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Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Dirección de Salud Bucal; 1 ed; Mar. 2024. 52 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1537221


La presente publicación describe los criterios técnicos de referencia y contrarreferencia para la atención integral oportuna y de calidad de las personas con discapacidad., así como las actividades y procedimientos del personal que brinda atención estomatológica para disminuir el riesgo de complicaciones y aparición de nuevos casos por enfermedades estomatológicas

Primary Health Care , Rehabilitation , Tooth Diseases , Oral Health , Community Health Workers , Patient-Centered Care , Dental Devices, Home Care , Vulnerable Populations , Group Practice, Dental
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1551650


Background: Despite measures put in place to combat teenage pregnancy, the rate remains high. Community health workers (CHWs) are a cadre of health workers that can help put measures in place to reduce teenage pregnancy in the communities in which they live and work. Aim: This article aims to gain a deeper understanding of CHWs' perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy in the rural districts of Limpopo province. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study approach was employed to collect data from CHWs in two rural districts of Limpopo. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used to choose 81 CHWs. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were organised, and audio recorded to collect data from participants. The discussions were 2­3 h long and conducted in English, and data saturation was attained by the fifth FGDs. Results: An eight-step tech's content analysis approach was employed to deductively code, analyse and summarise data into themes. Three themes emerged: the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in rural villages, factors contributing to teenage pregnancy and challenges faced by CHWs when dealing with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: The study's findings revealed that CHWs face challenges in their communities when offering appropriate teen pregnancy services and CHWs believe that teen pregnancy numbers remain high. There is a significant barrier in combating teenage pregnancy; if contraceptives are not acceptable to the community, the only solution and option for combating teenage pregnancy is abstinence. Contribution: The CHWs presented their insights of teenage pregnancy in rural communities. The outcomes of this study could help clinical practise, schools, communities, youth-friendly services, policymakers and other non-governmental organisations reduce teenage pregnancy.

HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Community Health Workers , Pregnancy in Adolescence
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 36-45, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006814


Objectives@#Community health workers (CHWs) fill in the insufficiency of health professionals in low-income countries. The CHWs’ roles include health education of their constituents whose health they likewise take care. This study aimed to describe the concept and understanding of diabetes among CHWs in the Philippines.@*Methods@#Fifty female CHWs currently working in rural and urban areas participated in six focus group discussions with guidance from Kleinman’s eight questions. With the written informed consent of the participants, discussions were recorded and transcribed by the Research Assistant. A multi-disciplinary team manually analyzed the data. Disagreements were discussed among them and the physicians provided clinical analyses and explanations on the results. Quotations of an important point of view were also presented. Pseudonyms were utilized to uphold anonymity.@*Results@#CHWs were aged 32 to 72 years; older participants reside in rural areas. Majority were married, housekeepers, and high school graduates. Some CHWs and their family were suffering from diabetes or dyabetis, the disease of the rich according to them. Its causes were food and lifestyle, and believed to be hereditary. Complications lead to death. Amputation was feared the most. Diabetes is incurable. Persons with diabetes should take maintenance medicines, and seek physicians’ and family’s help. Together with the patient, the family must decide on its management. Balanced diet, healthy lifestyle, maintenance medicines, food supplements, and herbal plants were perceived treatments. The internist should lower blood sugar level as well as prolong life span. Proper diet and regular check-up prevent diabetes.@*Conclusions@#CHWs’ concept and understanding of diabetes reflect some of the biomedical causes, effects, treatment, and prevention of diabetes as well as its social determinants. The efficacy and safety of herbal plants in the treatment of diabetes, however, should be further studied. Training on diabetes care should be provided to address their fears of amputation, insulin injection, and complications.

Community Health Workers , Philippines
Rev Enferm UFPI ; 12(1): e2949, 2023-12-12.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1525454


Objetivo: Relatar a experiência de acadêmicos de enfermagem na realização de uma atividade de educação permanente para Agentes Comunitários de Saúde sobre os cuidados à puérpera e ao recém-nascido. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, tipo relato de experiência, desenvolvido em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família de Belém-PA, nos meses de fevereiro e março de 2022, envolvendo os acadêmicos de enfermagem, a enfermeira da unidade e 10 Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS). Para a construção e aplicação da atividade utilizou-se a metodologia da problematização através do Arco de Maguerez, representado em cinco etapas: observação da realidade, pontos-chave, teorização, hipóteses de solução e aplicação à realidade. Resultados: Os acadêmicos perceberam que os ACS demonstraram interesse nos assuntos abordados, e relacionaram os temas com as vivências na comunidade, bem como entenderam o papel fundamental que desempenham. Os assuntos observados maiores dúvidas e discussões foram: saúde mental da puérpera, cuidados com a higiene do recém-nascido e o calendário vacinal infantil. Conclusão: Através da experiência dos acadêmicos foi possível evidenciar que a educação permanente aos ACS sobre os cuidados da saúde da puérpera e do recém-nascidos é essencial para a qualidade do atendimento ofertado por eles à comunidade, contribuindo para uma assistência humanizada e individualizada. Descritores: Agentes Comunitários de Saúde; Recém-Nascido; Período Pós-Parto; Educação Continuada; Promoção da Saúde

Objective: To report Nursing students' experience in carrying out a permanent education activity for Community Health Agents about puerperal and newborn care.Methods: A descriptive study of the experience report type, developed in February and March 2022 at a Family Health Unit from Belém-PA, involving Nursing students, a nurse working in the unit and 10 Community HealthAgents (CHAs). For the construction and application of the activity, the problematization methodology was used through the Maguerez Arch, represented in five stages: observation of the reality; key points; theorization; solution hypotheses; and application to reality. Results: The students realized that the CHAs showed interest in the subject matters addressed and related the topics to their experiences in the community, as well as they understood the fundamental role they play. The subject matters observed with the main questions and discussions were as follows: puerperal women's mental health; hygiene care for the newborn; and the infant immunization schedule. Conclusion: Through the students' experience, it was possible to evidence that the permanent education offered to the CHAs about health care for puerperal women and newborns is essential for the quality of the service they offer to the community, contributing to humanized and individualized assistance. Descriptors: Community Health Agents; Infant, Newborn; Postpartum Period; Education, Continuing

Infant, Newborn , Community Health Workers , Postpartum Period , Education, Continuing , Health Promotion
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3765, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424037


Abstract Objective: to identify the vaccination and serological status against hepatitis B among community health workers; to vaccinate against hepatitis B virus and to evaluate the immune response of susceptible workers. Method: phase I, cross-sectional and descriptive study, among community health workers in a capital city of the Midwest region, through a self-administered questionnaire, checking of vaccination cards, and blood collection for testing of serological markers for hepatitis B. Phase II, cohort study carried out in vaccinated non-immune workers identified in phase I. They received one dose of vaccine (challenge dose) and serological testing. Results: a total of 109 workers participated in the study. Most had vaccination record (97; 89.0%) and vaccination completeness (75; 77.3%), while the isolated anti-HBs (Antibodies against hepatitis B virus) marker was detected in 78 (71.6%) workers. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus exposure was 8.2%. Of the ten non-immune vaccinated workers, after challenge dose, one remained susceptible. Conclusion: although most workers are vaccinated and show immunological response to hepatitis B, susceptibility after challenge dose was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to have a surveillance program of the vaccination situation and serological status for this virus, to promote these workers' safety.

Resumo Objetivo: identificar a situação vacinal e sorológica contra hepatite B entre agentes comunitários de saúde; vacinar contra o vírus da hepatite B e avaliar a resposta imunológica dos agentes susceptíveis. Método: fase I, estudo transversal e descritivo, entre agentes comunitários de saúde de uma capital da região Centro-oeste, por meio de questionário autoaplicável, conferência do cartão vacinal e coleta de sangue para testagem dos marcadores sorológicos para hepatite B. Fase II, estudo de coorte realizado em trabalhadores vacinados não imunes e identificados na fase I. Estes receberam uma dose da vacina (dose desafio) e teste sorológico. Resultados: participaram do estudo 109 agentes. A maioria tinha registro de vacinação (97; 89,0%) e completude vacinal (75; 77,3%), já o marcador anti-HBs (anticorpos contra o vírus da hepatite B) isolado foi detectado em 78 (71,6%) agentes. A prevalência de exposição ao vírus da hepatite B foi de 8,2%. Dos dez agentes vacinados não imunes, após a dose desafio, um permaneceu susceptível. Conclusão: apesar da maioria dos trabalhadores estarem vacinados e apresentarem resposta imunológica para hepatite B, a suscetibilidade após a dose desafio foi identificada. Portanto, é necessário que haja um programa de vigilância da situação vacinal e estado sorológico para este vírus, para promover a segurança destes trabalhadores.

Resumen Objetivo: identificar la situación de la vacunación y serología contra la hepatitis B entre agentes comunitarios de la salud, vacunar contra el virus de la hepatitis B y evaluar la respuesta inmunológica de los agentes susceptibles. Método: fase I, estudio transversal y descriptivo, entre agentes comunitarios de la salud de una capital de la región centro oeste, por medio de cuestionario autoadministrado, verificación del carné de vacunación y extracción de sangre para comprobar los marcadores serológicos para la hepatitis B. Fase II, estudio de cohorte realizado en trabajadores vacunados no inmunes e identificados en la Fase I; estos recibieron una dosis de la vacuna (dosis de desafío) y realizaron el test serológico. Resultados: participaron del estudio 109 agentes. La mayoría tenía registro de vacunación (97; 89,0%) y de cobertura de vacunación (75; 77,3%); el marcador anti-HBs (Anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis B) aislado fue detectado en 78 (71,6%) de los agentes. La prevalencia de exposición al virus de la hepatitis B fue de 8,2%. De los diez agentes vacunados no inmunes, después de la dosis desafío, uno permaneció susceptible. Conclusión: a pesar de que la mayoría de los trabajadores estaban vacunados y presentaron respuesta inmunológica para la hepatitis B, la susceptibilidad, después de la dosis desafío, fue identificada. Por tanto, es necesario que exista un programa de vigilancia de la situación de vacunación y estado serológico para este virus, para promover la seguridad de estos trabajadores.

Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Community Health Workers , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 13(1)fev., 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516893


INTRODUÇÃO: O Agente Comunitário em Saúde, em seu ambiente de trabalho, lida com vários desafios, tais como: as inúmeras tarefas, a exigência de produtividade, a falta de recursos, os conflitos interpessoais e as condições salariais inadequadas, implicando assim em sobrecarga física e mental, aspectos que podem repercutir na qualidade de vida e no aparecimento de distúrbios osteomusculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a Qualidade de Vida no Trabalho (QVT) e a presença dos sintomas osteomusculares dos Agente Comunitário de Saúde (ACS). MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com amostragem por conveniência, cujos participantes foram os ACS atuantes nas Unidades de Saúde da Família do Segundo Distrito Sanitário de Saúde em Maceió - Alagoas. Coletou-se os dados por meio dos seguintes instrumentos: questionário sociodemográficos; questionário de avaliação da qualidade de vida no trabalho (QWLQ-bref); e o questionário de sintomas osteomusculares (QNSO). RESULTADOS: Participaram 38 ACS, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (86,8%). Obtiveram um escore médio de QVT de 59,84, o que representa uma posição de satisfação. Já na análise por domínios, o pessoal, psicológico e físico também se encontram na faixa de satisfação, exceto o domínio profissional com escore de 53,44, classificado como neutro. Em relação aos sintomas osteomusculares, o pescoço (55,3%) e a coluna lombar (47,4%) foram as regiões mais acometidas nos últimos 12 meses. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo, sinalizam a necessidade de adoção de melhorias nas condições de trabalho, tanto no sentido de repensar as questões que repercutem na QVT quanto no manejo dos problemas musculoesqueléticos.

INTRODUCTION: The Community Health Agent, in their work environment, deals with several challenges, such as the numerous tasks, the demand for productivity, the lack of resources, interpersonal conflicts and inadequate salary conditions, thus implying physical and mental overload; aspects that can affect the quality of life and the onset of musculoskeletal disorders. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Quality of Life at Work (QWL) and the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in Community Health Agents (CHA). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, with convenience sampling, in which the participants were the CHA servers working in the Family Health Units of the Second Health Health District in Maceió - Alagoas. Data were collected using the following instruments: a sociodemographic questionnaire; a quality of work life assessment questionnaire (QWLQ-bref); and the musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire (QNSO). RESULTS: Thirty-eight CHAs participated, most of them female (86.8%). It was obtained an average QWL score of 59.84, which represents a satisfactory position. In the analysis by domains, the personal, psychological and physical are also in the range of satisfaction, except for the professional domain with a score of 53.44, classified as neutral. Regarding musculoskeletal symptoms, the neck (55.3%) and lumbar spine (47.4%) were the most affected regions in the last 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate the need to adopt improvements in working conditions, both in the sense of rethinking the issues that affect QWL, as well as in the management of musculoskeletal problems.

Musculoskeletal Diseases , Workplace , Community Health Workers
REME rev. min. enferm ; 27: 1505, jan.-2023. Tab.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1527171


Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade de atividade educativa on line sobre aleitamento materno (AM) para conhecimento cognitivo de agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS). Métodos: estudo quase-experimental, realizado com agentes comunitários de saúde. Aplicou-se, previamente, teste do conhecimento sobre aleitamento materno. Em seguida, os participantes foram submetidos à atividade educativa on-line teórica e prática. Posteriormente, foi aplicado o pós-teste. Resultados: a amostra foi constituída por 53 profissionais. A atividade se mostrou efetiva, pois foi capaz de melhorar o conhecimento cognitivo dos profissionais sobre o aleitamento materno. Houve estatística significativa nas variáveis sobre fisiologia (p<0,001) e benefícios da amamentação (p<0,003), posição para amamentar (p<0,002), intervalos entre as mamadas (p<0,001), intercorrências mamárias (p<0,001) e conservação do leite (p<0,005). Conclusão: a estratégia educativa on-line obteve efetividade na melhora do conhecimento cognitivo dos ACS sobre AM em todos os aspectos abordados. Destacam-se evidências estatísticas referentes à diferença entre o conhecimento cognitivo prévio e o conhecimento posterior à atividade educativa on-line nas variáveis sobre fisiologia e benefícios da amamentação, técnica de amamentação, intervalos entre as mamadas, intercorrências mamárias e conservação do leite.(AU)

Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of an online educational activity on breastfeeding (BF) for the cognitive knowledge of community health agents (CHAs). Methods: quasi-experimental study, carried out with community health agents. Previously, a knowledge test on breastfeeding was applied. Then, the participants were submitted to the theoretical and practical online educational activity. Subsequently, the post-test was applied. Results: the sample consisted of 53 professionals. The activity proved to be effective, as it was able to improve the professionals' cognitive knowledge about breastfeeding. There were significant statistics in the variables on physiology (p<0.001) and benefits of breastfeeding (p<0.003), breastfeeding position (p<0.002), intervals between feedings (p<0.001), breast complications (p<0.001) and conservation of milk (p<0.005). Conclusion: the online educational strategy was effective in improving the CHAs' cognitive knowledge about BF in all aspects addressed. Statistical evidence is highlighted regarding the difference between prior cognitive knowledge and knowledge after the online educational activity in the variables on physiology and benefits of breastfeeding, breastfeeding technique, intervals between feedings, breast complications and milk conservation.(AU)

Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia de una actividad educativa online sobre lactancia materna para el conocimiento cognitivo de los agentes de salud comunitarios. Métodos: estudio cuasi experimental, realizado con agentes de salud comunitarios. Previamente, se aplicó una prueba de conocimientos sobre lactancia materna, tras lo cual, los participantes fueron sometidos a una actividad educativa teórica y práctica en línea y, posteriormente, se aplicó una pos prueba. Resultados: la muestra estaba formada por 53 profesionales. La actividad demostró ser eficaz porque consiguió mejorar los conocimientos cognitivos de los profesionales sobre la lactancia materna. Hubo estadísticas significativas en las variables sobre fisiología (p<0,001) y beneficios de la lactancia (p<0,003), posición para amamantar (p<0,002), intervalos entre tomas (p<0,001), complicaciones mamarias (p<0,001) y conservación de la leche (p<0,005). Conclusiones: la estrategia educativa online fue eficaz para mejorar los conocimientos cognitivos de los TSC sobre LM en todos los aspectos abordados. Destacamos la evidencia estadística respecto a la diferencia entre los conocimientos cognitivos antes y después de la actividad educativa online en las variables sobre fisiología y beneficios de la lactancia materna, técnica de lactancia, intervalos entre tomas, complicaciones mamarias y conservación de la leche.(AU)

Humans , Health Education , Community Health Workers , Education, Distance/methods , Nursing Informatics/education , Residence Characteristics , Access to Information , Sociodemographic Factors
Trab. Educ. Saúde (Online) ; 21: e02163225, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509225


Resumo Na tentativa de criar estratégias próprias de mitigação à Covid-19, os sistemas de saúde municipais e estaduais se organizaram de forma independente, criando fluxos assistenciais próprios e, frequentemente, dando pouca ênfase ao trabalho realizado pela Atenção Primária à Saúde e pelo agente comunitário de saúde. Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar os planos de contingência disponíveis nos estados e capitais signatários do consórcio do Nordeste, sob as lentes do protagonismo da Atenção Primária à Saúde e da atuação do agente comunitário de saúde. Utilizou-se como fonte de dados 24 documentos públicos e de acesso livre, referentes ao ano de 2020, acessados entre os meses de fevereiro e abril de 2021. Esses dados foram discutidos com base em três categorias: fluxos assistenciais, assistência no primeiro nível de atenção e protagonismo dos agentes comunitários em saúde. Percebeu-se a priorização de serviços de alta complexidade e uma limitação importante nas ações da atenção primária. Destaca-se também a restrição do potencial da atuação do agente comunitário de saúde, profissional que, em grande parte dos planos analisados, teve sua atuação direcionada para a realização de atividades burocráticas, como a reorganização dos fluxos de trabalho, em detrimento das ações territoriais e de educação em saúde.

Abstract In an attempt to create own mitigation strategies for COVID-19, municipal and state health systems organized independently, creating their own care flows, and often placing little emphasis on the work done by Primary Health Care and the community health worker. The objective of this study is to analyze the contingency plans available in the states and capitals that are signatories to the Northeast consortium, under the objectives of the Primary Health Care and the action of the community health worker. Twenty-four public and free-access documents were used as data source, referring to the year 2020, accessed between February and April 2021. These data were discussed based on three categories: care flows, assistance at the first level of care and the role of community health workers. The prioritization of high complexity services and an important limitation in the actions of primary care were observed. It is also noteworthy the restriction of the potential of the community health worker, a professional who, in most of the plans analyzed, had its actions directed toward the accomplishment of bureaucratic activities, such as the reorganization of labor flows, to the detriment of territorial actions and health education.

Resumen En un intento de crear estrategias propias de mitigación para el Covid-19, los sistemas de salud municipales y estatales se organizaron de manera independiente, creando sus propios flujos de atención y, a menudo, poniendo poco énfasis en el trabajo realizado por la Atención Primaria de Salud y el agente de salud comunitario. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los planes de contingencia disponibles en los estados y capitales que son signatarios del consorcio Noreste, bajo los objetivos de la Atención Primaria de Salud y la acción del agente comunitario de salud. Se utilizaron como fuente de datos 24 documentos públicos y de libre acceso, referidos al año 2020, a los que se accedió entre febrero y abril de 2021. Estos datos se discutieron sobre la base de tres categorías: flujos de atención, asistencia en el primer nivel de atención y el papel de los agentes comunitarios de salud. Se observó la priorización de los servicios de alta complejidad y una importante limitación en las acciones de atención primaria. También cabe destacar la restricción del potencial del agente comunitario de salud, profesional que, en la mayoría de los planes analizados, tenía sus acciones dirigidas a la realización de actividades burocráticas, como la reorganización de los flujos de trabajo, en detrimento de las acciones territoriales y la educación en salud.

Humans , Primary Health Care , Regional Health Strategies , Community Health Workers , Contingency Plans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Brazil , Qualitative Research , Document Analysis , Government Publications as Topic
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 25: 75116, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1537465


Objetivos: identificar fatores associados à acidentes com material biológico e à percepção do risco biológico entre Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS). Métodos: estudo transversal analítico realizado com ACS, mediante aplicação de questionário e consulta de registros no cartão de vacinas. Regressão múltipla de Poisson com variância robusta foi realizada para analisar os fatores associados aos acidentes com material biológico e à percepção do risco biológico. Resultados: dos 207 participantes, 50,24% (IC 95% = 43,4 - 56,9) apresentou autorrelato de acidentes com material biológico, tendo como fatores associados possuir formação de nível superior [RP ajustada = 2,2 (IC 95% = 1,0 - 4,7)], ter outro vínculo empregatício [RP ajustada = 1,5 (IC 95% = 1,0 - 2,3)] e conhecimento quanto às vacinas necessárias ao ACS [RP ajustada = 0,7 (0,5 - 0,9)]. Constatou-se que 74,39% dos ACS tinham percepção de algum risco biológico, mesmo de forma limitada. Entre as variáveis investigadas, na análise ajustada, nenhuma mostrou associação com a percepção de risco biológico pelos ACS. Conclusão: a prevalência de acidentes com material biológico em ACS é elevada, sendo fatores associados possuir formação de nível superior, ter outro vínculo empregatício e apresentar conhecimento quanto as vacinas necessárias para a atividade laboral. Há limitada percepção de risco pela maioria dos ACS. Não foram encontrados fatores associados à esta variável.

Objectives: to identify factors associated with accidents involving biological material and the perception of biological risk among community health workers (CHWs). Methods: an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out with CHWs using a questionnaire and consultation of vaccination card records. Poisson multiple regression with robust variance was conducted to analyze the factors associated with accidents involving biological material and perception of biological risk. Results: of the 207 participants, 50.24% (95% CI = 43.4 - 56.9) self-reported accidents with biological material, and the associated factors were having a university degree [adjusted PR = 2.2 (95% CI = 1.0 - 4.7)], having another job [adjusted PR = 1.5 (95% CI = 1.0 - 2.3)] and knowledge of the vaccines needed by CHWs [adjusted PR = 0.7 (0.5 - 0.9)]. It was found that 74.39% of CHWs were aware of some biological risk, even to a limited extent. Among the variables investigated, in the adjusted analysis, none showed an association with the perception of biological risk by CHWs. Conclusion: the prevalence of accidents involving biological material among CHWs is high, and the associated factors are having a university degree, having another job, and having knowledge of the vaccines required for the job. Most CHWs have a limited perception of the risk. No factors were associated with this variable.

Objetivos: identificar los factores asociados a los accidentes con material biológico y la percepción del riesgo biológico entre agentes comunitarios de salud (ACS). Métodos: estudio transversal analítico realizado con los ACS mediante cuestionario y consulta de los registros de las cartillas de vacunación. Se realizó una regresión múltiple de Poisson con varianza robusta para analizar los factores asociados a los accidentes con material biológico y la percepción del riesgo biológico. Resultados: de los 207 participantes, el 50,24% (IC 95% = 43,4 - 56,9) declararon haber sufrido accidentes con material biológico, y los factores asociados fueron tener un título universitario [PR ajustado = 2,2 (IC 95% = 1,0 - 4,7)], tener otro trabajo [PR ajustado = 1,5 (IC 95% = 1,0 - 2,3)] y conocer las vacunas que necesitan los ACS [PR ajustado = 0,7 (0,5 - 0,9)]. Se observó que el 74,39% de los ACS conocían algún riesgo biológico, aunque fuera de forma limitada. De las variables investigadas en el análisis ajustado, ninguna mostró una asociación con la percepción del riesgo biológico por parte de los ACS. Conclusión: la prevalencia de accidentes con material biológico entre los ACS es alta, y los factores asociados son tener un título universitario, tener otro trabajo y tener conocimientos sobre las vacunas necesarias para el trabajo. La mayoría de los ACS tienen una percepción limitada del riesgo. No se encontraron factores asociados a esta variable.

Humans , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Community Health Workers , Infection Control , Containment of Biohazards , Information Dissemination
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 844-851, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512121


Lifestyle modification in relation to disease prevention and outcome has recently received increasing awareness around the world and in Nigeria. Poor lifestyle choices make people susceptible to many chronic illnesses including thirteen cancers. Medical doctors are gate keepers and educators of health.Objectives:The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge of healthy living and preventive health among doctors in Port-Harcourt and ascertain the practices and to investigate the barriers and facilitators of healthy living among doctors in Port-Harcourt.Methods: It was a comparative cross-sectional study with purposive sampling method. The tool used was an online questionnaire. MS Excel and SPSS was used for data analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from UPTH ethical committee. Results: A total of 201 doctors participated. With 54.7% being females and 53.2% within the 30-40 years age group. Resident doctors accounted for 42.8%. 92% received some form of lifestyle education; seminars (48.1%), CME's (47.0%), and social media (44.9%) were the top three. Just 15.2% knew what the daily portion of fruit was and 82.6% knew the cut off for obesity. 50% were aware of the recommended exercise frequency. 60% concluded that adults should sleep for 7-9 hours, however, 61.2% slept for 4-6 hours a day. 84.6% of respondents did not have a dedicated physician.Conclusion: There is a knowledge gap among doctors which impacts everyday lifestyle choices regarding, diet, exercise and rest. More doctors need their own personal physicians and hospital management should establish strong lifestyle policies.

Humans , Healthy Lifestyle , Life Style , Preventive Health Services , Preventive Medicine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community Health Workers
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 38(3): 48-53, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1516389


Objectif : le dépistage précoce, stratégie ayant amélioré la survie des drépanocytaires, n'est pas pratiquée au Burkina Faso où la maladie est responsable d'une mortalité précoce importante. L'objectif de l'étude était d'analyser la relation entre ce constat et les connaissances et attitudes de femmes gestantes porteuses d'une hémoglobinopathie et des agents de santé. Matériels & Méthodes : l'étude était transversale et conduite dans trois districts sanitaires de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso, du 17 juin au 31 juillet 2019. Les données étaient recueillies à l'aide d'un guide d'entretien individuel structuré. Résultats : 200 femmes enceintes porteuses d'une hémoglobinopathie et 50 agents de santé en activité avaient participé à l'étude. La majorité des femmes enquêtées définissait la drépanocytose comme une maladie des os, ne connaissaient pas son mode de transmission, ni le type d'hémoglobine de leur(s) enfant(s) ou n'avaient jamais entendu parler de dépistage néonatal de la drépanocytose. Les agents de santé avaient pour 16 à 87%, des connaissances limitées sur la drépanocytose, 30% seulement proposaient un dépistage néonatal aux femmes enceintes porteuses d'une hémoglobinopathie. Conclusion: l'information de la population et la formation des agents de santé sur la drépanocytose, soutenues par l'accès aux tests de dépistage améliorerait le pronostic de la drépanocytose au Burkina Faso

Objective: Early detection of sickle cell disease significantly reduces sickle cell mortality, but it is not practiced in Burkina Faso where the disease is responsible for significant early mortality. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between this finding and the knowledge and attitudes of pregnant women with hemoglobinopathy and health workers. Materials and Methods: the study was cross-sectional and conducted in three health districts of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from June 17 to July 31, 2019. Data were collected using a structured individual interview guide. Results: 200 pregnant women with hemoglobinopathy and 50 active health workers had participated in the study. Most women defined sickle cell disease as a bone disease, did not know its transmission mode or the hemoglobin type of their child (ren); 95,4% had never heard of neonatal screening for sickle cell disease. Health workers had limited knowledge of sickle cell disease (16-87%), and only 30% offered neonatal screening to pregnant women with hemoglobinopathy. Conclusion: the awareness of the population and training health workers on sickle cell disease, supported by a policy of good access to screening tests, would improve the prognosis of sickle cell disease in Burkina Faso.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Community Health Workers , Burkina Faso
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 819-827, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1519000


Background: Nigeria has one of the highest rates of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Both the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) and cervical screening are effective prevention strategies against both HPV infection and cervical cancer. Lack of awareness, limited knowledge, limited decision-making agency, lack of spousal support and stigma are barriers to uptake of these preventive measures. Cervical cancer is a deadly disease claiming the lives of many women in developing countries due to late presentation which might be influenced by a lack of knowledge of the disease and its prevention. Method: This descriptive study examined the knowledge assessment of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age (15-49), about cervical cancer, its prevention, and their utilization of Pap smear screening; using a convenience sample of 426 women in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Women voluntarily completed a structured questionnaire. Result: Results showed that women who participated in the study were aware of cervical cancer (77%; n=328) but many (62.9%; n= 268) were unaware of Pap smears as the screening tests for cervical cancer. Although 41.3% (n=176) were knowledgeable about cervical cancer, risk factors and prevention, only 9.4% (n=40) had Pap smear tests done. Conclusion: Health care professionals, need to intensify efforts to increase awareness about cervical cancer screening, and encourage women through the different clinics to use these services. The benefits of screening and early diagnosis of cervical cancer should be emphasized to enhance the utilization of cervical cancer screening services.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Community Health Workers
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1415943


Background: Initiating newly diagnosed people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) onto antiretroviral treatment (ART) and retaining patients on treatment are vital to South Africa's ART programme. In 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its accompanying containment (lockdown) measures presented unprecedented challenges to achieving these objectives. Aim: This study describes the impact of COVID-19 and related restrictions on district-level numbers of newly diagnosed people living with HIV and defaulting ART patients. Setting: Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM) in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Methods: Mixed-methods approach: Monthly aggregated electronic patient data (newly initiated and restarted on ART) from 113 public healthcare (PHC) facilities were analysed (December 2019 to November 2020) across varying levels of COVID-19 lockdown regulation periods; telephonic in-depth interviews at 10 rural BCMM PHC facilities were conducted with facility staff, community health workers (CHWs) and intervention personnel. Results: The number of newly initiated ART patients decreased dramatically compared with pre-COVID-19 levels. The overall number of restarted ART patients increased in response to fears of co-infection with COVID-19. Facility-level communications and community outreach promoting HIV testing and treatment were disrupted. Novel approaches to providing services to ART patients were developed. Conclusion: Programmes for identifying undiagnosed people living with HIV and services aimed at retaining ART patients in care were profoundly impacted by COVID-19. The value of CHWs was highlighted, as were communication innovations. Contribution: This study describes the impact of COVID-19 and related regulations on HIV testing, ART initiation and adherence to treatment in a District of the Eastern Cape of South Africa.

Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , HIV Infections , Community Health Workers , Coinfection , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis
Ethiop. j. health sci ; 33(1): 3-14, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1426100


BACKGROUND: The Health Extension Program (HEP) was introduced in 2003 to extend primary health care services by institutionalizing the former volunteer-based village health services.However, this program is not comprehensively evaluated.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 2019 comprehensive national assessment of HEP involved (1) assessment through quantitative and qualitative primary data, (2) a thorough systematic review of the HEP literature, and (3) a synthesis of evidence from the two sources. The assessment included household survey(n=7122), a survey of health extension workers (HEWs) (n=584)_, and an assessment of health posts (HPs)(n=343) and their supervising health centers (HCs)(n=179)from 62 randomly selected woredas. As part of the comprehensive assessment.OUTPUT AND RESULTS: The outputs were (a) full and abridged reports, (b) 40 posters, (c) seven published, three under review scientific papers and (d) seven papers in this special issue. During the one-year period preceding the study, 54.8% of women, 32.1% of men, and 21.9% of female youths had at least a one-time interaction with HEWs. HPs and HEWs were universally available. There were critical gaps in the skills and motivation of HEWs and fulfillment of HP standards: 57.3% of HEWs were certified, average satisfaction score of HEWs was 48.6%, and 5.4% of HPs fulfilled equipment standards. CONCLUSIONS: The findings informed policy and program decisions of the Ministry of Health, including the design of the HEP Optimization Roadmap 2020­2035 and the development Health Sector Transformation Plan II. It is also shared with global community through published papers

Health Services Coverage , Community Health Workers , Primary Health Care , Clinical Protocols
Ethiop. j. health sci ; 33(1): 49-62, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1426226


BACKGROUND: Training and work experience are critical inputs for delivering quality health services. However, no nationwide assessment has been conducted on the status of training and the competency of Health Extension Workers (HEWs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess HEWs' pre service training status and perceived competency in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was conducted in all regions and all HEWs training institutions in Ethiopia. We used cross sectional study design with a mixed method approach that included 585 HEWs, 1,245 HEW trainees, 192 instructors, and 43 key informants. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse quantitative and quantitative data respectively. RESULT: Twenty-six percent of the HEWs said that they were competent to deliver all the HEP activities, and 73% of the HEWs said that they could confidently deliver 75% of the HEP activities. Receiving in-service training and having level III/IV qualifications are positively associated with the competency of HEWs. Similarly, HEP trainees perceived themselves as highly competent in executing their professional work, except in using computer and mobile health technology. Both instructors and trainees rated the quality of the curriculum and course materials positively. However, basic services and facilities in most training institutions were perceived to be inadequate. Additionally, individual learning, problem-solving, case-analysis, and assessment methods such as project work and portfolios were rarely practiced. CONCLUSIONS: Although the perceived competence of HEW trainees is high, the HEWs' training is not provided as per the curriculum because of limited resources. All the necessary resources should be made available to produce competent HEWs

Humans , Primary Health Care , Community Health Workers , Health Services Coverage , Developing Countries
Pan Afr. med. j ; 45(NA): NA-NA, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1433880


Introduction: Community Health Workers (CHW) are a critical resource for outbreak preparedness and response. However, CHWs´ ability to respond to outbreaks depends on their accurate knowledge of the disease and proper adoption of disease prevention practices. We explored knowledge and practices related to outbreaks in general, and COVID-19 among CHWs in Rwanda. Methods: this cross-sectional multimethod study used stratified simple random sampling to recruit three cadres of CHWs (agents de santé maternelle, female Binomes, and male Binomes ) from three rural Rwandan districts. We used telephone-based data collection to administer quantitative surveys (N=292) and qualitative interviews (N=24) in September 2020. We calculated descriptive statistics and conducted thematic analysis of qualitative data. We assessed for associations between general outbreak-related knowledge and receipt of training using Chi-square tests and between COVID-19 related knowledge and CHW characteristics and adoption of prevention methods using linear regression models. Results: only 56.2% of CHWs had received training on any health topic in 12 months prior to COVID-19 pandemic and only 19.2% had specifically received training on outbreak preparedness. Almost all CHWs reported preventing COVID-19 by wearing facemasks (98%), washing hands (95%), and social distancing in crowds (89%) with fewer reporting staying at home (50%), sneezing or coughing into an elbow (38%) or using hand sanitizer (18%). Almost all CHWs in our study knew that COVID-19 transmit through respiratory droplets (98%) and by infected surfaces (98%) and that asymptomatic spread is possible (91%). However, fewer than half of community health workers correctly affirmed that children were at low risk of becoming severely ill (48%) and only 32% correctly rejected the misconception that everyone with COVID-19 would become severely ill. There was no association between COVID-19-related knowledge and adoption of COVID-19 preventative practices. Qualitative findings suggested that while CHWs possessed lots of correct information about COVID-19 and reported good adherence to COVID-19 prevention practices, they also commonly held misconceptions that over-exaggerated the dangers of COVID-19. Conclusion: gaps in knowledge, training, and access to information point to a need for additional investment in supervision and credible informational systems to support CHWs.

Linear Models , Community Health Workers , Knowledge , Hand Sanitizers , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks
Bull. W.H.O. (Online) ; 101(6): 431-436, 2023. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1436837


Problem In 2021, Central African Republic was facing multiple challenges in vaccinating its population against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including inadequate infrastructure and funding, a shortage of health workers and vaccine hesitancy among the population. Approach To increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage, the health ministry used three main approaches: (i) task shifting to train and equip existing community health workers (CHWs) to deliver COVID-19 vaccination; (ii) evidence gathering to understand people's reluctance to be vaccinated; and (iii) bundling of COVID-19 vaccination with the polio vaccination programme. Local setting Central African Republic is a fragile country with almost two thirds of its population in need of humanitarian assistance. Despite conducting two major COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, by January 2022 only 9% (503 000 people) of the 5 570 659 general population were fully vaccinated. Relevant changes In the 6 months from February to July 2022, Central African Republic tripled its coverage of COVID-19 vaccination to 29% (1 615 492 out of 5 570 659 people) by August 2022. The integrated polio­COVID-19 campaign enabled an additional 136 040 and 218 978 people to be vaccinated in the first and second rounds respectively, at no extra cost. Evidence obtained through surveys and focus group discussions enabled the health ministry to develop communication strategies to dispel vaccine hesitancy and misconceptions. Lessons learnt Task shifting COVID-19 vaccination to CHWs can be an efficient solution for rapid scaling-up of vaccination campaigns. Building trust with the community is also important for addressing complex health issues such as vaccine hesitancy. Collaborative efforts are necessary to provide access to COVID-19 vaccines for high-risk and vulnerable populations.

Humans , Male , Female , Community Health Workers , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination Hesitancy , Poliomyelitis , Immunization Programs , National Health Programs
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies ; : 41-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003679


Objective@#To determine the level of knowledge and factors affecting knowledge and satisfaction with diabetes care among persons with diabetes at urban health centre (UHC) and community health worker (CHW)-led outreach clinics (ORC) in South India.@*Methodology@#A cross-sectional study was carried out using a structured questionnaire. One hundred patients at the UHC and 200 patients at the ORC were included.@*Results@#Patients with DM of more than eight years, with co-morbidities and maintained on insulin had good knowledge at the UHC. At the ORC, participants who received education beyond the primary level and belonging to non - Hindu religion had higher knowledge. Patients at the ORC experienced better satisfaction in terms of waiting time for appointments, consultation, registration system and counselling. At the UHC, those who received primary education or those with lower educational attainment had better satisfaction. Overall, knowledge (p=0.03) and satisfaction (p=0.00001) of diabetes care was better at the ORC than at the UHC.@*Conclusions@#Our study found better knowledge and satisfaction with diabetes care at the ORC than at the UHC. Whether or not the difference can be attributed to CHW-based clinics in the community needs to be further elucidated.

Community Health Workers , Primary Health Care , Knowledge , Personal Satisfaction
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 12-17, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003628


Objective@#The primary objective of this study was to explore the acceptability of task shifting to volunteer barangay health workers (BHWs) in the implementation of community-based Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) in the Philippines.@*Methods@#This study employed a descriptive qualitative study design. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with twelve stakeholders. The study was conducted in the urban city of Marikina which has a high prevalence of diabetes, and high death rates for diabetes and cerebrovascular disease relative to the regional and national rates. A purposive sampling technique was used in selecting participants.@*Results@#Task shifting Diabetes Self-Management Education to BHWs is generally acceptable to the participants. Expanding the roles of BHWs should be supported by adequate training, compensation, supervision, and financial and non-financial incentives. Ensuring adequate support and resources to execute BHWs’ duties and responsibilities as volunteer health workers can promote the effective implementation of task shifting DSME in primary care.@*Conclusion@#Findings from this study provide preliminary evidence of the acceptability of task shifting to BHWs in the management of diabetes mellitus. The study highlights the importance of institutionalizing task shifting in the health system to promote acceptance and sustainability.

Community Health Workers , Diabetes Mellitus , Primary Health Care
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 28(12): 3543-3552, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, SES-SP, SESSP-ISPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1551453


O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o papel dos/as agentes comunitários de saúde na implementação das ações de atenção primaria na pandemia da COVID-19 no município de Peruíbe, São Paulo. Trata-se de um estudo de caso qualitativo, orientado pela perspectiva teórica proposta por Lipsky, segundo a qual os burocratas de nível de rua (BNR) têm um papel central na implementação das políticas públicas. A ferramenta de pesquisa foi a entrevista semiestruturada, realizada com quatro BNR (dois agentes comunitários de saúde, um médico e uma enfermeira) e quatro gestores da saúde local. A análise dos discursos possibilitou identificar três dimensões da ação municipal no combate à crise sanitária: a organização do sistema de saúde; as atividades das/dos ACS; e a retomada da rotina da APS. Concluímos que os agentes comunitários tiveram um papel ativo nas diversas ações desenvolvidas localmente para o enfrentamento da COVID-19.

Primary Health Care , Community Health Workers , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Workforce