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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 5-15, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1538330

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Millones de pacientes con COVID-19 fueron internados en terapia intensiva en el mundo, la mitad desarrollaron síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) y recibieron ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI), con una mortalidad del 50%. Analiza-mos cómo edad, comorbilidades y complicaciones, en pacientes con COVID-19 y SDRA que recibieron VMI, se asociaron con el riesgo de morir durante su hospitalización.Métodos: Estudio de cohorte observacional, retrospectivo y multicéntrico realizado en 5 hospitales (tres privados y dos públicos universitarios) de Argentina y Chile, durante el segundo semestre de 2020.Se incluyeron pacientes >18 años con infección por SARS-CoV-2 confirmada RT-PCR, que desarrollaron SDRA y fueron asistidos con VMI durante >48 horas, durante el se-gundo semestre de 2020. Se analizaron los antecedentes, las comorbilidades más fre-cuentes (obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión), y las complicaciones shock, insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) y neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica (NAV), por un lado, y las alteraciones de parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio registrados.Resultados: El 69% era varón. La incidencia de comorbilidades difirió para los diferentes grupos de edad. La mortalidad aumentó significativamente con la edad (p<0,00001). Las comorbilidades, hipertensión y diabetes, y las complicaciones de IRA y shock se asociaron significativamente con la mortalidad. En el análisis multivariado, sólo la edad mayor de 60 años, la IRA y el shock permanecieron asociados con la mortalidad. Conclusiones: El SDRA en COVID-19 es más común entre los mayores. Solo la edad >60 años, el shock y la IRA se asociaron a la mortalidad en el análisis multivariado.


Objectives: Millions of patients with COVID-19 were admitted to intensive care world-wide, half developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), with a mortality of 50%. We analyzed how age, comor-bidities and complications in patients with COVID-19 and ARDS who received IMV were associated with the risk of dying during their hospitalization.Methods: Observational, retrospective and multicenter cohort study carried out in 5 hospitals (three private and two public university hospitals) in Argentina and Chile, during the second half of 2020.Patients >18 years of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR, who devel-oped ARDS and were assisted with IMV for >48 hours, during the second half of 2020, were included. History, the most frequent comorbidities (obesity, diabetes and hyper-tension) and the complications of shock, acute renal failure (AKI) and pneumonia as-sociated with mechanical ventilation (VAP), on the one hand, and the alterations of re-corded clinical and laboratory parameters, were analyzed.Results: 69% were men. The incidence of comorbidities differed for different age groups. Mortality increased significantly with age (p<0.00001). Comorbidities, hyper-tension and diabetes, and complications of ARF and shock were significantly associat-ed with mortality. In the multivariate analysis, only age over 60 years, ARF and shock remained associated with mortality.Conclusions: ARDS in COVID-19 is more common among the elderly. Only age >60 years, shock and ARF were associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/complications , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/complications , Shock/complications , Comorbidity , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Mortality , Multicenter Study
2.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 79-83, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551228

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un niño de 3 años con diagnóstico de asma, rinitis alérgica, características craneofaciales dismórficas e infecciones respiratorias altas y bajas recurrentes, manejado como asma desde un inicio. Como parte del estudio de comorbilidades, se decide realizar una prueba del sudor que sale en rango intermedio y más tarde se encuentra una mutación, donde se obtiene un resultado positivo para una copia que se asocia a fibrosis quística. Se revisará el caso, así como el diagnóstico, clínica y tratamiento del síndrome metabólico relacionado con el regulador de conductancia transmembrana de fibrosis quística (CRMS).


We present the case of a 3-year-old boy with a diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis, dysmorphic craniofacial characteristics and recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections, managed as asthma from the beginning. As part of the study of comorbidi-ties, it was decided to carry out a sweat test that came out in the intermediate range and later one mutation was found, where a positive result was obtained for a copy that is associated with cystic fibrosis. The case will be reviewed, as well as the diagnosis, symptoms and treatment of the metabolic syndrome related to the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CRMS).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Asthma/diagnosis , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Radiography, Thoracic , Comorbidity , Neonatal Screening , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics
3.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 28(1)mar. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550546

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad no transmisible con una elevada comorbilidad, sobre todo, vinculada a la enfermedad renal crónica. La caracterización del paciente diabético, según variables epidemiológicas y los conocimientos de la enfermedad renal crónica que presentan, deben preceder a la valoración clínica y a la intervención educativa dirigida a modificar estilos de vida como parte de la atención primaria de salud. Objetivos: Caracterizar a pacientes diabéticos del Policlínico Santa Clara, según variables epidemiológicas seleccionadas, y la comorbilidad vinculada con la enfermedad renal crónica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-exploratorio a los pacientes diabéticos en el consultorio médico de la familia 16-11 del Policlínico Santa Clara, de octubre del 2019 a junio del 2022. La población estuvo conformada por 79 pacientes diabéticos y la muestra por 60, según criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Se utilizaron técnicas de análisis estadístico: análisis de frecuencias simples, estadística descriptiva y la prueba de independencia de Chi cuadrado. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino; grupo etario de 55-59; diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y cifras elevadas de tensión arterial correlacionadas con la diabetes. Además, existió un nivel bajo de conocimientos acerca de las enfermedades renales crónicas. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos permiten confirmar la relevancia de este tipo de estudios para elevar el nivel de conocimientos sobre la relación entre el padecimiento de diabetes mellitus y la enfermedad renal crónica, para contribuir a mejorar la calidad de vida de este grupo poblacional a través de una intervención educativa previamente orientada.


Introduction: diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease with high comorbidity and especially linked to chronic kidney disease. Characterization of diabetic patients according to epidemiological variables and knowledge of their chronic kidney disease must precede the clinical assessment and educational intervention aimed at modifying lifestyles as part of primary health care. Objectives: to characterize diabetic patients from Santa Clara Polyclinic according to selected epidemiological variables as well as the comorbidity linked to chronic kidney disease. Methods: a descriptive exploratory study was carried out on diabetic patients belonged to the 16-11 doctor's office in Santa Clara Polyclinic from October 2019 to June 2022. The population was made up of 79 diabetic patients and 60 formed the sample according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analysis techniques such as descriptive statistics, simple frequency analysis and the Chi- square independence test were used. Results: males, age group 55-59 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure levels correlated with diabetes predominated. Besides, a low level of knowledge on chronic kidney diseases was identified. Conclusions: the obtained results confirm the relevance of this type of studies to raise the level of knowledge on the relationship between diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in order to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of this population group through a previously oriented educational intervention.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Comorbidity , Kidney Diseases
4.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 35(1): 18-23, mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551674

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La sífilis es una infección sexualmente transmisible sistémica crónica que afecta a docenas de millones de personas al año. A nivel anorrectal, su manifestación polimórfica obliga al diagnóstico diferencial con enfermedades anorrectales benignas y malignas. Objetivo: Describir las diferentes presentaciones de la sífilis anorrectal a propósito de 5 casos clínicos. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron VIH positivos en edad sexual activa. Las manifestaciones registradas, al igual que las reportadas en la bibliografía fueron las fisuras, úlceras perianales y pseudotumores. Conclusiones: La sífilis es considerada "la gran simuladora". En la localización anorrectal se requiere una alta sospecha diagnóstica para diferenciarla de presentaciones similares de otras enfermedades anales benignas, la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y el cáncer anorrectal, con el fin de evitar el consiguiente riesgo de sobretratamiento. (AU)


Background: Syphilis is a chronic systemic sexually transmitted infection that affects tens of millions of people annually. At the anorectal level, its polymorphic manifestation requires differential diagnosis with benign and malignant anorectal diseases. Objective: To review the presentation of anorectal syphilis from 5 clinical cases. Methods: Observational, retrospective, descriptive study. Results: Most of the patients were HIV positive in sexually active age. The manifestations recorded and reported in the literature were fissures, perianal ulcers, and pseudotumors. Conclusions: Syphilis is considered "the great pretender". In anorectal syphilis, a high diagnostic suspicion is needed to differentiate it from similar presentations due to other anal conditions, inflammatory bowel disease, and anorectal cancer, to avoid the consequent risk of overtreatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Penicillin G Benzathine/administration & dosage , Rectal Diseases/diagnosis , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , Risk Groups , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Comorbidity , HIV Infections , Retrospective Studies , Fissure in Ano
5.
Brasília; CONITEC; fev. 2024.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1551263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes com fatores de risco como idade avançada, imunodepressão, obesidade e doenças cardiovasculares têm risco aumentado de internação, intubação e morte. De acordo com dados brasileiros, o risco de morte por covid-19 aumenta com o número de fatores de risco que o paciente apresenta, sendo igual a 17% em pacientes com 2 fatores de risco e 76% na presença de 8 fatores de risco. Além disso, mesmo aqueles pacientes que sobrevivem a uma internação em terapia intensiva frequentemente enfrentam sequelas e representam alto custo para o sistema público. O medicamento nirmatrelvir associado ao ritonavir têm o objetivo de prevenir internações, complicações e morte. Ele é indicado para pacientes com Covid-19 leve a moderada, não hospitalizados, até 5 dias do início dos sintomas. Apesar dos avanços da vacinação no Brasil, evidências sobre a falha vacinal em idosos e imunodeprimidos destacam a importância da disponibilidade de alternativas terapêuticas para essas populações. O presente relatório teve por objetivo avaliar evidências sobre a efetividade do tratamento em pacientes vacinados com alto risco de agravamento da doença. PERGUNTA: O medicamento nirmatrelvir/ritonavir é eficaz, seguro e custo-efetivo para pacientes com covid19 leve a moderada não hospitalizados vacinados que apresentam alto risco de agravamento da doença? EVIDÊNCIAS CLÍNICAS: Resultados obtidos a partir de estudos observacionais de mundo real confirmaram os resultados do ensaio clínico do medicamento nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, demonstrando que o tratamento de pacientes de grupos de risco é capaz de reduzir o risco de desfechos desfavoráveis como internação e óbito entre cerca de 50% e 70%, inclusive entre pacientes previamente vacinados. ANÁLISE DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: A análise de impacto orçamentário do relatório de recomendação do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir foi atualizada considerando-se o cenário atual da pandemia no Brasil. De acordo com a nova análise, o uso do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir por pacientes com idade ≥ 65 anos e imunossuprimidos com idade ≥ 18 anos, resultaria em uma economia de recursos de R$ 408.957.111,38 em 5 anos. Ressalta-se, no entanto, que devido à dinâmica de difícil previsão da pandemia, este montante está sujeito à incerteza. Considerando-se a análise realizada anteriormente no relatório de recomendação, pode-se concluir que o montante economizado se reduz proporcionalmente à redução do número de casos da doença na população alvo. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: De acordo com as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o uso do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir é efetivo e seguro para pacientes com covid-19 leve a moderada não hospitalizados vacinados que apresentam alto risco de agravamento da doença. O impacto orçamentário está sujeito a incertezas já que o número de casos da doença no horizonte temporal da análise é de difícil previsão. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: Diante do exposto, os membros do Comitê de Medicamentos da Conitec, em sua 16ª Reunião Extraordinária, realizada no dia 1º de novembro de 2023, deliberaram que a matéria fosse disponibilizada em Consulta Pública com recomendação preliminar favorável à incorporação no SUS do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir para o tratamento de pacientes com Covid-19 não hospitalizados com idade a partir de 65 anos ou pacientes imunossuprimidos a partir de 18 anos de idade. Os membros do Comitê concordaram na manutenção da indicação de uso, não havendo ampliação do público-alvo, justificada pela restrição orçamentária, considerando que há incremento de custo da aquisição da tecnologia, ainda que haja economia de recursos ao serem evitadas internações e óbitos. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Das nove contribuições recebidas, cinco contribuições foram de cunho técnico-científico e quatro contribuições de experiência ou opinião. Todas as contribuições concordaram com a recomendação preliminar da Conitec de incorporar o nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Duas contribuições técnico-científicassugeriram ampliação da população elegível ao tratamento com o medicamento com a inclusão de indicação para pacientes com taxa de filtração glomerular menor que 30 ml/min/1,73m2 e de pacientes adultos com asma grave independentemente da faixa etária. Uma contribuição técnico-científica enviada pela empresa fabricante do medicamento expressou sua concordância com e solicitou a inclusão de informaçõea adicionais no relatório. As contribuições de experiência ou opinião ressaltaram a eficácia e segurança do medicamento para a população alvo. RECOMEDAÇÃO FINAL DA CONITEC: Diante do exposto, os membros do Comitê de Medicamentos, presentes na 126ª Reunião Ordinária da Conitec, realizada no dia 01 de fevereiro de 2024, deliberaram, por unanimidade, após reavaliação, manter a incorporação do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, no SUS, para o tratamento da Covid-19 nos seguintes grupos de pacientes com sintomas leves a moderados, que não requerem oxigênio suplementar, independentemente do status vacinal: a) imunocomprometidos com idade ≥ 18 anos; b) com idade ≥ 65 anos. Foi assinado o registro de deliberação nº 874/2024. DECISÃO: manter a incorporação, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS, de nirmatrelvir/ritonavir para o tratamento da Covid-19 para pacientes com sintomas leves a moderados, que não requerem oxigênio suplementar, independentemente do status vacinal e com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos ou imunocomprometidos com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 46, seção 1, página 54, em 07 de março de 2024.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Peptidomimetics/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/instrumentation , Unified Health System , Brazil , Comorbidity , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-5, jan.-dez. 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530657

ABSTRACT

Aim: this study aimed to evaluate the effects of surgical treatment for endometriosis on the metabolic profile of women diagnosed with deep endometriosis. Methods: we conducted a prospective observational study with a sample of 30 women in the menacme diagnosed with deep endometriosis who underwent videolaparoscopic surgery in a reference center in Brazil between October 2020 and December 2021. A total of 30 women performed clinical and laboratory tests regarding their metabolic profile on two occasions, during preoperative tests and six months after video-laparoscopy. Results: patients had lower average levels of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low-Density Cholesterol (LDL-c), Triglycerides (TGC), and Fasting Glycemia (FG) after the surgical procedure. The average TC level was 8.2% lower after surgery, LDL-c was 12.8% lower, TGC was 10.9% lower, and FG was 7.3% lower. The results showed a statistically significant difference for all these parameters (p < 0.001). Conclusions: video-laparoscopy was associated with a favorable lipid profile compared to the preoperative lipid profile, with a significant improvement in the average levels of LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TGC, and FG. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to determine whether surgical treatment for endometriosis can improve the metabolic parameters of women with endometriosis and favor a lower predisposition to atherogenesis.


Objetivo: Aeste estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do tratamento cirúrgico da endometriose no perfil metabólico de mulheres com diagnóstico de endometriose profunda. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo observacional prospectivo com uma amostra de 30 mulheres na menacme, com diagnóstico de endometriose profunda, que foram submetidas à videolaparoscopia em um centro de referência no Brasil, entre outubro de 2020 e dezembro de 2021. As mulheres realizaram exames clínicos e laboratoriais quanto ao seu perfil metabólico em duas ocasiões, durante exames pré-operatórios e seis meses após a videolaparoscopia. Resultados: as pacientes apresentaram níveis médios mais baixos de Colesterol Total (CT), Colesterol de Baixa Densidade (LDL-c), Triglicerídeos (TGC) e Glicemia de Jejum (GJ) após o procedimento cirúrgico. O nível médio de CT foi 8,2% menor após a cirurgia, o LDL-c foi 12,8% menor, o TGC foi 10,9% menor e a GJ foi 7,3% menor. Os resultados mostraram diferença estatisticamente significativa para todos esses parâmetros (p < 0,001). Conclusões: a videolaparoscopia foi associada a um perfil lipídico favorável em comparação ao perfil lipídico pré-operatório, com melhora significativa nos níveis médios de LDL-c, HDL-c, CT, TGC e GJ. Estudos de acompanhamento a longo prazo são necessários para determinar se o tratamento cirúrgico da endometriose pode melhorar os parâmetros metabólicos de mulheres com endometriose e favorecer uma menor predisposição à aterogênese.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Endometriosis , Comorbidity , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
7.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 235-252, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518682

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El asma es una patología respiratoria caracterizada por inflamación cró-nica y reversible de las vías aéreas. Esta se asocia con factores de riesgo modificables y no modificables que influyen sobre su control y exacerbaciones. En países como Puer-to Rico y Cuba, la prevalencia del asma es significativamente mayor a la global (22,8%, 23% y 6,6%, respectivamente).


Introduction: Asthma is a respiratory pathology characterized by chronic and reversible airway inflammation. It is associated with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that influence its control and exacerbations. In countries such as Puerto Rico (22.8 %) and Cuba (23 %), the prevalence of asthma is significantly higher than the global prevalence (6.6 %).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/prevention & control , Therapeutics , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Dominican Republic , Absenteeism , Symptom Flare Up
8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(4): 642-655, 20230906. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509784

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cirugía bariátrica es una estrategia válida de tratamiento en obesidad severa. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la reducción de peso y la resolución de comorbilidades comparando dos técnicas quirúrgicas, baipás gástrico en Y de Roux y manga gástrica. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de tipo analítico que incluyó pacientes con obesidad grados II y III. Se analizaron variables demográficas y perioperatorias, y las comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad. La reducción del peso se evaluó con el porcentaje de pérdida del exceso de peso. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo univariado, usando medianas, rangos intercuartílicos, frecuencias y proporciones. Se usaron las pruebas de U de Mann-Whitney y Chi cuadrado para el análisis de grupos. Un valor de p<0,05 fue considerado estadísticamente significativo. Resultados. Fueron incluidos 201 pacientes. La mediana del porcentaje de pérdida del exceso de peso a 18 meses fue de 77,4 % para el grupo de baipás gástrico en Y de Roux vs 69,5 % para el grupo de manga gástrica (p=0,14). La mayoría de los pacientes presentaron resolución o mejoría de la hipertensión arterial (76 %), diabetes mellitus (80 %), dislipidemia (73 %), apnea del sueño (79 %) y artropatías (94 %), sin diferencia significativa según la técnica quirúrgica empleada. La tasa de complicaciones mayores fue del 1,9 %. No se presentó mortalidad. La mediana de seguimiento fue 28 meses. Conclusión. El baipás gástrico en Y de Roux y la manga gástrica son procedimientos muy seguros y efectivos para la reducción del exceso de peso y la resolución de las comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad


Introduction. Bariatric surgery is a valid strategy of treatment for severe obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate weight loss and resolution of comorbidities comparing two procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Descriptive study of analytical type that included patients with obesity grades II and III. Demographic and perioperative variables were analyzed. The weight reduction was evaluated among others with the percentage of excess of body weight loss. Comorbidities associated with obesity were also analyzed. A univariate descriptive analysis was performed, using medians, interquartile ranges, frequencies, and proportions. The Mann-Whitney U and Chi squared tests were used for analysis of groups. A value of p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Median follow-up was 28 months. Results. A total of 201 patients were included in the analysis. The median percentage of excess of body weight loss at 18 months was 77.4% for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group vs 69.5% for sleeve gastrectomy group (p=0.14). The majority of patients presented resolution or improvement of hypertension (76%), diabetes mellitus (80%), dyslipidemia (73%), sleep apnea (79%), and arthropathy (94%), without significant differences according to the surgical technique used. Major complication rate was 1.9%. There was not mortality. The median follow-up was 28 months. Conclusion. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are both very safe and effective procedures for excess weight reduction and resolution of comorbidities associated with obesity


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastric Bypass , Bariatric Surgery , Obesity, Morbid , Gastroplasty , Weight Loss , Comorbidity
9.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514484

ABSTRACT

Introducción Según datos de la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS), el cáncer se ha convertido en una de las primeras causas de muerte a nivel mundial debido al aumento progresivo, si no existe control de su propagación. La valoración conjunta del paciente por parte de distintos especialistas que asumen su abordaje desde diferentes perspectivas, siempre mejora la atención de los mismos y en el caso del paciente oncológico no es una excepción. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes oncológicos que ingresaron por comorbilidades en el Hospital Universitario «Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau» de la provincia Villa Clara. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en el Hospital Universitario «Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau», de enero a diciembre del 2020, mediante la revisión documental de las historias clínicas al egreso. Resultados: En el sexo femenino, en pacientes de 60 años y más, predominaron los tumores de pulmón, mama y colorrectal, y en el sexo masculino, de pulmón, próstata y hemolinfopoyético El tumor de pulmón fue la localización más frecuente, predominó entre las comorbilidades, las neumonías en pacientes del sexo femenino, mayores de 60 años. Los pacientes ingresados por Diabetes Mellitus, presentaban una enfermedad estable, seguidos por los que se encontraban en progresión, los que ingresaron con insuficiencia cardiaca, presentaban tumor en pulmón o laringe. Conclusiones: Los pacientes que ingresaron por tener tumor de pulmón se asociaron a mayor número de complicaciones y egresos fallecidos. Recomendamos perfeccionar la atención integral de estos pacientes por oncólogos e internistas.


ABTRACT Introduction: according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide due to its progressive increase, if there is no control of its spread. The joint assessment of the patients by different specialists who assume their approach from different perspectives always improves their care and in the case of cancer patients this is not an exception. Objective: to characterize cancer patients admitted for comorbidities at "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" University Hospital in Villa Clara province. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at "Dr. Celestino Hernández Robau" University Hospital from January to December 2020, through documentary review of the medical records at discharge. Results: females aged 60 years and over predominated; lung, breast, and colorectal tumours predominated in this gender, as well as lung, prostate, and hemolymphopoietic tumours in males. Lung tumour was the most frequent location; pneumonia prevailed among the comorbidities, in females older than 60 years. Patients admitted for diabetes mellitus had a stable disease, followed by those who were in progression; those who were admitted with heart failure had a lung or larynx tumour. Conclusions: patients admitted for having a lung tumour were associated with a greater number of complications and deaths at discharge. We recommend improving a comprehensive care of these patients by oncologists and internists.


Subject(s)
Cancer Care Facilities , Comorbidity , Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias , Neoplasms
10.
Rev. ADM ; 80(4): 197-203, jul.-ago. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526224

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en todo paciente hospitalizado con absceso odontogénico cervicofacial se busca resolución pronta del absceso, pero es necesario conocer cuáles son los factores que favorecen la resolución en hospitalizaciones cortas (1-3 días). Objetivo: determinar factores clínico-epidemiológicos de pacientes con abscesos odontogénicos para identificar factores que correlacionan con hospitalización corta. Material y métodos: estudio transversal, retrospectivo, observacional y analítico de 100 pacientes con abscesos odontogénicos en un Hospital General de Zona del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de los años 2012-2013. Variables de estudio: días de hospitalización, sexo, edad, comorbilidades, conteo leucocitario, trismus, diente causal, región afectada y tratamientos realizados. Tamaño de muestra obtenido con fórmula para estudios observaciones con manejo de prevalencias para poblaciones infinitas, se empleó χ2 para identificar factores que correlacionan con hospitalización corta. Resultados: mujeres 56%, rango de edad 12-89 años y de hospitalización de 1-23 días; con comorbilidades 56%, leucocitosis 39% y trismus 21%. La caries causó 64% de abscesos, molares inferiores 70% y región submandibular afectada 73%. Variables estadísticamente significativas; conteo leucocitario, diente causal y región afectada. Conclusión: factores correlacionados con hospitalización corta: conteo leucocitario menor a 10,500 leucocitos, que el molar inferior no sea el diente causal y que la región submandibular no esté afectada (AU)


Introduction: prompt resolution of the abscess is sought in all patients hospitalized with cervicofacial odontogenic abscess, but which factors favor this resolution in short hospitalizations (1-3 days). Objective: determine clinical-epidemiological factors of patients with odontogenic abscesses to identify factors that correlate with short hospitalization. Material and methods: crosssectional, retrospective, observational and analytical study of 100 patients with odontogenic abscesses in a General Hospital of the Zone of the Mexican Social Security Institute from 2012-2013. Study variables; days of hospitalization, sex, age, comorbidities, leukocyte count, trismus, causative tooth, affected region and treatments performed. Sample size obtained with the formula for observational studies with prevalence management for infinite populations, χ2 was used to identify factors that correlate with short hospitalization. Results: women 56%, age range 12-89 years and hospitalization of 1-23 days, with comorbidities 56%, leukocytosis 39% and trismus 21%. Caries caused 64% of abscesses, lower molars 70% and affected submandibular region 73%. Statistically significant variables; leukocyte count, causative tooth and affected region. Conclusion: factors correlated with short hospitalization; leukocyte count less than 10,500 leukocytes, that the lower molar is not the causal tooth and that the submandibular region is not affected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Actinomycosis, Cervicofacial , Comorbidity , Focal Infection, Dental/complications , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age and Sex Distribution , Hospitalization , Hospitals, General/statistics & numerical data
11.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(2): 88-93, jun2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437542

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es un trastorno res-piratorio caracterizado por síntomas clínicos y compromiso funcional que afecta la ca-pacidad aeróbica limitando las actividades cotidianas y la calidad de vida. La prueba de caminata de 6 minutos (C6M) es una prueba sencilla y de bajo costo que evalúa la capa-cidad de los pacientes para realizar sus actividades cotidianas. Objetivo: evaluar la re-lación entre la capacidad aeróbica medida por la distancia recorrida en la C6M y el se-xo, edad, disnea y comorbilidades cardiometabólicas en pacientes con EPOC. Material y métodos: estudio de corte transversal, descriptivo, basado en pruebas de caminatas de 6 minutos (C6M) realizadas en pacientes con EPOC. Resultados: se evaluaron 101 pacientes, hombres (63,4%), con una edad promedio de 74,1±8,7 años. Al correlacionar C6M con otras variables se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La distancia media recorrida fue mayor en hombres que en mujeres (DM: 58,3 metros, IC 95%; 16 - 100,6, p=0,007). Los pacientes < 75 años, sin comorbilidades y disnea < 2 tu-vieron mejor desempeño en la C6M que los > 75 años (DM; 62,012 metros IC 95% 21,5 - 102,4, p=0,003), con comorbilidades (DM: 42,2 metros, IC 95%, 0.003 - 84,4; p=0,050) y disnea ≥ 2 (DM: 65,8 IC 95% 23,9 - 107,6, p=0,002). Conclusiones: el sexo femenino, la presencia de comorbilidad cardiovascular y metabólica, y la edad se asocian con dis-minución en la capacidad física aeróbica y funcional en los pacientes con EPOC. (AU)


Introduction: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disorder characterized by clinical symptoms and functional impairment that affects aerobic capacity, limiting daily activities and quality of life. The 6-minute walk test (C6M) is a simple, low-cost test that assesses a patient's ability to perform their daily activities. Objective: to evaluate the relationship between aerobic capacity measured by the distance covered in the C6M and gender, age, dyspnea and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with COPD. Materials and methods: cross-sectional, descriptive study, based on 6-minute walk tests (C6M) performed in patients with COPD. Results: 101 male patients (63.4%), with a mean age of 74.1 ± 8.7 years, were evaluated. When correlating C6M with other variables, statistically significant differences were found. The mean distance traveled was greater in men than in women (MD: 58.3 meters, 95% CI: 16 - 100.6, p=0.007). Patients <75 years old, without comorbidities and dyspnea <2 had better performance in the C6M than those >75 years old (MD; 62 meters CI 95% 21.5 - 102.4, p=0.003), with comorbidities (MD: 42.2 meters, 95% CI, 0.003 - 84.4; p=0.050) and dyspnea ≥ 2 (MD: 65.8, 95% CI 23.9 - 107.6, p=0.002). Conclusions: female sex, the presence of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidity, and age are associated with decreased aerobic and functional physical capacity in patients with COPD. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Walk Test/methods , Quality of Life , Comorbidity , Colombia , Age Groups
12.
Femina ; 51(3): 167-173, 20230331. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428729

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar as notificações de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 em gestantes em um município do sul de Santa Catarina. Métodos: Estudo transversal que avaliou as notificações de casos suspeitos de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 em gestantes no município de Tubarão, Santa Catarina, de março de 2020 a outubro de 2021. Coletaram-se os dados das fichas de notificação de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 da Fundação Municipal de Saúde e no Prontuário Eletrônico do Cidadão (PEC) das gestantes notificadas. A comparação da prevalência de confirmação segundo sintomas apresentados e características maternas foi realizada pela razão de prevalência (RP), com intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95%. Resultados: Foram registradas 555 notificações de gestantes suspeitas para a COVID-19, correspondentes a 487 mulheres. A prevalência de confirmação para a doença foi de 27,3%. O sintoma mais frequente no momento da notificação foi cefaleia (53,0%), entretanto o mais associado à confirmação foi a anosmia (RP: 2,28; IC 95%: 1,68-3,09). Das notificações registradas, 35,0% foram realizadas por gestantes que tiveram contato com casos suspeitos ou confirmados de COVID-19. O contato prévio foi mais relatado por gestantes assintomáticas, em comparação às gestantes que apresentaram sintomas (RP: 1,46; IC 95%: 1,12-1,91). Mulheres que relataram contato prévio com suspeitos ou confirmados para a COVID-19 apresentaram maior frequência de doença confirmada, quando comparadas às gestantes não expostas (RP: 1,80; IC 95%: 1,35-2,39). Conclusão: As gestantes, por terem maior susceptibilidade a surtos de doenças e gravidade do quadro, podem ter adotado com mais atenção medidas como a realização de testes diagnósticos quando em contato prévio com casos de COVID-19, mesmo assintomáticas.


Objective: To characterize the notifications of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women in a city in the South of Santa Catarina. Methods: Cross-sectional study that evaluated notifications of suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, from March 2020 to October 2021. Data were collected from the SARS-CoV-2 infection notification forms from the Municipal Health Foundation, and from the Citizen's Electronic Health Record of the notified pregnant women. The comparison of the prevalence of confirmation according to symptoms and maternal characteristics was performed using the Prevalence Ratio (PR), with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. Results: 555 notifications of suspected pregnant women for COVID-19 were registered, corresponding to 487 women. The prevalence of confirmation for the disease was 27.3%. The most frequent symptom at the time of notification was headache (53.0%), however, the most associated with confirmation was anosmia (PR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.68-3.09). Of the notifications registered, 35.0% were made by pregnant women who had contact with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. The previous contact was more frequently reported by asymptomatic pregnant women compared to pregnant women who had symptoms (PR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12-1.91). Women who reported previous contact with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 had a higher frequency of confirmed disease when compared to unexposed pregnant women (PR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.35-2.39). Conclusion: Pregnant women, due to their greater susceptibility to disease outbreaks and disease severity, may have adopted more attentive measures such as diagnostic testing in the face of previous contact with cases of COVID-19, even if asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Signs and Symptoms , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Public Health Surveillance , Maternal Health , COVID-19
13.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 18(45): 3504, 20230212. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1510607

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As mudanças no estilo de vida levam ao aumento da exposição a fatores de risco a doenças crônicas e, diante disso, torna-se mais frequente a simultaneidade de tais doenças, em idades cada vez mais precoces, o que caracteriza uma condição complexa e desafiadora na área da saúde. Objetivo: Analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados à multimorbidade em usuários da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) de Passo Fundo, norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo transversal, cujos dados foram coletados por meio da aplicação de questionários a adultos atendidos na rede urbana da APS de maio a agosto de 2019. Calculou-se a prevalência do desfecho, com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) e as razões de prevalência (RP) brutas e ajustadas, visando identificar os fatores associados. Resultados: A prevalência de multimorbidade na amostra de 958 participantes foi de 31% (IC95% 28­34) e seus fatores associados foram idade de 50­59 anos (RP=5,47; IC95% 3,54­8,45), autopercepção negativa de saúde (RP=1,61; IC95% 1,29­2,01), excesso de peso (RP=3,14; IC95% 2,21­4,44) e polifarmácia (RP=1,55; IC95% 1,33­1,81). Conclusão: A multimorbidade é prevalente na população atendida na APS, e sugere-se que as equipes de saúde busquem estratégias de investigação dessa condição e dos fatores que possam estar associados.


Introduction: Lifestyle changes have led to an increased exposure to risk factors for chronic diseases, making the coexistence of such conditions more frequent, even at younger ages. This complex and challenging health condition is characterized by the simultaneous presence of multiple diseases. Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multimorbidity in users of Primary Health Care (PHC) in Passo Fundo, northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were collected by applying questionnaires to adults assisted by the urban network of PHC from May to August 2019. The prevalence of the outcome was estimated, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI), as well as crude and adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR) to identify associated factors. Results: The prevalence of multimorbidity in the sample of 958 participants was 31% (95%CI 28­34), and its associated factors were age between 50 and 59 years (PR=5.47; 95%CI 3.54­8.45), negative self-perception of health (PR=1.61; 95%CI 1.29­2.01), overweight (PR=3.14; 95%CI 2.21­4.44), and polypharmacy (PR=1.55; 95%CI 1.33­1.81). Conclusion: Multimorbidity is prevalent in the population assisted by PHC, suggesting that healthcare teams should seek strategies for investigating this condition and associated factors.


Introducción: Los cambios en el estilo de vida han llevado a un aumento en la exposición a factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas, lo que hace más frecuente la coexistencia de tales condiciones, incluso a edades más tempranas. Esta compleja y desafiante condición de salud se caracteriza por la presencia simultánea de múltiples enfermedades. Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la multimorbilidad en usuarios de la Atención Primaria a la Salud (APS) de Passo Fundo, norte de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, y los datos se recopilaron a través de la aplicación de cuestionarios a adultos atendidos en la red urbana de APS de mayo a agosto de 2019. Se calculó la prevalencia del resultado, con un intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%), así como las Razones de Prevalencia (RP) crudas y ajustadas para identificar los factores asociados. Resultados: La prevalencia de multimorbilidad en la muestra de 958 participantes fue del 31% (IC95% 28­34), y sus factores asociados fueron edad entre 50 y 59 años (RP=5,47; IC95% 3,54­8,45), percepción negativa de la salud (RP=1,61; IC95% 1,29­2,01), sobrepeso (RP=3,14; IC95% 2,21­4,44) y polifarmacia (RP=1,55; IC95% 1,33­1,81). Conclusión: La multimorbilidad es prevalente en la población atendida en APS, lo que sugiere que los equipos de salud deben buscar estrategias de investigación para esta condición y los factores asociados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Multimorbidity , Primary Health Care , Comorbidity
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 15-22, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently experience a hyperinflammatory syndrome leading to unfavorable outcomes. This condition resembles Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) described in neoplastic, rheumatic and other infectious diseases. A scoring system (HScore) that evaluates underlying immunosuppression, temperature, organomegaly, cytopenias, ferritin, triglycerides, fibrinogen and AST was validated for sHLH, and recently proposed to evaluate hyperinflammation in COVID-19. AIM: To assess the presence of sHLH among patients with COVID-19 admitted for hospitalization and to evaluate Hscore as a prognostic tool for poor outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients aged 21-100 years (64% males) admitted because of COVID-19 were enrolled in a prospective study. HScore was calculated within 72 hours admission. The incidence of sHLH during hospitalization was evaluated. Additionally, the relationship between a HScore ≥ 130 points and either the requirement of mechanical ventilation or 60-days mortality was explored. RESULTS: The median HScore was 96 (33-169). A SHLH was diagnosed in one patient (incidence 0.7%), whose HScore was 169. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities and obesity, HScore ≥ 130 was independently associated with the composite clinical outcome (Hazard rartio 2.13, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: sHLH is not frequent among COVID-19 patients. HScore can be useful to predict the risk for poor outcomes.


ANTECEDENTES: Los pacientes con Enfermedad por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), experimentan frecuentemente un síndrome hiperinflamatorio que lleva a resultados desfavorables. Esta situación se asemeja al Síndrome Hemofagocítico Secundario (sHLH) descrito en enfermedades neoplásicas, reumatológicas y por otros agentes infecciosos. Un sistema simple de puntaje (HScore) que evalúa inmunosupresión, temperatura organomegalia, citopenias, ferritina, triglicéridos, fibrinógeno y AST ha sido validado para el diagnóstico de sHLH y ha sido propuesto recientemente para evaluar la hiperinflamación en COVID-19. OBJETIVO: Medir la frecuencia de sHLH entre pacientes con COVID-19 hospitalizados, y evaluar a HScore como una herramienta pronóstica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ciento cuarenta y tres pacientes de 21 a 100 años (64% hombres) fueron ingresados en este estudio de cohorte prospectivo, unicéntrico. Se calculó HScore dentro de las primeras 72 horas desde el ingreso, y se midió la incidencia de sHLH durante la hospitalización. Adicionalmente, se evaluó la relación entre HScore ≥ 130 puntos y un desenlace compuesto de ventilación mecánica o muerte a los 60 días. RESULTADOS: La mediana de HScore fue 96 (33-169) puntos. Un paciente fue diagnosticado con sHLH (incidencia 0,7%). Luego de ajustar por edad, sexo, comorbilidades y obesidad, un HScore ≥ 130 se asoció de manera independiente con el desenlace compuesto. CONCLUSIONES: El sHLH no es frecuente en los pacientes con COVID-19. El uso de HScore puede ser útil para predecir el riesgo de desenlaces clínicos desfavorables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Prognosis , Comorbidity , Prospective Studies , Hospitalization
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 222-228, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522070

ABSTRACT

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is highly prevalent in elderly patients. It confers a higher risk for ischemic stroke, heart failure and death. The diagnosis and treatment of AF has been extensively studied and remain under constant revision. This article reviews the recent European guidelines and the advances observed with the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants in the last ten years. This new family of drugs has clear benefits in terms of efficacy and safety compared with traditional vitamin K antagonists. Treatment of most common comorbidities in patients with AF such as advanced age, heart failure, diabetes, renal failure, and others are also analyzed. New therapies for AF will be shortly available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
16.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 121-134, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414731

ABSTRACT

Os primeiros relatos de infecção pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 ocorreram no final do ano de 2019. A infecção e o desenvolvimento da doença COVID-19 estão diretamente relacionados com as características particulares do indivíduo, como sexo, idade e comorbidades. Ademais, indivíduos que possuíam algum tipo de doença crônica, expressaram uma maior taxa de complicações decorrente da infecção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a prevalência de comorbidades em indivíduos infectados por COVID- 19 no município de Jaraguá do Sul, Santa Catarina no período de março de 2020 a dezembro de 2021. A pesquisa apresentou um delineamento transversal, descritivo, analítico e de abordagem quantitativa, realizada por meio de dados secundários utilizando o sistema de informação Olostech da Secretaria de Saúde do Município. Os resultados mostraram que 40.010 sujeitos foram infectados no período do estudo, destes 39.574 (98,9%) foram recuperados e 436 foram a óbito (1,1%). Observou-se no grupo recuperados a predominância do sexo feminino (52,3%) e no de óbitos o sexo masculino (59,2%). A faixa etária predominante no grupo de recuperados foi a de 20-59 anos (n=31.636; 79,9%) e no grupo de óbitos foi maior ou igual a 60 anos (n=269; 61,7%). No ano de 2021 ocorreram mais casos de recuperados (n=26.040; 65,1%) e óbitos (n=342; 78,4%) quando comparados ao ano de 2020. A média de idade no grupo de recuperados foi 37,5 ± 15,8 anos e no grupo de óbitos foi 63,2 ± 15,7 anos. Os dados mostraram o perfil dos inidvíduos infectados e a prevalência das principais doenças crônicas: hipertensão, diabetes e obesidade. Sugerem-se ações e estratégias voltadas a minimizar estas comorbidades, objetivando a melhor qualidade de vida dos indivíduos deste município.


The first reports of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection occurred in late 2019. Infection and the development of COVID-19 disease are directly related to the particular characteristics of the individual, such as gender, age, and comorbidities. Moreover, indi- viduals who had some type of chronic disease expressed a higher rate of complications arising from the infection. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of comorbidities in individuals infected by COVID-19 in the city of Jaraguá do Sul/SC from March 2020 to December 2021. The research presented a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical design with a quantitative approach, carried out through secondary data using the Olostech in- formation system of the Health Department of the municipality. The results showed that 40,010 subjects were infected during the study period, of which 39,574 (98.9%) were recovered and 436 died (1.1%). It was observed a predominance of females in the recov- ered group (52.3%) and males in the deceased group (59.2%). The predominant age group in the group of recovered patients was 20-59 years (n=31,636; 79.9%) and in the group of deaths it was 60 years or older (n=269; 61.7%). In the year 2021 there were more cases of recovered (n=26,040; 65.1%) and deaths (n=342; 78.4%) when compared to the year 2020. The mean age in the recovered group was 37.5 ± 15.8 years and in the death group was 63.2 ± 15.7 years. The data showed the profile of infected individuals and the prev- alence of the main chronic diseases: hypertension, diabetes and obesity. We suggest ac- tions and strategies aimed at minimizing these comorbidities, aiming at a better quality of life for individuals in this city.


Los primeros informes de infección por el virus SARS-CoV-2 se produje- ron a finales de 2019. La infección y el desarrollo de la enfermedad por COVID-19 están directamente relacionados con las características particulares del individuo, como el sexo, la edad y las comorbilidades. Además, los individuos que presentaban algún tipo de enfer- medad crónica expresaron una mayor tasa de complicaciones derivadas de la infección. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar la prevalencia de comorbilidades en individuos infectados por COVID-19 en la ciudad de Jaraguá do Sul/SC de marzo de 2020 a diciem- bre de 2021. La investigación presentó un diseño transversal, descriptivo, analítico, con abordaje cuantitativo, realizado a través de datos secundarios utilizando el sistema de in- formación Olostech de la Secretaría de Salud del municipio. Los resultados mostraron que 40.010 sujetos fueron infectados durante el período de estudio, de los cuales 39.574 (98,9%) fueron recuperados y 436 fallecieron (1,1%). Se observó un predominio de mu- jeres en el grupo recuperado (52,3%) y de hombres en el grupo fallecido (59,2%). El grupo de edad predominante en el grupo de pacientes recuperados fue de 20-59 años (n=31.636; 79,9%) y en el grupo de fallecidos fue de 60 años o más (n=269; 61,7%). En el año 2021 hubo más casos de recuperados (n=26.040; 65,1%) y fallecidos (n=342; 78,4%) en comparación con el año 2020. La edad media en el grupo de recuperados fue de 37,5 ± 15,8 años y en el grupo de fallecidos fue de 63,2 ± 15,7 años. Los datos mostra- ron el perfil de los individuos infectados y la prevalencia de las principales enfermedades crónicas: hipertensión, diabetes y obesidad. Sugerimos acciones y estrategias dirigidas a minimizar estas comorbilidades, visando una mejor calidad de vida de los individuos de esta ciudad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Patients , Comorbidity , Prevalence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Profile , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Services Research , Hypertension , Obesity
17.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 5(1): 1-9, 26-01-2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1437663

ABSTRACT

Introducción:Escasos reportes sobre asma existen en la literatura nacional. El objetivo delestudio es describir ciertas características clínicas, las comorbilidades y el riesgo para apnea obstructiva del sueño (AOS) en este colectivo. Material y métodos:Mediante un estudio observacional tipo caso-control, se incluyeron pacientes portadores de asma de ambos sexos y un grupo control pareado por sexo y edad. Se consignaron datos demográficos, características de la enfermedad, datos relativos al control del asma y espirometría, comorbilidades y riesgo de apnea de sueño medido por el cuestionario STOP-BANG durante una entrevista estructurada. Resultados: Se incluyeron 132 individuos en el grupo caso y 132 en el grupo control. Entre los asmáticos, se consignaron 38,63% de formas no controladas y 9% severas. También se constató mayor frecuencia dehipertensión arterial, obesidad, rinitis alérgicay trastornos de la memoria. Riesgo mayor para AOS, aunque no significativo, se consignó en el grupo de casos. En el subgrupo de asmáticos con obesidad o en adultos mayores, la diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa-Discusión:Aundisponiendo de medicamentos preventivos,la tasa de control de los asmáticos en esta muestra es llamativa y merece estudios sistemáticos. Es extremadamente importante tener en cuenta algunas comorbilidades para el manejo de este grupo de pacientes,incluyendo la estratificación de riesgo para AOS.Palabras clave:asma; comorbilidad; apnea obstructiva del sueño


Introduction.Few reports on asthma exist in the national literature. The objective of our study is to describe certain clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in this group. Material and methods.Through an observational case-control study, patients with asthma of both sexes and a control group matched by sex and age were included. Demographic data, disease characteristics, data related to asthma control and spirometry, comorbidities, and risk of sleep apnea measured by the STOP-BANG questionnaire were recorded during a structured interview. Results.132 individuals were included in the case group and 132 in the control group. Among the asthmatics, 38.63% of uncontrolled forms and 9% were severe. There was also a higher frequency of arterial hypertension, obesity, allergic rhinitis and memory disorders. Higher risk for OSA, although not significant, was recorded in the case group. In the subgroup of asthmatics with obesity or in older adults, the difference was relevant to the statistical analysis. Discussion.Even with preventive medications available, the control rate of asthmatics in this sample is striking and deserves systematic studies. It is extremely important to take into account some comorbidities for the management ofthis group of patients, including risk stratification for OSA.Key Words:asthma; comorbidity;obstructive sleep apnea


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Asthma , Comorbidity , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
18.
Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 6(2): 157-160, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1509398

ABSTRACT

Background The World Health Organization has recommended the implementation of the Collaborative Care Model in all countries to manage the comorbidities of depression and chronic non-communicable diseases. In Rwanda depression is major problem not only among patients with chronic illnesses but also in general population considering the unique history of war and genocide in Rwanda. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of adaptation and testing of the Collaborative Care Model in the Rwandan healthcare context. Methods The larger study used the Action Research design with mixed method ­sequential explanatory design. A research-practice partnership method and an iterative process was used to adapt and test the Collaborative Care Model. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four structural components to the model were adapted including the addition of a registered nurse to the team, relocation of the model to the district level, consultation with a psychiatrist every 3 months and involvement of community health workers. The evaluation indicated that the model was applicable and acceptable. Conclusions Initial evaluation of the Adapted Collaborative Care Model shows promise in Rwanda. Implementation of this model in other Rwandan districts is warranted.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Depression , Noncommunicable Diseases
19.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 16(4): 5290-5308, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512231

ABSTRACT

Context and objective. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are poorly studied. The aim of the present study was to describe the socio demographic and clinical characteristics of children with autism and to identify associated factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of children with ASD attended at three specialized centers in Kinshasa. We confirmed a ASD diagnosis through clinical observation using Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders four Text Revision (DSM-VI-TR) criteria and standardized autism diagnostic tools. We analyzed socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and main comorbidities of ASD. The comparison of proportions was done using Pearson's chi-square test. One-way ANOVAs were calculated to test differences in averages. Results. A total of 120 children (72.5 % male) were examined. Their mean age at diagnosis was 7.83 ± 3.4 years, while parents were alerted at 1.8 ±0.78 years. Language delays were the main alert sign (54%) and the main symptom (62%). Social interaction disorders (11.7 %) were underreported by parents. The core signs of ASD were disorders of social interaction (90.5%), behavior (80%) and language (62.5%). The main ASD symptoms were associated with epilepsy(p=0.027), cerebral palsy (p=0.026) and hearing impairment (p=0.045). Conclusion. The diagnostic and language delay co-occurring with epilepsy and hearing impairment are the main clinical features of autism in the DRC. This study suggests that screening children for autism and its main comorbidities using a multidisciplinary approach should be a priority in Kinshasa.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Language Development Disorders
20.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 57(3): 175-182, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1517564

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and identifiable risk factors for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in a real-world clinical setting. Design: Cross-sectional study among patients with COPD. Setting: The Respiratory clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Participants: Consecutive patients with spirometry confirmed COPD on follow-up for ≥3 months. There were 79 participants. Intervention: None Main outcome measure: COPD risk factors, disease severity, comorbidities, and the severity of airflow limitation. Results: The mean age of the participants was 63.3± 12.4 years, and 47 (59.5) were male. There was a high symptom burden (73.4% had COPD assessment test (CAT) score >10), 33 (41.8%) and 4 (5.1%) had GOLD 3 and GOLD 4 airflow limitation, respectively. Risk factors were identified for 96.2% of the participants: history of asthma in 37 (46.8%), tobacco smoking 22 (27.8%), occupational exposure 15 (19%), biomass exposure 5 (6.6%), post-tuberculosis 3 (3.8%), old age (3.8%), and prematurity 1 (1.3%). Fifty-nine (74.7%) had Asthma COPD Overlap (ACO). There were no significant associations between the risk factors and disease severity. Participants with ACO had lower lung function and a high frequency of allergic rhinitis. Conclusion: Asthma was the most commonly identifiable risk factor for COPD, underscoring asthma risk reduction and management optimisation as priorities toward COPD burden mitigation. Future studies need to validate these findings and identify the predominant COPD phenotypes in our setting.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Occupational Exposure , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Asthma
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