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Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 125-138, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1382070


El índice de masa corporal (IMC) elevado marcaría hoy una nueva etapa dentro de la transición epidemiológica, siendo posible develar el origen social del nuevo perfil de morbimortalidad. Esta revisión busca integrar diferentes conceptos teóricos para explicar los mecanismos a través de los cuales lo social se incorpora en el individuo, delimitando su comportamiento en salud y con ello, su estado nutricional. Las estructuras que representan los determinantes sociales de la salud operarían de manera sistemáticamente distinta sobre las personas, generando posiciones más o menos ventajosas dentro del campo de juego sanitario. Este patrón traduce una realidad que se encarna (embodiment) de manera inconsciente y duradera a través de un habitus, favoreciendo prácticas sociales diferenciadas que terminan por construir clases de cuerpos como expresión biológica de la desigualdad. La toma de decisiones estratégicas en salud dependerá de capacidades y libertades individuales primeramente restringidas por aquellos contextos sociales, entendiéndose estos como las causas estructurales de la salud poblacional(AU)

A high body mass index (BMI) would characterize a new stage in the epidemiological transition, making it possible to reveal the social origin of the new morbidity and mortality burden. This review seeks to integrate different theoretical concepts to explain the mechanisms through which the social is incorporated into the individual, delimiting their health behavior and with it, their nutritional status. The structures that represent the social determinants of health would operate systematically differently on different social groups, generating positions that are more or less advantageous in the playing field of health. This pattern translates a reality embodied unconsciously and long-lasting through a habitus, favoring differing social practices that result in the construction of bodily classes as a biological expression of social inequality. Strategic decision-making in health will depend on individual capacities and freedoms, which are firstly restricted by those social contexts, being those understood as the structural causes of population health(AU)

Humans , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Health Transition , Social Determinants of Health , Life Style , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Obesity/epidemiology
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56401, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367453


Blood-borne viruses, includingthe human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus, have certain common epidemiological characteristics and these viruses infect millions of people worldwide. This study aimed to determine the job satisfaction and the level of knowledge and practices regarding infectious diseases of employees working as hairdressers and barbers.This descriptive and cross-sectional study comprised 1200 hairdressers and barbers. The study sample comprised 628 people who consented to participate in the study. The mean age of the participants who participated in the study was 28, 13 ± 6. 9 years. The mean job satisfaction score of the participants was 3.85 ± 0.58. The job satisfaction score was found to be higher among those with sufficient knowledge of hepatitis B (p < 0.005). Employees should be provided performance trainings to achieve job satisfaction. It is recommended that employees be encouraged to wear gloves and gowns to protect their health and prevent contamination.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Barbering/instrumentation , HIV , Knowledge , Beauty and Aesthetics Centers , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis B virus , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Health/ethnology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Job Satisfaction , Occupational Groups
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 627-633, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935435


The incidence and spread of emerging infectious diseases are highly uncertain. This paper summarizes the uncertainty and complexity of emerging infectious disease, and suggests that for the response to the varied emerging infectious diseases in the future, it is still necessary for human to take the strategy of constantly strengthening the prevention and control capability and improving various preparedness protocols. For the better response to emerging infectious diseases and protection of people's health and life, the following measures can be taken, paying more attention to the layout of the infectious disease surveillance network, establishing and maintaining the laboratory surveillance network of infectious diseases, establishing and improving a "wartime-peacetime" transition mechanism or system of medical treatment and response, developing and improving the prevention and control plan for emerging infectious diseases, strengthening the training and rehearsal of emerging infectious disease treatment and response, establishing and improving the system for the grading, classification and stockpile of medical supplies for public health emergency response and establishing and maintaining the system of early warning of emerging infectious diseases and technical platform regulations.

Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , Uncertainty
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 591-597, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935432


The COVID-19 pandemic is yet another reminder that the threat of infectious disease has never really gone away. As the cornerstone of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, effective surveillance and early warning are of great significance in understanding the outbreak and epidemic of specific infectious diseases and putting forward effective prevention and control measures. Therefore, we must continue strengthening the construction of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system. We reviewed the surveillance and early warning practices of infectious diseases in major countries and regions, then discussed the development direction in the field of surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases to provide the reference for strengthening the construction and capacity of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system in China.

COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935319


Human beings are still facing the public health challenges from bacterial infectious diseases. Carrying out systematic infectious disease monitoring and early warning is the most direct solution to prevent and control infectious diseases. Etiology is an important part of infectious disease monitoring and early warning. Effective pathogen monitoring can identify pathogens, outbreaks and sources at the first time. In this study, we have reviewed the research and application of etiology monitoring and early warning technology of bacterial infectious diseases and summarized the importance and application scenarios of etiology in infectious disease monitoring and early warning, as well as the research progress of etiology monitoring and early warning technology. Based on the work of existing laboratory monitoring networks, such as Chinese Pathogen Identification Network, the development trend and prospect of infectious disease laboratory network monitoring are put forward to provide a reference for establishing and perfecting the infectious disease monitoring and early warning system.

Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Laboratories , Technology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935301


Despite the fact that our cognition towards infectious disease prevention, the advanced technology and the economic status of the whole society has made a great progress in the last decade, the outbreak of COVID-19 pneumonia has again enabled the public to acquire more about super-challenges of infectious diseases, epidemics and the relevant preventive measurements. In order to identify the epidemic signals in early stage or even before the onset of epidemic, the data research and utilization of a series of factors related to the occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases have played a significant role in research of prevention and control during the whole period of surveillance and early warning. Laboratory-based monitoring for the etiology has always been an important part of infectious disease warning system due to pathogens as the direct cause of such diseases. China has initially established a laboratory-based monitoring and early warning system for bacterial infectious diseases based on the Chinese Pathogen Identification Network with an aim to identify pathogens, outbreaks and sources. This network has played an essential role in early detection, tracking and precise prevention and control of bacterial infectious diseases, such as plague, cholera, and epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. This issue focuses on the function of laboratory-based monitoring during the period of early warning, prevention, and control of bacterial infectious diseases, and conducted a wide range of researches based on the analysis of the epidemic and outbreak isolates, together with field epidemiological studies and normal monitoring systems. All of these could illustrate the effect of laboratory surveillance in the infectious disease risk assessment and epidemic investigation. At the same time, we have put forward our review and expectation of scenarios about laboratory-based monitoring and early warning technologies to provide innovative thoughts for promoting a leapfrog development of infectious disease monitoring and early warning system in China.

Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics , Humans , Laboratories
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 50, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390024


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiological profile of cases and the pattern of spatial diffusion of the largest measles epidemic in Brazil that occurred in the post-elimination period in the state of São Paulo. METHOD A cross-sectional study based on confirmed measles cases in 2019. Bivariate analysis was performed for socioeconomic, clinical, and epidemiological variables, according to prior vaccination and hospitalization, combined with an analysis of spatial diffusion of cases using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. RESULTS Of the 15,598 confirmed cases, 2,039 were hospitalized and 17 progressed to death. The epidemic peak occurred in epidemiological week 33, after confirmation of the first case, in the epidemiological week 6. Most cases were male (52.1%), aged between 18 and 29 years (38.7%), identified as whites (70%). Young adults (39.7%) and children under five years (32.8%) were the most affected age groups. A higher proportion of previous vaccination was observed in whites as compared to Blacks, browns, yellows and indigenous people (p < 0.001), as well as in the most educated group compared to the other categories (p < 0.001). The risk of hospitalization was higher in children than in the older age group (RI = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.66-2.88), as well as in the unvaccinated than in the vaccinated (RI = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.45-1.75). The pattern of diffusion by contiguity combined with diffusion by relocation followed the urban hierarchy of the main cities' regions of influence. CONCLUSION In addition to routine vaccination in children, the findings indicate the need for immunization campaigns for young adults. In addition, studies that seek to investigate the occurrence of clusters of vulnerable populations, prone to lower vaccination coverage, are essential to broaden the understanding of the dynamics of transmission and, thus, reorienting control strategies that ensure disease elimination.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o perfil epidemiológico dos casos e o padrão de difusão espacial da maior epidemia de sarampo do Brasil ocorrida no período pós-eliminação, no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODO Estudo transversal, baseado em casos confirmados de sarampo em 2019. Foi conduzida análise bivariada das variáveis socioeconômicas, clínicas e epidemiológicas, segundo vacinação prévia e ocorrência de hospitalização, combinada a uma análise de difusão espacial dos casos por meio da metodologia de interpolação pela ponderação do inverso da distância. RESULTADOS Dos 15.598 casos confirmados, 2.039 foram hospitalizados e 17 evoluíram para o óbito. O pico epidêmico ocorreu na semana epidemiológica 33, após a confirmação do primeiro caso, na semana epidemiológica 6. A maioria dos casos era homem (52,1%), com idade entre 18 e 29 anos (38,7%), identificados como brancos (70%). Adultos jovens (39,7%) e menores de cinco anos (32,8%) foram as faixas etárias mais acometidas. Observou-se maior proporção de vacinação prévia em brancos, quando comparados a pretos, pardos, amarelos e indígenas (p < 0,001), assim como no grupo mais escolarizado, quando comparado às demais categorias (p < 0,001). O risco de hospitalização foi maior em crianças, quando comparado à faixa etária mais idosa (RI = 2,19; IC95% 1,66-2,88), assim como entre não vacinados, quando comparado a vacinados (RI = 1,59; IC95% 1,45-1,75). O padrão de difusão por contiguidade combinado à difusão por realocação seguiu a hierarquia urbana das regiões de influência das principais cidades. CONCLUSÃO Além da vacinação de rotina em crianças, os achados indicam a necessidade de campanhas de imunização de adultos jovens. Adicionalmente, estudos que busquem investigar a ocorrência de clusters de populações vulneráveis, propensas a menor cobertura de vacinação, são essenciais para ampliar a compreensão sobre a dinâmica de transmissão da doença e, assim, reorientar estratégias de controle que garantam a eliminação da doença.

Health Profile , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , Epidemics , Measles/epidemiology
In. Graña, Andrea; Calvelo, Estela; Fagúndez, Yohana. Abordaje integral del paciente con cáncer: atención desde la medicina y especialidades. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2022. p.277-299, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1418043
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 573-582, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397755


El enfoque por competencias se ha venido aplicando en todo el sector educativo, y ha tomado el rumbo universitario donde ha pisado fuertemente. Esto se debe a las ofertas de trabajo en donde las competencias son de carácter esencial. El enfoque por competencia ha logrado reorientar la formación profesional desde la elaboración de los perfiles de ingreso, de egreso, diseños curriculares, estrategias metodológicas y sistema de evaluación que son distintos a los enfoques tradicionales. Es por ello que, la gerencia online se perfila como herramienta novedosa que podría la problemática de la presencialidad en estos tiempos coyunturales que se vive, no solamente por efectos de pandemias, como el coronavirus, sino también por la dinámica de la sociedad actual. Como la gestión de la educación es una realidad que requiere de competencias, entonces se estaría hablando de las competencias digitales, para poder asumir el reto y la realidad de poder gerenciar de manera virtual u online. Por otra parte, el desarrollo de las competencias primarias unidas hoy en día con las competencias digitales ha hecho que ciertas disciplinas científicas hayan logrado avances significativos, y una de ellas son las enfermedades epidemiológicas asociadas a las enfermedades tropicales. En este trabajo se establecen y asignas las competencias necesarias para enfrentar las enfermedades infecciosas tropicales, y además se evalúa el efecto de la gerencia online en este mismo sector. Los resultados demostraron que el sistema peruano se encuentra preparado para estos nuevos retos, y se acepta la participación de las nuevas tecnologías digitales(AU)

The competency-based approach has been applied throughout the educational sector, and has taken the university course where it has stepped strongly. This is due to job offers where skills are essential. The competency-based approach has managed to reorient professional training from the preparation of entry and exit profiles, curricular designs, methodological strategies and evaluation systems that are different from traditional approaches. That is why online management is emerging as a novel tool that could address the problem of attendance in these current times, not only due to the effects of pandemics, such as the coronavirus, but also due to the dynamics of today's society. As the management of education is a reality that requires skills, then we would be talking about digital skills, to be able to take on the challenge and the reality of being able to manage virtually or online. On the other hand, the development of primary skills combined today with digital skills has meant that certain scientific disciplines have made significant progress, and one of them is the epidemiological diseases associated with tropical diseases. In this work, the necessary skills to face tropical infectious diseases are established and assigned, and the effect of online management in this same sector is also evaluated. The results showed that the Peruvian system is prepared for these new challenges, and the participation of new digital technologies is accepted(AU)

Tropical Medicine , Universities , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Professional Training , Public Health , Epidemiology , Competency-Based Education , Education, Distance
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1334, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347537


Introducción: El dengue es considerada la más importante de todas las arbovirosis por su gran carga de enfermedad e implicaciones sociales. Es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por cualquiera de los cuatro serotipos del complejo dengue, que se trasmite al hombre a través de la picada de un mosquito del género Aedes. Objetivo: Caracterizar las manifestaciones clínicas en lactantes con dengue confirmado. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de las manifestaciones clínicas de150 lactantes con diagnóstico de dengue confirmado por serología que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Materno Infantil "Dr. Ángel Arturo Aballí" en el período de julio- septiembre del año 2014. Resultados: Los lactantes entre 7 y 12 meses de edad fueron los más afectados (66,8 por ciento), con predominio del sexo femenino (54,0 por ciento). Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron: fiebre, manifestaciones respiratorias altas y exantema. La aparición de los signos de alarma coincidió con la defervescencia de la fiebre en 14 niños (9,3 por ciento) y los vómitos frecuentes y la letargia o irritabilidad fueron los síntomas más reiterados. Un solo paciente (0,7 por ciento) presentó cuadro clínico de choque. Conclusiones: Durante el primer año de vida, la enfermedad dengue puede presentarse de modo particular y semejar cualquier otra infección viral. El criterio epidemiológico tiene suma importancia, así como la presencia de fiebre, exantema y las manifestaciones respiratorias que no siempre se asocian al dengue en otras edades(AU)

Introduction: Dengue is considered the most important of all arboviruses because of its high burden of disease and social implications. It is an infectious disease caused by any of the four serotypes of the dengue complex, which is transmitted to the human beings through the bite of a mosquito of Aedes genus. Objective: Characterize the clinical manifestations in infants with confirmed dengue. Methods: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical manifestations of 150 infants with a diagnosis of dengue confirmed by serology who were hospitalized at "Dr. Ángel Arturo Aballí" Mother and Child Hospital in the period July-September 2014 was conducted. Results: Infants between 7 and 12 months of age were the most affected (66.8 percent), with a predominance of females (54.0 percent). The main clinical manifestations were: fever, upper respiratory tract manifestations and rash. The appearance of the warning signs coincided with the defervescence of fever in 14 children (9.3 percent) and frequent vomiting and lethargy or irritability were the most repeated symptoms. Just one patient (0.7 percent) presented a clinical picture of shock. Conclusions: During the first year of life, dengue disease can occur in a particular way and resemble any other viral infection. The epidemiological criterion is extremely important, as well as the presence of fever, rash and respiratory manifestations that are not always associated with dengue at other ages(AU)

Humans , Infant , Arbovirus Infections/therapy , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(1): 01-05, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361972


Background and objectives: Infectious diseases are still a public health problem in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases in a reference hospital in the city of Belem, Para, Brazil. Methods: From May 2018 to August 2019, the number of cases of individuals with compulsory infections was observed. Results: Regarding the research period in which data were obtained from May 2018 to August 2019, a total of 263 cases were affected in the hospital and in 2019 there was an increase in the number of cases and 373 records were reported. The following results were obtained: in 2018, the highest rate of infection was caused by influenza at the rate of 17%, and in 2019 it remained at the same percentage rate and ranked secondly. Conclusion: These data are very important for the epidemiological knowledge of the population, elucidating the highest case rates and lowering other diseases related to this study, as well as their harms and treatment.(AU)

Justificativa e objetivos: As doenças infecciosas ainda são um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Por isso, este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de doenças infecciosas em um hospital de referência na cidade de Belém, Pará, Brasil. Métodos: Foi observado, no período de maio de 2018 a agosto de 2019, número de casos de indivíduos acometidos com infecções de caráter compulsório. Resultados: Em relação ao período da pesquisa, no qual foram obtidos os dados de maio de 2018 a agosto de 2019, os resultados apontam que, nos meses de maio a dezembro de 2018, foram acometidos 263 casos no hospital e, em 2019, houve o aumento do número de casos, sendo notificados 373 registros. Obtiveram-se os seguintes resultados: no ano de 2018, a maior taxa de infecção foi causada pela influenza, com a taxa de 17%; em 2019, se manteve com a mesma taxa de percentual, ficando em segundo lugar. Conclusão: Esses dados são de suma importância para o conhecimento epidemiológico da população, elucidando sobre os maiores índices de casos e o decréscimo de outras doenças relacionadas a este estudo, bem como seus agravos e tratamento.(AU)

Justificacción y objetivos: las enfermedades infecciosas si guen siendoun problema de salud pública en Brasil. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de enfermedades infecciosas en un hospital de referencia en la ciudad de Belém, Pará, Brasil. Métodos: desde mayo de 2018 hasta agosto de 2019, se observó el número de casos de personas con infecciones obligatorias. Resultados: En cuanto al período de la encuesta en el que se obtuvieron datos de mayo de 2018 a agosto de 2019, los resultados indican que de mayo a diciembre de 2018, 263 casos fueron afectados en el hospital y en 2019 huboun aumento enel número de casos y se reportaron 373 registros. Se obtuvieron lo ssiguientes resultados: en 2018, la tasa más alta de infección fue causada por la influenza a una tasadel 17%, y en 2019 se mantuvoenlamismatasa porcentual y ocupó el segundo lugar. Seguido de tuberculosis, donde el 15% de los casos notificados se registraron en 2018. En comparación con 2019 (19%) hu boun aumento del 4% en el número de personas afectadas, ocupando el primer lugar enel ranking de enfermedades notificadas. Seguido por el virus del SIDA donde se registró el 8% de los casos registrados, en comparación con 2019 (6%) se observó hasta ahora una disminución del 2% en el número de casos. Conclusión: Estos datos son muy importantes para el conocimiento epidemiológico de la población, ya que dilucidan las tasas de casos más altas y disminuy en otras enfermedades relacionadas con este estudio, sus enfermedades y su tratamiento.(AU)

Humans , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitals, Municipal , Public Health
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 30-35, ene.-feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412896


No hay fórmula única para enfrentar una pandemia. La diversidad de liderazgos, objetivos sanitarios, escenarios, culturas, financiamiento, y organizaciones de sistemas de salud existentes obligan a cada país a buscar sus propias estrategias. La pandemia causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 y la tremenda cantidad de información que se ha generado a su entorno ha motivado la necesidad de evaluar la preparación de los sistemas de salud para enfrentar, responder y sobrevivir a un evento de esta naturaleza. Este artículo aporta consideraciones al respecto.

There is no "one size fits all" solution for healthcare systems when it comes to pandemics. Different and diverse scenarios with regards to financing, healthcare system structure, cultural issues and political orientation force countries to seek the most appropriate strategies for their particular case. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the tremendous amount of information that is has generated pressures the need for healthcare systems to seriously evaluate how prepared they are for facing, responding and emerging from an event of this nature. This article offers considerations on the subject.

Humans , Health Systems/organization & administration , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Isolation , Quarantine , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Health Strategies , Disaster Management , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e55223, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368138


Visceralleishmaniasis (VL), also known as 'calazar', is a serious chronic disease caused by Leishmania species from Leishmania(Leishmania) donovanicomplex, which the disease is characterized by abdominal swelling (hepatosplenomegaly) and may evolve to death in extreme cases.In this sense, the aim of our study was to assess the epidemiological profile of the cases found in Montes Claros (Minas Gerais state).A retrospective or cross-sectional study was carried out using secondary data provided by Health Information System (SINAN/HM) of Brazil from January 2010 to February 2020. Our data has shown that VL is an endemic disease in Montes Claros region, with 413 VL cases reported, 62.00% (252) male, average age ± standard deviation (years), and 93.46% (386) lived inMontes Claros city. The presence of comorbidities was observed in 13.70% (54) of the patients and in 7.26% (30). As for the evolution of the disease, 246 (59.56%) were cured, 30 (7.26%) died due to VL. Between 2010 and 2015, Glucantime®stands out, in which 46 (11.13%) patients used the drug, followed by common Amphotericin B 24 (13.48%) and liposomal Amphotericin B 38 (21.34%). In the period between 2016 and 2020, the most prevalent drug was liposomal Amphotericin B, with 71 (29.83%) patients using it, followed by Glucantime®45 (18.9%). The condition evolved to death. We conclude thatMontes Claros is still an endemic area for VL with an increased number of cases over time and a noticeable shift in patient profile towards children and young people. Joint efforts from different areas of scientific knowledge and public health services are needed to improve the effectiveness of visceral leishmaniasis surveillance and control actions. The population can contribute to this process of disease prevention and control, through educational actions in health and the environment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/mortality , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922719


COVID-19 has brought a significant impact to the global health system, and also opportunities and challenges to epidemiological researches. Theoretical epidemiological models can simulate the process of epidemic in scenarios under different conditions. Therefore, modeling researches can analyze the epidemical trend of COVID-19, predict epidemical risks, and evaluate effects of different control measures and vaccine policies. Theoretical epidemiological modeling researches provide scientific advice for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and play a crucial role in containing COVID-19 over the past year. In this study, we review the theoretical epidemiological modeling researches on COVID-19 and summarize the role of theoretical epidemiological models in the prevention and control of COVID-19, in order to provide reference for the combination of mathematical modeling and epidemic control.

COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942208


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the secular trend, ranking change, age- and regional- characteristics of leading infectious diseases among Chinese students population aged 6 to 22 years from 2008 to 2017.@*METHODS@#Data were drawn from the national surveillance from 2008 to 2017, and the participants were students aged from 6 to 22 years who were diagnosed with notifiable infectious diseases. A total of 40 infectious diseases were classified into three groups based on national notifiable infectious diseases classification of A, B and C. The morbidity and mortality rates from infectious diseases were calculated using the numbers of students published by the ministry of education as the denominator. The age- and province-specific infectious diseases with the highest incidence were selected as the leading infectious diseases for analysis.@*RESULTS@#From 2008 to 2017, the incidence rate, the number of cases and the number of deaths of infectious diseases among the boys aged 6-22 years in China were higher than that of the girls, and the overall trend was downward during the study period. The incidence rates in the boys and girls decreased from 2008 to 2015 with decrease of 43.4% and 40.1%, respectively. However, by 2017, the increase rate rebounded with the increases of 47.1% and 53.8%. The rebound trend was mainly caused by the increase of group C of infectious diseases. During the past decade, the top leading three diseases of groups A and B of infectious diseases were viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and dysentery in 2018, respectively, which changed to tuberculosis, scarlet fever and viral hepatitis in 2017. The top leading three infectious diseases in terms of mortality were rabies, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 2008, which were transformed into HIV/AIDS, rabies, and tuberculosis in 2017. There was no significantly obvious change in the incidence and mortality order of group C of infectious diseases during the decade. In the analysis of age groups and regions, the leading infectious diseases in groups A and B transferred from viral hepatitis to scarlet fever and tuberculosis, while in group C, mumps and infectious diarrhoea almost always dominated the leading infectious diseases. But in recent years, influenza and hand-foot-and-mouth disease increased significantly in the eastern region.@*CONCLUSION@#During the past decade, China has got remarkable achievements in the prevention and control of children infectious disease. However, the change patterns and characteristics of notifiable infectious diseases among children and adolescents show the urgent need for prevention and control of respiratory tract infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases as well as new emerging infectious diseases in China in the future. This study provides important basis for policy making of Chinese national school-based infectious disease prevention and control mechanism.

Adolescent , Animals , Child , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Students , Tuberculosis
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 253-256, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391131


Las matemáticas en epidemiología y en general en las ciencias biológicas constituyen, además de una herramienta, una forma de pensar y estructurar descripciones, explicaciones y predicciones de procesos. Por ello, tanto en epidemiología como en otras áreas del conocimiento biológico, las matemáticas son utilizadas para modelar. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar como los modelos matemáticos se utilizan en la teoría epidemiológica. En este artículo nos centraremos en un modelo en particular, el modelo SIR, utilizado para describir la evolución de epidemias. Se presenta sus características fundamentales desde el punto de vista matemático y se discute el papel de los diferentes parámetros. Además, este modelo se aplica, a modo de ejemplo, a la evolución del Covid-19 en Chile.

Mathematics in epidemiology and in general in biological sciences constitute, in addition to a tool, a way of thinking and structuring descriptions, explanations and predictions. Thus, both in epidemiology and in other areas of biological knowledge, the mathematics is used for modeling. The objective of this article is to present how mathematical models are used in epidemiological theory. In this article will focus on a particular model, the SIR model, used to describe the evolution of epidemics. Its fundamental characteristics from the mathematical point of view are presented and the role of different parameters. In addition, this model is applied, by way of example, to the evolution of Covid-19 in Chile.

Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Models , Computer Simulation , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Models, Biological
Medisan ; 24(6) tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1143257


Introducción: Los niños representan el futuro, y su crecimiento y desarrollo saludable deben ser una de las máximas prioridades para todas las sociedades, ellos son vulnerables frente a la malnutrición y enfermedades infecciosas, que son prevenibles o tratables en su gran mayoría, por lo que la Organización Mundial de la Salud crea estrategias para minimizar las causas que conspiren en contra de la salud de los niños y adolescentes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal de los 4 109 niños mayores de 28 días de nacidos y menores de 14 años de edad con enfermedades infecciosas, atendidos en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente Mohamed Boudiaf, de la provincia del Bayadh, en la República Popular y Democrática de Argelia, en el período 2017-2018. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde el punto de vista clinicoepidemiológico a los niños argelinos entre 28 días de nacidos y menores de 14 años de edad con enfermedades infecciosas. Resultados: Se obtuvo que 88,4 % de los integrantes del estudio padecieron de enfermedades infecciosas y 11,6 % no infecciosas; igualmente, los menores de un año y del sexo masculino fueron los que más enfermaron (58,0 %), en tanto, las enfermedades diarreicas agudas y las infecciones respiratorias resultaron ser las más frecuentes (48,0 y 32,0 %, respectivamente). Del total de pacientes, 3 607 evolucionaron favorablemente (99,8 %). Conclusiones: Las enfermedades infecciosas constituyen un problema de salud en Argelia que sigue aportando niños enfermos y fallecidos por esta causa; asimismo, las enfermedades diarreicas agudas y las infecciones respiratorias agudas son las principales causas de asistencia hospitalaria en la provincia del Bayadh, ocasionado por el destete precoz y la desnutrición, factores que contribuyen a que la morbilidad tenga una alta incidencia y la mortalidad sea baja, por lo que se debe prestar especial atención a los pacientes menores de 5 años, entre ellos a los menores de un año, que son los que enferman con mayor frecuencia.

Introduction: Children represent the future, so their healthy growth and development should be a priority for all societies, that is the reason why the Health World Organization creates strategies to minimize the causes that conspire against the health of children and adolescents. Methods: A descriptive and longitudinal study of the 4 109 children over 28 days and under 14 years with infectious diseases was carried out, who were assisted in the Pediatrics Service of Mohamed Boudiaf Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital, in the Bayadh province, Popular and Democratic Republic of Algeria, during 2017-2018. Objective: To characterize Algerian children with 28 days and under 14 years with infectious diseases from the clinical epidemiological point of view. Results: It was obtained that 88.4 % of the members in the study suffered from infectious diseases and 11.6 % suffered from non infectious diseases; equally, those under one year and from the male sex were the ones that mostly get ill (58.0 %), as long as, acute diarrheic diseases and breathing infections were the most frequent (48.0 and 32.0 %, respectively). Of the total of patients, 3 607 had a favorable clinical course (99.8 %). Conclusions: Infectious diseases constitute a health problem in Algeria that continues contributing to increase sick and dead children due to this cause; also, acute diarrheic diseases and acute breathing infections are the main causes of hospital assistance in Bayadh province, caused due to the early weaning and malnutrition, factors that contribute to the high incidence of morbidity and low mortality, reason why patients under 5 years should receive a special care, mainly those under one year who get sick with more frequency.

Communicable Diseases/mortality , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Adolescent , Algeria
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 512-515, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287204


Resumen La novel enfermedad COVID-19 ha tenido una rápida diseminación. Desde China, el virus viajó por todo el mundo. El potencial de la propagación global de COVID-19 fue anticipado y calculado mediante el uso de modelos matemáticos precisos. A estos modelos predictores se puede agregar información obtenida mediante la comparación de mapas gratuitos que representan la propagación internacional de la enfermedad y la densidad de las rutas aerocomerciales. Este análisis proporciona información de lo que parece ser una relación directa entre la distribución mundial inicial desigual de la enfermedad y la densidad del flujo aerocomercial. Esta comparación también puede estar sugiriendo la presencia de centros internacionales de distribución secundaria fuera de China. Con esta información de rápido acceso se puede contribuir a la mejor comprensión del derrame internacional de COVID-19 y orientar los esfuerzos de las políticas de salud para el control de esta y otras enfermedades infecciosas respiratorias agresivas.

Abstract COVID-19 has had a rapid dissemination. Departing from China, the virus has traveled all around the world. With the use of accurate mathematical models, the global spread of the disease was anticipated. Some additional information to these predictive models could be provided by the comparison of freely available maps depicting commercial air travel routes and disease spread. This analysis informs on what seems to be a direct relationship between the initially unequal worldwide distribution of the disease and the density of the commercial air traffic. This comparison may also help to identify international distributional hubs of the disease out of China. The observation of this easily accessible information may contribute to the understanding of COVID-19 spill over and help health control policies to better focus on the spread of this and other aggressively spreading respiratory infectious diseases.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Air Travel , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19