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Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 539-547, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440313


SUMMARY: A great deal of attention of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing, particularly in relation to haze days. It is that exposure to cigarette smoke augments the toxicity of common air contaminants, thereby increasing the complexity of respiratory diseases. Although there are various mechanisms involved to respiratory diseases caused or worsen by cigarette smoking, in which the role of AQPs in the lung with regard to fluid homeostasis still remains elusive. In this paper, we copied the rat models based on smoke generator, and investigated the morphological changes of mucosa and related functions depending on the balance of lining liquid of alveoli via AQPs expression. Compared with normal group, weak labelling of AQP1 and AQP5 protein abundance were clearly detected in the corresponding part of smoke exposure groups compared with normal group. Hence, it is suggested that the contribution of AQPs in the lung is diminished, thereby causing perturbed balancing between resorptive and secretory fluid homeostasis under cigarette smoking.

Cada vez se presta más atención a la contaminación del aire en la salud respiratoria, particularmente, en relación con los días de neblina. En consecuencia la exposición al humo del cigarrillo aumenta la toxicidad de los contaminantes comunes del aire, lo que además aumenta la complejidad de las enfermedades respiratorias. Aunque existen varios mecanismos involucrados en las enfermedades respiratorias causadas o empeoradas por el tabaquismo, en las que el papel de las AQP en el pulmón respecto a la homeostasis de líquidos sigue siendo difícil de alcanzar. En este artículo, copiamos los modelos de rata basados en el generador de humo e investigamos los cambios morfológicos de la mucosa y las funciones relacionadas según el equilibrio del líquido de revestimiento de los alvéolos a través de la expresión de AQP. En comparación con el grupo normal, se detectó claramente un etiquetado débil de la abundancia de proteínas AQP1 y AQP5 en la parte correspondiente de los grupos de exposición al humo en comparación con el grupo control. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que la contribución de las AQP en el pulmón está disminuida, provocando así un equilibrio perturbado entre la homeostasis del líquido secretor y de reabsorción bajo el hábito de fumar cigarrillos.

Animals , Rats , Respiratory System/pathology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Respiratory System/drug effects , Body Fluids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Aquaporins/metabolism , Homeostasis , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e210059, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529136


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the tobacco effect on flexural properties and the microhardness of three acrylic resins. Material and Methods: Three resins were tested: two thermo-polymerizable acrylic resins (RMB 20 and BMS 014) and one autopolymerized acrylic resin. The 3-point bending and microhardness tests were carried out with a universal tensile-compression machine and a micro-Vickers hardness tester. The acrylic resin specimens have been exposed for 21 days to cigarette smoke in a smoking room. Their mechanical strength was compared to unexposed samples. Statistical analysis was performed using the data processing software SPSS Statistics 21.0. Results: The flexural properties of the resins were affected by cigarette smoke only in the case of Major Base 20® (drop in strength with p= 0.02; 0.6; 0.7 and in elastic modulus with p= 0.86; 0.74 and 0.85 for Major Base 20®, BMS 014® and Major Repair®). The cigarette smoke affected significantly microhardness for all groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: Cigarette smoking does not affect the flexural properties of the acrylic resin (BMS 014® and Major Repair® unlike Major Base 20®), but it does reduce the microhardness.

Dentures , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Flexural Strength , Surface Properties , Analysis of Variance
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 507-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986956


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of Yifei Jianpi recipe for improving cigarette smoke- induced inflammatory injury and mucus hypersecretion in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells.@*METHODS@#Serum samples were collected from 40 SD rats treated with Yifei Jianpi recipe (n=20) or normal saline (n=20) by gavage. Cultured human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells were stimulated with an aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE), followed by treatment with the collected serum at different dilutions. The optimal concentration and treatment time of CSE and the medicated serum for cell treatment were determined with CCK-8 assay. The expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and muc8 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the treated cells were examined with RT- qPCR and Western blotting, and the effects of TLR4 gene silencing and overexpression on their expressions were assessed. The expressions of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the cells were detected using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#At the optimal concentration of 20%, treatment with the medicated serum for 24 h significantly lowered the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4, NF- κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and MUC8 in CSE- exposed 16HBE cells, and these effects were further enhanced by TLR4 silencing in the cells. In 16HBE cells with TLR4 overexpression, the expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and MUC8 were significantly increased after CSE exposure and were lowered following treatment with the medicated serum (P < 0.05). The medicated serum also significantly lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in CSE-exposed 16HBE cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the 16HBE cell model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), treatment with Yifei Jianpi recipe-medicated serum improves inflammation and mucus hypersecretion possibly by reducing MUC secretion and inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Humans , Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180621, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012525


Abstract Objective Considering the global public health problem of smoking, which can negatively influence bone tissue repair, the aim of this study is to analyze the influence of photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) on calvaria defects created surgically in specimens under the effect of cigarette smoke and analyzed with use of histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry techniques. Methodology Calvaria defects 4.1 mm in diameter were surgically created in the calvaria of 90-day-old rats (n=60) that were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups containing 15 animals each: control group (C), smoking group (S), laser group (L), and smoke associated with laser group (S+L). The animals were subjected to surgery for calvaria defects and underwent PBM, being evaluated at 21, 45, and 60 days post-surgery. The specimens were then processed for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses. The area of bone neoformation (ABN), percentage of bone neoformation (PBNF), and the remaining distance between the edges of the defects (D) were analyzed histometrically. Quantitative analysis of the TRAP immunolabeled cells was also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in conjunction with Tukey's test to verify the statistical differences between groups (p<0.05). Results The smoking group showed less ABN compared to the other experimental groups in all periods, and it also showed more D at 21 days compared to the remaining groups and at 45 days compared to the laser group. The smoking group showed a lower PNBF compared to the laser group in all experimental periods and compared to smoking combined with LLLT group at 21 days. Conclusions PBM acted on bone biomodulation, thus stimulating new bone formation and compensating for the negative factor of smoking, which can be used as a supportive therapy during bone repair processes.

Animals , Female , Rats , Skull/radiation effects , Wound Healing/radiation effects , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Cigarette Smoking/physiopathology , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Skull/pathology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 324-332, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886287


Abstract Purpose: To investigate if the inorganic bovine bone matrix changes the bone formation in rats submitted to inhalation of cigarette smoke. Methods: Twenty Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Cigarette Clot Group (CCG), which in the inhalation chamber received the smoke of 10 cigarettes, 3 times a day, 10 minutes, for 30 days and had the surgical cavity filled by clot; Cigarette Biomaterial Group (CBG), submitted to the same inhalation technique but with the cavity filled by biomaterial. Results: In CCG there was a significant difference of new bone tissue in the analyzed periods (15 and 45 days), and in 15 days, there was 4.8 ± 0.42 of bone formed and 11.73 ± 0.59 (p <0.05) in 45 days. The CBG also showed a significant difference between the periods of 15 to 45 days, being respectively 6.16 ± 0.30 and 11.60 ± 0.61. However, when the groups were compared, within the same analyzed periods, a significant difference was observed only in the period of 15 days, with the new bone percentage being greater in the CBG. Conclusion: The bone matrix acted as an osteoinductive biomaterial, biocompatible and aided in the repair process, mainly in the initial period of recovery.

Animals , Male , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Bone Regeneration/physiology , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Osteogenesis/physiology , Tibia/surgery , Tibia/drug effects , Tibia/physiology , Time Factors , Cattle , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Bone Transplantation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Heterografts/physiology
Clinics ; 73: e347, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890743


OBJECTIVE: Physicians do not adequately use their unique professional privilege to prevent patients from smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the type and extent of advice given to patients by physicians of different medical specialties regarding smoking cessation. METHODS: In total, 317 volunteer physicians were included in this study. The participants rated their attitudes toward the smoking habits of their patients by completing a questionnaire. The approaches used to address the smoking habits of patients significantly differed among physicians working at polyclinics, clinics and emergency service departments (p<0.001). Physicians working at clinics exhibited the highest frequency of inquiring about the smoking habits of their patients, while physicians working at emergency service departments exhibited the lowest frequency. RESULTS: Physicians from different medical specialties significantly differed in their responses. Physicians specializing in lung diseases, thoracic surgery, and cardiology were more committed to preventing their patients from cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The role of physicians, particularly pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons, is critical in the fight against cigarette smoking. Promoting physician awareness of this subject is highly important in all other branches of medicine.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Physician's Role/psychology , Specialization , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Attitude of Health Personnel , Choice Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data
Rev. salud pública ; 19(5): 591-594, sep.-oct. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962043


RESUMEN Objetivos Determinar y justificar la carga impositiva de los cigarrillos, con base en los años de vida que se pierden por su consumo. Métodos Mediante revisión de literatura se estimó la reducción promedio de la expectativa de vida de un fumador. Se aplicó a cada año perdido el valor empleado en estudios de costo-efectividad, de tres veces el PIB per cápita (COP 16 613.951 de 2015, equivalentes a USD 6 056, aplicando tasa de 1 USD=2 743 COP). A partir de los años de consumo promedio, y de los paquetes que consume en ese lapso, se estimó el impuesto que debería tener cada paquete para que, con un interés de 3 % anual, el fumador al fallecer reuniera el valor correspondiente a los años que pierde. Resultados Dada una reducción promedio de esperanza de vida de seis años, cada fumador debería contribuirle al sistema de salud COP 299 051 115 (USD 109 008). Si en promedio consume 166 paquetes de cigarrillos anuales, durante 50 años, debería reunir COP 2.659 648 (USD 969) cada año, y cada paquete debería tener un impuesto de COP 16 022 (USD 5,84). Conclusiones Si se acepta que el sistema de salud pague hasta tres PIB per cápita por cada año de vida por intervenciones en salud que aporten años, es razonable que aquellas intervenciones que quitan años de vida hagan también un aporte equivalente.(AU)

ABSTRACT Objectives Taxes are the most effective measure to reduce tobacco consumption, although this remains a controversial matter. This study presents a method to determine and justify taxation based on the monetary value of the years of potential life lost due to tobacco consumption. Methods A literature review allowed estimating the average reduction of life expectancy in smokers. The value used in cost-effectiveness studies -three times the GDP per capita (COP 16 613 951 for 2015, equivalent to USD 6 056, applying an exchange rate of USD 1=COP 2743) - was applied to each year lost. Considering the average years of tobacco consumption and the number of packs consumed during that period, the tax that each pack should have was estimated in such a way that, by the time the smoker dies, he or she will have paid for the years lost with an annual interest rate of 3 %. Results Given an average reduction of life expectancy of 6 years, each smoker should contribute to the health system with COP 299 051 115 (USD 109 008). With an annual average consumption of 166 cigarette packs for 50 years, a smoker should pay each year COP 2 659 648 (USD 969), which means that each cigarette pack should have a tax of COP 16 022 (USD 5.84). Conclusions If it is accepted that the health system has to pay up to three times the GDP per capita for each year of life in health interventions that add years, it is reasonable to think that those interventions that take away years of life should also make an equivalent contribution.(AU)

Humans , Tobacco/adverse effects , Life Expectancy , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Costs and Cost Analysis/economics , Life Expectancy
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(3): 251-255, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891410


ABSTRACT Objective To assess the association between cigarette smoking and ventricular arrhythmias in adolescents. Novel electrocardiographic parameters -Tp-e interval, as well as Tpe/QT and Tpe/QTc ratios - were used to make this assessment. Methods The study population consisted of 87 subjects aged between 16-19 years. Fifty-one adolescent smokers with no risk of arrhythmia comprised the Smoker Group, and 36 adolescents who had never smoked cigarettes comprised the Control Group. Smokers were defined as patients smoking more than three cigarettes per day, for at least 1 year. Body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were measured, and electrocardiograms were performed on all subjects. Heart rate, PR and Tp-e intervals, and Tpe/QT, Tpe/QTc ratio were digitally measured. Results Adolescents in Smoker Group had smoked cigarettes for 2.9±1.4 years (range 1 to 6 years). The mean age at starting smoking was 13.8±1.4 years. There were no differences between smokers and Control Group as to baseline clinical variables (p>0.05). The PR, QT and QTc intervals were similar in all groups. Tp-e interval (98.4±12.7ms and 78.3±6.9 ms; p<0.001), Tpe/QT (0.28±0.04 and 22±0.03; p<0.01), Tpe/QTc (0.24±0.03 and 0.19±0.01; p<0.001) ratios were significantly higher in Smoker Group. There were no correlations between years of smoking, number of cigarettes per day, Tpe interval, Tpe/QT or Tpe/QTc ratios. Conclusion Cigarette smoking is associated with risk of ventricular arrhytmogenesis with prolonged Tp-e interval and increased Tpe/QT and Tpe/QTc ratios in adolescents.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre tabagismo e arritmias ventriculares em adolescentes usando novos parâmetros eletrocardiográficos: intervalo Tp-e, e relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Métodos A população do estudo incluiu 87 indivíduos de 16 a 19 anos de idade. Cinquenta e um adolescentes fumantes, sem risco de arritmia, formaram o Grupo Fumantes, e 36 adolescentes, que nunca tinham fumado cigarros, formaram o Grupo Controle. Os fumantes foram definidos como pacientes que fumavam mais de três cigarros por dia, há pelo menos 1 ano. O índice de massa corporal, e a pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica e média foram medidos, e foram realizados eletrocardiogramas em todos os participantes. Frequência cardíaca, intervalos PR e Tp-e, e as relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc foram medidas por instrumentos digitais. Resultados Os adolescentes do Grupo Fumante fumavam há 2,9±1,4 anos (variação 1 a 6 anos). A média de idade ao começar a fumar foi 13,8±1,4 anos. Não houve diferença nas variáveis clínicas iniciais entre os Grupos Fumante e controle (p>0,05). Os intervalos PR, QT e QTc foram semelhantes em todos os grupos. O intervalo Tp-e (98,4±12,7ms e 78,3±6,9ms; p<0,001), e as relações Tpe/QT (0,28±0,04 e 22±0,03; p<0,01) e Tpe/QTc (0,24±0,03 e 0,19±0,01; p<0,001) foram significativamente maiores no Grupo Fumantes. Não houve correlação entre anos de tabagismo, número de cigarros por dia, intervalo Tpe e relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Conclusão O hábito de fumar está associado ao risco de arritmogênese ventricular, com interval Tp-e prolongado e aumento nas relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc em adolescentes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Electrocardiography , Cigarette Smoking/physiopathology , Heart Conduction System/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 66(5): 494-498, Out. 2000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023087


Este relato consiste no estudo citológico das alterações que o tabaco e as radiações solares podem causar no epitélio estratificado pavimentoso da semi-mucosa labial. Material e métodos: Foram obtidas pelo método de citologia esfoliativa 278 lâminas de 139 pacientes, divididos em quatro grupos de pacientes: grupo 1- controle, grupo 2 - expostos ao sol, grupo 3 - fumantes, e grupo 4 - fumantes combinado com exposição ao sol. Resultados: Os laudos foram fornecidos por microscopia óptica; e, a partir de uma média ponderada, constatou-se um aumento de células córneas (queratina) no grupo 4 (27,53%), exposto à radiação solar; e o maior número de células intermediárias e binucleadas no grupo 3 (57,69% e 1,04%), respectivamente, no grupo de fumantes, demonstrando-se que o tabaco e as radiações solares influenciam alterações celulares no epitélio da semi-mucosa labial, podendo induzir às afecções cancerizáveis e ao câncer do lábio inferior. Conclusão: A citologia esfoliativa é um método simples e econômico e deve ser usada nessa população de risco, como prevenção primária do câncer do lábio inferior.

This paper consists in the study of the cytological alterations that tobacco and the solar radiation can cause in the epithelium of the labial semi-mucosa. Material and methods: There were obtained from the exfoliated cytology method, 278 scrapings from 139 patients, divided into four groups: group 1- control, group 2 - exposed to sun radiation, group 3 - smokers and group 4-smokers exposed to sun radiation (27,53%). Results: The reports were given by optic microscopy and starting from a pondered average, there was observed an increased number of horny cells in the group number 4 exposed to sun radiation, and an increased number of intermediary (57,69%) and binucleated cells (1,04%) in the group of smokers, demonstrating that tobacco and solar radiation can cause alterations in cells of the epithelium of the labial semi-mucosa, leading possibly to pre-malignant diseases and lower lip cancer. Conclusions: The exfoliative cytology is a simple and economic method and should be used in this risk population as primary prevention of lower lip cancer.

Humans , Male , Female , Lip/anatomy & histology , Mouth Mucosa/cytology , Solar Radiation/adverse effects , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects