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1.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 1-1, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There are few multi-city studies on the association between temperature and mortality in basin climates. This study was based on the Sichuan Basin in southwest China to assess the association of basin temperature with non-accidental mortality in the population and with the temperature-related mortality burden.@*METHODS@#Daily mortality data, meteorological and air pollution data were collected for four cities in the Sichuan Basin of southwest China. We used a two-stage time-series analysis to quantify the association between temperature and non-accidental mortality in each city, and a multivariate meta-analysis was performed to obtain the overall cumulative risk. The attributable fractions (AFs) were calculated to access the mortality burden attributable to non-optimal temperature. Additionally, we performed a stratified analyses by gender, age group, education level, and marital status.@*RESULTS@#A total of 751,930 non-accidental deaths were collected in our study. Overall, 10.16% of non-accidental deaths could be attributed to non-optimal temperatures. A majority of temperature-related non-accidental deaths were caused by low temperature, accounting for 9.10% (95% eCI: 5.50%, 12.19%), and heat effects accounted for only 1.06% (95% eCI: 0.76%, 1.33%). The mortality burden attributable to non-optimal temperatures was higher among those under 65 years old, females, those with a low education level, and those with an alternative marriage status.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study suggested that a significant association between non-optimal temperature and non-accidental mortality. Those under 65 years old, females, and those with a low educational level or alternative marriage status had the highest attributable burden.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , China/epidemiology , Cities , Cold Temperature , Hot Temperature , Mortality , Temperature , Time Factors
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , ABO Blood-Group System , Cities
4.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(4): 11-28, dic. 2023. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553069

ABSTRACT

Los murciélagos son mamíferos vertebrados presentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, estimándose una población de 4 animales por habitante. Son portadores de varias enfermedades importantes y además empeoran las condiciones respiratorias de enfermos crónicos. En el campo cumplen una interesante función, ya que se alimentan de insectos perjudiciales para las siembras. El guano puede ser útil en el abono de la tierra debido al aporte de carbono y nitrógeno. En las ciudades su presencia tiene consecuencias diferentes. Se encuentran en los taparrollos de las habitaciones, así como también en todas las oquedades de muros, árboles, grietas, etc. Se exponen aquí los peligros y los cuidados que deben tenerse en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires ante la invasión de estos quirópteros. (AU)


Bats are vertebrate mammals present in the City of Buenos Aires, with an estimated population of 4 animals per inhabitant. They are carriers of several important diseases and also worsen the respiratory conditions of the chronically ill. In rural areas they fulfill an interesting function, since they feed on insects harmful to crops. Guano can be useful in soil fertilization due to its contribution of carbon and nitrogen. In cities their presence has different consequences. They are found in the roll covers of the rooms as well as in all the hollows of walls, trees, cracks, etc. The dangers and precautions to be taken in the city of Buenos Aires in the face of the invasion of these chiroptera are described here. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chiroptera/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/etiology , Antigens, Dermatophagoides , Dander/immunology , Argentina , Immunoassay/methods , Urban Health , Cities , Feces/chemistry
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202794, oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509540

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La tasa de mortalidad neonatal (TMN) es un indicador de condiciones socioeconómicas, ambientales y sanitarias. La cuenca Matanza Riachuelo (CMR) es la más contaminada de Argentina. Objetivo. Analizar la evolución de la mortalidad neonatal (MN) en la CMR entre los años 2010 y 2019, sus características, y compararla con datos globales de Argentina, de la provincia de Buenos Aires (PBA) y de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA) en 2019. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo de estadísticas vitales del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación. Resultados. En 2019, la TMN en la CMR fue del 6,4 ‰; en Argentina, del 6,2 ‰; en PBA, del 6 ‰, y en CABA, del 5,1 ‰. El riesgo de MN en la CMR fue mayor que en CABA (RR: 1,32; IC95% 1,08-1,61). Entre 2010 y 2019, disminuyó la TMN en la CMR, en PBA y en Argentina; pero no en CABA. El riesgo de MN por afecciones perinatales en la CMR fue mayor que en CABA (RR: 1,30; IC95% 1,011,67). El riesgo de muerte para nacidos vivos (NV) con muy bajo peso al nacer (MBPN) en la CMR fue mayor que en CABA (RR: 1,70; IC95% 1,33-2,18) y menor que en Argentina (RR: 0,78; IC95% 0,70-0,87). Conclusión. La evolución 2010-2019 de la TMN fue similar en la CMR, en Argentina y en PBA. En 2019 la estructura de causas y el riesgo de MN fueron similares en la CMR, en PBA y en Argentina, con mayor riesgo por afecciones perinatales y de los NV con MBPN. La TMN de NV de MBPN fue menor en la CMR que en Argentina.


Introduction. The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) is an indicator of socioeconomic, environmental, andhealth care conditions. The Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin (MRRB) is the most polluted in Argentina.Objective. To analyze neonatal mortality (NM) in the MRRB between 2010 and 2019 and compare itwith overall data for Argentina, the province of Buenos Aires (PBA), and the City of Buenos Aires (CABA)in 2019.Population and methods. Descriptive study based on vital statistics provided by the Ministry of Health. Results. In 2019, the NMR was 6.4‰ in the MRRB, 6.2‰ in Argentina; 6‰ in PBA; and 5.1‰ in CABA.The risk of NM in the MRRB was higher than in CABA (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.08­1.61). Between 2010and 2019, the NMR decreased in the MRRB, PBA, and Argentina; but not in CABA.The risk of NM due to perinatal conditions in the MRRB was higher than in CABA (RR: 1.30, 95%CI: 1.01­1.67).The risk of death among very low birth weight (VLBW) live births (LBs) in the MRRB was higher than in CABA(RR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.33­2.18) and lower than in Argentina (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70­0.87).Conclusion. The evolution of NMR between 2010 and 2019 was similar in the MRRB, Argentina, andPBA. In 2019, the structure of causes and the risk of NM were similar in the MRRB, PBA, and Argentina,with a higher risk due to perinatal conditions and among VLBW LBs. The NMR among VLBW LBs waslower in the MRRB than in Argentina


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant Mortality , Rivers , Argentina/epidemiology , Cities , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
6.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 57(4): e20220372, jul.-ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514880

ABSTRACT

Resumo Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo investigar o efeito das transferências intergovernamentais na diferença salarial entre os servidores municipais e os funcionários do setor privado. A amostra foi formada por 5.449 municípios durante o período de 2000 a 2016, agrupados em 5.344 áreas mínimas comparáveis. Os procedimentos metodológicos quantitativos foram desenvolvidos em duas etapas. Na primeira, mediu-se a diferença salarial mediana entre os servidores municipais e os funcionários do setor privado por meio da regressão quantílica incondicional. Na segunda, a análise dos determinantes da diferença salarial foi realizada por meio de regressão múltipla com dados em painel, efeitos fixos e estimações adicionais com erros robustos a cluster, correlação temporal e correlação espacial. Os resultados indicaram que o aumento de 1% das transferências intergovernamentais per capita resulta em aumento de 0,067% na diferença salarial nos municípios brasileiros entre os servidores municipais e os funcionários do setor privado. Além disso, a elevação de 1% no Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) per capita resulta numa redução de 0,036% da diferença salarial. Por último, a pesquisa observou que o tamanho populacional aumenta enquanto a competição eleitoral reduz a diferença salarial nos municípios brasileiros.


Resumen Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto de las transferencias intergubernamentales en la diferencia salarial entre los servidores municipales y los empleados del sector privado. La muestra estuvo conformada por 5.449 municipios durante el período 2000 a 2016, agrupados en 5.344 áreas mínimas comparables. Los procedimientos metodológicos cuantitativos se desarrollaron en dos etapas. En la primera, la mediana de la diferencia salarial entre los empleados municipales y los del sector privado se midió utilizando la regresión por cuantiles incondicionales. En la segunda etapa, el análisis de los determinantes de la brecha salarial se realizó mediante regresión múltiple con datos de panel, efectos fijos y estimaciones adicionales con errores robustos por clúster, correlación temporal y correlación espacial. Los resultados indicaron que un aumento del 1% en las transferencias intergubernamentales per cápita resulta en un aumento del 0,067% en la brecha salarial en los municipios brasileños entre los servidores municipales y los empleados del sector privado. Además, identificó que un aumento de 1% en el PIB per cápita se traduce en una reducción de 0,036% en la brecha salarial. Finalmente, la investigación observó que el tamaño de la población aumenta mientras la competencia electoral reduce la brecha salarial en los municipios brasileños.


Abstract This article examines the intergovernmental transfer effects on wage differences between local civil servants and private sector employees. The sample was composed of 5,449 Brazilian municipalities, working with data from 2000 to 2016 clustered in 5,344 minimum comparable areas (MCA). The methodological procedures were quantitative and developed in two steps. The first step was to assess the median wage difference between local civil servants and private sector employees through unconditional quantile regression. The second was the analysis of different wage determinants through multiple regression with panel data, fixed effects, and additional estimations such as cluster-robust standard errors, temporal correlation, and spatial correlation. The results demonstrated that when per capita intergovernmental transfers increase by 1%, the wage difference between local civil servants and private sector employees increases by 0.067%. Besides that, when per capita GDP increases by 1%, the wage difference decreases by 0.036%. Furthermore, the paper observed that populational size increases and electoral competition decreases wage differences between the public and private sectors in Brazilian municipalities.


Subject(s)
Cities
7.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(1): 26-35, mar2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435402

ABSTRACT

La Habana notifica el 30% de casos de tuberculosis (TB) en Cuba. Objetivo: valorar las desigualdades territoriales en la ocurrencia de TB en los municipios de La Habana, 2015 y 2016-2020 según algunos determinantes intermedios e individuales. Métodos: estudio ecológico de series temporales sobre las notificaciones de TB en 2015 y 2016-2020. La fuente fue la base de vigilancia del MINSAP. Calculamos la tasa del periodo (TP), la referencia fue la menor, estimamos las diferencias absolutas y relativas, y el Riesgo Atribuible Poblacional Porcentual. Estimamos la TP en menores y mayores de 19 años. Según la TP, propusimos dos escenarios: -reducción 5% anual a todos los municipios, según Hitos de OMS y -reducción discriminada 5% anual a municipios con TP < 9 y 7% los ≥ 9/100.000. Calculamos dos índices de dispersión y proporciones de TB en VIH y reclusos. Categorizamos los municipios según metas renovadas hacia la eliminación. Resultados: el municipio de referencia fue Playa (5,5), la diferencia relativa fue 3,3 veces más en Habana Vieja. Cotorro y Guanabacoa no aportaron casos pediátricos. El segundo escenario tuvo desigualdad moderada. Predominaron los TB-VIH, en Habana Vieja (13,1%). 11/15 municipios categorizaron en control satisfactorio. Conclusiones: las desigualdades en general son moderadas en los municipios Habana, no obstante, las tasas de TB infantil son muy bajas en los territorios, dos de ellos alcanzaron la meta de eliminación. La coinfección TB/VIH concentra las mayores proporciones en algunos municipios. (AU);


Havana notifies 30% of cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Cuba. Objective: to assess the territorial inequalities in the occurrence of TB in the municipalities of Havana, 2015 and 2016-2020 according to some intermediate and individual determinants. Methods: ecological study of time series on TB notifications in 2015 and 2016-2020. The source was the MINSAP surveillance base. We calculated the period rate (TP), the reference was the lowest, we estimated the absolute and relative differences, and the Percentage Population Attributable Risk. We estimate the PT in children under and over 19 years of age. According to the TP, we proposed two scenarios: -5% annual reduction to all municipalities, according to WHO Milestones and -discriminated 5% annual reduction to municipalities with TP < 9 and 7% those ≥ 9/100,000. We calculated two dispersion indices and proportions of TB in HIV and inmates. We categorized the municipalities according to renewed goals towards elimination. Results: the reference municipality was Playa (5.5), the relative difference was 3.3 times more in Habana Vieja. Cotorro and Guanabacoa did not provide pediatric cases. The second scenario had moderate inequality. TB-HIV predominated in Old Havana (13.1%). 11/15 municipalities categorized in satisfactory control. Conclusions: inequalities were generally moderate in the Havana municipalities, however, the rates of childhood TB are very low in the territories, two of them reached the elimination goal. TB/HIV coinfection concentrates the highest proportions in some municipalities. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Cities , Cuba
8.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 57(1): 0-0182, jan.-fev. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431416

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil possui 5.570 municípios e em cada um deles governos eleitos dispõem de um estoque de cargos em comissão disponíveis para nomeação discricionária. É possível observar variações nas estratégias políticas adotadas para essas indicações? Os principais achados deste trabalho permitidos através do uso de estatística descritiva e inferencial foram (1) identificação de diferentes estratégias de nomeação política entre recompensa (escopo elevado/escolaridade baixa) e policy-making (escopo reduzido/escolaridade alta) (2) robusta relação entre IDH e nomeações políticas com perfil de policy-making inferindo menores custos de coordenação e assimetrias informacionais para principais/eleitores e, (3) variáveis partidárias e de competição eleitoral apresentaram resultados modestos como candidatas a explicar a adoção de estratégias de recompensa, da mesma forma que estratégias de recompensa - maior proporção de CCs e menor escolaridade destes - não afetaram as razões de chance de incumbentes nas eleições municipais seguintes.


Resumen Brasil tiene 5.570 municipios y en cada uno de ellos los gobiernos elegidos electos tienen un stock de puestos en comisión disponibles para su nombramiento discrecional. ¿Es posible observar variaciones en las estrategias políticas adoptadas para estas candidaturas? Los principales hallazgos de este trabajo obtenidos mediante el uso de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales fueron (1) identificación de diferentes estrategias de nombramiento político entre recompensa (alcance alto/educación baja) y formulación de políticas (alcance reducido/educación alta); (2) relación sólida entre el IDH y los nombramientos políticos con un perfil de hacedor de políticas que infiere menores costos de coordinación y asimetrías de información para los principales/votantes y, (3) las variables de competencia electoral y partidaria mostraron resultados modestos como candidatas para explicar la adopción de estrategias de recompensa, de la misma manera que las estrategias de recompensa -mayor proporción de CC y menor escolaridad de estos- no afectaron las razones de probabilidad de los titulares en las siguientes elecciones municipales.


Abstract Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, and each local government has a stock of appointed positions. This study adopted descriptive and inferential statistics to observe the variations in the political strategies adopted when filling these positions. The research identified (1) different political appointment strategies, from those based on reward (high scope/low education level) to strategies based on policy-making (reduced scope/high education level), (2) a robust relationship between HDI and political appointments with a policy-making profile inferring lower coordination costs and informational asymmetries for principals/voters, and (3) party and electoral competition variables showed modest results as potential explanatory factors to adopting reward-based strategies. Also, the adoption of reward-based strategies - cases where municipalities' employees presented a higher proportion of appointees with lower education levels - did not affect the odds ratios of incumbents in the next municipal elections.


Subject(s)
Reward , Cities , Personnel Delegation , Government
9.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 25(2): 15119, 23/02/2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436600

ABSTRACT

Estudos acerca dos riscos socioambientais são frequentes. Diante deles, cientistas alertam que, caso não sejam tomadas providências, é a própria vida no planeta que estará em perigo. Esta pesquisa objetivou identificar e analisar, sob o enfoque da Psicologia Social e da Filosofia da Diferença, experiências de sustentabilidade afetiva no espaço urbano diante da emergência da pandemia. Adotando a estratégia metodológica da história oral, buscou-se acompanhar o relato de participantes vinculados a uma Instituição de Ensino Superior que se dispuseram a compartilhar os impactos afetivos da relação com a cidade em estado pandêmico. Os relatos foram analiticamente organizados em dois eixos: 1. Desterritorializações e medos; 2. Frustrações narcísicas e restrições biopolíticas. Os resultados mostraram que as percepções iniciais diante do contato com a pandemia foram marcadas por afetos de surpresa, angústia e medo. Concluiu-se que sustentar afetivamente esta experiência comportou desafios relacionais colocados à coletividade em sua interface com as cidades.


Studies on the socio-environmental risks are frequents. Scientists warn that if no immediate action is taken, it is life itself on the planet that will be in danger. This research aimed to identify and analyze, under the focus of Social Psychology and the Philosophy of Difference, experiences of affective sustainability in the urban space. Adopting a methodology strategy of oral history, we sought to follow the reports of participants linked a Superior Institution of Studies who were willing to share the affective impacts resulting from your urban relation in pandemic station. The reports were analytically organized in two axes: 1. Deterritorialization and fears; 2. Narcissistic frustrations and biopolitical restrictions. The results show that the first perceptions were marked by surprise, anguish and fear. It concluded that affectively sustaining this experience is still a challenge posed for collectivity in its interface with the cities.


Son frecuentes los estudios sobre los riesgos socio ambientales. Ante ellos, científicos advierten que, si no se toman medidas inmediatas, es la vida del planeta la que estará en peligro. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar, bajo el enfoque de la Psicología Social y la Filosofía de la Diferencia, experiencias de sostenibilidad afectiva en el espacio urbano ante la emergencia de la pandemia. Adoptando una estrategia metodológica de la historia oral, se buscó seguir los informes de participantes vinculados a un Instituto de Enseñanza Superior que estaban dispuestos a compartir los impactos afectivos de la relación con la ciudad en estado de pandemia. Los relatos fueran organizados en dos ejes: 1 Deterritorialization e miedo; 2. Frustraciones narcisos e restricciones biopolíticas. Los resultados muestran que las primeras percepciones del contacto con la pandemia fueron marcadas por la sorpresa, la angustia y el miedo. Se concluye que sostener afectivamente esta experiencia comporto desafíos a la colectividad en su interface con la ciudad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Philosophy , Psychology, Social , Cities , Pandemics , Anxiety , Qualitative Research , Sustainable Development Indicators
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 457-462, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969928

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the residents' sense of acquisition (recognition, perceptibility and satisfaction) and influencing factors in China's Sanitary City Initiative. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2020 to February 2021. The data about the residents' sense of acquisition were collected by using questionnaire from 2 465 residents who were aged ≥18 years and had lived in local communities for at least one year in 31, 14 and 16 cities with national sanitary city title in eastern, central and western China the influencing factors of residents' sense of acquisition in China's Sanitary City Initiative were analyzed by using multivariate multilevel model. Results: The total score of residents' sense of acquisition in China's Sanitary City Initiative was 231.15±32.45. After converting the scores according to the 100-score standardized method, the results showed that the recognition score, perception score and the satisfaction score were 85.02, 59.08 and 61.42, respectively. The results of influencing factors analysis showed that education level, gender, marital status, age, prevalence of physical exercise and self-assessment of health status were correlated with the scores of residents' recognition (β:1.24-2.54,all P<0.05); the concentration of inhalable fine particles , the green coverage of built-up area, the level of GDP per capita and the type of residential community, prevalence of physical exercise and self-assessment of health status were correlated with the score of residents' perception (β:1.76-8.86,all P<0.05); the concentration of inhalable fine particles , the green coverage of built-up area, the level of GDP per capita and the type of residential community, education level, prevalence of physical exercise and self-assessment of health status were correlated with the score of residents' satisfaction (β:1.34-6.26,all P<0.05). Conclusions: The total score of residents' sense of acquisition in China's Sanitary City Initiative was relatively high, indicating that the policy has been widely recognized. The detailed management of policy implementation should be strengthened in the future, and more attention needs to be paid to actual needs of the residents to further improve the residents' sense of acquisition in China's Sanitary City Initiative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Health Status , Exercise
11.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 57(5): e20230012, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529516

ABSTRACT

Resumo A partir da Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil de 1988, os municípios foram promovidos à condição de entes federativos brasileiros. Atualmente, o Brasil conta com 1.307 pequenos municípios, com população de no máximo 5 mil habitantes. Em 2019, entrou no cenário político e legislativo a Proposta de Emenda à Constituição n° 188 (PEC 188), tendo como uma de suas proposições a extinção/incorporação de pequenos municípios considerados insustentáveis. O presente estudo tem por objetivo evidenciar fragilidades/vulnerabilidades na metodologia proposta pela PEC 188/2019 para a mensuração da sustentabilidade financeira dos pequenos municípios brasileiros. Para o alcance do objetivo, tal modelo foi analisado e aplicado a todos os 5.570 municípios brasileiros, utilizando como base os períodos de 2015 a 2020. O estudo se fundamenta em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, com abordagens descritiva e quantitativa. Para o tratamento e a análise dos dados, foram empregadas técnicas de estatísticas descritivas e medidas de tendência central. Os resultados evidenciam que, aplicada a metodologia da PEC 188, a média nacional de sustentabilidade dos municípios brasileiros é de 5%, reduzindo-se para menos de 3% quando analisados apenas os pequenos, com até 5 mil habitantes. Tem-se ainda que mais de 85% dos municípios brasileiros, em média, são classificados como "insustentáveis" com base na metodologia da PEC, elevando para 98% essa condição se analisados apenas os pequenos. A metodologia proposta pela PEC 188 carrega fragilidades que, se não sanadas previamente a uma possível promulgação, poderão ocasionar a extinção de aproximadamente 1.224 pequenos municípios.


Resumen A partir de la Constitución de la República Federativa del Brasil de 1988, los municipios fueron promovidos a la condición de entidades federativas brasileñas. Actualmente, Brasil tiene 1.307 pequeños municipios con una población máxima de 5.000 habitantes. En 2019, entró en el escenario político y legislativo la Propuesta de Reforma a la Constitución nº 188 (PEC 188) que, entre otras, propone la extinción/incorporación de pequeños municipios considerados insostenibles. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tiene como objetivo resaltar las debilidades/vulnerabilidades existentes en la metodología propuesta por la PEC 188/2019 para medir la sostenibilidad financiera de los pequeños municipios brasileños. Para alcanzar el objetivo, la metodología propuesta por la PEC fue analizada y aplicada en los 5.570 municipios brasileños, tomando como base los períodos de 2015 a 2020. El estudio se basa en una investigación bibliográfica y documental, con enfoques descriptivos y cuantitativos. Para el tratamiento y análisis de los datos se utilizaron técnicas de estadística descriptiva y medidas de tendencia central. Los resultados muestran que, cuando se aplica la metodología PEC-188, el promedio nacional de sostenibilidad de los municipios brasileños es del 5%, reduciéndose a menos del 3% cuando se analizan solo municipios pequeños con hasta 5.000 habitantes. Asimismo, más del 85% de los municipios brasileños, en promedio, están clasificados como insostenibles con base en la metodología PEC, y dicha condición asciende al 98% al analizar solamente los municipios pequeños. La metodología propuesta por la PEC 188 tiene debilidades que, de no ser resueltas antes de una posible promulgación, podrían llevar a la extinción de aproximadamente 1.224 pequeños municipios brasileños.


Abstract From the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988, municipalities were promoted to the condition of Brazilian federative entities. Currently, Brazil has 1,307 small municipalities with a maximum population of 5,000 inhabitants. In 2019, the Proposal for Amendment to the Constitution nº 188 (PEC 188) entered the political and legislative scene, with one of its propositions being the extinction/incorporation of small municipalities considered unsustainable. Thus, this study aims to highlight existing weaknesses/vulnerabilities in the methodology proposed by PEC 188/2019 for measuring the Financial Sustainability of small Brazilian municipalities. The methodology proposed by the PEC was analyzed and applied to all 5,570 Brazilian municipalities, using the periods from 2015 to 2020 as a basis. The study is based on bibliographical and documentary research with descriptive and quantitative approaches. For data treatment and analysis, descriptive statistics and measures of central tendency techniques were used. The results show that, when the PEC-188 methodology is applied, Brazilian municipalities' national average of "sustainability" is 5%, reducing to less than 3% when only small municipalities with up to 5,000 inhabitants are analyzed. Furthermore, more than 85% of Brazilian municipalities, on average, are classified as "unsustainable" based on the PEC methodology, increasing this condition to 98% if only the stratum of small municipalities is analyzed. The methodology proposed by PEC 188 has weaknesses that, if not resolved prior to a possible enactment, could lead to the extinction of approximately 1,224 small Brazilian municipalities.


Subject(s)
Sustainable Development Indicators , Cities , Economics
12.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 57(5): e20220398, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529513

ABSTRACT

Resumo O controle externo municipal exercido pelos Tribunais de Contas permite, por meio da divulgação dos relatórios de auditoria, conhecer as irregularidades encontradas nas contas dos governos municipais. Elas têm sido analisadas empiricamente, do ponto de vista de sua classificação em termos de gravidade, mas poucos são os estudos que visam identificar os fatores que influenciam tais falhas. Constatada essa lacuna, o principal objetivo deste estudo é identificar fatores que possam influenciar lapsos na gestão pública municipal apontados pela auditoria do Tribunal de Contas. Este artigo contribui para aprofundar a pesquisa em torno desse tema e para a melhoria da gestão nos municípios. Trata-se de uma análise exploratória, baseada em modelos econométricos para dados em painel. A amostra inclui 179 municípios paulistas, com dados relativos aos anos de 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 e 2019. Os resultados sugerem que as recomendações e as determinações do Tribunal de Contas, bem como lacunas nos controles internos, influenciam irregularidades em municípios pequenos, médios e grandes. O volume de transferências legais e constitucionais recebidas influenciam os municípios pequenos e médios, ao passo que o produto interno bruto (PIB) municipal tem influência nos municípios médios.


Resumen El control municipal externo que ejercen los Tribunales de Cuentas permite, a través de la divulgación de informes de auditoría, conocer las irregularidades encontradas en las cuentas de los gobiernos municipales. Estas han sido analizadas empíricamente, desde el punto de vista de su clasificación en términos de gravedad, pero existen pocos estudios que tengan como objetivo identificar los factores que influyen en tales fallas. Verificada esta brecha, el objetivo principal de este estudio es identificar factores que puedan influir en las fallas en la gestión pública municipal señalados por la auditoría del Tribunal de Cuentas. Este artículo contribuye a profundizar en la investigación sobre este tema y a mejorar la gestión en los municipios. Se trata de un análisis exploratorio, basado en modelos econométricos para datos de panel. La muestra incluye 179 municipios de São Paulo, con datos de los años 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 y 2019. Los resultados sugieren que las recomendaciones y determinaciones del Tribunal de Cuentas, así como las lagunas en los controles internos, influyen en las irregularidades en los municipios, pequeños, medianos y grandes. El volumen de transferencias legales y constitucionales recibidas influye en los municipios pequeños y medianos, mientras que el producto interno bruto (PIB) municipal influye en los municipios medianos.


Abstract The municipal external control exercised by the Courts of Accounts reveals the irregularities found in the accounts of municipal governments through the disclosure of audit reports. They have been empirically analyzed from the point of view of their classification in terms of severity, but few studies aim to identify the factors that influence such failures. Having verified this gap, the main objective of this study is to identify factors that may influence lapses in municipal public management pointed out by the audit of the Court of Accounts. This article contributes to further research on this topic and to improving management in municipalities. This is an exploratory analysis based on econometric models for panel data. The sample includes 179 municipalities in São Paulo, with data for 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019. The results suggest that the recommendations and determinations of the Court of Accounts and gaps in internal controls influence irregularities in small, medium, and large municipalities. The volume of legal and constitutional transfers received influences small and medium-sized municipalities, while the municipal gross domestic product (GDP) influences medium-sized municipalities.


Subject(s)
Cities , Corruption
13.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 40: e0246, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1521755

ABSTRACT

Resumo Em 2009, a Frente Nacional de Prefeitos (FNP) denominou g100 um grupo de municípios caracterizados por possuir mais de 80 mil habitantes, baixos níveis de receita pública per capita e alta vulnerabilidade socioeconômica. Este estudo buscou descrever o g100 a partir da posição comparativa segundo três medidas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica aplicadas aos municípios com mais de 80 mil habitantes, discutindo a pertinência do uso da proposta da FNP como critério de priorização em políticas sociais. Comparou-se a listagem dos 100 primeiros municípios g100 com aquelas do Índice do Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (IDHM), Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social (IVS) e Índice Brasileiro de Privação (IBP). Identificou-se que 25 municípios classificados como g100 não estavam entre os 100 primeiros nos demais índices; mas 46 municípios g100 encontravam-se entre os mais vulneráveis nas três medidas. Discute-se a necessidade de amplo debate e consenso sobre as medidas de vulnerabilidade socioeconômica empregadas no planejamento e execução de políticas públicas. Esta reflexão está ancorada na defesa de que as ações e políticas públicas sejam intrinsicamente planejadas para garantia de maior equidade geográfica e alocativa em face da efetividade de resposta às demandas da população.


Abstract In 2009, the Frente Nacional de Prefeitos (FNP) named a group of municipalities with more than 80,000 inhabitants, low levels of public revenue per capita and high socioeconomic vulnerability g100. This study sought to describe the g100 from the comparative position according to three measures of socioeconomic vulnerability applied to municipalities with more than 80,000 inhabitants, and to discuss the pertinence of using the FNP proposal as a suggestion for prioritization in social policies. Comparing the list of the first 100 g100 municipalities with the indices: Municipal Human Development Index (HDIM), Social Vulnerability Index (IVS) and Brazilian Deprivation Index (IBP), we identified 25 municipalities classified as g100 that were not classified among the top 100 in the other indices; but 46 g100 counties were among the most considered in all three measures. The need for broad debate and consensus on measures of socioeconomic vulnerability used in the planning and execution of public policies is discussed. This reflection is based on the belief that public actions and policies are intrinsically implemented to guarantee greater geographic and allocative equity in order to respond to the demands of the population.


Resumen En 2009, el Frente Nacional de Alcaldes (FNP) nombró como g100 a un grupo de municipios caracterizados por tener más de ochenta mil habitantes, bajos niveles de ingreso público per cápita y alta vulnerabilidad socioeconómica. Este estudio buscó describir el g100 a partir de la posición comparativa según tres medidas de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica aplicadas a municipios con más de ochenta mil, y a partir de ahí discutir la pertinencia de utilizar la propuesta del FNP como sugerencia de priorización en las políticas sociales. Para ello se comparó la lista de los primeros cien municipios del g100 con los índices de desarrollo humano municipal (HDIM), de vulnerabilidad social (IVS) y brasileño de privación (IBP). Se identificó que 25 municipios clasificados como g100 no estaban clasificados entre los 100 primeros en los demás índices, aunque 46 estuvieron entre los más considerados en las tres medidas. Se discute la necesidad de un amplio debate y consenso sobre las medidas de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica utilizadas en la planificación y ejecución de políticas públicas. Esta reflexión se ancla en la defensa de que las acciones y políticas públicas se inician intrínsecamente para garantizar una mayor equidad geográfica y distributiva frente a la obediencia para responder a las demandas de la población.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brazil , Metropolitan Zones , Development Indicators , Sociocultural Territory , Social Vulnerability , Public Policy , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , United Nations Development Programme , Health Infrastructure , Local Health Systems , Review , Cities , Social Capital , Social Vulnerability Index
14.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 40: e0251, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1521759

ABSTRACT

Resumo A cidade é um modo de viver, pensar e sentir. O modo de vida urbano é capaz de produzir ideias, comportamentos, valores e conhecimentos, mas também pode acirrar disparidades socioeconômicas e de saúde da população que ali reside. Este artigo examina as disparidades em saúde urbana em seis capitais brasileiras: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte e Manaus. Para quantificar e mapear as disparidades intraurbanas nesses espaços, foram utilizados os dados do Censo Demográfico de 2010 para a aplicação do índice de saúde urbana (ISU), uma métrica que sintetiza oito diferentes variáveis socioeconômicas e de saneamento desagregadas por setores censitários. Os resultados são discutidos à luz de três vertentes teóricas: a diferenciação centro-periferia; abordagem econômica da saúde; e epidemiologia social. As descobertas desse estudo revelam que os setores censitários que abrangem populações com maior status socioeconômico e melhores condições de saneamento apresentaram índices de saúde urbana mais elevados do que os da periferia da cidade. Há indícios de melhores indicadores de saúde urbana para o Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, em comparação com as demais capitais analisadas. No entanto, há importantes nuances em cada uma das seis cidades estudadas, especialmente quando se atribuem diferentes pesos às variáveis que compõem o ISU, apesar da marcada segregação espacial comum a todas elas. Considerar as distinções dentro do espaço urbano é uma estratégia fundamental para a compreensão desses aspectos sociais e econômicos e seus potenciais desdobramentos nas condições de saúde da população.


Abstract A city is a way of living, thinking, and feeling. The urban lifestyle can produce ideas, behaviors, values, and knowledge. Still, it can also intensify socioeconomic and health disparities in the population. This article examines urban health disparities in six Brazilian capitals: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte, and Manaus. To quantify and map intra-urban disparities in these spaces, data from the 2010 Demographic Census are used to apply the Urban Health Index, a metric that synthesizes eight different socio-economic and sanitation variables disaggregated by census tracts. The results are discussed in light of three theoretical perspectives: center-periphery differentiation, the economic approach to health, and social epidemiology. The findings of this study reveal that census tracts covering populations with higher socio-economic status and better sanitation conditions exhibited higher urban health index scores than those in the city's periphery. Results indicate better urban health indicators for Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, compared to the other capitals analyzed. However, there are important nuances in each of the six cities, especially when assigning different weights to the variables that compose the Urban Health Index, despite the marked spatial segregation common to all. Considering distinctions within urban space is a fundamental strategy to understand these social and economic aspects and their potential implications for population health conditions.


Resumen La ciudad es una forma de vivir, pensar y sentir. El modo de vida urbano es capaz de producir ideas, comportamientos, valores y conocimientos, pero también lo es de intensificar las disparidades socioeconómicas y de salud de la población que reside en ella. Este artículo examina las disparidades en salud urbana en seis capitales brasileñas: São Paulo, Río de Janeiro, Salvador, Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte y Manaus. Para cuantificar y mapear las disparidades intraurbanas en estos espacios, se utilizan datos del censo demográfico de 2010 para aplicar el índice de salud urbana, una métrica que sintetiza ocho diferentes variables socioeconómicas y de saneamiento desagregadas por sectores censales. Los resultados se discuten a la luz de tres perspectivas teóricas: la diferenciación centro-periferia, el enfoque económico de la salud y la epidemiología social. Los hallazgos de este estudio revelan que los sectores censales que abarcan poblaciones con un mayor estatus socioeconómico y mejores condiciones de saneamiento presentaron puntajes más altos en el índice de salud urbana que los de la periferia de la ciudad. Hay indicios de mejores indicadores de salud urbana para Río de Janeiro y São Paulo, en comparación con las demás capitales analizadas. Sin embargo, se observan matices importantes en cada una de las seis ciudades analizadas, especialmente al asignar diferentes pesos a las variables que componen el pindice de salud urbana, a pesar de la marcada segregación espacial común a todas ellas. Considerar las distinciones dentro del espacio urbano es una estrategia fundamental para comprender estos aspectos sociales y económicos y sus posibles implicaciones en las condiciones de salud de la población.


Subject(s)
Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Urbanization , Cities , City Planning , Poverty Areas , Urban Health , Epidemiology , Basic Sanitation , Censuses , Health Status Disparities , Social Segregation , Population Health Management , Index of Health Development , Census Tract , Socioeconomic Disparities in Health
15.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 411-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969903

ABSTRACT

From 2015 to 2019, the annual average incidence rate of scarlet fever was 7.80/100 000 in Yantai City, which showed an increasing trend since 2017 (χ2trend=233.59, P<0.001). The peak period of this disease was from April to July and November to January of the next year. The ratio of male to female was 1.49∶1, with a higher prevalence among cases aged 3 to 9 years (2 357/2 552, 92.36%). Children in kindergartens, primary and middle school students, and scattered children were the high risk population, with the incidence rate of 159.86/100 000, 25.57/100 000 and 26.77/100 000, respectively. The global spatial auto-correlation analysis showed that the global Moran's I index of the reported incidence rate of scarlet fever in Yantai from 2015 to 2019 was 0.28, 0.29, 0.44, 0.48, and 0.22, respectively (all P values<0.05), suggesting that the incidence rate of scarlet fever in Yantai from 2015 to 2019 was spatial clustering. The local spatial auto-correlation analysis showed that the "high-high" clustering areas were mainly located in Laizhou City, Zhifu District, Haiyang City, Fushan District and Kaifa District, while the "low-high" clustering areas were mainly located in Haiyang City and Fushan District.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Female , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis , Cities/epidemiology , Seasons , Risk Factors , Incidence , Cluster Analysis , China/epidemiology
16.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 451-456, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986049

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the present situation and epidemiological characteristics of pesticide poisoning in Chengdu City from 2012 to 2021, and to provide scientific evidence for further prevention and control. Methods: In January 2022, the pesticide poisoning report cards of Chengdu City from 2012 to 2021 were collected from the China Disease Control and Prevention Information System. The data of the report card was reorganized and the distribution characteristics of pesticide poisoning such as time, region, gender, age and pesticide types were analyzed. Results: 14326 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in Chengdu City from 2012 to 2021, 651 deaths, and the fatality rate was 4.54%. The cases of productive pesticide poisoning and unproductive pesticide poisoning were 504 and 13822, respectively. The fatality rates of productive and unproductive pesticide poisoning were 1.39% and 4.66%, which were significant different (χ(2)=11.99, P=0.001). The highest reported cases of pesticide poisoning was in 2013 (1779) and the lowest in 2021 (1047). The number of reported cases showed a downward trend year by year (t=-12.30, P<0.001), and the fatality rates also showed a downward trend year by year (χ(2)(trend)=25.48, P<0.001). The fluctuation range of unproductive pesticide poisoning cases in each month of the year was small, and the productive pesticide poisoning mainly occurred from May to August. The regions with the largest number of reported poisoning cases were Pengzhou (1620), Jianyang (1393), Jintang (1266) and Qionglai (1158). The high incidence of poisoning was among 25-54 years old (50.21%, 7193/14326). The fatality rate in the age group 75-96 years old was the highest (8.98%, 95/1058), and the fatality rates increased gradually with age (χ(2)(trend)=186.03, P<0.001). The pesticides causing poisoning were mainly insecticide (43.86%, 6284/14326) and herbicides (35.75%, 5121/14326). Herbicides paraquat had the highest fatality rate (9.54%, 286/2998) . Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning in Chengdu City is mainly unproductive poisoning. Health education should be carried out for key areas and people, and the control of highly toxic pesticides such as insecticide and herbicides should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adult , Middle Aged , Insecticides , Pesticides , Herbicides , Paraquat , Cities , Poisoning/epidemiology
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 905-911, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985611

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the cognition and medication use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China and its associated factors. Method: From August 25 to September 5, 2021, 2 447 MSM were recruited in 24 cities to complete the online questionnaire through a male social interaction platform, Blued 7.5 software. The survey contents included demographic information of the respondents, PrEP awareness and usage, and risk behaviors. Descriptive analysis and multi-level logistic regression were performed for data analysis. SPSS 24.0 and SAS 9.4 software were used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the 2 447 respondents of MSM, 1 712 (69.96%) had heard of PrEP, 437 (17.86%) ever used PrEP, 274 (11.20%) were on PrEP, and 163 (6.66%) had discontinued PrEP; among the 437 cases (whoever used PrEP), more than 61.88% (388/627) adopted emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimen, and most of them adopted on-demand regimen. The average PrEP dosage reported in the past year is 1.12 tabletsper person per week. PrEP purchase was primarily via an online channel, and the most concerned factor was the PrEP effectiveness on HIV prevention. The most common reasons for discontinuing PrEP, reported by 163 cases, were the lack of HIV risk perception, the use of a condom to prevent HIV, and the economic burden of PrEP use. The logistic regression analysis showed that PrEP use among MSM in 24 cities was statistically associated with age, monthly income, ever having unprotected anal sex in the past year, used sexual drugs and sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis in the past year. Compared with MSM aged 18-24, the proportion of MSM was relatively lower among those aged 25-44, who discontinued the PrEP (aOR=0.54,95%CI:0.34-0.87) or never used PrEP (aOR=0.62,95%CI:0.44-0.87). The proportion of unprotected anal sex among MSM currently on PrEP use was higher than those who have stopped PrEP and never used PrEP (all P<0.05). Those MSM group, with monthly income higher than 5 000 Yuan, used sexual drugs and STD diagnosis in the past year were more likely to have a higher rate for PrEP usage (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Currently, pre-exposure prophylaxis in the MSM group is primarily obtained via the online channel and adopted in an on-demand mode. Although the PrEP users have reached a certain proportion, it is still necessary to strengthen health education on the PrEP effects and side effects of MSM and to improve the awareness and use rate, especially for young MSM group, which can be combined with the advantages of the internet targeting its needs and use barriers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Homosexuality, Male , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Cities , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexual Behavior , China , HIV Infections/prevention & control
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 765-771, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985559

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the influence of meteorological factors on the morbidity of influenza in northern cities of China and explore the differences in the influence of meteorological factors on the morbidity of influenza in 15 cities. Methods: The monthly reported morbidity of influenza and monthly meteorological data from 2008 to 2020 were collected in 15 provincial capital cities, including Xi 'an, Lanzhou, Xining, Yinchuan and Urumqi (5 northwestern cities), Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Hohhot, Ji'nan, Zhengzhou (7 northern cities), Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin (3 northeastern cities). The panel data regression model was applied to conduct quantitative analyze on the influence of meteorological factors on influenza morbidity. Results: The univariate and multivariate panel regression analysis showed that after controlling the population density and other meteorological factors, for each 5 ℃ drop of monthly average temperature, the morbidity change percentage (MCP) of influenza was 11.35%, 34.04% and 25.04% in the 3 northeastern cities, 7 northern cities and 5 northwestern cities, respectively, and the best lag period months was 1, 0 and 1 month; When the monthly average relative humidity decreased by 10%, the MCP was 15.84% in 3 cities in northeastern China and 14.80% in 7 cities in northern China respectively, and the best lag period months was 2 and 1 months respectively; The MCP of 5 cities in northwestern China was 4.50% for each 10 mm reduction of monthly accumulated precipitation, and the best lag period months was 1 month; The MCPs of 3 cities in northeastern China and 5 cities in northwestern China were 4.19% and 5.97% respectively when the accumulated sunshine duration of each month decreased by 10 hours, the best lag period months was 1 month. Conclusions: In northern cities of China from 2008 to 2020, the temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and sunshine duration all had negatively impact on the morbidity of influenza, and temperature and relative humidity were the main sensitive meteorological factors. Temperature had a strong direct impact on the morbidity of influenza in 7 cities in northern China, and relative humidity had a strong lag effect on the morbidity of influenza in 3 cities in northeastern China. The duration of sunshine in 5 cities in northwestern China had a greater impact on the morbidity of influenza compared with 3 cities in northeastern China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cities , Influenza, Human , China , Beijing , Meteorological Concepts
19.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 508-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984765

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the drug resistance and genomic characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar London isolated from clinical and food sources in Hangzhou City from 2017 to 2021. Methods: A total of 91 Salmonella enterica serovar London strains isolated from Hangzhou City from 2017 to 2021 were analyzed for drug susceptibility, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and whole genome sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) and detection of drug resistance genes were performed by using the sequencing data. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to compare the 91 genomes from Hangzhou City with 347 genomes from public databases. Results: No significant difference in the drug resistance rate was observed between clinical strains and food strains to 18 drugs in Hangzhou City(all P>0.05), and the multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 75.8% (69/91). Most strains were resistant to 7 drug classes simultaneously. One strain was resistant to Polymyxin E as well as positive for mcr-1.1, and 50.5% (46/91) of the strains were resistant to Azithromycin and were positive for mph(A). All 91 Salmonella enterica serovar London strains were ST155, which were subdivided into 44 molecular types by PFGE and 82 types by cgMLST. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most strains from Hangzhou City (83/91) were clustered together, and a small number of human isolates from Europe, North America and pork isolates from Hubei and Shenzhen were mixed in the cluster. Other strains from Hangzhou City (8/91) were closely related to strains from Europe, America and Southeast Asia. Strains isolated from pork were the most closely related to clinical strains. Conclusion: The epidemic of Salmonella enterica serovar London in Hangzhou City is mainly caused by the spread of ST155 strains, which is mainly transmitted locally. At the same time, cross-region transmission to Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, and other provinces and cities in China may also occur. There is no significant difference in the drug resistance rate between clinical strains and food strains, and a high level of MDR is found in the strains. Clinical infection of Salmonella enterica serovar London may be closely related to pork consumption in Hangzhou City.


Subject(s)
Humans , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Serogroup , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Cities , London , Clonidine , Phylogeny , Genomics , Drug Resistance , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
20.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 452-456, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982766

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the distribution of airborne pollen in summer and autumn in Taiyuan, analyze the correlation between pollen characteristics, meteorological factors and allergic sensitization, and provide for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases in this. Methods:The gravity sedimentation method was used to investigate the types, quantities and dispersion patterns of airborne pollen in Taiyuan City from July 21, 2022 to October 20, 2022. he meteorological and patient information was collected during the same period SPSS 26.0 software. Results:①A total of 17 118 pollen grains were collected, and identified as 14 families, 10 genera, and 4 species. The peak period for pollen dispersal in summer and autumn in Taiyuan City from late August to early September. airborne pollen Artemisia(66.62%), Cannabis/Humulus(17.79%), Sophora japonica(8.18%), Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae(2.83%), Gramineae(2.11%). ②The concentration of airborne pollen in Taiyuan City positively correlated with the average temperature(5-20℃) and maximum temperature(11-30℃) within a certain range(r=0.547, 0.315, P<0.05). ③The content of airborne pollen in Taiyuan City positively correlated with the number of visits and allergen positive rate of patients with allergic rhinitis(AR) in our hospital(r=0.702, 0.747, P<0.05). Conclusion:The peak period for airborne pollen dispersal during the summer and autumn seasons in Taiyuan City from late August to early September. The dominant pollen is Artemisia, Cannabis/Humulus, Sophora japonica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Gramineae, and the absolute advantage pollen is Artemisia. Meteorological factors pollen content. Within a certain range, temperature the diffusion and transportation of pollen. The number of pollen grains the number of visits, which can serve as an environmental warning indicator for AR patients to take preventive, thereby reducing the risk of allergies.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Seasons , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic , Allergens , Cities
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