Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 465
Filter
1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 737-753, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424914

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar as tendências e associações relacionadas as coberturas e internações por condições sensíveis à atenção primária à saúde no município de Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, no período de 2015 a 2021. Métodos: Estudo transversal com dados secundários (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde, E- gestor atenção básica e o Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). Utilizou-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para as associações. Resultados: Foram registrados 176.330 internações por condições sensíveis, totalizando 8 principais, correspondendo a 78.5% do total. Obteve-se correlação inversa significativa entre a cobertura de atenção primária e internações por condições sensíveis: r=-0.86, (IC95%: -0.91/-0.61); p<0.001, bem como uma correlação moderada com cobertura de agente comunitário e internações (r=-0.59 (IC95%: -0.68/-0.54); p<0.001) Conclusão: O aumento das internações por condições sensíveis está diretamente relacionado com a cobertura da atenção primária. Além disso, enfrenta-se uma dupla carga de doenças, coexistindo as doenças infecciosas/parasitárias em concomitância com as crônicas.


Objective: To assess trends and associations related to coverage and hospitalizations for conditions sensitive to primary health care in the city of Fortaleza/Ceará/Brazil, from 2015 to 2021. Methods: Cross-sectional study with secondary data (Hospital Information System of the National Unified Health System, E- manager for primary care and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure associations. Results: 176,330 hospitalizations for sensitive conditions were recorded, totaling 8 main ones, corresponding to 78.5% of the total. A significant inverse correlation was obtained between primary care coverage and hospitalizations for sensitive conditions: r=-0.86, (95%CI: -0.91/-0.61); p<0.001, as well as a moderate correlation with community agent coverage and hospitalizations (r=-0.59 (95%CI: -0.68/-0.54); p<0.001) Conclusion: The increase in hospitalizations for sensitive conditions is directly associated to the primary care coverage. In addition, there is a double burden of disease, with infectious/parasitic diseases coexisting with chronic ones.


Evaluar las tendencias y asociaciones relacionadas con la cobertura y hospitalizaciones por condiciones sensibles a la atención primaria de salud en la ciudad de Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil de 2015 a 2021. Métodos: Estudio transversal con datos secundarios (Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde, E-gestor atenção básica e Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). Se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para las asociaciones. Resultados: Hubo 176.330 hospitalizaciones por condiciones sensibles, totalizando 8 condiciones principales, correspondiendo a 78,5% del total. Se obtuvo una correlación inversa significativa entre la cobertura de atención primaria y las hospitalizaciones por afecciones sensibles: r=- 0,86, (IC 95%: -0,91/-0,61); p<0,001, así como una correlación moderada con la cobertura de agentes comunitarios y las hospitalizaciones (r=-0,59 (IC 95%: -0,68/-0,54); p<0,001) Conclusión: El aumento de las hospitalizaciones por afecciones sensibles está directamente relacionado con la cobertura de atención primaria. Además, se enfrenta a una doble carga de enfermedad, coexistiendo enfermedades infecciosas/parasitarias en concomitancia con enfermedades crónicas.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions , Hospitalization , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Hospital Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Evaluation Study
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 122 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435648

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: As doenças infecciosas desconhecem fronteiras e, com a crise climática, a disseminação de doenças sensíveis ao clima tende a aumentar em frequência, intensidade e expansão geográfica. Isso preocupa as organizações humanitárias pois as crises humanitárias são alteradas e entrelaçadas pelos padrões climáticos, cujas interações podem ser imprevisíveis. Com a pandemia da Covid19 agravou-se a estigmatização dos migrantes como meros vetores de doenças, negligenciando as circunstâncias determinantes para propagação de doenças perante a migração. MÉTODOS: A tese é composta por três manuscritos nos quais são aplicados modelos epidêmicos compartimentais: (i) modelo SEIRV-SEI para humanos e vetores aplicado à migração unidirecional de uma comunidade endêmica para uma comunidade hospedeira livre de doença; (ii) SEIRV-SEI para humanos e vetores aplicado a três diferentes populações acopladas - caravanas, comunidade endêmica e comunidade livre de doença, avaliando os efeitos da vacinação em comunidades endêmicas e em caravanas; (iii) o modelo SEIR-SEI para humanos, macacos e vetores onde o tempo gasto para atravessar a floresta é uma medida de exposição. RESULTADOS: O primeiro artigo mostra que o tipo de vetor e a cobertura vacinal nas comunidades hospedeiras são mais relevantes para a ocorrência de surtos do que as taxas de migração. O segundo estudo demonstra que quando as comunidades endêmicas são fonte de migração, a imunidade do rebanho é determinante, mas a vacinação de caravanas é de longe a intervenção mais significativa para proteger comunidades do risco de introdução da FA. Por fim, os resultados mostram que poderia haver mais de 23 mil casos humanos se ocorrer um surto de FA no Gap de Darién, e 19.000 deles deixariam a floresta ainda infectados. O número de mortes está fortemente relacionado ao tempo para atravessar a floresta. CONCLUSÃO: A prevenção de surtos de doenças infecciosas sensíveis ao clima no contexto da migração deve ser um esforço conjunto de interesse comum. Estabelecer corredores de migração oficiais e seguros onde seja possível vacinar os migrantes pode contribuir significativamente para o controle de doenças. Os migrantes são infinitamente mais vulneráveis a infecções, enquanto os responsáveis pela disseminação de doenças infecciosas sensíveis ao clima são a falta de vacinação consistente e as mudanças climáticas. Somente um esforço coletivo deliberado e consistente de vacinação pode garantir a migração segura como direito humano e para adaptação climática.


INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases do not recognize borders, and with the climate crisis, the spread of climate-sensitive diseases is expected to increase in frequency, intensity, and geographic expansion. This poses a serious concern for humanitarian organizations as weather patterns can alter and intertwine humanitarian crises, leading to unpredictable interactions. Furthermore, with the ongoing Covid19 pandemic, migrants have been stigmatized as mere carriers of diseases, ignoring the underlying circumstances that lead to the spread of diseases during migration. METHODS: The thesis consists of three manuscripts that use compartmental epidemic models. The first manuscript uses a SEIRV-SEI model to study one-way migration from an endemic community to a disease-free host community. The second manuscript uses a SEIRV-SEI model to study three coupled human populations: caravans, resident endemic communities, and a disease-free community to assess the effects of vaccination in endemic communities and caravans. The third manuscript uses a SEIR-SEI model to study humans, monkeys, and vectors, where the time taken to cross the Darién forest is a measure of exposure to the Yellow Fever virus. RESULTS: The first manuscript shows that the type of vector and vaccination coverage in host communities are more relevant for the occurrence of outbreaks than migration rates. The second manuscript demonstrates that vaccinating caravans is the most significant intervention to protect disease-free communities from the risk of Yellow Fever introduction. The third manuscript shows that over 23,000 human cases may occur if an outbreak occurs in the Darién Gap, with 19,000 leaving the forest still infected. The number of deaths is strongly related to the time taken to cross the forest. CONCLUSION: Preventing outbreaks of climate-sensitive infectious diseases during migration must be a collective effort. Establishing official and safe migration corridors where migrants can be vaccinated can significantly contribute to controlling diseases such as Yellow Fever. Migrants are particularly vulnerable to infections, and the spread of climate-sensitive infectious diseases is linked to the lack of consistent vaccination in a changing climate. Only a collective and consistent vaccination effort can guarantee safe migration as a human right and serve as a climate adaptation measure.


Subject(s)
Yellow Fever , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Human Migration , Humanitarian Crisis
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 529-535, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985523

ABSTRACT

The world has paid a heavy price for the pandemic of the emerging respiratory communicable disease, so more concern about communicable disease surveillance and early warning has been aroused. This paper briefly reviews the establishment of the surveillance and early warning system of respiratory communicable diseases in China, discusses its future development and introduces the novel surveillance methods and early warning models for the purpose of establishment of a multi-channel surveillance and multi-dimensional early warning system of communicable diseases in the future and the improvement of the prevention and control of emerging respiratory communicable diseases in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Population Surveillance/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 125-138, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1382070

ABSTRACT

El índice de masa corporal (IMC) elevado marcaría hoy una nueva etapa dentro de la transición epidemiológica, siendo posible develar el origen social del nuevo perfil de morbimortalidad. Esta revisión busca integrar diferentes conceptos teóricos para explicar los mecanismos a través de los cuales lo social se incorpora en el individuo, delimitando su comportamiento en salud y con ello, su estado nutricional. Las estructuras que representan los determinantes sociales de la salud operarían de manera sistemáticamente distinta sobre las personas, generando posiciones más o menos ventajosas dentro del campo de juego sanitario. Este patrón traduce una realidad que se encarna (embodiment) de manera inconsciente y duradera a través de un habitus, favoreciendo prácticas sociales diferenciadas que terminan por construir clases de cuerpos como expresión biológica de la desigualdad. La toma de decisiones estratégicas en salud dependerá de capacidades y libertades individuales primeramente restringidas por aquellos contextos sociales, entendiéndose estos como las causas estructurales de la salud poblacional(AU)


A high body mass index (BMI) would characterize a new stage in the epidemiological transition, making it possible to reveal the social origin of the new morbidity and mortality burden. This review seeks to integrate different theoretical concepts to explain the mechanisms through which the social is incorporated into the individual, delimiting their health behavior and with it, their nutritional status. The structures that represent the social determinants of health would operate systematically differently on different social groups, generating positions that are more or less advantageous in the playing field of health. This pattern translates a reality embodied unconsciously and long-lasting through a habitus, favoring differing social practices that result in the construction of bodily classes as a biological expression of social inequality. Strategic decision-making in health will depend on individual capacities and freedoms, which are firstly restricted by those social contexts, being those understood as the structural causes of population health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Health Transition , Social Determinants of Health , Life Style , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Obesity/epidemiology
6.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56401, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367453

ABSTRACT

Blood-borne viruses, includingthe human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus, have certain common epidemiological characteristics and these viruses infect millions of people worldwide. This study aimed to determine the job satisfaction and the level of knowledge and practices regarding infectious diseases of employees working as hairdressers and barbers.This descriptive and cross-sectional study comprised 1200 hairdressers and barbers. The study sample comprised 628 people who consented to participate in the study. The mean age of the participants who participated in the study was 28, 13 ± 6. 9 years. The mean job satisfaction score of the participants was 3.85 ± 0.58. The job satisfaction score was found to be higher among those with sufficient knowledge of hepatitis B (p < 0.005). Employees should be provided performance trainings to achieve job satisfaction. It is recommended that employees be encouraged to wear gloves and gowns to protect their health and prevent contamination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Barbering/instrumentation , HIV , Knowledge , Beauty and Aesthetics Centers , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis B virus , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Health/ethnology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Job Satisfaction , Occupational Groups
7.
In. Graña, Andrea; Calvelo, Estela; Fagúndez, Yohana. Abordaje integral del paciente con cáncer: atención desde la medicina y especialidades. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2022. p.277-299, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1418043
8.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 573-582, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397755

ABSTRACT

El enfoque por competencias se ha venido aplicando en todo el sector educativo, y ha tomado el rumbo universitario donde ha pisado fuertemente. Esto se debe a las ofertas de trabajo en donde las competencias son de carácter esencial. El enfoque por competencia ha logrado reorientar la formación profesional desde la elaboración de los perfiles de ingreso, de egreso, diseños curriculares, estrategias metodológicas y sistema de evaluación que son distintos a los enfoques tradicionales. Es por ello que, la gerencia online se perfila como herramienta novedosa que podría la problemática de la presencialidad en estos tiempos coyunturales que se vive, no solamente por efectos de pandemias, como el coronavirus, sino también por la dinámica de la sociedad actual. Como la gestión de la educación es una realidad que requiere de competencias, entonces se estaría hablando de las competencias digitales, para poder asumir el reto y la realidad de poder gerenciar de manera virtual u online. Por otra parte, el desarrollo de las competencias primarias unidas hoy en día con las competencias digitales ha hecho que ciertas disciplinas científicas hayan logrado avances significativos, y una de ellas son las enfermedades epidemiológicas asociadas a las enfermedades tropicales. En este trabajo se establecen y asignas las competencias necesarias para enfrentar las enfermedades infecciosas tropicales, y además se evalúa el efecto de la gerencia online en este mismo sector. Los resultados demostraron que el sistema peruano se encuentra preparado para estos nuevos retos, y se acepta la participación de las nuevas tecnologías digitales(AU)


The competency-based approach has been applied throughout the educational sector, and has taken the university course where it has stepped strongly. This is due to job offers where skills are essential. The competency-based approach has managed to reorient professional training from the preparation of entry and exit profiles, curricular designs, methodological strategies and evaluation systems that are different from traditional approaches. That is why online management is emerging as a novel tool that could address the problem of attendance in these current times, not only due to the effects of pandemics, such as the coronavirus, but also due to the dynamics of today's society. As the management of education is a reality that requires skills, then we would be talking about digital skills, to be able to take on the challenge and the reality of being able to manage virtually or online. On the other hand, the development of primary skills combined today with digital skills has meant that certain scientific disciplines have made significant progress, and one of them is the epidemiological diseases associated with tropical diseases. In this work, the necessary skills to face tropical infectious diseases are established and assigned, and the effect of online management in this same sector is also evaluated. The results showed that the Peruvian system is prepared for these new challenges, and the participation of new digital technologies is accepted(AU)


Subject(s)
Tropical Medicine , Universities , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Professional Training , Public Health , Epidemiology , Competency-Based Education , Education, Distance
9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 50, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390024

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiological profile of cases and the pattern of spatial diffusion of the largest measles epidemic in Brazil that occurred in the post-elimination period in the state of São Paulo. METHOD A cross-sectional study based on confirmed measles cases in 2019. Bivariate analysis was performed for socioeconomic, clinical, and epidemiological variables, according to prior vaccination and hospitalization, combined with an analysis of spatial diffusion of cases using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. RESULTS Of the 15,598 confirmed cases, 2,039 were hospitalized and 17 progressed to death. The epidemic peak occurred in epidemiological week 33, after confirmation of the first case, in the epidemiological week 6. Most cases were male (52.1%), aged between 18 and 29 years (38.7%), identified as whites (70%). Young adults (39.7%) and children under five years (32.8%) were the most affected age groups. A higher proportion of previous vaccination was observed in whites as compared to Blacks, browns, yellows and indigenous people (p < 0.001), as well as in the most educated group compared to the other categories (p < 0.001). The risk of hospitalization was higher in children than in the older age group (RI = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.66-2.88), as well as in the unvaccinated than in the vaccinated (RI = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.45-1.75). The pattern of diffusion by contiguity combined with diffusion by relocation followed the urban hierarchy of the main cities' regions of influence. CONCLUSION In addition to routine vaccination in children, the findings indicate the need for immunization campaigns for young adults. In addition, studies that seek to investigate the occurrence of clusters of vulnerable populations, prone to lower vaccination coverage, are essential to broaden the understanding of the dynamics of transmission and, thus, reorienting control strategies that ensure disease elimination.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o perfil epidemiológico dos casos e o padrão de difusão espacial da maior epidemia de sarampo do Brasil ocorrida no período pós-eliminação, no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODO Estudo transversal, baseado em casos confirmados de sarampo em 2019. Foi conduzida análise bivariada das variáveis socioeconômicas, clínicas e epidemiológicas, segundo vacinação prévia e ocorrência de hospitalização, combinada a uma análise de difusão espacial dos casos por meio da metodologia de interpolação pela ponderação do inverso da distância. RESULTADOS Dos 15.598 casos confirmados, 2.039 foram hospitalizados e 17 evoluíram para o óbito. O pico epidêmico ocorreu na semana epidemiológica 33, após a confirmação do primeiro caso, na semana epidemiológica 6. A maioria dos casos era homem (52,1%), com idade entre 18 e 29 anos (38,7%), identificados como brancos (70%). Adultos jovens (39,7%) e menores de cinco anos (32,8%) foram as faixas etárias mais acometidas. Observou-se maior proporção de vacinação prévia em brancos, quando comparados a pretos, pardos, amarelos e indígenas (p < 0,001), assim como no grupo mais escolarizado, quando comparado às demais categorias (p < 0,001). O risco de hospitalização foi maior em crianças, quando comparado à faixa etária mais idosa (RI = 2,19; IC95% 1,66-2,88), assim como entre não vacinados, quando comparado a vacinados (RI = 1,59; IC95% 1,45-1,75). O padrão de difusão por contiguidade combinado à difusão por realocação seguiu a hierarquia urbana das regiões de influência das principais cidades. CONCLUSÃO Além da vacinação de rotina em crianças, os achados indicam a necessidade de campanhas de imunização de adultos jovens. Adicionalmente, estudos que busquem investigar a ocorrência de clusters de populações vulneráveis, propensas a menor cobertura de vacinação, são essenciais para ampliar a compreensão sobre a dinâmica de transmissão da doença e, assim, reorientar estratégias de controle que garantam a eliminação da doença.


Subject(s)
Health Profile , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , Epidemics , Measles/epidemiology
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 627-633, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935435

ABSTRACT

The incidence and spread of emerging infectious diseases are highly uncertain. This paper summarizes the uncertainty and complexity of emerging infectious disease, and suggests that for the response to the varied emerging infectious diseases in the future, it is still necessary for human to take the strategy of constantly strengthening the prevention and control capability and improving various preparedness protocols. For the better response to emerging infectious diseases and protection of people's health and life, the following measures can be taken, paying more attention to the layout of the infectious disease surveillance network, establishing and maintaining the laboratory surveillance network of infectious diseases, establishing and improving a "wartime-peacetime" transition mechanism or system of medical treatment and response, developing and improving the prevention and control plan for emerging infectious diseases, strengthening the training and rehearsal of emerging infectious disease treatment and response, establishing and improving the system for the grading, classification and stockpile of medical supplies for public health emergency response and establishing and maintaining the system of early warning of emerging infectious diseases and technical platform regulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Public Health , Uncertainty
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 591-597, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935432

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is yet another reminder that the threat of infectious disease has never really gone away. As the cornerstone of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, effective surveillance and early warning are of great significance in understanding the outbreak and epidemic of specific infectious diseases and putting forward effective prevention and control measures. Therefore, we must continue strengthening the construction of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system. We reviewed the surveillance and early warning practices of infectious diseases in major countries and regions, then discussed the development direction in the field of surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases to provide the reference for strengthening the construction and capacity of infectious disease surveillance and early warning system in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 525-532, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935319

ABSTRACT

Human beings are still facing the public health challenges from bacterial infectious diseases. Carrying out systematic infectious disease monitoring and early warning is the most direct solution to prevent and control infectious diseases. Etiology is an important part of infectious disease monitoring and early warning. Effective pathogen monitoring can identify pathogens, outbreaks and sources at the first time. In this study, we have reviewed the research and application of etiology monitoring and early warning technology of bacterial infectious diseases and summarized the importance and application scenarios of etiology in infectious disease monitoring and early warning, as well as the research progress of etiology monitoring and early warning technology. Based on the work of existing laboratory monitoring networks, such as Chinese Pathogen Identification Network, the development trend and prospect of infectious disease laboratory network monitoring are put forward to provide a reference for establishing and perfecting the infectious disease monitoring and early warning system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Laboratories , Technology
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 401-404, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935301

ABSTRACT

Despite the fact that our cognition towards infectious disease prevention, the advanced technology and the economic status of the whole society has made a great progress in the last decade, the outbreak of COVID-19 pneumonia has again enabled the public to acquire more about super-challenges of infectious diseases, epidemics and the relevant preventive measurements. In order to identify the epidemic signals in early stage or even before the onset of epidemic, the data research and utilization of a series of factors related to the occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases have played a significant role in research of prevention and control during the whole period of surveillance and early warning. Laboratory-based monitoring for the etiology has always been an important part of infectious disease warning system due to pathogens as the direct cause of such diseases. China has initially established a laboratory-based monitoring and early warning system for bacterial infectious diseases based on the Chinese Pathogen Identification Network with an aim to identify pathogens, outbreaks and sources. This network has played an essential role in early detection, tracking and precise prevention and control of bacterial infectious diseases, such as plague, cholera, and epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. This issue focuses on the function of laboratory-based monitoring during the period of early warning, prevention, and control of bacterial infectious diseases, and conducted a wide range of researches based on the analysis of the epidemic and outbreak isolates, together with field epidemiological studies and normal monitoring systems. All of these could illustrate the effect of laboratory surveillance in the infectious disease risk assessment and epidemic investigation. At the same time, we have put forward our review and expectation of scenarios about laboratory-based monitoring and early warning technologies to provide innovative thoughts for promoting a leapfrog development of infectious disease monitoring and early warning system in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics , Laboratories
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1334, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347537

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dengue es considerada la más importante de todas las arbovirosis por su gran carga de enfermedad e implicaciones sociales. Es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por cualquiera de los cuatro serotipos del complejo dengue, que se trasmite al hombre a través de la picada de un mosquito del género Aedes. Objetivo: Caracterizar las manifestaciones clínicas en lactantes con dengue confirmado. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de las manifestaciones clínicas de150 lactantes con diagnóstico de dengue confirmado por serología que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Materno Infantil Dr. Ángel Arturo Aballí en el período de julio- septiembre del año 2014. Resultados: Los lactantes entre 7 y 12 meses de edad fueron los más afectados (66,8 por ciento), con predominio del sexo femenino (54,0 por ciento). Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron: fiebre, manifestaciones respiratorias altas y exantema. La aparición de los signos de alarma coincidió con la defervescencia de la fiebre en 14 niños (9,3 por ciento) y los vómitos frecuentes y la letargia o irritabilidad fueron los síntomas más reiterados. Un solo paciente (0,7 por ciento) presentó cuadro clínico de choque. Conclusiones: Durante el primer año de vida, la enfermedad dengue puede presentarse de modo particular y semejar cualquier otra infección viral. El criterio epidemiológico tiene suma importancia, así como la presencia de fiebre, exantema y las manifestaciones respiratorias que no siempre se asocian al dengue en otras edades(AU)


Introduction: Dengue is considered the most important of all arboviruses because of its high burden of disease and social implications. It is an infectious disease caused by any of the four serotypes of the dengue complex, which is transmitted to the human beings through the bite of a mosquito of Aedes genus. Objective: Characterize the clinical manifestations in infants with confirmed dengue. Methods: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical manifestations of 150 infants with a diagnosis of dengue confirmed by serology who were hospitalized at Dr. Ángel Arturo Aballí Mother and Child Hospital in the period July-September 2014 was conducted. Results: Infants between 7 and 12 months of age were the most affected (66.8 percent), with a predominance of females (54.0 percent). The main clinical manifestations were: fever, upper respiratory tract manifestations and rash. The appearance of the warning signs coincided with the defervescence of fever in 14 children (9.3 percent) and frequent vomiting and lethargy or irritability were the most repeated symptoms. Just one patient (0.7 percent) presented a clinical picture of shock. Conclusions: During the first year of life, dengue disease can occur in a particular way and resemble any other viral infection. The epidemiological criterion is extremely important, as well as the presence of fever, rash and respiratory manifestations that are not always associated with dengue at other ages(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Arbovirus Infections/therapy , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
15.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(1): 01-05, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361972

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Infectious diseases are still a public health problem in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases in a reference hospital in the city of Belem, Para, Brazil. Methods: From May 2018 to August 2019, the number of cases of individuals with compulsory infections was observed. Results: Regarding the research period in which data were obtained from May 2018 to August 2019, a total of 263 cases were affected in the hospital and in 2019 there was an increase in the number of cases and 373 records were reported. The following results were obtained: in 2018, the highest rate of infection was caused by influenza at the rate of 17%, and in 2019 it remained at the same percentage rate and ranked secondly. Conclusion: These data are very important for the epidemiological knowledge of the population, elucidating the highest case rates and lowering other diseases related to this study, as well as their harms and treatment.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: As doenças infecciosas ainda são um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Por isso, este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de doenças infecciosas em um hospital de referência na cidade de Belém, Pará, Brasil. Métodos: Foi observado, no período de maio de 2018 a agosto de 2019, número de casos de indivíduos acometidos com infecções de caráter compulsório. Resultados: Em relação ao período da pesquisa, no qual foram obtidos os dados de maio de 2018 a agosto de 2019, os resultados apontam que, nos meses de maio a dezembro de 2018, foram acometidos 263 casos no hospital e, em 2019, houve o aumento do número de casos, sendo notificados 373 registros. Obtiveram-se os seguintes resultados: no ano de 2018, a maior taxa de infecção foi causada pela influenza, com a taxa de 17%; em 2019, se manteve com a mesma taxa de percentual, ficando em segundo lugar. Conclusão: Esses dados são de suma importância para o conhecimento epidemiológico da população, elucidando sobre os maiores índices de casos e o decréscimo de outras doenças relacionadas a este estudo, bem como seus agravos e tratamento.(AU)


Justificacción y objetivos: las enfermedades infecciosas si guen siendoun problema de salud pública en Brasil. Por lo tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia de enfermedades infecciosas en un hospital de referencia en la ciudad de Belém, Pará, Brasil. Métodos: desde mayo de 2018 hasta agosto de 2019, se observó el número de casos de personas con infecciones obligatorias. Resultados: En cuanto al período de la encuesta en el que se obtuvieron datos de mayo de 2018 a agosto de 2019, los resultados indican que de mayo a diciembre de 2018, 263 casos fueron afectados en el hospital y en 2019 huboun aumento enel número de casos y se reportaron 373 registros. Se obtuvieron lo ssiguientes resultados: en 2018, la tasa más alta de infección fue causada por la influenza a una tasadel 17%, y en 2019 se mantuvoenlamismatasa porcentual y ocupó el segundo lugar. Seguido de tuberculosis, donde el 15% de los casos notificados se registraron en 2018. En comparación con 2019 (19%) hu boun aumento del 4% en el número de personas afectadas, ocupando el primer lugar enel ranking de enfermedades notificadas. Seguido por el virus del SIDA donde se registró el 8% de los casos registrados, en comparación con 2019 (6%) se observó hasta ahora una disminución del 2% en el número de casos. Conclusión: Estos datos son muy importantes para el conocimiento epidemiológico de la población, ya que dilucidan las tasas de casos más altas y disminuy en otras enfermedades relacionadas con este estudio, sus enfermedades y su tratamiento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitals, Municipal , Public Health
16.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 30-35, ene.-feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412896

ABSTRACT

No hay fórmula única para enfrentar una pandemia. La diversidad de liderazgos, objetivos sanitarios, escenarios, culturas, financiamiento, y organizaciones de sistemas de salud existentes obligan a cada país a buscar sus propias estrategias. La pandemia causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 y la tremenda cantidad de información que se ha generado a su entorno ha motivado la necesidad de evaluar la preparación de los sistemas de salud para enfrentar, responder y sobrevivir a un evento de esta naturaleza. Este artículo aporta consideraciones al respecto.


There is no "one size fits all" solution for healthcare systems when it comes to pandemics. Different and diverse scenarios with regards to financing, healthcare system structure, cultural issues and political orientation force countries to seek the most appropriate strategies for their particular case. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the tremendous amount of information that is has generated pressures the need for healthcare systems to seriously evaluate how prepared they are for facing, responding and emerging from an event of this nature. This article offers considerations on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Systems/organization & administration , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Isolation , Quarantine , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Health Strategies , Disaster Planning , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration
17.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e55223, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368138

ABSTRACT

Visceralleishmaniasis (VL), also known as 'calazar', is a serious chronic disease caused by Leishmania species from Leishmania(Leishmania) donovanicomplex, which the disease is characterized by abdominal swelling (hepatosplenomegaly) and may evolve to death in extreme cases.In this sense, the aim of our study was to assess the epidemiological profile of the cases found in Montes Claros (Minas Gerais state).A retrospective or cross-sectional study was carried out using secondary data provided by Health Information System (SINAN/HM) of Brazil from January 2010 to February 2020. Our data has shown that VL is an endemic disease in Montes Claros region, with 413 VL cases reported, 62.00% (252) male, average age ± standard deviation (years), and 93.46% (386) lived inMontes Claros city. The presence of comorbidities was observed in 13.70% (54) of the patients and in 7.26% (30). As for the evolution of the disease, 246 (59.56%) were cured, 30 (7.26%) died due to VL. Between 2010 and 2015, Glucantime®stands out, in which 46 (11.13%) patients used the drug, followed by common Amphotericin B 24 (13.48%) and liposomal Amphotericin B 38 (21.34%). In the period between 2016 and 2020, the most prevalent drug was liposomal Amphotericin B, with 71 (29.83%) patients using it, followed by Glucantime®45 (18.9%). The condition evolved to death. We conclude thatMontes Claros is still an endemic area for VL with an increased number of cases over time and a noticeable shift in patient profile towards children and young people. Joint efforts from different areas of scientific knowledge and public health services are needed to improve the effectiveness of visceral leishmaniasis surveillance and control actions. The population can contribute to this process of disease prevention and control, through educational actions in health and the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/mortality , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data
18.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 498-505, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942208

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the secular trend, ranking change, age- and regional- characteristics of leading infectious diseases among Chinese students population aged 6 to 22 years from 2008 to 2017.@*METHODS@#Data were drawn from the national surveillance from 2008 to 2017, and the participants were students aged from 6 to 22 years who were diagnosed with notifiable infectious diseases. A total of 40 infectious diseases were classified into three groups based on national notifiable infectious diseases classification of A, B and C. The morbidity and mortality rates from infectious diseases were calculated using the numbers of students published by the ministry of education as the denominator. The age- and province-specific infectious diseases with the highest incidence were selected as the leading infectious diseases for analysis.@*RESULTS@#From 2008 to 2017, the incidence rate, the number of cases and the number of deaths of infectious diseases among the boys aged 6-22 years in China were higher than that of the girls, and the overall trend was downward during the study period. The incidence rates in the boys and girls decreased from 2008 to 2015 with decrease of 43.4% and 40.1%, respectively. However, by 2017, the increase rate rebounded with the increases of 47.1% and 53.8%. The rebound trend was mainly caused by the increase of group C of infectious diseases. During the past decade, the top leading three diseases of groups A and B of infectious diseases were viral hepatitis, tuberculosis and dysentery in 2018, respectively, which changed to tuberculosis, scarlet fever and viral hepatitis in 2017. The top leading three infectious diseases in terms of mortality were rabies, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 2008, which were transformed into HIV/AIDS, rabies, and tuberculosis in 2017. There was no significantly obvious change in the incidence and mortality order of group C of infectious diseases during the decade. In the analysis of age groups and regions, the leading infectious diseases in groups A and B transferred from viral hepatitis to scarlet fever and tuberculosis, while in group C, mumps and infectious diarrhoea almost always dominated the leading infectious diseases. But in recent years, influenza and hand-foot-and-mouth disease increased significantly in the eastern region.@*CONCLUSION@#During the past decade, China has got remarkable achievements in the prevention and control of children infectious disease. However, the change patterns and characteristics of notifiable infectious diseases among children and adolescents show the urgent need for prevention and control of respiratory tract infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases as well as new emerging infectious diseases in China in the future. This study provides important basis for policy making of Chinese national school-based infectious disease prevention and control mechanism.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Incidence , Students , Tuberculosis
19.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1256-1262, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922719

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has brought a significant impact to the global health system, and also opportunities and challenges to epidemiological researches. Theoretical epidemiological models can simulate the process of epidemic in scenarios under different conditions. Therefore, modeling researches can analyze the epidemical trend of COVID-19, predict epidemical risks, and evaluate effects of different control measures and vaccine policies. Theoretical epidemiological modeling researches provide scientific advice for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and play a crucial role in containing COVID-19 over the past year. In this study, we review the theoretical epidemiological modeling researches on COVID-19 and summarize the role of theoretical epidemiological models in the prevention and control of COVID-19, in order to provide reference for the combination of mathematical modeling and epidemic control.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 253-256, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391131

ABSTRACT

Las matemáticas en epidemiología y en general en las ciencias biológicas constituyen, además de una herramienta, una forma de pensar y estructurar descripciones, explicaciones y predicciones de procesos. Por ello, tanto en epidemiología como en otras áreas del conocimiento biológico, las matemáticas son utilizadas para modelar. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar como los modelos matemáticos se utilizan en la teoría epidemiológica. En este artículo nos centraremos en un modelo en particular, el modelo SIR, utilizado para describir la evolución de epidemias. Se presenta sus características fundamentales desde el punto de vista matemático y se discute el papel de los diferentes parámetros. Además, este modelo se aplica, a modo de ejemplo, a la evolución del Covid-19 en Chile.


Mathematics in epidemiology and in general in biological sciences constitute, in addition to a tool, a way of thinking and structuring descriptions, explanations and predictions. Thus, both in epidemiology and in other areas of biological knowledge, the mathematics is used for modeling. The objective of this article is to present how mathematical models are used in epidemiological theory. In this article will focus on a particular model, the SIR model, used to describe the evolution of epidemics. Its fundamental characteristics from the mathematical point of view are presented and the role of different parameters. In addition, this model is applied, by way of example, to the evolution of Covid-19 in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Models , Computer Simulation , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Models, Biological
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL