado, além de comparar o tempo do recebimento do resultado do exame no SUS e na rede privada. MÉTODOS A partir de dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) foram calculadas as prevalências e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de realização do exame preventivo do câncer do colo do útero há menos de três anos, em mulheres de 25 a 64 anos, em 2013 e 2019. Modelos de regressão de Poisson foram utilizados para comparar as prevalências do desfecho segundo características sociodemográficas. Também foram analisados os motivos para não ter feito o exame e o tempo entre a realização e o recebimento do laudo. RESULTADOS Houve aumento na cobertura do exame preventivo no Brasil entre 2013 (78,7%) e 2019 (81,3%) e redução na proporção de mulheres que nunca fizeram o exame de 9,7% para 6,1%. A prevalência de realização do exame foi maior em mulheres brancas, melhor escolaridade e renda mais alta, residentes nas regiões Sul e Sudeste. Os motivos mais frequentes para não realizar o exame foram achar desnecessário (45% em 2013 e em 2019) e nunca ter sido orientada a fazê-lo (20,6% em 2013 e 14,8% em 2019). CONCLUSÕES Apesar das elevadas coberturas de rastreamento alcançadas pelo país, há grande desigualdade no acesso ao exame, e uma parcela não desprezível de mulheres está sob maior risco de morrer por uma doença que pode ser evitada. Esforços devem ser feitos para a estruturação de um programa de rastreamento organizado que identifique e capte as mulheres mais vulneráveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cervix Uteri , Mass Screening , Health Surveys , Papanicolaou Test , Health Services Accessibility , Neoplasms
7.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522871

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform an economic cost analysis of the implementation of a short cervix screening program to reduce preterm birth in singleton pregnancies in a short-term time horizon. METHODS We performed a cost-benefit economic analysis using the P5 trial database, a randomized multicenter clinical trial for prevention of preterm birth. Data collection was conducted from July 2015 to March 2019 in 17 different Brazilian hospitals. We conducted a cost analysis for universal cervical screening in singleton pregnancies between 18 weeks and 22 weeks plus 6 days. In subjects with a cervical length ≤ 25 mm, the analysis incorporated the costs of administering 200 mg/day of vaginal progesterone prophylactically until 36 weeks gestation. These findings were subsequently compared with the economic implications of forgoing cervical screening. The time horizon comprised from birth to 10 weeks postpartum. The outcome was measured monetarily in Brazilian real (R$) from the perspective of the Unified Health System. RESULTS Among 7,844 women, 6.67% (523) had a cervix ≤ 25 mm. The cost of screening with transvaginal ultrasound and vaginal progesterone for prevention of births with < 34 weeks was estimated at R$ 383,711.36, while non-screening generated an estimated additional cost of R$ 446,501.69 (related to the 29 non-screened preterm deliveries). Thus, screening and prophylaxis would generate a final cost reduction of R$ 62,790.33, constituting a possible cost-benefit strategy. CONCLUSION Universal short cervix screening for preterm birth has lower costs compared to non-screening within a short-term time horizon, which suggests an interesting benefit-cost ratio. Future studies should consider the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic treatment using sensitivity analyses in different scenarios within the Brazilian health system, as well as analyses that consider the long-term costs associated with preterm births, to robustly justify the implementation of a short cervix screening program.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Realizar uma análise econômica de custo da implementação de um programa de rastreio de colo curto para redução da prematuridade em gestações únicas num horizonte temporal de curto prazo. MÉTODOS Realizamos uma análise econômica do tipo custo-benefício utilizando o banco de dados do P5 trial, um ensaio clínico multicêntrico randomizado para prevenção da prematuridade. A coleta de dados ocorreu de julho de 2015 a março de 2019 em 17 diferentes hospitais do Brasil. Comparamos os custos do rastreamento universal em mulheres com gestação única de 18 a 22 semanas e 6 dias associado à progesterona vaginal profilática 200 mg/dia até 36 semanas naquelas com colo ≤ 25 mm com os do não rastreamento. O horizonte temporal foi do nascimento até 10 semanas após o parto. O desfecho foi medido monetariamente em real brasileiro (R$) na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. RESULTADOS Entre 7.844 mulheres, 6,67% (523) apresentaram colo ≤ 25mm. O custo do rastreio com a ultrassonografia transvaginal mais a progesterona vaginal para prevenção de nascimentos < 34 semanas foi estimado em R$ 383.711,36, enquanto o não rastreamento gerou custo adicional estimado de R$ 446.501,69 (relacionado aos 29 partos prematuros não rastreados). Assim, o rastreamento mais a profilaxia geraria uma redução de custo final de R$ 62.790,33, apresentando-se como uma possível estratégia de custo-benefício. CONCLUSÃO O rastreamento universal de colo curto para prematuridade apresenta menores custos em relação ao não rastreamento dentro de um horizonte temporal de curto prazo, o que sugere uma interessante relação de custo versus benefício. Novos estudos que considerem a custo-efetividade do tratamento profilático utilizando-se de análises de sensibilidade em diferentes cenários dentro do sistema de saúde brasileiro, assim como análises que considerem os custos de longo prazo atrelados ao nascimento prematuro, são necessários para justificar com robustez a implementação de um programa de rastreamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Premature , Cervix Uteri , Mass Screening/economics , Unified Health System , Obstetric Labor, Premature
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 253-258, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969831

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the characteristics and correlations of vaginal flora in women with cervical lesions. Methods: A total of 132 women, including 41 women diagnosed with normal cervical (NC), 39 patients with low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1), 37 patients with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3) and 15 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), who came from the gynecological clinic of Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University during January 2018 to June 2018, were enrolled in this study according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria strictly. The vaginal flora was detected by 16S rDNA sequencing technology. Co-occurrence network analysis was used to investigate the Spearman correlations between different genera of bacteria. Results: The dominant bacteria in NC, CIN 1 and CIN 2/3 groups were Lactobacillus [constituent ratios 79.4% (1 869 598/2 354 098), 63.6% (1 536 466/2 415 100) and 58.3% (1 342 896/2 301 536), respectively], while Peptophilus [20.4% (246 072/1 205 154) ] was the dominant bacteria in SCC group. With the aggravation of cervical lesions, the diversity of vaginal flora gradually increased (Shannon index: F=6.39, P=0.001; Simpson index: F=3.95, P=0.012). During the cervical lesion progress, the ratio of Lactobacillus gradually decreased, the ratio of other anaerobes such as Peptophilus, Sneathia, Prevotella and etc. gradually increased, and the differential bacteria (LDA score >3.5) gradually evolved from Lactobacillus to other anaerobes. The top 10 relative abundance bacteria, spearman correlation coefficient>0.4 and P<0.05 were selected. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that Prevotella, Peptophilus, Porphyrinomonas, Anaerococcus, Sneathia, Atopobium, Gardnerella and Streptococcus were positively correlated in different stages of cervical lesions, while Lactobacillus was negatively correlated with the above anaerobes. It was found that the relationship between vaginal floras in CIN 1 group was the most complex and only Peptophilus was significantly negatively correlated with Lactobacillus in SCC group. Conclusions: The increased diversity and changed correlations between vaginal floras are closely related to cervical lesions. Peptophilus is of great significance in the diagnosis, prediction and early warning of cervical carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Vagina/microbiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia , Cervix Uteri , Lactobacillus/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections
9.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 680-690, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012277

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of postoperative radiotherapy and high-risk pathological factors on the prognosis of early-stage neuroendocrine carcinoma of cervix (NECC). Methods: A single-center retrospective cohort study of early-stage NECC in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2011 to April 2022 were enrolled. The patients were treated with radical hysterectomy±adjuvant treatment. They were divided into postoperative non-radiation group and postoperative radiation group. The possible postoperative recurrence risk factors identified by univariate analysis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), recurrence rate, and mortality rate. Results: (1) Sixty-two cases were included in the study, including 33 cases in postoperative non-radiation group and 29 cases in postoperative radiation group. (2) The median follow-up time was 37 months (ranged 12-116 months), with 23 cases (37%) experienced recurrences. There were 7 cases (11%) pelvic recurrences and 20 cases (32%) distant recurrences, in which including 4 cases (6%) both pelvic and distant recurrences. Compared with postoperative non-radiation group, the postoperative radiation group had a lower pelvic recurrence rate (18% vs 3%; P=0.074) but without statistic difference, a slightly elevated distant recurrence rate (24% vs 41%; P=0.150) and overall recurrence rate (33% vs 41%; P=0.513) without statistically significances. Univariate analysis showed that lymph-vascular space invasion and the depth of cervical stromal invasion≥1/2 were risk factors for postoperative recurrence (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lymph-vascular space invasion was an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence (OR=23.03, 95%CI: 3.55-149.39, P=0.001). (3) During the follow-up period, 18 cases (29%, 18/62) died with tumor, with 10 cases (30%, 10/33) in postoperative non-radiation group and 8 cases (28%, 8/29) in postoperative radiation group, without significant difference (P=0.814). The postoperative 3-year and 5-year survival rate was 79.2%, 60.8%. The depth of cervical stromal invasion≥1/2 was more common in postoperative radiation group (27% vs 64%; P=0.011), and postoperative radiation in such patients showed an extended trend in PFS (32.3 vs 53.9 months) and OS (39.4 vs 73.4 months) but without statistic differences (P=0.704, P=0.371). Compared with postoperative non-radiation group, the postoperative radiation did not improve PFS (54.5 vs 37.3 months; P=0.860) and OS (56.2 vs 62.4 months; P=0.550) in patients with lymph-vascular space invasion. Conclusions: Postoperative radiation in early-stage NECC patients has a trend to reduce pelvic recurrence but not appear to decrease distant recurrence and overall recurrence, and has not improved mortality. For patients with the depth of cervical stromal invasion≥1/2, postoperative radiation has a trend of prolonging OS and PFS but without statistic difference. Lymph-vascular space invasion is an independent predictor for postoperative recurrence, but postoperative radiation in such patients does not seem to have any survival benefits.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cervix Uteri/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/surgery , Recurrence
10.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 536-545, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985674

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton (Nr-CWS) in the treatment of persistent cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. Methods: A randomized, double blind, multi-center trial was conducted. A total of 688 patients with clinically and pathologically confirmed HR-HPV infection of the cervix diagnosed in 13 hispital nationwide were recruited and divided into: (1) patients with simple HR-HPV infection lasting for 12 months or more; (2) patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Ⅰ and HR-HPV infection lasting for 12 months or more; (3) patients with the same HR-HPV subtype with no CINⅡ and more lesions after treatment with CINⅡ or CIN Ⅲ (CINⅡ/CIN Ⅲ). All participants were randomly divided into the test group and the control group at a ratio of 2∶1. The test group was locally treated with Nr-CWS freeze-dried powder and the control group was treated with freeze-dried powder without Nr-CWS. The efficacy and negative conversion rate of various subtypes of HR-HPV were evaluated at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months after treatment. The safety indicators of initial diagnosis and treatment were observed. Results: (1) This study included 555 patients with HR-HPV infection in the cervix (included 368 in the test group and 187 in the control group), with an age of (44.1±10.0) years. The baseline characteristics of the two groups of subjects, including age, proportion of Han people, weight, composition of HR-HPV subtypes, and proportion of each subgroup, were compared with no statistically significant differences (all P>0.05). (2) After 12 months of treatment, the effective rates of the test group and the control group were 91.0% (335/368) and 44.9% (84/187), respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (χ2=142.520, P<0.001). After 12 months of treatment, the negative conversion rates of HPV 16, 18, 52, and 58 infection in the test group were 79.2% (84/106), 73.3% (22/30), 83.1% (54/65), and 77.4% (48/62), respectively. The control group were 21.6% (11/51), 1/9, 35.1% (13/37), and 20.0% (8/40), respectively. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (all P<0.001). (3) There were no statistically significant differences in vital signs (body weight, body temperature, respiration, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, etc.) and laboratory routine indicators (blood cell analysis, urine routine examination) between the test group and the control group before treatment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months after treatment (all P>0.05); there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions related to the investigational drug between the two groups of subjects [8.7% (32/368) vs 8.0% (15/187), respectively; χ2=0.073, P=0.787]. Conclusion: External use of Nr-CWS has good efficacy and safety in the treatment of high-risk HPV persistent infection in the cervix.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cell Wall Skeleton , Persistent Infection , Powders , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/pathology , Immunotherapy , Papillomaviridae
11.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 516-525, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985672

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the natural regression and related factors of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in the cervix of childbearing age women, and to evaluate the applicability of conservative management for future fertility needs. Methods: This study included 275 patients of reproductive age with fertility needs, who were diagnosed as HSIL by biopsy from April 30, 2015 to April 30, 2022, including 229 cases (83.3%) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) Ⅱ and 46 cases (16.7%) CIN Ⅱ-Ⅲ. They were followed-up without immediate surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. The median follow-up time was 12 months (range: 3-66 months). The regression, persistence and progression of lesions in patients with HSIL were analyzed during the follow-up period, the influencing factors related to regression and the time of regression were analyzed. Results: (1) Of the 275 HSIL patients, 213 cases (77.5%, 213/275) experienced regression of the lesion during the follow-up period. In 229 CIN Ⅱ patients, 180 cases (78.6%) regressed, 21 cases (9.2%) persisted, and 28 cases (12.2%) progressed. In 46 CIN Ⅱ-Ⅲ patients, 33 cases (71.7%) regressed, 12 cases (26.1%) persisted, and 1 case (2.2%) progressed to invasive squamous cell carcinoma stage Ⅰ a1. There was no significant difference in the regression rate between the two groups (χ2=1.03, P=0.309). (2) The average age at diagnosis, age <25 years old at diagnosis were independent influencing factor of HSIL regression in univariate analysis (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference between HSIL regression and pathological grading, the severity of screening results, human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype, colposcopy image characteristics, number of biopsies during follow-up and pregnancy experience (all P>0.05). (3) The median regression times for patients aged ≥25 years and <25 years at diagnosis were 15 and 12 months, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that age ≥25 years at diagnosis significantly increased the median regression time compared to <25 years (χ2=6.02, P=0.014). Conclusions: For HSIL patients of childbearing age, conservative management without immediate surgical intervention is preferred if CINⅡ is fully evaluated through colposcopy examination. Age ≥25 years at diagnosis is a risk factor affecting the prognosis of HSIL patients.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Adult , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/pathology , Biopsy , Colposcopy/methods , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix/pathology
12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 45(4): 171-178, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449726

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To describe a reference curve for cervical length (CL) in mid-trimester twin gestations using transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and to investigate whether short CL increases spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Methods This was a prospective cohort study performed at 17 outpatient antenatal facilities of Brazil with women at 18 0/7 to 22 6/7 weeks of gestation who participated in a randomized clinical trial screening phase (P5 trial) between July 2015 and March 2019. TVU was performed to provide CL measurement in all screened women. Almost all women with CL ≤ 30 mm received vaginal progesterone 200mg/day and they were also randomized to receive cervical pessary or not. We considered data from the CL distribution among asymptomatic twin pregnancies and analyzed CL and its association with PTB generating receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier curves. Results A total of 253 pregnant women with twins were included in the distribution curve. The mean CL was 33.7 mm and median was 35.5mm. The 10th percentile was 17.8mm. We identified a PTB rate of 73.9% (187/253) with 33.6% of sPTB < 37 (85/253) and 15% (38/253) of sPTB < 34 weeks. The best cutoff point to predict sPTB < 37 was 24.15 mm. However, the ROC curve showed a poor performance (0.64). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves identified that only CL values ≤ 20mm were associated to sPTB < 34 weeks. Conclusion A cutoff point of CL ≤ 20 mm can be interesting point to identify short cervix in Brazilian twin pregnancies. However, in Brazilian asymptomatic twin pregnancies, CL does not show a good performance to predict PTB.


Resumo Objetivo Descrever uma curva de referência da medida do colo uterino no Segundo trimestre de gestações gemelares através de ultrassonografia transvaginal (TVU) e investigar a correlação entre a medida do colo uterino (CL) e o parto prematuro espontâneo (sPTB) em pacientes assintomáticas. Métodos Foi realizado uma coorte prospectiva multicêntrica em 17 centros de referência do Brasil com mulheres com gestação gemelar entre 18 0/7 a 22 6/7 semanas de gestação que participaram da primeira fase de um ensaio clínico randomizado (P5 trial) entre Julho/2015 a Março/2019. TVU foi realizada para obter a medida do colo uterino em todas as mulheres. A maioria das mulheres com CL ≤30 mm receberam progesterona por via vaginal 200mg/dia e estas foram randomizadas para receber ou não um pessário cervical. Este estudo considerou dados da medida do colo uterino entre mulheres assintomáticas, desenvolvendo uma curva de referência para gestantes gemelares e sua capacidade de predição do parto prematuro através de curva ROC (receiver operating characteristics) e curvas de sobrevida de Kaplan-Meyer. Resultados O total de 253 gestantes foram incluídos no estudo, A média do CL foi 33.7mm e a mediana 35.5mm. O Percentil 10 do CL foi 17.8mm. A taxa de parto prematuro foi de 73.9% (187/253) com 33.6% de sPTB < 37 (85/253) e 15% (38/253) de sPTB < 34 semanas. O melhor ponto de corte para predizer sPTB < 37 foi 24.15 mm, entretanto a curva ROC demonstrou baixa performance (0.64). A curva de Kaplan-Meier para sPTB identificou que apenas CL ≤ 20 mm estavam associados a sPTB < 34 semanas. Conclusão Colo uterino ≤20 mm pode ser um interessante ponto de corte para identificar colo curto entre gestações gemelares assintomáticas brasileiras. Entretanto, a medida do colo uterino não apresentou boa performance para predizer parto prematuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cervix Uteri/anatomy & histology , Pregnancy, Twin , Obstetric Labor, Premature
13.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 27: e20220198, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1404746

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo analizar las experiencias de enfermeras en la toma de las citologías cervicales y otros factores organizacionales durante una intervención educativa asistida por metodologías B-learning. Método estudio cualitativo realizado en San Luis Potosí, México. Participaron 15 enfermeras. La recolección de datos se hizo a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con base en una sistematización de experiencias. Para el análisis de la información se utilizó el programa Taguette y como referente teórico las metodologías B-learning. Resultados se identificaron debilidades en factores relacionados con la accesibilidad de las usuarias al servicio, insumos, infraestructura, bioseguridad, capacitación del personal de salud, entrega de resultados a las pacientes y conocimiento del programa por parte de las usuarias. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica el cáncer cervical es un problema de salud pública. La citología cervical es la prueba de tamizaje más utilizada; sin embargo, existen limitantes en la calidad, por lo que se proponen acciones para mejorar los conocimientos y habilidades del personal de enfermería que tiene como función la toma. La intervención educativa fue efectiva para fomentar el aprendizaje integral sobre la toma de las citologías cervicales y permitió al personal de enfermería compartir sus experiencias.


Resumo Objetivo analisar as experiências das enfermeiras na realização de esfregaços cervicais e outros fatores organizacionais durante uma intervenção educacional assistida por metodologias de b-learning. Método estudo qualitativo realizado em San Luis Potosí, México. Participaram 15 enfermeiras. A coleta de dados foi feita por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas a partir de uma sistematização de experiências. Para a análise das informações, utilizou-se o programa Taguette e metodologias de b-learning como referencial teórico. Resultados foram identificadas fragilidades em fatores relacionados com a acessibilidade dos usuários ao serviço, insumos, infraestrutura, biossegurança, capacitação da equipe de saúde, entrega de resultados aos pacientes e conhecimento do programa pelos usuários. Conclusões e implicações para a prática o câncer do colo do útero é um problema de saúde pública. A citologia cervical é o teste de triagem mais utilizado; no entanto, existem limitações na qualidade, por isso são propostas ações para aprimorar os conhecimentos e habilidades das enfermeiras que estejam desempenhando essa função. A intervenção educacional foi eficaz para promover o aprendizado integral sobre a realização do esfregaço cervical e permitiu que as enfermeiras compartilhassem suas experiências.


Abstract Objective to analyze the nursing staff's experiences in taking cervical smears and other organizational factors during an educational intervention assisted by B-learning methodologies. Method a qualitative study was carried out in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with 15 nurses. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews based on a systematization of experiences. The Taguette program and B-learning methodologies as theoretical references were used to analyze the information. Results weaknesses were identified in factors related to the accessibility of users to the service, supplies, infrastructure, biosafety, training of health personnel, delivery of results to patients, and knowledge of the program by the users. Conclusions and implications for practice cervical cancer is a public health problem. Cervical cytology is the most widely used screening test; however, there are limitations in quality, so actions are proposed to improve the knowledge and skills of the nursing staff in their functions. The educational intervention effectively promoted comprehensive learning about taking cervical smears and allowed the nursing staff to share their experiences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Vaginal Smears/nursing , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Cervix Uteri/cytology , Papanicolaou Test/nursing , Inservice Training , Nurses , Mass Screening , Women's Health , Papillomavirus Infections
14.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378520

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: avaliar a cobertura e os fatores associados à não realização do exame citopatológico do colo do útero entre mulheres de 18 a 39 anos no Brasil. Métodos: estudo transversal, de base populacional, com dados de inquérito domiciliar com 2.002 mulheres alfabetizadas de áreas urbanas, selecionadas por amostragem aleatória por conglomerados em 2016. Foram avaliados a prática do exame nos três anos anteriores e os fatores associados à não realização, com cálculo de razão de prevalência ajustada (RPaj) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) por regressão de Poisson. Resultados: a cobertura do exame entre mulheres de 18-39 anos foi de 66,5%, sendo mais elevada naquelas de 35-39 anos (76,8%). Mulheres com renda familiar até 1 salário-mínimo (RPaj=2,08;IC95% 1,72-2,54), que estudaram até a 4a série (RPaj=2,30;IC95% 1,22-2,67), residentes na região Nordeste (RPaj=1,79;IC95% 1,34-2,09) e em municípios com até 20.000 habitantes (RPaj=3,15;IC95% 2,33-3,96) apresentaram maior prevalência de não realização do exame. Conclusão: a cobertura do exame citopatológico esteve abaixo do recomendado, com disparidades socioeconômicas e geográficas. Os dados sugerem necessidade de oportunizar o rastreamento entre mulheres jovens de maior risco para o câncer do colo do útero.


Objectives: to evaluate the coverage and factors associated with non-performing Pap smear test among women aged 18-39 years in Brazil. Methods: cross-sectional, population-based study with household survey data with 2,002 literate women from urban areas, selected by random sampling by clusters in 2016. The practice of Pap test in the previous three years and associated factors with non-participation were evaluated, with calculation of adjusted prevalence ratio (PRad) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by Poisson regression. Results: coverage of Pap tests among women 18-39 years was 66.5%, being higher in those aged 35-39 years (76.8%). Women with a family income up to 01 minimum wage (PRad=2.08; 95%CI 1.72-2.54), who studied up to 4th grade (PRad=2.30; 95%CI 1.22-2.67) and residents in the Northeast region (PRad=1.79; 95%CI 1.34-2.09) and in municipalities up to 20,000 inhabitants (PRad=3.15; 95%CI 2.33-3.96) had a higher prevalence of non-participation in screening. Conclusions: the coverage of the Pap smear test was below recommended, with socioeconomic and geographical disparities. The data suggest the need to provide screening among young women at higher risk for cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Papanicolaou Test , Women , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cervix Uteri , Mass Screening , Health Surveys
15.
Cogit. Enferm. (Online) ; 27: e80960, Curitiba: UFPR, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1394309

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a repercussão da braquiterapia sobre funcionalidade e qualidade de vida de mulheres com câncer de colo uterino. Método: estudo transversal descritivo, desenvolvido entre dezembro de 2019 e fevereiro de 2020, com 33 mulheres com neoplasia uterina em tratamento braquiterápico, acompanhadas no Centro Oncológico do Nordeste - Brasil. Foi aplicado o instrumento Funtional Assessment of Cancer Theraphy - Cervix Cancer. Foram comparadas as médias das subescalas e analisada a correlação entre elas por meio da aplicação dos testes ANOVA e t de Student. Resultados: foram evidenciadas demandas voltadas para a autoimagem, sexualidade e queixas urinárias. A média de preocupações adicionais foi menor na faixa de 50-59 quando comparada com a média da faixa de 31-49 (p=0,004) e com a de 60-75 (p=0,002). Conclusão: abordar assuntos voltados para sexualidade e queixas urinárias contribuem para a identificação precoce dos sintomas ocasionados pela braquiterapia, assim como implementação de medidas, proporcionando qualidade de vida à paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the effect of brachytherapy on functionality and quality of life of women with cervix cancer. Method: a descriptive and cross-sectional study carried out between December 2019 and February 2020 with 33 women with uterine neoplasia undergoing brachytherapy, followed up at Centro Oncológico do Nordeste - Brazil. The Funtional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cervix Cancer instrument was applied. The means of the subscales were compared and their mutual correlation was analyzed by applying the ANOVA and Student's t tests. Results: requirements focused on self-image, sexuality and urinary complaints were evidenced. The mean of additional concerns was lower in the age group from 50 to 59 years old, when compared to the mean values in the age groups from 31 to 49 years old (p=0.004) and from 60 to 75 years old (p=0.002). Conclusion: addressing issues related to sexuality and urinary complaints contribute to early identification of the symptoms caused by brachytherapy, as well as the implementation of measures, providing quality of life for the patient.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la braquiterapia sobre la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida de mujeres con cáncer de cuello uterino. Método: estudio transversal y descriptivo realizado entre diciembre de 2019 y febrero de 2020 con 33 mujeres con neoplasia uterina en tratamiento de braquiterapia, monitoreadas en el Centro Oncológico do Nordeste - Brasil. Se aplicó el instrumento Funtional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cervix Cancer. Se compararon las medias de las subescalas y se analizó la correlación entre ellas por medio de las pruebas ANOVA y t de Student. Resultados: se evidenciaron requerimientos centrados en la autoimagen, la sexualidad y las quejas urinarias. La media de preocupaciones adicionales fue menor en los grupos etarios de 31 a 49 años (p=0.004) y de 60 a 75 (p=0.002). Conclusión: abordar cuestiones relacionadas con la sexualidad y las molestias urinarias contribuyen a la identificación precoz de los síntomas causados por la braquiterapia, así como a la implementación de medidas, proporcionando calidad de vida a la paciente.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Cervix Uteri , Neoplasms , Medical Oncology
16.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 26(1): 117-123, ene.-mar. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407974

ABSTRACT

Resumen El cáncer de cuello uterino ocupa el cuarto lugar dentro de las neoplasias de origen ginecológico a nivel global, representando un 85% de los casos en países en vías de desarrollo. Las metástasis cutáneas de origen ginecológico son altamente infrecuentes, observándose con mayor frecuencia en las neoplasias malignas de ovario, seguidas del adenocarcinoma endometrial y de cuello uterino y, menos frecuentemente, las de subtipo escamocelular. En la actualidad, existen alrededor de 80 reportes de casos citados en la literatura de metástasis cutáneas secundarias a un carcinoma de cuello uterino; sin embargo, ninguno con localización en la piel del cuello que se origine de un subtipo histológico escamocelular. En Colombia, no hay casos reportados hasta la fecha. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 43 años que consulta por sangrado vaginal, dolor abdominal y una extensa placa tumoral exofítica de aspecto metastásico en la piel del cuello y del hombro izquierdo, encontrando al examen clínico inicial una masa tumoral en el cuello uterino con confirmación histológica de un carcinoma escamocelular como neoplasia primaria. Se hace diagnóstico de Carcinoma de cuello uterino estadio IVB y se inicia un tratamiento con intención paliativa con radioterapia y posterior quimioterapia sistémica. La enfermedad metastásica de origen ginecológico a nivel cutáneo confiere un mal pronóstico, con una supervivencia reportada de 1 a 37 meses después de su diagnóstico, por lo cual se deduce que la prevención y el diagnóstico temprano, particularmente en cáncer de cuello uterino, es de vital importancia en la población general.


Abstract Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among gynecological neoplasms globally, representing 85% of cases in developing countries. Cutaneous metastases of gynecological origin are very rare, observed more frequently in ovarian malignancies, followed by endometrial and cervical adenocarcinoma and less frequently those of the squamous cell subtype. Currently there are about 80 case reports cited in the literature of cutaneous metastases secondary to cervical carcinoma, however, none with localization in the skin of the neck originated from a squamous cell histological subtype. In Colombia, there are no reported cases to date. We present the case of a 43-year-old patient who consulted for abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and an extensive exophytic tumor plaque of metastatic appearance in the skin of the neck and left shoulder, finding a tumor mass in the cervix with histological confirmation of a squamous cell carcinoma as primary tumor. A diagnosis of stage IVB cervical carcinoma is made, and treatment is initiated with palliative intention with radiotherapy and subsequent systemic chemotherapy. Cutaneous metastatic disease of gynecological origin confers a poor prognosis, with a reported survival of 1 to 37 months after its diagnosis, for which prevention and early diagnosis, particularly in cervical cancer, is of vital importance in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cervix Uteri , Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasm Metastasis
17.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 66(1): 01022105, 20220101.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424844

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo é identificar a frequência de exames citológicos de colo uterino alterados e sua relação com a infecção pelo Papiloma Vírus Humano (HPV) e neoplasias. Métodos: Foram estudadas mulheres residentes em zona urbana, que fizeram exame citopatológico entre 2015 e 2017, com registros no Sistema de Informações do Câncer. Resultados: Foram realizados 25.323 exames citopatológicos, reunindo 815 alterações (3,2%). A faixa etária mais acometida foi entre 30-40 anos. A principal alteração encontrada foi "ASC-US" (431 casos ­ 52,8%). A Lesão Intraepitelial de Baixo Grau, que compreende o efeito citopático pelo HPV e neoplasia intraepitelial cervical Grau I, foi encontrada em 164 casos (20,1%). Após exame de colposcopia, 181 pacientes realizaram biópsia, sendo mais prevalente "NIC I com Alterações Compatíveis com Ação pelo HPV" (21,5%). Conclusão: Elevada prevalência de alterações que podem evoluir para neoplasias de colo uterino, com ênfase naquelas sugestivas da presença de HPV em pacientes abaixo de 25 anos.


Introduction: This study aimed to identify the frequency of changes on cervix cytopathological exams and its relationship with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection and neoplasms. Methods: Women living in the urban area who underwent cytopathological examination from 2015 to 2017 were assessed, based on records from the Cancer Information System. Results: A total of 25,323 cytopathological exams were performed, reporting 815 changes (3.2%). The most affected age group was from 30 to 40 years. The most frequent change was "ASC-US" (431 cases ­ 52.8%). Low-grade intraepithelial lesion, which encompasses the cytopathic effect of HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm grade I, was found in 164 cases (20.1%). After being examined by colposcopy, 181 patients underwent biopsy, whose most prevalent finding was "grade I CIN with Changes Compatible With HPV Action" (21.5%). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of changes that can evolve to uterine cervical neoplasms, with emphasis on those suggestive of presence of HPV in patients younger than 25 years.


Subject(s)
Cervix Uteri
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 1157-1170, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364677

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the role of period, geographic and socio demographic factors in cancer-related mortality by prostate, breast, cervix, colon, lung and esophagus cancer in Brazilians capitals (2000-2015). Ecological study using data of Brazilian Mortality Information. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the adjusted risk of cancer mortality. Mortality rate levels were higher in males for colon, lung and esophageal cancers. Mortality rates were highest in the older. Our results showed an increased risk of colon cancer mortality in both sexes from 2000 to 2015, which was also evidenced for breast and lung cancers in women. In both genders, the highest mortality risk for lung and esophageal cancers was observed in Southern capitals. Midwestern, Southern and Southeastern capitals showed the highest mortality risk for colon cancer both for males and females. Colon cancer mortality rate increased for both genders, while breast and lung cancers mortality increased only for women. The North region showed the lowest mortality rate for breast, cervical, colon and esophageal cancers. The Midwest and Northeast regions showed the highest mortality rates for prostate cancer.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o papel de fatores temporais, geográficos e sociodemográficos na mortalidade por câncer de próstata, mama, colo do útero, cólon, pulmão e esôfago nas capitais brasileiras (2000-2015). Estudo ecológico utilizando informações brasileiras de mortalidade. Modelos de Poisson multinível foram usados ​​para estimar o risco ajustado de mortalidade por câncer. Os níveis de mortalidade foram maiores em homens para câncer de cólon, pulmão e esôfago. As taxas de mortalidade foram mais altas nos idosos. Nossos resultados mostraram risco aumentado de mortalidade por câncer de cólon em ambos os sexos de 2000 a 2015, o que também foi evidenciado para câncer de mama e de pulmão em mulheres. Em ambos os sexos, o maior risco de mortalidade para câncer de pulmão e esôfago foi observado nas capitais do Sul. As capitais do Centro-Oeste, Sul e Sudeste apresentaram o maior risco de mortalidade por câncer de cólon tanto para homens quanto para mulheres. A taxa de mortalidade por câncer de cólon aumentou para ambos os sexos, enquanto a mortalidade por câncer de mama e de pulmão aumentou apenas para as mulheres. A região Norte apresentou a menor taxa de mortalidade por câncer de mama, colo do útero, cólon e esôfago. As regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste apresentaram as maiores taxas de mortalidade por câncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate , Cervix Uteri , Colon , Esophagus , Multilevel Analysis , Lung
19.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 34: 1-9, fev. 02, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402110

ABSTRACT

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in women. About 80% of sexually active women will have contact with this virus at some point in their lives. Most infections will be transient, but when the infection becomes persistent and associated with a high oncogenic risk of Human Papillomavirus, there may be progression to cancer, especially cervical cancer. The best way to prevent Human Papillomavirus infection is through the use of vaccines, which have been available to the public in Brazil since 2014. Objective: This study aimed to assess the most prevalent types of Human Papillomavirus in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and its mesoregions and if the majority of diagnosed types are contained in the Human Papillomavirus vaccines currently available on the market. Methods: A total of 20,000 Human Papillomavirus tests were evaluated for the diagnosis of genital Human Papillomavirus infection in women from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection was evaluated according to age and the city of origin of the exams. Human Papillomavirus detection was performed using molecular biology tests, such as hybrid capture (for diagnosis of the Human Papillomavirus group, high or low oncogenic risk) and polymerase chain reaction (viral genotyping) techniques. Results: The diagnosis of Human Papillomavirus infection was performed on women between 1 and 102 years of age. The age with the highest Human Papillomavirus positivity, as expected, was 20­25 years (45.6%) and the lowest after 70 years (7.1%). The highest Human Papillomavirus positivity of the exams was observed in the Serrana region of Santa Catarina state (58.9% of the exams). A high-oncogenic-risk Human Papillomavirus was detected in 93% of positive samples and was the most frequent in all age groups. Mixed infection (high- and low-risk Human Papillomavirus) was more prevalent in the 66­70 age group (29.3%) and in the Southern Region of Santa Catarina (26.4%). The most frequent genotypes in the state of Santa Catarina were non-16/18 high oncogenic risk Human Papillomavirus (76.9% of positive cases). Human Papillomavirus 16 was found in 17.1% of positive cases and Human Papillomavirus 18 in 6.6%. Conclusion: The most prevalent types of Human Papillomavirus in the state of Santa Catarina in the past 6 years are the non-16/18 high oncogenic risk Human Papillomavirus types, which are viral types not covered by the current Human Papillomavirus vaccines available in Brazil.


A infecção por Papilomavírus Humano é a infecção sexualmente transmissível mais frequente na mulher. Cerca de 80% das mulheres sexualmente ativas entrarão em contato com esse vírus em algum momento. A maioria das infecções será transitória, mas quando ela é persistente, associada aos Papilomavírus Humano de alto risco oncogênico, poderá progredir para câncer, principalmente de colo de útero. A melhor forma de se prevenir da contaminação pelo vírus é por meio de vacina, disponível no sistema público do Brasil desde 2014. Objetivo: Avaliar os tipos de Papilomavírus Humano mais prevalentes no estado de Santa Catarina e suas mesorregiões, e se a maioria dos tipos diagnosticados estão contidos nas vacinas contra o Papilomavírus Humano atualmente disponíveis no mercado. Métodos: Foram avaliados 20 mil exames para diagnóstico da infecção genital pelo Papilomavírus Humano em mulheres de todo o estado. A prevalência da infecção foi comparada de acordo com a idade e a procedência dos exames. A detecção do Papilomavírus Humano deu-se pelos exames de biologia molecular pelas técnicas de captura híbrida (para diagnóstico do grupo de Papilomavírus Humano, alto ou baixo riscos oncogênicos) e de PCR (genotipagem viral). Resultados: Foram avaliados exames para diagnóstico da infecção de mulheres entre um e 102 anos de idade. A faixa etária de maior positividade, como era de ser esperado, foi dos 20 aos 25 anos (45.6%) e a menor depois dos 70 anos (7.1%). A maior positividade dos exames foi observada na região Serrana do estado (58.9% dos exames). O Papilomavírus Humano de alto risco oncogênico foi detectado em 93% dos casos positivos e foi o mais frequente em todas as faixas etárias. A infecção mista (Papilomavírus Humano de alto e baixo riscos) foi mais prevalente na faixa etária dos 66 aos 70 anos (29.3%) e na região Sul Catarinense (26.4%). Os genótipos mais frequentes no estado foram os Papilomavírus Humano de alto risco oncogênico não 16/18 (76.9% dos casos positivos). O Papilomavírus Humano 16 foi encontrado em 17.1% dos casos positivos e o Papilomavírus Humano 18 em 6.6%. Conclusão:Os tipos de Papilomavírus Humano mais prevalentes no estado de Santa Catarina, nos últimos seis anos, são os Papilomavírus Humano de alto risco oncogênico não 16/18, tipos virais não cobertos pelas atuais vacinas contra o Papilomavírus Humano disponíveis no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alphapapillomavirus , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Reproductive Tract Infections , Oncogenic Viruses , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Cervix Uteri
20.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(1): 40-46, Jan. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365672

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the quantity of cervical smears, also designated Papanicolaou tests, between 2006 and 2015 in all the Federal units of Brazil, as well as to verify the quantity of exams collected outside the recommended age range and the economic impact of such excess. Methods The data was collected from the Ministry of Health's database called Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo de Útero (SISCOLO), which contains all the test results collected nationwide by the Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym). From that, the number of exams and the age range of thewomen who underwent them were analyzed; besides, these numbers were stratified according to the state of where the exam was performed. The quantity of exams collected outside the recommended age range was verified, and, so, the economic impact generated was noted. Results Between 2006and2015, 87,425,549Papanicolaoutestswere collected in Brazil. Of these, 20,215,052 testswere collected outside the age range recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health; this number corresponded to 23.12% of all exams. From such data, considering that each Pap smear collected by SUS generates a cost of BRL 7.30 to the government, according to the information in the Tabela SUS dated September 2018, there was a total charge of BRL 147,569,880 for tests collected outside the protocol. Conclusion In Brazil, according to the Ministry of Health's protocol about the recommended practices on collecting Pap smears, whose newest edition dates of 2016, it is recommended that Pap smears are collected inwomen from a specific age range, inwhom the potential diagnosing advantages overcome the onus of overdiagnosis or of a lesion with great regression potential. However, such protocols have not been correctly followed, promoting more than 20 million tests in excess, and an exorbitant cost for the Brazilian public health system. It is relevant to take measures to correctly use the official protocol, reducing the patients risks, as well as the economic impact for SUS.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a quantidade de exames cérvico-vaginais, também chamados de Teste de Papanicolau, entre os anos de 2006 e 2015 em todos os estados brasileiros, bem como verificar o número de exames realizados fora da faixa etária indicada, e o impacto econômico desse excesso. Métodos Os dados foram coletados a partir da base de dados do Ministério da Saúde chamada Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo de Útero (SISCOLO), que reúne os resultados de exames realizados em todo o Brasil pelo sistema único de saúde (SUS). A partir disso, foi analisado o número de exames e a faixa-etária de realização dos mesmos; além disso, esses números foram estratificados de acordo com o estado brasileiro de origem do exame. Foi verificada a quantidade de exames fora da idade recomendada, e, assim, foi observado o impacto econômico gerado. Resultado Entre 2006 e 2015, 87.425.549 exames de Papanicolau foram realizados no Brasil. Deste montante, 20.215.052 testes foram realizados fora da faixa-etária preconizada pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, o que equivale a 23,12% do total. A partir desse número, considerando que cada exame cérvico -vaginal realizado pelo SUS gera um custo de R$ 7,30 para o governo, de acordo com informações na Tabela SUS datada de setembro de 2018, foram gastos R$ 147.569.880 em exames realizados sem indicação. Conclusão No Brasil, no protocolo do Ministério da Saúde sobre as práticas adequadas em coleta de exames cérvico-vaginais, sendo sua edição mais recente de 2016, a recomendação é realizar o teste de Papanicolau em mulheres dentro de uma faixaetária específica, na qual a chance de se diagnosticar uma lesão supera o ônus de um sobrediagnóstico ou uma lesão com grande potencial de regressão. Entretanto, essa recomendação não tem sido seguida corretamente, gerando mais de 20 milhões de exames excedentes e umcusto monetário exorbitante para o sistema público de saúde. É importante que medidas sejam tomadas para que o protocolo seja empregado corretamente a fim de reduzir riscos para a paciente, bem como a redução de gastos desnecessários para o SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/diagnosis , Cervix Uteri/pathology
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