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1.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 42-46, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the genetic polymorphisms of short-tandem repeats (STR) for the D13S317 locus among an ethnic Han Chinese population and verify a novel tri-allelic pattern identified for the locus.@*METHODS@#A total of 378 paternity test cases from Guangdong Forensic Authentication Institute from October 17, 2017 to December 28, 2017 were selected as the study subjects. A GlobalFilerTM Express kit was used for the STR genotyping. Samples suspected for having a novel tri-allelic pattern were verified with a PowerPlex 21 kit. Potential variant of the primer-binding region and flanking sequences underlying the tri-allelic pattern was excluded by molecular cloning and sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Six alleles were detected for the D13S317 locus, with the characteristic distribution frequencies being 8 (29.1%), 9 (13.1%), 10 (15.21%), 11 (24.21%), 12 (13.89%) and 13 (3.44%), respectively. In one of the families, the D13S317 locus of the proband was suspected to harbor a triband allele (8, 9, 10). A re-test has confirmed the result of initial test. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the D13S317 locus in the proband and his daughter has failed to find allelic variants in the primer-binding region and flanking sequence, which has confirmed the novel tri-allelic pattern for the locus.@*CONCLUSION@#A novel type 2 tri-allelic pattern (8, 9, 10) at the D13S317 locus has been identified among the ethnic Han Chinese population. The pattern has not been transmitted to the female offspring, and has been included in the international STRBase database for the first time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , China , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Frequency , Genetics, Population , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Genetic , East Asian People/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3125-3142, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007949

ABSTRACT

C1 gases including CO, CO2 and CH4, are mainly derived from terrestrial biological activities, industrial waste gas and gasification syngas. Particularly, CO2 and CH4 are two of the most important greenhouse gases contributing to climate change. Bioconversion of C1 gases is not only a promising solution to addressing the problem of waste gases emission, but also a novel route to produce fuels or chemicals. In the past few years, C1-gas-utilizing microorganisms have drawn much attention and a variety of gene-editing technologies have been applied to improve their product yields or to expand product portfolios. This article reviewed the biological characteristics, aerobic or anaerobic metabolic pathways as well as the metabolic products of methanotrophs, autotrophic acetogens, and carboxydotrophic bacteria. In addition, gene-editing technologies (e.g. gene interruption technology using homologous recombination, group Ⅱ intron ClosTron technology, CRISPR/Cas gene editing and phage recombinase-mediated efficient integration of large DNA fragments) and their application in these C1-gas-utilizing microorganisms were also summarized.


Subject(s)
Gene Editing , Gases , Carbon Dioxide , Genetic Engineering , Cloning, Molecular
3.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 363-370, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981875

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate antigen optimization of Shisa like protein 1 (SHISAL1) for preparing mouse anti-human SHISAL1 polyclonal antibody and to identify the specificity of the prepared antibody. Methods Bioinformatics was employed to predict the antigenic epitope region of SHISAL1 protein, and then a polypeptide composed of amino acid residues from the site of 28 to 97 of SHISAL1, termed SHISAL1-N, was selected as the antigen. The coding region of SHISAL1-N was cloned by molecular cloning technique, and then it was inserted into pET-28a to generate pET28a-SHISAL1-N recombinant plasmid. The two recombinant plasmids pET28a-SHISAL1-N and pET28a-SHISAL1 were transformed into BL21 (DE3) bacteria and induced to express by IPTG. The two proteins were purified and immunized to female Kunming mice, respectively. The specificities and sensitivities of the acquired antibodies were detected by Western blot analysis, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent cytochemical staining. Results pET28a-SHISAL1-N recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed, and the two fused proteins, SHISAL1 and SHISAL1-N, were induced to express. Moreover, two types of SHISAL1 mouse polyclonal antibodies, derived from SHISAL1-N and SHISAL1 antigens, were obtained. Western blot results showed that the antibody prepared from SHISAL1 antigen was less specific and sensitive compared with the antibody prepared from SHISAL1-N antigen which could specifically identify different endogenous SHISAL1 protein. Immunoprecipitation results showed that SHISAL1-N antibody could specifically pull down SHIISAL1 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that SHISAL1-N antibody could specifically bind to SHISAL1 protein in the cytoplasm. Conclusion We have optimized the SHISAL1 antigen and prepared the mouse anti-human SHISAL1 polyclonal antibodies successfully, which can be used for Western blot analysis, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence cytochemical staining.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antibodies , Antibody Specificity , Blotting, Western , Cloning, Molecular , Epitopes/genetics
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3140-3148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981449

ABSTRACT

The gene GeDTC encoding the dicarboxylate-tricarboxylate carrier protein in Gastrodia elata was cloned by specific primers which were designed based on the transcriptome data of G. elata. Bioinformatics analysis on GeDTC gene was carried out by using ExPASY, ClustalW, MEGA, etc. Positive transgenic plants and potato minituber were obtained by virtue of the potato genetic transformation system. Agronomic characters, such as size, weight, organic acid content, and starch content, of potato minituber were tested and analyzed and GeDTC gene function was preliminarily investigated. The results showed that the open reading frame of GeDTC gene was 981 bp in length and 326 amino acid residues were encoded, with a relative molecular weight of 35.01 kDa. It was predicted that the theoretical isoelectric point of GeDTC protein was 9.83, the instability coefficient was 27.88, and the average index of hydrophilicity was 0.104, which was indicative of a stable hydrophilic protein. GeDTC protein had a transmembrane structure and no signal peptide and was located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. The phylogenetic tree showed that GeDTC was highly homologous with DTC proteins of other plant species, among which GeDTC had the highest homology with DcDTC(XP_020675804.1) in Dendrobium candidum, reaching 85.89%. GeDTC overexpression vector pCambia1300-35Spro-GeDTC was constructed by double digests, and transgenic potato plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. Compared with the wild-type plants, transgenic potato minituber harvested by transplanting had smaller size, lighter weight, lower organic acid content, and no significant difference in starch content. It is preliminarily induced that GeDTC is the efflux channel of tricarboxylate and related to the tuber development, which lays a foundation for further elucidating the molecular mechanism of G. elata tuber development.


Subject(s)
Gastrodia/genetics , Phylogeny , Amino Acids , Cloning, Molecular
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2931-2939, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981425

ABSTRACT

The U6 promoter is an important element driving sgRNA transcription in the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Seven PqU6 promo-ter sequences were cloned from the gDNA of Panax quinquefolium, and the transcriptional activation ability of the seven promoters was studied. In this study, seven PqU6 promoter sequences with a length of about 1 300 bp were cloned from the adventitious roots of P. quinquefolium cultivated for 5 weeks. Bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the sequence characteristics of PqU6 promoters, and the fusion expression vectors of GUS gene driven by PqU6-P were constructed. Tobacco leaves were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method for activity detection. The seven PqU6 promoters were truncated from the 5'-end to reach 283, 287, 279, 289, 295, 289, and 283 bp, respectively. The vectors for detection of promoter activity were constructed with GUS as a reported gene and used to transform P. quinquefolium callus and tobacco leaves. The results showed that seven PqU6 promoter sequences(PqU6-1P to PqU6-7P) were cloned from the gDNA of P. quinquefolium, with the length ranged from 1 246 bp to 1 308 bp. Sequence comparison results showed that the seven PqU6 promoter sequences and the AtU6-P promoter all had USE and TATA boxes, which are essential elements affecting the transcriptional activity of the U6 promoter. The results of GUS staining and enzyme activity test showed that all the seven PqU6 promoters had transcriptional activity. The PqU6-7P with a length of 1 269 bp had the highest transcriptional activity, 1.31 times that of the positive control P-35S. When the seven PqU6 promoters were truncated from the 5'-end(PqU6-1PA to PqU6-7PA), their transcriptional activities were different in tobacco leaves and P. quinquefolium callus. The transcriptional activity of PqU6-7PA promoter(283 bp) was 1.59 times that of AtU6-P promoter(292 bp) when the recipient material was P. quinquefolium callus. The findings provide more ideal endogenous U6 promoters for CRISPR/Cas9 technology in ginseng and other medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Panax/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genetics , Computational Biology , Cloning, Molecular
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1851-1857, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981403

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to study the role of asparagine endopeptidase(AEP) gene in the biosynthesis mechanism of cyclic peptide compounds in Pseudostellaria heterophylla. The transcriptome database of P. heterophylla was systematically mined and screened, and an AEP gene, tentatively named PhAEP, was successfully cloned. The heterologous function verification by Nicotiana benthamiana showed that the expression of the gene played a role in the biosynthesis of heterophyllin A in P. heterophylla. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the cDNA of PhAEP was 1 488 bp in length, encoding 495 amino acids with a molecular weight of 54.72 kDa. The phylogenetic tree showed that the amino acid sequence encoded by PhAEP was highly similar to that of Butelase-1 in Clitoria ternatea, reaching 80%. The sequence homology and cyclase active site analysis revealed that the PhAEP enzyme may specifically hydrolyse the C-terminal Asn/Asp(Asx) site of the core peptide in the HA linear precursor peptide of P. heterophylla, thereby participating in the ring formation of the linear precursor peptide. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) showed that the expression level of PhAEP was the highest in fruits, followed by in roots, and the lowest in leaves. The heterophyllin A of P. heterophylla was detected in N. benthamiana that co-expressed PrePhHA and PhAEP genes instantaneously. In this study, the PhAEP gene, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of heterophyllin A in P. heterophylla, has been successfully cloned, which lays a foundation for further analysis of the molecular mechanism of PhAEP enzyme in the biosynthesis of heterophyllin A in P. heterophylla and has important significance for the study of synthetic biology of cyclic peptide compounds in P. heterophylla.


Subject(s)
Genes, vif , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves/genetics , Peptides, Cyclic , Cloning, Molecular , Caryophyllaceae/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2818-2838, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981235

ABSTRACT

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key entry enzyme of plant phenylpropanoid pathway. It plays an important role in the biosynthesis of podophyllotoxin, an anti-tumor lignan that is currently produced from its main natural source Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying. In this study, we cloned the gene ShPAL encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by RT-PCR from the root of S. hexandrum ecotype inhabited in the Aba' district, Sichuan, based on its public SRA transcriptome data-package. Bioinformatics analyses showed that the ShPAL-encoded protein is composed of 711 amino acids, contains the conserved domains of PAL, and has the signature motif within the active center of aromatic ammonia-lyases. Moreover, ShPAL protein was predicted to have a secondary structure mainly composed of α-helix and random coil, a typical 'seahorse' shape monomer tertiary structure, and a homologous tetramer three-dimensional structure by Swiss-Modelling. The phylogenetic lineage analysis indicated ShPAL was of the highest sequence identity and the shortest evolutionary distance with the PAL of Epimedium sagittatum from the same Berberidaceae family. Subcellular localization experiments showed that ShPAL protein was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm, despite of a minority on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Furthermore, ShPAL protein was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by histidine-tag affinity chromatography. Its enzymatic activity was determined up to 20.91 U/mg, with the optimum temperature of 41 ℃ and pH of 9.0. In contrast, the enzyme activity of its F130H mutant decreased by about 23.6%, yet with the same trends of change with temperature and pH, confirming that phenylalanine at this position does affect the substrate specificity of PAL. Both the wild type and the mutant have relatively poor thermostability, but good pH-stability. These results may help to further investigate the regulatory role of PAL in the process of podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and advance the heterologous synthesis of podophyllotoxin to protect the germplasm resource of S. hexandrum. They also demonstrate that ShPAL has a potential application in biochemical industry and biomedicine.


Subject(s)
Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/metabolism , Podophyllotoxin , Phylogeny , Cloning, Molecular
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2794-2805, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981233

ABSTRACT

Hevea brasiliensis is the main source of natural rubber. Restricted by its tropical climate conditions, the planting area in China is limited, resulted in a low self-sufficiency. Periploca sepium which can produce natural rubber is a potential substitute plant. cis-prenyltransferase (CPT), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and rubber elongation factor (REF) are key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cis-1, 4-polyisoprene, the main component of natural rubber. In this study, we cloned the promoter sequences of CPT, SRPP and REF through chromosome walking strategy. The spatial expression patterns of the three promoters were analyzed using GUS (β-glucuronidase) as a reporter gene driven by the promoters through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. The results showed that GUS driven by CPT, SRPP or REF promoter was expressed in leaves and stems, especially in the leaf vein and vascular bundle. The GUS activity in stems was higher than that in leaf. This study provided a basis for analyzing the biosynthesis mechanism of natural rubber and breeding new varieties of high yield natural rubber.


Subject(s)
Peptide Elongation Factors/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Periploca/metabolism , Rubber , Plant Breeding , Cloning, Molecular
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2695-2705, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981226

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to clone the goat RPL29 gene and analyze its effect on lipogenesis in intramuscular adipocytes. Using Jianzhou big-eared goats as the object, the goat RPL29 gene was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the gene structure and expressed protein sequence were analyzed by bioinformatics, and the mRNA expression levels of RPL29 in various tissues and different differentiation stages of intramuscular adipocytes of goats were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The RPL29 overexpression vector pEGFP-N1-RPL29 constructed by gene recombination was used to transfect into goat intramuscular preadipocytes and induce differentiation. Subsequently, the effect of overexpression of RPL29 on fat droplet accumulation was revealed morphologically by oil red O and Bodipy staining, and changes in the expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism were detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the length of the goat RPL29 was 507 bp, including a coding sequence (CDS) region of 471 bp which encodes 156 amino acid residues. It is a positively charged and stable hydrophilic protein mainly distributed in the nucleus of cells. Tissue expression profiling showed that the expression level of this gene was much higher in subcutaneous adipose tissue and inter-abdominal adipose tissue of goats than in other tissues (P < 0.05). The temporal expression profile showed that the gene was expressed at the highest level at 84 h of differentiation in goat intramuscular adipocytes, which was highly significantly higher than that in the undifferentiated period (P < 0.01). Overexpression of RPL29 promoted lipid accumulation in intramuscular adipocytes, and the optical density values of oil red O staining were significantly increased (P < 0.05). In addition, overexpression of RPL29 was followed by a highly significant increase in ATGL and ACC gene expression (P < 0.01) and a significant increase in FASN gene expression (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the goat RPL29 may promote intra-muscular adipocyte deposition in goats by up-regulating FASN, ACC and ATGL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lipogenesis/genetics , Adipogenesis/genetics , Goats/genetics , Adipocytes , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Sequence Analysis , Cloning, Molecular
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1731-1746, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981166

ABSTRACT

Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) can bind to adiponectin (AdipoQ) secreted by adipose tissue to participate in various physiological functions of the body. In order to explore the role of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in amphibians infected by Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah), the genes adipor1 and adipor2 of Rana dybowskii were cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and analyzed by bioinformatics. The tissue expression difference of adipor1 and adipor2 was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and an inflammatory model of R. dybowskii infected by Ah was constructed. The histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining); the expression profiles of adipor1 and adipor2 after infection were dynamically detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The results show that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are cell membrane proteins with seven transmembrane domains. Phylogenetic tree also shows that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 cluster with the amphibians in the same branch. qRT-PCR and Western blotting results show that adipor1 and adipor2 were up-regulated at different levels of transcription and translation upon Ah infection, but the response time and level were different. It is speculated that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 participate in the process of bacterial immune response, providing a basis for further exploring the biological functions of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in amphibians.


Subject(s)
Animals , Receptors, Adiponectin/metabolism , Phylogeny , Adiponectin/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Ranidae/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1696-1709, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981164

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clone and characterize the ZFP36L1 (zinc finger protein 36-like 1) gene, clarify its expression characteristics, and elucidate its expression patterns in different tissues of goats. Samples of 15 tissues from Jianzhou big-eared goats, including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney were collected. Goat ZFP36L1 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then the gene and protein sequence were analyzed by online tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect the expression level of ZFP36L1 in intramuscular preadipocytes in different tissues and adipocytes of goat at different differentiation stages. The results showed that the length of ZFR36L1 gene was 1 224 bp, and the coding sequence (CDS) region was 1 017 bp, encoding 338 amino acids, which was a non-secretory unstable protein mainly located in nucleus and cytoplasm. Tissue expression profile showed that ZFP36L1 gene was expressed in all selected tissues. In visceral tissues, the small intestine showed the highest expression level (P < 0.01). In muscle tissue, the highest expression level was presented in longissimus dorsi muscle (P < 0.01), whereas the expression level in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly higher than that in other tissues (P < 0.01). The results of induced differentiation showed that the expression of this gene was up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of intramuscular precursor adipocytes (P < 0.01). These data may help to clarify the biological function of the ZFP36L1 gene in goat.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Liver , Cloning, Molecular
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1684-1695, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981163

ABSTRACT

C-fos is a transcription factor that plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation and tumor formation. The aim of this study was to clone the goat c-fos gene, clarify its biological characteristics, and further reveal its regulatory role in the differentiation of goat subcutaneous adipocytes. We cloned the c-fos gene from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Jianzhou big-eared goats by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and analyzed its biological characteristics. Using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), we detected the expression of c-fos gene in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, subcutaneous fat, longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipocytes of goat upon induced differentiation for 0 h to 120 h. The goat overexpression vector pEGFP-c-fos was constructed and transfected into the subcutaneous preadipocytes for induced differentiation. The morphological changes of lipid droplet accumulation were observed by oil red O staining and bodipy staining. Furthermore, qPCR was used to test the relative mRNA level of the c-fos overexpression on adipogenic differentiation marker genes. The results showed that the cloned goat c-fos gene was 1 477 bp in length, in which the coding sequence was 1 143 bp, encoding a protein of 380 amino acids. Protein structure analysis showed that goat FOS protein has a basic leucine zipper structure, and subcellular localization prediction suggested that it was mainly distributed in the nucleus. The relative expression level of c-fos was higher in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of goats (P < 0.05), and the expression level of c-fos was significantly increased upon induced differentiation of subcutaneous preadipocyte for 48 h (P < 0.01). Overexpression of c-fos significantly inhibited the lipid droplets formation in goat subcutaneous adipocytes, significantly decreased the relative expression levels of the AP2 and C/EBPβ lipogenic marker genes (P < 0.01). Moreover, AP2 and C/EBPβ promoter are predicted to have multiple binding sites. In conclusion, the results indicated that c-fos gene was a negative regulatory factor of subcutaneous adipocyte differentiation in goats, and it might regulate the expression of AP2 and C/EBPβ gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Adipogenesis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Proteins/genetics , Cloning, Molecular
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1510-1517, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970622

ABSTRACT

Chalcone isomerase is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in higher plants, which determines the production of flavonoids in plants. In this study, RNA was extracted from different parts of Isatis indigotica and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Specific primers with enzyme restriction sites were designed, and a chalcone isomerase gene was cloned from I. indigotica, named IiCHI. IiCHI was 756 bp in length, containing a complete open reading frame and encoding 251 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that IiCHI was closely related to CHI protein of Arabidopsis thaliana and had typical active sites of chalcone isomerase. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that IiCHI was classified into type Ⅰ CHI clade. Recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-IiCHI was constructed and purified to obtain IiCHI recombinant protein. In vitro enzymatic analysis showed that the IiCHI protein could convert naringenin chalcone into naringenin, but could not catalyze the production of liquiritigenin by isoliquiritigenin. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) showed that the expression level of IiCHI in the aboveground parts was higher than that in the underground parts and the expression level was the highest in the flowers of the aboveground parts, followed by leaves and stems, and no expression was observed in the roots and rhizomes of the underground parts. This study has confirmed the function of chalcone isomerase in I. indigotica and provided references for the biosynthesis of flavonoid components.


Subject(s)
Isatis/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Arabidopsis/genetics , Flavonoids , Cloning, Molecular
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 842-857, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970409

ABSTRACT

The modern bio-fermentation industry requires design and creation of efficient microbial cell factories for directed conversion of raw materials to target products. The main criteria for assessing the performance of microbial cell factories are their product synthesis capacity and stability. Due to the deficiencies of plasmids in gene expression such as instability and being easy to lose, integration of genes into chromosome is often a better choice for stable expression in microbial hosts. To this end, chromosomal gene integration technology has received much attention and has developed rapidly. In this review, we summarize the recent research progresses of chromosomal integration of large DNA fragments in microorganisms, illustrate the principles and features of various technologies, highlight the opportunity brought by the CRISPR-associated transposon systems, and prospect future research direction of this technology.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , Plasmids , DNA , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 653-669, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970398

ABSTRACT

Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of phycocyanidins. In this experiment, the petals of red Rhododendron hybridum Hort. at different developmental stages were used as experimental materials. The R. hybridum flavanone 3-hydroxylase (RhF3H) gene was cloned using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, and bioinformatics analyses were performed. Petal RhF3H gene expression at different developmental stages were analyzed by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A pET-28a-RhF3H prokaryotic expression vector was constructed for the preparation and purification of RhF3H protein. A pCAMBIA1302-RhF3H overexpression vector was constructed for genetic transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The results showed that the R. hybridum Hort. RhF3H gene is 1 245 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1 092 bp, encoding 363 amino acids. It contains a Fe2+ binding motif and a 2-ketoglutarate binding motif of the dioxygenase superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. hybridum RhF3H protein is most closely related to the Vaccinium corymbosum F3H protein. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of the red R. hybridum RhF3H gene tended to increase and then decrease in the petals at different developmental stages, with the highest expression at middle opening stage. The results of the prokaryotic expression showed that the size of the induced protein of the constructed prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a-RhF3H was about 40 kDa, which was similar to the theoretical value. Transgenic RhF3H Arabidopsis thaliana plants were successfully obtained, and PCR identification and β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining demonstrated that the RhF3H gene was integrated into the genome of A. thaliana plants. qRT-PCR, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contentanalysis showed that RhF3H was significantly higher expressed in the transgenic A. thaliana relative to that of the wild type, and its total flavonoid and anthocyanin content were significantly increased. This study provides a theoretical basis for investigating the function of RhF3H gene, as well as for studying the molecular mechanism of flower color in R. simsiib Planch.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Rhododendron/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Anthocyanins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Flavonoids/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 640-652, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970397

ABSTRACT

GI (GIGANTEA) is one of the output key genes for circadian clock in the plant. The JrGI gene was cloned and its expression in different tissues was analyzed to facilitate the functional research of JrGI. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) was used to clone JrGI gene in present study. This gene was then analyzed by bioinformatics, subcellular localization and gene expression. The coding sequence (CDS) full length of JrGI gene was 3 516 bp, encoding 1 171 amino acids with a molecular mass of 128.60 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 6.13. It was a hydrophilic protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that JrGI of 'Xinxin 2' was highly homologous to GI of Populus euphratica. The result of subcellular localization showed that JrGI protein was located in nucleus. The JrGI, JrCO and JrFT genes in female flower buds undifferentiated and early differentiated of 'Xinxin 2' were analyzed by RT-qPCR (real-time quantitative PCR). The results showed that the expression of JrGI, JrCO and JrFT genes were the highest on morphological differentiation, implying the temporal and special regulation of JrGI in the differential process of female flower buds of'Xinxin 2'. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis showed that JrGI gene was expressed in all tissues examined, whereas the expression level in leaves was the highest. It is suggested that JrGI gene plays a key role in the development of walnut leaves.


Subject(s)
Juglans/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 614-624, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970395

ABSTRACT

Papaya, which is mainly cultivated in the southeastern region of China, is one of the four famous fruits in Lingnan. It is favored by people because of its edible and medicinal value. Fructose-6-phosphate, 2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase (F2KP) is a unique bifunctional enzyme with a kinase domain and an esterase domain that catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of fructose-2, 6-bisphosphate (Fru-2, 6-P2), an important regulator of glucose metabolism in organisms. In order to study the function of the gene CpF2KP encoding the enzyme in papaya, it is particularly important to obtain the target protein. In this study, the coding sequence (CDS) of CpF2KP, with a full-length of 2 274 bp, was got from the papaya genome. The amplified sequence of full-length CDS was cloned into the vector PGEX-4T-1 which was double digested with EcoR I and BamH I. The amplified sequence was constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector by genetic recombination. After exploring the induction conditions, the results of SDS-PAGE showed that the size of the recombinant GST-CpF2KP protein was about 110 kDa. The optimum IPTG concentration and temperature for CpF2KP induction were 0.5 mmol/L and 28 ℃, respectively. The purified sin[A1] gle target protein was obtained after purifying the induced CpF2KP protein. In addition, the expression level of this gene was detected in different tissues, and showed that the gene was expressed at the highest level in seeds and the lowest in pulp. This study provides an important basis for further revealing the function of CpF2KP protein and studying the involved biological processes of this gene in papaya.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carica/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , China
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6051-6057, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008803

ABSTRACT

HSP90 is a widely distributed molecular chaperone that participates in a variety of cellular processes and plays an important role in the meiosis of germ cells. However, its role in the gonadal development of hermaphroditic Whitmania pigra is not yet clear. To explore the effect of HSP90 on the germ cell development of Wh. Pigra, this study cloned the wpHSP90 gene, performed bioinformatics analysis, and measured its expression levels. The results showed that the cloned wpHSP90 was 2 592 bp in length, with an open reading frame(ORF) of 2 373 bp, encoding 790 amino acids. Prediction analysis revealed 85 phosphorylation modification sites on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues of the wpHSP90 protein. Structural domain prediction and multiple sequence alignment results showed that wpHSP90 contained two conserved domains of HSP90 and exhibited the highest homology with Helobdella robusta, with a sequence similarity of 80.72%. RT-qPCR results showed that the relative expression level of wpHSP90 in the gonads of 5-month-old Wh. pigra was positively correlated with temperature within the range of 12 ℃ to 28 ℃. The expression level in the female gonads was significantly higher than in the male gonads and correlated with the trend of germ cell development in the ovaries and testes. In conclusion, wpHSP90 may be involved in regulating the development of germ cells, particularly oocytes, in Wh. pigra. This study provides a reference for further research on the gonadal development mechanism in Wh. pigra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Temperature , Ovary , Gonads , Testis , Leeches , Cloning, Molecular
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239449, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249271

ABSTRACT

Alpha amylase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of starch is a ubiquitous enzyme with tremendous industrial applications. A 1698 bp gene coding for 565 amino acid amylase was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM465, cloned in pET21a (+) plasmid, expressed in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli and characterized. The recombinant enzyme exhibited molecular weight of 63 kDa, optimum pH 8, optimum temperature 70°C, and KM value of 157.7µM. On pilot scale, the purified enzyme efficiently removed up to 95% starch from the cotton fabric indicating its desizing ability at high temperature. 3D model of enzyme built by Raptor-X and validated by Ramachandran plot appeared as a monomer having 31% α-helices, 15% ß-sheets, and 52% loops. Docking studies have shown the best binding affinity of enzyme with amylopectin (∆G -10.59). According to our results, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276, and Arg175 constitute the potential active site of enzyme.


A alfa-amilase, que catalisa a hidrólise do amido, é uma enzima ubíqua com imensas aplicações industriais. Um gene de 1698 pb que codifica a amilase de 565 aminoácidos foi amplificado por PCR, a partir de Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465, clonado no plasmídeo pET21a (+), expresso na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli e caracterizado. A enzima recombinante exibiu peso molecular de 63 kDa, pH ótimo igual a 8, temperatura ótima de 70° C e valor KM de 157,7 µM. Em escala piloto, a enzima purificada removeu com eficiência até 95% de amido do tecido de algodão, indicando sua capacidade de desengomagem em alta temperatura. O modelo 3D da enzima construída por Raptor-X e validada por Ramachandran plot apareceu como um monômero com 31% de hélices alfa, 15% de folhas beta e 52% de loops. Os estudos de docking mostraram melhor afinidade de ligação da enzima com amilopectina (∆G: - 10,59). De acordo com nossos resultados, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276 e Arg175 constituem o sítio ativo potencial da enzima.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , alpha-Amylases/genetics , alpha-Amylases/metabolism , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Cloning, Molecular , Geobacillus , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 527-536, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939917

ABSTRACT

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), which catalyzes the conversion from L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, is a well-known key enzyme and a connecting step between primary and secondary metabolisms in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of plants and microbes. Schisandra chinensis, a woody vine plant belonging to the family of Magnoliaceae, is a rich source of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans exhibiting potent activity. However, the functional role of PAL in the biosynthesis of lignan is relatively limited, compared with those in lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. Therefore, it is essential to clone and characterize the PAL genes from this valuable medicinal plant. In this study, molecular cloning and characterization of three PAL genes (ScPAL1-3) from S. chinensis was carried out. ScPALs were cloned using RACE PCR. The sequence analysis of the three ScPALs was carried out to give basic characteristics followed by docking analysis. In order to determine their catalytic activity, recombinant protein was obtained by heterologous expression in pCold-TF vector in Escherichia coli (BL21-DE3), followed by Ni-affinity purification. The catalytic product of the purified recombinant proteins was verified using RP-HPLC through comparing with standard compounds. The optimal temperature, pH value and effects of different metal ions were determined. Vmax, Kcat and Km values were determined under the optimal conditions. The expression of three ScPALs in different tissues was also determined. Our work provided essential information for the function of ScPALs.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Phenylalanine/metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins , Schisandra/genetics
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