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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e227017, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393192

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic, fulminant deep fungal infection started emerging in India, known as Mucormycosis. This type of mucormycosis was termed as COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM). These patients had previous history of COVID-19 infection. Such cases were mainly reported in immunocompromised patients such as patients with poorly controlled diabetes and chronic renal diseases etc. Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis is an aggressive, fulminant, fatal deep fungal infection of head and neck region. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease; hence we present case series of rhinomaxillary mucormycosis to create awareness amongst dental surgeons


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Signs and Symptoms , Comorbidity , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mycoses/diagnosis
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411467

ABSTRACT

Objective: to describe risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: this is a retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at describing the epidemiological profile of laboratory and clinical diagnosis of unvaccinated patients seen at a basic health unit in Araçatuba ­ SP, infected with SARS-CoV-2 between June 2020 and January 2021.The results were analyzed through inferential and descriptive statistics. Additionally, Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used (p<0.05). Results: of 313 patients, 128 were positive for COVID-19, with 68.75% diagnosed by RT-PCR and the others by immunochromatography. Women were 51.56% of those infected with adults corresponding to the main age group (76.56%), and 57% of patients had only a basic educational level concluded. A total of 88.26% of the patients progressed to cure without complications; eight patients died, most of whom were men and elderly. Of the variables analyzed for positive/negative outcomes, only "basic educational level" was significant for a positive result(p=0.0019). Conclusion: the deaths of infected patients may be associated with the existence of at least one comorbidity and advanced age of men.


Objetivo: descrever os fatores de risco associados com a infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo descritivo retrospectivo e transversal, voltado a descrever o perfil epidemiológico de diagnóstico laboratorial e clínico, de pacientes não vacinados, atendidos em uma unidade básica de saúde de Araçatuba-SP, infectados por SARS-CoV-2, no período entre junho de 2020 e janeiro de 2021. Os resultados foram analisados por estatística inferencial e descritiva. Adicionalmente, foram aplicados os testes de Qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher (p<0.05). Resultados: dos 313 pacientes, 128 apresentaram resultado positivo para COVID-19, com 68,75% diagnosticados por RT-PCR e o restante por imunocromatografia. Mulheres foram 51,56% dos infectados, com adultos correspondendo à principal faixa etária (76,56%), 57% dos pacientes apresentavam apenas o nível educacional básico concluído. O quadro de 88.26%dos pacientes evoluiu para cura sem complicações;8 pacientes foram a óbito, sendo, em sua maioria, homens e idosos. Das variáveis analisadas para grau de dependência de resultado positivo/negativo, apenas "nível escolar básico" apresentou resultado significante para resultado positivo (p=0.0019). Conclusão: os óbitos dos pacientes infectados podem ser associados à existência de, pelo menos, uma comorbidade e à idade avançada de homens.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Clinical Diagnosis , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 315-327, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399066

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os desfechos clínicos dos pacientes em suporte ventilatório invasivo por período curto e prolongado e correlacionar funcionalidade e tempo de ventilação mecânica (VM). Estudo documental retrospectivo, realizado na UTI neurocirúrgica de um hospital escola. Dos prontuários clínicos foram coletados: idade, sexo, hipótese diagnóstica de internação, tempo de internação e de VM em dias, o desfecho sucesso ou falha da extubação e o nível de funcionalidade. Os prontuários foram divididos em grupo um (GI): pacientes em VM por até três dias e grupo dois (GII): pacientes em VM por mais de três dias. Foram analisados 210 prontuários, 73% dos pacientes permaneceram menos de três dias em VM. A idade média de GI foi 51,8±15,5 anos e GII 48,7±16,3 anos (p=0,20), prevalência do sexo masculino em GI (59%) e GII (68%). O acidente vascular cerebral foi o diagnóstico mais prevalente no GI (18%) e o tumor cerebral no GII (21%) e hipertensão arterial, a comorbidade mais prevalente em GI (28%) e GII (25%). O GII permaneceu maior tempo (p<0,0001) em VM e internação na UTI que o GI e percentual de sucesso no desmame/extubação menor (p=0,01) que o GI. Não houve correlação significativa entre funcionalidade e tempo de VM em GI e GII (p>0,05). Os pacientes em suporte ventilatório invasivo por período prolongado evoluíram com maior permanência em VM, maior tempo de internação na UTI e menor taxa de sucesso no desmame/extubação. O tempo de permanência em suporte ventilatório invasivo não interferiu na funcionalidade desses pacientes.


The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients on short- and long-term invasive ventilatory support and to correlate functionality and duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Retrospective documental study, carried out in the neurosurgical ICU of a teaching hospital. The following were collected from the clinical records: age, gender, diagnostic hypothesis of hospitalization, length of hospital stay and MV in days, the outcome of success or failure of extubation and the level of functionality. The medical records were divided into group one (GI): patients on MV for up to three days and group two (GII): patients on MV for more than three days. A total of 210 medical records were analyzed, 73% of the patients remained on MV for less than three days. The mean age of GI was 51.8±15.5 years and GII 48.7±16.3 years (p=0.20), male prevalence in GI (59%) and GII (68%). Stroke was the most prevalent diagnosis in GI (18%) and brain tumor in GII (21%) and hypertension was the most prevalent comorbidity in GI (28%) and GII (25%). GII remained longer (p<0.0001) in MV and ICU admission than GI and the percentage of success in weaning/extubation was lower (p=0.01) than GI. There was no significant correlation between functionality and time on MV in GI and GII (p>0.05). Patients on invasive ventilatory support for a long period evolved with longer MV stays, longer ICU stays and lower weaning/extubation success rates. The length of stay on invasive ventilatory support did not interfere with the functionality of these patients.


El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los resultados clínicos de los pacientes con soporte ventilatorio invasivo a corto y largo plazo y correlacionar la funcionalidad y el tiempo de ventilación mecánica (VM). Se trata de un estudio documental retrospectivo, realizado en la UCI neuroquirúrgica de un hospital universitario. Se recogieron los siguientes datos de las historias clínicas: edad, sexo, hipótesis diagnóstica, duración de la estancia y tiempo de VM en días, el resultado éxito o fracaso de la extubación y el nivel de funcionalidad. Las historias clínicas se dividieron en el grupo uno (GI): pacientes bajo VM hasta tres días y el grupo dos (GII): pacientes bajo VM durante más de tres días. Se analizaron 210 historias clínicas, el 73% de los pacientes permanecieron menos de tres días con VM. La edad media de GI fue de 51,8±15,5 años y la de GII de 48,7±16,3 años (p=0,20), con prevalencia masculina en GI (59%) y GII (68%). El ictus fue el diagnóstico más prevalente en GI (18%) y el tumor cerebral en GII (21%) y la hipertensión, la comorbilidad más prevalente en GI (28%) y GII (25%). El GII permaneció más tiempo (p<0,0001) en la VM y la estancia en la UCI que el GI y el porcentaje de éxito en el destete/extubación fue menor (p=0,01) que el GI. No hubo correlación significativa entre la funcionalidad y el tiempo de VM en GI y GII (p>0,05). Los pacientes con soporte ventilatorio invasivo a largo plazo evolucionaron con una mayor estancia en la VM, una mayor estancia en la UCI y una menor tasa de éxito de destete/extubación. La duración de la estancia con soporte ventilatorio invasivo no interfirió en la funcionalidad de estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Residence Time , Interactive Ventilatory Support/nursing , Interactive Ventilatory Support/instrumentation , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Ventilator Weaning/instrumentation , Comorbidity , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapy Modalities/nursing , Stroke/complications , Airway Extubation/instrumentation , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Teaching , Hypertension/complications
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(2): 155-160, out.2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399774

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a desnutrição representa um problema clínico-nutricional frequente em pacientes hospitalizados, sendo que a detecção precoce do risco nutricional torna-se fundamental, pois possibilita à equipe multidisciplinar o início imediato de uma conduta dietética adequada, minimizando o sinergismo entre a desnutrição e os demais fatores clínicos. Objetivo: determinar o risco nutricional, associando com o estado nutricional, estilo de vida e variáveis clínicas de hospitalização de pacientes internados pelo SUS, comparando tais condições entre os sexos. Metodologia: trata-se de estudo transversal. Para avaliação do risco nutricional dos pacientes hospitalizados foi utilizado o protocolo de triagem nutricional Nutricional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, além disso foram coletados dados antropométricos, clínicos, sociodemográficos e dietéticos para comparação com o risco nutricional. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 100 pacientes, sendo 50% adultos e 50% idosos, com média de idade de 56,11±19 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (51%). O risco nutricional esteve presente em 34% dos pacientes avaliados, sendo 58,8% no sexo feminino e 41,2% no sexo masculino. Não houve diferença das demais variáveis quando comparadas entre os sexos (p>0,05). A maior prevalência de risco observada foi em idosos (27%). Conclusão: o risco nutricional obteve maior prevalência nos pacientes idosos, porém não houve diferença entre os sexos. Sabe-se que a presença de comorbidades e uma inadequada aceitação da dieta por parte dos mesmos pode levar a uma piora significativa do estado nutricional.


Malnutrition is a frequent clinical and nutritional problem in hospitalized patients, and early detection of nutritional risk is essential, as it allows the multidisciplinary team to immediately start an adequate dietary approach, minimizing the synergism between malnutrition and other clinical factors. Objective: to determine the nutritional risk, associating it with the nutritional status, lifestyle and clinical variables of hospitalization of patients hospitalized by the SUS, comparing such conditions between the sexes. Methodology: this are a cross-sectional study. To assess the nutritional risk of hospitalized patients, the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 protocol was used. In addition, anthropometric, clinical, sociodemographic and dietary data were collected for comparison with nutritional risk. Results: the sample consisted of 100 patients, 50% adults and 50% elderly, with a mean age of 56.11±19 years, the majority being male (51%). Nutritional risk was present in 34% of the patients evaluated, being 58.8% female and 41.2% male. There was no difference in the other variables when compared between the sexes (p>0.05). The highest prevalence of risk observed was in the elderly (27%). Conclusion: nutritional risk was more prevalent in elderly patients, but there was no difference between the sexes. It is known that the presence of comorbidities and an inadequate acceptance of the diet by them can lead to a significant worsening of the nutritional status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Weight Loss , Malnutrition , Eating , Nutrology , Hospitalization , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Medisan ; 26(4)jul.-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405822

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de páncreas constituye una de las neoplasias de peor pronóstico debido a su diagnóstico tardío. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con cáncer de páncreas según variables clinicoepidemiológicas y exámenes complementarios. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de 70 pacientes con cáncer de páncreas, egresados del Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba durante el periodo 2016-2020. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, sexo, factores de riesgo, enfermedades asociadas, manifestaciones clínicas y exámenes complementarios. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino ( 54,2 %), las edades comprendidas de entre 51- 70 años, la ingestión de comidas grasas y los hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico como factores de riesgo; el alcoholismo crónico, la diabetes mellitus y la hipertensión arterial como enfermedades asociadas más comunes, así como el síndrome general, la ictericia y la coluria entre las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes. Por su parte, según los estudios imagenológicos, la mayoría de los afectados se diagnosticaron mediante tomografía computarizada y ecografía abdominal (94,3 y 70,0 %, respectivamente). Conclusiones: La tomografía computarizada multicorte es la técnica de imagen de elección recomendada por las guías de consenso internacional. Si bien el informe radiográfico es clave para la toma de decisiones posteriores, existen circunstancias del paciente que pueden afectarlas, tales como edad, factores de riesgo, manifestaciones clínicas y comorbilidad, entre otras.


Introduction: The pancreas cancer constitutes one of the neoplasms with worse prognosis due to its late diagnosis. Objective: To characterize patients with pancreas cancer according to clinical epidemiological variables and complementary exams. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 70 patients with pancreas cancer was carried out, who were discharged from the General Surgery Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during 2016-2020. The variables studied were: age, sex, risk factors, associated diseases, signs and symptoms and complementary exams. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (54.2 %), the 51-70 age group, the ingestion of fatty foods and nicotine addiction and alcoholism as risk factors, the chronic alcoholism, diabetes mellitus and hypertension as more common associated diseases, as well as the general syndrome, jaundice and coluria among the most frequent signs and symptoms. On the other hand, according to the imaging studies, most of those affected were diagnosed by means of computerized axial tomography and abdominal echography (94.3 and 70.0 %, respectively). Conclusions: The multiscan computerized axial tomography is the image technique of election recommended by the guides of international consent. The radiographic report is the key for later decisions making but there are circumstances of the patient that can affect them, such as age, risk factors, signs and symptoms and comorbidity, among others.


Subject(s)
Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Comorbidity
6.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e4415, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409479

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La Diabetes Mellitus es una enfermedad frecuente, de enorme impacto sanitario a nivel mundial. El envejecimiento poblacional constituye uno de los principales problemas de salud pública en el mundo y en Cuba, siendo un reto para los tiempos actuales. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los gerontes, diabéticos tipo 2, de Punta Brava, según algunas variables clínicas epidemiológicas, 2020. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, de base comunitaria, observacional, con los pacientes adultos mayores, con diagnóstico de DM2, según variables cclínicas de interés, en la comunidad de Punta Brava, año 2020. Resultados: Hubo predominio del sexo masculino en cuanto al peso (45,4 %), estado marital con pareja (68,4 %), color de la piel blanco (47,2 %), nivel escolar primaria (32,7 %) y jubilados (60,1 %). Las féminas predominaron en los factores de riesgo dislipidemias, sedentarismo, obesidad, alcoholismo y hábito de fumar, así como en comorbilidades asociadas como la hipertensión arterial (71,0 %) y la cardiopatía isquémica (50,7 %). Conclusiones: La obesidad es un factor de riesgo de mucha importancia, que predispone a complicaciones vasculares crónicas en esta enfermedad. El hábito de fumar y el alcoholismo son adicciones negativas en la aparición de complicaciones cardiovasculares.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a frequent disease of enormous health impact at a global scale. Population aging is one of the main public health problems both globally and in Cuba, being a challenge of the current times. Objective: To characterize older adults with type 2 diabetes from Punta Brava Community according to some clinical and epidemiological variables, 2020. Material and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional, observational study of older adults with the diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to variables of interest was conducted in Punta Brava Community in 2020. Results: There was prevalence of males in terms of weight (45,4 %), marital status, with partners (68,4 %), white skin (47,2 %), elementary school level (32,7 %), and retired people (60,1 %). Females prevailed in terms of risk factors, dyslipidemias, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, alcoholism, and smoking habit, as well as other comorbidities associated with arterial hypertension (71,0 %) and ischemic heart disease (50,7 %). Conclusions: Obesity is a very important risk factor which predisposes to chronic vascular complications of this disease. The smoking habit and alcoholism are negative addictions for the occurrence of cardiovascular complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Comorbidity , Residence Characteristics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Alcoholism
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 146-151, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394414

ABSTRACT

Objective: Colonoscopy is increasingly performed in octogenarians for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), but its benefits may be outweighed by its risks. The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors for CRC in octogenarians presenting for colonoscopy to help stratify the need for this procedure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 434 patients aged ≥ 80 years referred for a colonoscopy between January 2018 and December 2019. Comparisons were made between those with and without CRC and advanced adenoma (AA). The primary endpoint was to identify the clinical variables predictive of CRC and AA, and the secondary endpoints were complications and death 30 days after the procedure. Results: Colonoscopy was performed in 434 octogenarians, predominantly for symptoms, with CRC in 65 (15.0%) patients. Iron deficiency was associated with a higher risk of having CRC identified on colonoscopy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.33; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.36-4.00), but not symptoms such as bleeding, weight loss, or diarrhea. A colonoscopy in the last 10 years was protective, with a lower risk of CRC (OR: 0.45; 95% CI = 0.22-0.93). Patients with both normal iron stores and a colonoscopy within 10 years had a 92.5% chance of not having CRC. No variables were predictive of AA. Patients with complications, including death, were older and more likely to have underlying cardiorespiratory disease. Conclusion: Iron status and colonoscopy within 10 years can be used to predict the risk of CRC in octogenarians. Those with low predicted risk, especially if older and with cardiorespiratory disease, should be considered for non-invasive tests, such as computed tomography (CT) colonography, over colonoscopy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/adverse effects , Octogenarians , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-19, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1370817

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A avaliação do sintoma de fadiga em pessoas com doença renal crônica tem sido um desafio para enfermagem por tratar-se de um sintoma subjetivo e associado a outras comorbidades. Objetivo: Conhecer as estratégias de avaliação do sintoma de fadiga em pessoas com doença renal crônica. Método: Estudo de revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em três bases de dados (PubMed/MEDLINE, BIREME e LILACS), utilizando os descritores "Renal Insufficiency, Chronic", "Fatigue" e foram verificados os níveis de evidência dos estudos. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se um instrumento de avaliação dos itens e análise descritiva. Resultados: Atenderam aos critérios de inclusão 36 estudos que avaliaram a prevalência de fadiga em 7.587 pessoas com doença renal crônica em 15 países, em quatro continentes; os fatores preditivos foram as características individuais, psicossociais, clínicas e comorbidades; as estratégias de avaliação incluíram 40 instrumentos, informações sociodemograficas e clínicas. Quanto ao nível de evidência, os estudos se concentram nos níveis três e quatro. Considerações finais: A prevalência e os fatores preditivos podem ser manejados com o uso de estratégias de avaliação, válidas para avaliar o sintoma de fadiga em pessoas com doença renal crônica, bem como, com intervenções confiáveis, como a suplementação nutricional, hipnose, acupuntura, ergometria de pernas intradialíticas e apoio social, os quais podem ser adotados pela enfermagem em unidades de nefrologia para promoverem a redução da prevalência do sintoma de fadiga.


Background: The evaluation of fatigue symptom in people with chronic kidney disease has been a challenge for nursing because it is a subjective symptom and associated with other comorbidities. Aim: To analyze the scientific evidence on the prevalence, predictive factors and strategies for the assessment of fatigue symptoms in people with chronic kidney disease. Method: Systematic literature review study conducted in three databases (PubMed / MEDLINE, BIREME and LILACS) using the descriptors "Renal Insufficiency, Chronic", "Fatigue" and the levels of evidence of the studies were verified. For data analysis we used an item evaluation instrument and descriptive analysis. Results: Inclusion criteria were 36 studies that assessed the prevalence of fatigue in 7,587 people with chronic kidney disease in 15 countries in four-continents; predictive factors were individual, psychosocial, clinical and comorbidities; the evaluation strategies included 40 instruments, sociodemographic and clinical information. As for the level of evidence, studies focus on levels three and four. Final considerations: Prevalence and predictive factors can be managed using valid assessment strategies to assess the symptom of fatigue in people with chronic kidney disease, as well as with reliable interventions such as nutritional supplementation, hypnosis, acupuncture, intradialitic leg ergometry and social support, which can be adopted by nursing in nephrology units to promote a reduction in the prevalence of fatigue symptoms.


Introducción: La evaluación de los síntomas de fatiga en personas con enfermedad renal crónica ha sido un desafío para la enfermería porque es un síntoma subjetivo y está asociado con otras comorbilidades. Objetivo: analizar la evidencia científica sobre la prevalencia, los factores predictivos y las estrategias para la evaluación de los síntomas de fatiga en personas con enfermedad renal crónica. Método: Estudio sistemático de revisión de literatura realizado en tres bases de datos (PubMed / MEDLINE, BIREME y LILACS) utilizando los descriptores "Insuficiencia renal, crónica", "Fatiga" y los niveles de evidencia de los estudios fueron verificados. Para el análisis de datos utilizamos un instrumento de evaluación de ítems y un análisis descriptivo. Resultados: Los criterios de inclusión fueron 36 estudios que evaluaron la prevalencia de fatiga en 7,587 personas con enfermedad renal crónica en 15 países en cuatro continentes; los factores predictivos fueron individuales, psicosociales, clínicos y comorbilidades; Las estrategias de evaluación incluyeron 40 instrumentos, información sociodemográfica y clínica. En cuanto al nivel de evidencia, los estudios se centran en los niveles tres y cuatro. Consideraciones finales: la prevalencia y los factores predictivos se pueden manejar utilizando estrategias de evaluación válidas para evaluar los síntomas de fatiga en personas con enfermedad renal crónica, así como con intervenciones confiables como suplementos nutricionales, hipnosis, acupuntura, ergometría intradialítica de piernas y apoyo social, que puede ser adoptado por enfermería en unidades de nefrología para promover una reducción en la prevalencia de síntomas de fatiga.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Nephrology Nursing
9.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 9(1): e204, jun. 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383560

ABSTRACT

La neuroartropatia de Charcot es una complicación devastadora para los pacientes diabéticos, generando deformidades osteoarticulares con riesgo de ulceración, infección y amputación de miembros inferiores. El objetivo fue analizar en una población de pacientes diabéticos con secuela de neuroartropatía de Charcot, el motivo de re consulta y los tratamientos a los que fueron sometidos. El mismo se realizó en forma retrospectiva mediante observación de historias clínicas y estudios radiológicos de 22 pacientes tratados entre 2014 y 2018 en el Hospital Policial de Montevideo - Uruguay, con un tiempo de evolución mínimo de un año al momento de la revisión. Se contó con la aprobación del Comité de Ética de dicho hospital habiéndose completado un formulario con datos demográficos, tratamiento inicial, causas de las re consultas y tratamientos secundarios. Si bien al inicio de la enfermedad se siguieron los protocolos de tratamiento con alto nivel de recomendación, se observaron en las re consultas elevados porcentajes de re ulceración y necesidad de cirugías complementarias (59%). Se vinculan los resultados a la falta de categorización de paciente de riesgo para lograr seguimiento y captación precoz. El categorizar al paciente de riesgo permite establecer estrategias de educación y de tratamientos tendientes a disminuir porcentajes de nuevas lesiones que lleven a la necesidad de tratamientos secundarios o amputaciones.


One of the most devastating complications within diabetic patients is Diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy. It can lead to osteoarticular deformities, with risk of ulceration, infection or even lower limb amputation. In this paper, a population of diabetic patients with Charcot neuroarthropathy sequelae was studied. Data was analyzed on the reasons for the patients re consultation, the treatments they were subjected to and the obtained results. The study was conducted retrospectively by the examination of medical records from 22 patients that were treated between 2014 and 2018, with a follow-up of at least a year, at the Hospital Policial in Montevideo, Uruguay. Furthermore, it had the hospital's Ethics Committee approval. The data analysis was conducted by the completion of a form including demographic data, initial treatment, reasons for re consultation and secondary treatments. According to the findings, even though highly recommended protocols were followed at the onset of the disease, high percentage of ulceration and complementary surgeries were observed (59%) within the patient's data. The results are linked to the lack of risk patient´s categorization in order to achieve early uptake. Categorizing the patient at risk makes it possible to establish health education and treatment strategies aimed at reducing percentages of new injuries that lead to the need for secondary treatments or amputations.


A neuroartropatia de Charcot é uma complicação devastadora para os pacientes com diabetes, gerando deformidades osteoarticulares residuais com risco de úlceras, infecção e amputação maior dos membros inferiores. O objetivo foi analisar em uma população de pacientes diabéticos com sequelas da neuroartropatia de Charcot, o motivo da nova consulta e os tratamentos a que foram submetidos, bem como os resultados obtidos. Foi realizado retrospectivamente por meio de observação de histórias clinicas e estudos radiológicos de 22 pacientes atendidos no periodo de 2014 a 2018 no Hospital da Polícia de Montevidéu - Uruguai, com tempo de evolução mínimo de um ano na época da revisão. Foi aprovado pelo Comité de Ética do referido hospital, tendo sido preenchido um formulário com dados demográficos, tratamento inicial, causas das novas consultas e tratamentos secundários. Embora protocolos de tratamento com alto nível de recomendação tenham sido seguidos no início da doença, elevados percentuais de re ulcerações e cirurgias complementares (59%) foram observados nas novas consultas. Os resultados estão ligados à falta de categorização dos pacientes de risco para obter captação precoces A categorização do paciente de risco permite estabelecer estratégias de educação e tratamento com o objetivo de reduzir os percentuais de novas lesões que levam à necessidade de tratamentos secundários ou amputações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Office Visits , Arthropathy, Neurogenic/therapy , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Arthropathy, Neurogenic/etiology , Arthropathy, Neurogenic/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Diabetic Foot/complications , Diabetic Foot/epidemiology , Ankle
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(2): 108-112, 20220000. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368488

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes con infección perioperatoria por COVID-19 tienen un alto riesgo de muerte y complicaciones posoperatorias. En la actualidad, la infección por COVID-19 en Irak representó 1.696.390 casos con 19.087 muertes. Un estudio nacional, único y observacional que incluyó pacientes con infección por COVID-19 que se sometieron a cualquier tipo de cirugía en el Hospital General de Abu-Graib, Bagdad, Irak, durante el período del 19 de marzo de 2020 al 30 de abril de 2021. Tiempo desde el diagnóstico de la infección por COVID-19 El día de la cirugía se recogió como factor categórico dividido en: (a) 0-3 semanas; (b) 4­6 semanas; (c) >6 semanas. Edad; sexo; estado físico de la Sociedad Americana de Anestesiólogos (ASA); comorbilidades cardíacas; comorbilidades respiratorias; indicación de cirugía; grado de cirugía; y se documentaron los tipos quirúrgicos. Se incluyeron un total de 378 pacientes con una edad media de 47,89±16,03 años. Las mujeres eran más que los hombres (65,87% > 34,13%). Aproximadamente, el 76,72% de los pacientes pertenecían a ASA I-II, mientras que el 23,28% eran ASA III-IV. Alrededor del 19,05% de los pacientes sufría de comorbilidades cardíacas. 266/378 de los pacientes se quejaron de comorbilidades respiratorias. Cirugía indicada en 35,45% condiciones benignas, 27,5% obstetricia, 7,65% cirugía oncológica y 29,4% operaciones traumáticas. Operaciones mayores documentadas en 205/378 pacientes. Las intervenciones quirúrgicas de urgencia realizadas en (176, 46,56%), mientras que los casos electivos fueron 202/378 (53,44%). En total, en el momento de la operación, 80 (21,16 %) pacientes tenían un diagnóstico preoperatorio de COVID-19. El tiempo desde el diagnóstico de COVID-19 hasta la cirugía fue de 0 a 3 semanas en 98 pacientes (25,93 %), de 4 a 6 semanas en 115 pacientes (30,42 %) y >6 semanas en 165 pacientes (43,65 %). La tasa de mortalidad postoperatoria global fue del 9,52% (36/378). Con respecto a la complicación cardiaca de la O.P., no hubo asociación significativa en relación al momento previo a la cirugía (p=0,08). Sin embargo, la complicación cardíaca global fue del 16,4%. En general, el 44,97 % (170/378) de los pacientes desarrollaron una complicación pulmonar por O.P. durante el período de seguimiento. Hasta donde sabemos, este es el primer estudio que proporciona datos sólidos sobre el momento óptimo para la cirugía después de la infección por COVID-19 en Irak. El momento óptimo de la cirugía después de la infección por COVID-19 fue de más de 6 semanas. Descubrimos que los riesgos de morbilidad y mortalidad por O.P. son mayores si los pacientes son operados dentro de las 6 semanas posteriores al diagnóstico de infección por COVID-19.


Patients with perioperative COVID-19 infection are at high risk of death and complications postoperatively. Nowadays, COVID-19 infection in Iraq accounted 1,696,390 cases with 19,087 deaths. A national, single, and observational study that included patients with COVID-19 infection undergoing any type of surgery in Abu-Graib General Hospital, Baghdad Iraq during period from 19 March 2020 to 30 April 2021. Time from the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection to day of surgery was collected as a categorical factor divided into: (a) 0­3 wks; (b) 4­6 wks; (c) >6 wks. Age; sex; American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status; cardiac comorbidities; respiratory comorbidities; indication for surgery; surgery grade; and surgical types were documented. A total of 378 patient were included with mean age was 47.89±16.03 years. Females were more than males (65.87% > 34.13%). Approximately, 76.72% of patients belonged within ASA I-II, whereas 23.28% were ASA III-IV. About 19.05% of patients suffered from cardiac comorbidities. 266/378 of patients complained from respiratory comorbidities. Surgery indicated in 35.45% benign conditions, 27.5% obstetrics, 7.65% oncological surgery, and 29.4% traumatic operations. Major operations documented in 205/378 patients. Emergencies surgical intervention done in (176, 46.56%), whereas elective cases were 202/378 (53.44%). In total at operation timing, 80(21.16%) patients had a preoperative COVID-19 diagnosis. The time from COVID-19 diagnosis to surgery was 0­3 weeks in 98 patients (25.93%), 4­6 weeks in 115 patients (30.42%), and >6 weeks in 165 patients (43.65%). The overall postoperative mortality rate was 9.52% (36/378). In regard to P. O. cardiac complication, there was no significant association in relation to timing before surgery (p=0.08). However, the overall cardiac complication was 16.4%. Overall, 44.97% (170/378) of patients developed a P. O. pulmonary complication within period of follow-up. To our knowledge this is the first study to provide strong data regarding the optimal timing for surgery following COVID-19 infection in Iraq. The optimal timing of surgery after COVID-19 infection was more than 6 wks. We found that risks of P. O. morbidity and mortality are greatest if patients are operated within 6 wks of diagnosis of COVID-19 infection


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Comorbidity , Aftercare , Emergencies , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/complications , Time Factors
11.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 116-128, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MMyP | ID: biblio-1367223

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad COVID-19 en el embarazo es la primera causa de muerte materna en México, y se ha reportado que favorece las formas graves de la enfermedad. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, obstétricas y perinatales de pacientes embarazadas con enfermedad COVID-19 atendidas en la UMAE "Luis Castelazo Ayala" del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Material y métodos: estudio observacional, transversal y retrospectivo de pacientes embarazadas con COVID-19 atendidas de marzo a diciembre del 2020. Las características epidemiológicas, complicaciones y resultados perinatales se analizaron con estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: se incluyeron 133 pacientes: 84.5% presentaron enfermedad leve, 8% moderada y 8.5% severa y crítica. Las comorbilidades preexistentes fueron: obesidad, diabetes e hipotiroidismo. Los principales síntomas: tos, cefalea, fiebre, rinorrea y anosmia. En casos severos y críticos la taquicardia, taquipnea e hipoxemia estuvieron presentes. En las formas severa y crítica se observaron: linfoneutropenia, hiperglucemia y transaminasemia. El fibrinógeno y dímero D sin cambios. El parto pretérmino, el oligohidroamnios, la hipertensión gestacional, la preeclampsia severa y la neumonía fueron las principales complicaciones. El 75% de los recién nacidos no presentaron complicaciones. Conclusiones: el comportamiento clínico de la enfermedad fue, en su mayoría, leve, e incluso en los casos moderados así como en los severos y complicados los resultados del binomio fueron favorables. No hubo muerte materna ni se evidenció transmisión vertical.


Background: COVID-19 disease is the leading cause of maternal death in Mexico. The data published to date indicate that pregnancy favors severe forms of the disease. Objective: To describe the clinical, obstetric and perinatal characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 disease treated at the UMAE "Luis Castelazo Ayala" of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Material and methods: Observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study of pregnant women with COVID-19 treated from March to December 2020. The epidemiological characteristics, complications and perinatal results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: 133 patients included: 84.5% with mild disease, 8 % moderate and 8.5% severe and critical. Pre-existing comorbidities: obesity, diabetes and hypothyroidism. Main symptoms: cough, headache, fever, rhinorrhea and anosmia. In severe and critical cases, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypoxemia were present. Lymphoneutropenia, hyperglycemia, and transaminasemia were seen in severe and critical forms. Fibrinogen and D dimer stayed unchanged. Preterm delivery, oligohydramnios, gestational hypertension, severe preeclampsia, and pneumonia were the main complications. 75% of the newborns without complications. Conclusions: The clinical behavior of the disease was mostly mild and even in moderate cases, and even in moderate as well as severe and complicated cases, the binomial results were favorable. There was no maternal death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimesters , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Peripartum Period , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 26: e1438, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1394545

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: comparar o perfil demográfico, a sintomatologia e as comorbidades de adultos e idosos notificados com COVID-19 nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal - DF. Métodos: estudo ecológico desenvolvido a partir dos dados da plataforma online e-SUS Notifica, preenchidos até dia 4 de janeiro de 2021, com amostra constituída por 1.416.252 indivíduos, utilizando como critérios de inclusão: ter idade > 20 anos; residir nas capitais brasileiras ou no Distrito Federal - DF; e apresentar resultado do teste positivo para COVID-19. A análise descritiva contou com a exposição das frequências absoluta e relativa e medidas de tendência central. Para a análise inferencial, aplicou-se o teste qui-quadrado de Pearson, considerando diferença significativa para valores de p<0,05. Resultados: predominou sexo masculino (52%), com média de idade de 43,29 ± 14,85 anos. Os indivíduos apresentaram tosse (45,4%), febre (38,8%) e outros sintomas (83,1%). As comorbidades mais prevalentes foram: doenças cardíacas (7,1%) e diabetes (4,5%). Houve diferença significativa (p<0,001) entre as regiões brasileiras, ao comparar sexo, idade, ser profissional da saúde, sintomas e comorbidades. Conclusão: os dados contribuíram para o conhecimento acerca do processo epidêmico de COVID-19 no Brasil no primeiro ano de pandemia e demonstraram a distribuição dos casos e as relações existentes entre perfil demográfico, sintomatologia e doenças preexistentes com os agrupados das capitais brasileiras.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comparar el perfil demográfico, la sintomatología y las comorbilidades de los adultos y ancianos notificados con COVID-19 en las capitales brasileñas y el Distrito Federal - DF. Métodos: estudio ecológico, desarrollado a partir de los datos de la plataforma online e-SUS Notifica, completados hasta el 4 de enero de 2021, con una muestra compuesta por 1.416.252 individuos, utilizando como criterios de inclusión: edad > 20 años; residir en capitales brasileñas o en el Distrito Federal - DF; y presentar un resultado positivo en la prueba de COVID-19. El análisis descriptivo incluyó la presentación de frecuencias absolutas y relativas y medidas de tendencia central. Para el análisis inferencial, se aplicó la prueba de chi-cuadrado de Pearson, considerando la diferencia significativa para valores p <0,05. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino (52%), con una edad media de 43,29 ± 14,85 años. Los individuos presentaron tos (45,4%), fiebre (38,8%) y otros síntomas (83,1%). Las comorbilidades más prevalentes fueron las cardiopatías (7,1%) y la diabetes (4,5%). Hubo una diferencia significativa (p<0,001) entre las regiones brasileñas al comparar el género, la edad, ser profesional de la salud, los síntomas y las comorbilidades. Conclusión: los datos contribuyeron al conocimiento del proceso epidémico del COVID-19 en Brasil, en el primer año de pandemia, y demostraron la distribución de los casos y las relaciones existentes entre el perfil demográfico, la sintomatología y las enfermedades preexistentes con los agrupados de las capitales brasileñas.


ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the demographic profile, symptoms and comorbidities of adults and elderly people notified with COVID-19 in Brazilian capitals and the Distrito Federal - DF. Methods: ecological study developed from data from the online platform e-SUS Notifica, completed until January 4, 2021, with a sample consisting of 1,416,252 individuals, using as inclusion criteria: being > 20 years old; reside in Brazilian capitals or the Distrito Federal - DF; and present a positive test result for COVID-19. The descriptive analysis included the exposure of absolute and relative frequencies and measures of central tendency. For the inferential analysis, Pearson's chi-square test was applied, considering a significant difference for values of p<0.05. Results: males predominated (52%), with a mean age of 43.29 ± 14.85 years. Subjects had cough (45.4%), fever (38.8%) and other symptoms (83.1%). The most prevalent comorbidities were: heart disease (7.1%) and diabetes (4.5%). There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between Brazilian regions, when comparing sex, age, being a health professional, symptoms and comorbidities. Conclusion: the data contributed to the knowledge about the epidemic process of COVID-19 in Brazil in the first year of the pandemic and demonstrated the distribution of cases and the relationships between demographic profile, symptoms and pre-existing diseases with the groups of Brazilian capitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adult Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Statistical Distributions , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification , Pandemics , Central Trend Measures
13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 223-229, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To define the epidemiological profile and the associated comorbidities of patients submitted to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in two reference hospitals. Methods During the present cross-sectional observational study, 294 patients submitted to TKA were evaluated in 2 tertiary care hospitals. The diagnosis of selfreported comorbidities was collected by direct interview. The Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI) and the 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index (mFI-5) were calculated. The incidence of comorbidities and their relationship with the calculated indexes were evaluated. Results Most of the patients in the sample were women (p» 0.000) between the seventh and eighth decades of life. Systemic arterial hypertension was the most common pathology, followed by obesity and diabetes mellitus. The FCI presented a direct relationship with females (p» 0.038) and obesity (p< 0.001). The mFI-5 was only associated to obesity (p» 0.022), demonstrating a higher chance of complications in this group. Conclusion Patients undergoing TKA are essentially carriers of clinical comorbidities that can negatively influence functional results and compromise the safety of the procedure. The identification of risk factors can contribute to the safety and better selection of TKA candidates.


Resumo Objetivo Definir o perfil epidemiológico e as comorbidades associadas dos pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do joelho (ATJ) em dois hospitais de referência. Métodos Durante o estudo observacional transversal, foram avaliados 294 pacientes submetidos à ATJ em 2 hospitais de atenção terciária. Coletou-se, por entrevista direta, o diagnóstico das comorbidades auto-relatadas. Foram calculados o índice de comorbidades funcionais (do inglês Functional Comorbidity Index, FCI) e o índice modificado de cinco fatores de fragilidade (do inglês 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index, mFI-5). Avaliou-se a incidência das comorbidades e a relação destas com os índices calculados. Resultados A maioria dos pacientes da amostra foram mulheres (p» 0,000) entre a sétima e oitava décadas de vida. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi a patologia mais comum, seguida de obesidade e diabetes mellitus. O ICFapresentou uma relação direta com sexo feminino (p» 0,038) e a obesidade (p< 0,001). O mFI-5 apresentou relação somente com a obesidade (p» 0,022), e demonstrou uma chance maior de complicações nesse grupo. Conclusão Os pacientes submetidos à ATJ são essencialmente portadores de comorbidades clínicas que podem influenciar negativamente os resultados funcionais e comprometer a segurança do procedimento. A identificação dos fatores de risco pode contribuir para a segurança e melhor seleção dos candidatos a ATJ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Health Profile , Comorbidity , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee
14.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 29(2): [1-16], mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364016

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a autopercepção de adolescentes e jovens adultos sobre possíveis modificações em comportamentos relacionados à atividade física, ao tempo em atividades sedentárias e aos hábitos alimentares durante o período de distanciamento social provocada pela pandemia da Covid-19. Participaram do estudo 186 adolescentes e jovens adultos matriculados no ensino médio técnico-integrado de uma escola pública federal da cidade de Bagé/RS. Os participantes foram caracterizados em relação ao sexo, idade e nível socioeconômico. A autopercepção em relação aos três comportamentos durante o período de distanciamento social foi analisada através de respostas a um questionário eletrônico (Google Formulário) enviado para os estudantes por meio de uma rede social. Os resultados foram descritos utilizando-se os valores de média, desvio padrão, e frequências absolutas e relativas. A média de idade dos participantes foi de 17,9 (±1,16) anos, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (51,6%) e com renda familiar inferior a três salários mínimo (72,6%). A maior parte dos participantes do estudo (89,8%) relatou alguma alteração desfavorável nos níveis de atividade física. Setenta por cento dos entrevistados relataram um decréscimo na prática de atividade física no âmbito geral; 72% relataram modificação desfavorável no nível de atividade física vigorosa; 76,9% rela taram permanecer mais tempo em atividades sedentárias, principalmente àquelas envolvendo smartphones e tablets. Em relação aos hábitos alimentares, as principais modificações desfavoráveis estiveram relacionadas ao consumo de doces e salgadinhos (36% dos participantes relataram essa elevação no consumo). O período de distanciamento social provocou alterações comportamentais desfavoráveis em adolescentes. O planejamento e orientação de rotinas mais saudáveis contemplando esses desfechos devem ser fomentados visando amenizar o impacto dessas alterações comportamentais. (AU)


The aim of this study was to describe the self-perception of adolescents and young adults about possible changes in behaviors related to physical activity, time in sedentary activities and eating habits during the period of social distance due the Covid-19 pandemic. 186 adolescents and young adults enrolled in the technical-integrated high school of a federal public school in the city of Bagé, Brazil participated in the study. Participants were characterized according gender, age and socioeconomic status. Self-perception regarding the three behaviors during the period of social distance was analyzed through responses to an electronic questionnaire (Google Form) sent to students through a social network. The results were described using mean, standard deviation, and absolute and relative frequencies. The participants mean of age was 17.9 (±1.16) years and most of them were male (51.6%) and from familiar income less than three minimum wages (72.6%). Most of the participants (89.8%) reported some unfavorable change in the physical activity level. Seventy percent of participants reported a decrease in physical activity in general; 72% reported an unfavorable change in the level of vigorous physical activity; 76.9% reported increase in time involving sedentary activities, especially those using smartphones and tablets. Regarding eating habits, the main unfavorable changes were related to the consumption of sweets and snacks (36% of participants reported consumption increase of these foods). The period of social distance is associated to unfavorable behavioral changes in adolescents. The planning and guidance of healthier routines contemplating these outcomes should be encouraged in order to mitigate the impact of these behavioral changes. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Self Concept , Exercise , Adolescent , Young Adult , Feeding Behavior , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19 , Behavior , Candy , Comorbidity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Social Networking , Snacks , Smartphone , Food Preferences , Physical Distancing , Income
15.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(1): 21-28, mar. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1368887

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la probabilidad de presentar una forma grave de COVID-19 es mayor en personas con algunas condiciones preexistentes. En la Argentina, las personas con alguna de estas comorbilidades realizaron un trabajo remoto y diferenciado respecto de sus compañeros. Esta estrategia se denomina shielding y tiene resultados heterogéneos, ya que ­si bien evita las infecciones­ puede tener algún impacto en las vivencias y salud de las personas. Métodos: investigación exploratoria a través de un diseño cualitativo basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas. Resultados: se realizaron 21 entrevistas. Se organizaron los conceptos en ejes temáticos de análisis. Como principales hallazgos se identificó que la salud general de las personas empeoró durante la pandemia a pesar de realizar trabajo diferenciado, y que durante el período explorado surgieron múltiples emergentes que incluyeron hábitos no saludables y estrategias positivas de afrontamiento. Respecto de lo laboral predominaron los sentimientos negativos. Conclusión: la implementación de shielding resulta insuficiente como única medida para la preservación de la salud de las personas con mayor riesgo de desarrollar formas graves de COVID-19. (AU)


Introduction: people with some pre-existing conditions are more likely to have a severe form of COVID-19. In Argentina, people with any of these comorbidities performed remote and differentiated work compared to their peers. This strategy is known as shielding and has heterogeneous results, since although it prevents infections it can have some impact on people's experiences and health. Methods: exploratory research through a qualitative design based on semi-structured interviews. Results: 21 interviews were conducted. The concepts were organized in thematic axes of analysis. As the main findings, we identified that the general health of the people worsened during the pandemic despite performing differentiated work, and that during the period explored, emerged both unhealthy habits and positive coping strategies. Regarding work, negative feelings predominated over positives. Conclusion: the implementation of shielding is insufficient as the only measure for the preservation of the health of people at higher risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Comorbidity , Teleworking , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Quarantine/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Occupational Health , Pandemics
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 191-201, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364978

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Physical Fitness Tests (PFTs) are part of military routines and are usually administered to applicants for the Brazilian corps member, including the civil police. Objective To identify in the literature, scientific articles aimed at assessing physical fitness of police and military personnel in Brazil, using PFTs. Methods This was a systematic review, using the PRISMA systematization, using the following search keywords "police", "military", "physical fitness test" and " PFT", in English and Portuguese. The databases used were ScienceDirect, PubMed, BVS (Lilacs) and Scielo. Only original works performed with police and military personnel in Brazil were selected, through the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results After the screening process, 11 articles were selected from a total of 1,487. Conclusions The data collected from the selected articles suggest that older age is related to a decrease in physical fitness, and better performance in the tests is related to a lower risk of comorbidities. Although high-intensity training improves physical fitness and anthropometric data, it is associated with injury rates; physically active lifestyle is associated with better flexibility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Physical Fitness , Police , Exercise Test/methods , Military Personnel , Body Weights and Measures , Brazil , Exercise , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Military Health , Life Style
18.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(1): e53536, mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396306

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O conhecimento sobre aquisição fonológica é balizador para a prática clínica na avaliação de transtornos fonológicos. Objetivo: Realizar revisão sistemática das publicações científicas sobre aquisição fonológica consonantal do Português Brasileiro (PB) por crianças com desenvolvimento linguístico típico. Metodologia: Foram selecionados descritores que atendiam à pergunta de pesquisa "qual a idade de aquisição fonológica consonantal típica de crianças falantes monolíngues do Português Brasileiro (PB)?" nas bases de dados Bireme, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Portal Periódicos Capes e Google Acadêmico, e literatura cinzenta. Critério de inclusão foi tratar-se de aquisição fonológica consonantal do PB por crianças. Excluíram-se estudos sobre aquisição de: vogais e/ou ditongos, domínios linguísticos que não fossem fonologia, segunda língua ou bilíngue, outra língua que não o PB, leitura, escrita, soletração, língua de sinais, também pesquisas somente com análise fonética, com dados de fala de crianças com alterações de fala, texto escrito, e linguagem não natural. Foram considerados os tipos de estudo, objetivos e indicadores de aquisição. Os estudos selecionados foram analisados via Iniciativa STROBE e Sistema GRADE. Resultados: Dos 1.381 estudos obtidos, selecionou-se 33. A aquisição fonológica consonantal foi identificada entre as idades um ano e quatro meses a sete anos, dependendo do fonema ou classe dos fonemas, apresentando grande variação entre indivíduos. A definição sobre aquisição convergiu para a frequência de 75% a 85% de produções corretas da consoante ou estrutura silábica. Conclusão: Constatou-se que a aquisição fonológica consonantal apresenta ampla variação entre indivíduos e entre diferentes consoantes e destas nas diversas estruturas silábicas.


Introduction: Knowledge about phonological acquisition is a guideline for clinical practice in the assessment of phonological disorders. Objective: To perform a systematic review of scientific publications on consonant phonological acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese (PB) by children with typical linguistic development. Methods: there were selected descriptors that meet the question "what is the age of typical consonant phonological acquisition in monolingual Brazilian Portuguese (BP) speakers?" in the databases Bireme, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Portal Periódicos Capes and Google Scholar, and gray literature. The inclusion criteria were that it was a consonant phonological acquisition of BP by children. Studies on the acquisition of: vowels and/or diphthongs, linguistic domains other than phonology, second language or bilingual, language other than BP, reading, writing, spelling, sign language, as well as research with phonetic analysis, speech data of children with speech disorders, about written text, and unnatural language were excluded. The types of study, objectives and acquisition indicators were considered. The selected studies were analyzed by the STROBE Initiative and the GRADE System. Results: Of the 1,381 studies obtained, 33 were selected. Consonant phonological acquisition was identified between one year and four months to seven years, depending on the phoneme or class of phonemes and showing great variation between individuals. The definition of acquisition converged to the frequency of 75% to 85% of correct productions of the consonant or syllabic structure. Conclusion: It was found that the consonant phonological acquisition presents a wide variation in individuals and between different consonants and of these in the different syllabic structures.


Introducción: El conocimiento sobre la adquisición fonológica es una guía para la práctica clínica en la evaluación de los trastornos fonológicos. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de publicaciones científicas sobre la adquisición fonológica consonante del portugués brasileño (PB) por parte de niños con desarrollo lingüístico típico. Metodos: Se seleccionaron descriptores que cumplieron con la pregunta "¿Cuál es la edad de adquisición fonológica consonante típica en hablantes monolingües de portugués brasileño (BP)?" en las bases de datos Bireme, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Portal Periódicos Capes y Google Acadêmico, y literatura gris. Los criterios de inclusión fueron la adquisición fonológica consonante de PA por parte de los niños. Se excluyeron los estudios sobre la adquisición de: vocales y/o diptongos, dominios lingüísticos distintos de la fonología, segunda lengua o bilingüe, distintos de BP, lectura, escritura, ortografía, lengua de signos, también investigaciones con análisis fonético. Con datos de habla de niños con trastornos del habla, texto escrito y lenguaje antinatural. Se consideraron los tipos de estudio, objetivos e indicadores de adquisición. Los estudios seleccionados fueron analizados por la Iniciativa STROBE y el Sistema GRADE. Resultados: De los 1381 estudios obtenidos, se seleccionaron 33. Se identificó adquisición fonológica consonante entre las edades de un año y cuatro meses a siete años, dependiendo del fonema o clase de fonemas y mostrando gran variación entre individuos. La definición de adquisición convergió a la frecuencia del 75% al ​​85% de producciones correctas de la estructura consonante o silábica. Conclusión: Se encontró que la adquisición fonológica consonante presenta una amplia variación entre individuos y entre diferentes consonantes y de estas en las diferentes estructuras silábicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Apraxias/diagnosis , Speech Disorders , Comorbidity , Language Development Disorders
19.
Fisioter. Bras ; 23(1): 128-151, Fev 11, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358609

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Envelhecer resulta em transformações biológicas que afetam os indivíduos de maneira heterogênea. A maioria dos sistemas orgânicos experimenta redução em suas funções motoras e cognitivas, interferindo na capacidade de adaptação frente a agentes estressores. Na pneumonia pelo SARS-CoV2, evidenciaram-se implicações da função pulmonar em idosos com doenças pulmonares crônicas. Objetivo: Investigar as evidências científicas sobre implicações clínicas da COVID-19 em indivíduos idosos com doença pulmonar crônica não transmissível. Métodos: revisão integrativa realizada em novembro de 2020 nas bases de dados CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Embase, Scopus, Medline/Pubmed (via National Library of Medicine) e Web of Science, utilizando-se os descritores "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV2 infection", "aged", "chronic pulmonar obstructive disease", "non-communicable diseases" e operadores booleanos AND e OR. Foram incluídos textos científicos originais, a exemplo de artigos disponibilizados na íntegra, sobre a COVID-19 em idosos com Doenças Respiratórias Crônicas Não Transmissíveis. Resultados: Idosos com comorbidades estão propensos a complicações durante a infecção por COVID-19, com altas taxas de mortalidade e alterações tomográficas atípicas. Conclusão: A forma grave da COVID-19 e a elevada mortalidade em idosos podem ser atribuídas à alta comorbidade, prevalência de demência e síndromes geriátricas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Lung Diseases , Comorbidity , Chronic Disease
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 239-244, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365339

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of mortality in young adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and to assess the link between blood type and mortality in those patients. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study, which was conducted in seven training and research hospitals in Istanbul, involved young adults who aged ≥18 and <50 years and hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: Among 1,120 patients, confusion at admission (p<0.001) and oxygen saturation (p<0.001) were significantly predictive factors of mortality. Blood type O was significantly associated with mortality compared to those discharged from the hospital (p<0.001). Among co-morbidities, the most reliable predictive factors were cerebral vascular disease (p<0.001) and chronic renal failure (p=0.010). Among laboratory parameters, high C-reactive protein (p<0.001) and low albumin (p<0.001) levels were predictors of mortality in young adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSIONS: SpO2 at admission was the best predictor of mortality in young adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The mortality rate was increased by cerebral vascular disease and chronic renal failure. Also, high C-reactive protein and low albumin levels were predictive factors of mortality. Moreover, blood type O was associated with a higher mortality rate than the other types.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Middle Aged
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