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Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 01, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536768


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to propose a comprehensive alternative to the Bland-Altman plot method, addressing its limitations and providing a statistical framework for evaluating the equivalences of measurement techniques. This involves introducing an innovative three-step approach for assessing accuracy, precision, and agreement between techniques, which enhances objectivity in equivalence assessment. Additionally, the development of an R package that is easy to use enables researchers to efficiently analyze and interpret technique equivalences. METHODS Inferential statistics support for equivalence between measurement techniques was proposed in three nested tests. These were based on structural regressions with the goal to assess the equivalence of structural means (accuracy), the equivalence of structural variances (precision), and concordance with the structural bisector line (agreement in measurements obtained from the same subject), using analytical methods and robust approach by bootstrapping. To promote better understanding, graphical outputs following Bland and Altman's principles were also implemented. RESULTS The performance of this method was shown and confronted by five data sets from previously published articles that used Bland and Altman's method. One case demonstrated strict equivalence, three cases showed partial equivalence, and one showed poor equivalence. The developed R package containing open codes and data are available for free and with installation instructions at Harvard Dataverse at CONCLUSION Although easy to communicate, the widely cited and applied Bland and Altman plot method is often misinterpreted, since it lacks suitable inferential statistical support. Common alternatives, such as Pearson's correlation or ordinal least-square linear regression, also fail to locate the weakness of each measurement technique. It may be possible to test whether two techniques have full equivalence by preserving graphical communication, in accordance with Bland and Altman's principles, but also adding robust and suitable inferential statistics. Decomposing equivalence into three features (accuracy, precision, and agreement) helps to locate the sources of the problem when fixing a new technique.

Confidence Intervals , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistical Inference , Data Accuracy
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e220174, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529129


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dentists' income and to identify associated factors in one of the poorest Brazilian states. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study including dentists who volunteered to answer an electronic questionnaire in Maranhão. Hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, estimating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) (alpha=5%). Results: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the professionals´ income negatively [55.44% (50.26-60.52%)] and also positively [6.9% (4.55-9.94%)]. The negative impact on income was greater among male dentists (OR=2.54; 95%CI: 1.16-5.53), over 30 years of age (OR=3.03; 95%CI: 1.34-6.87), with family income below two minimum wages (OR=4.63; 95%CI: 1.50-14.30), who worked in the continent instead of in the capital island (OR=2.21; 95%CI: 1.14-4.29) and in the private sector (OR=31.43; 95%CI: 11.59-85.22). Moreover, those who had been tested for COVID-19, with a negative result, had a 21.3-fold greater chance of having an increased household income when compared to those who had not been tested. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the dentists' income in Maranhão, especially the older, males, with lower incomes, and who worked in the private sector, living far from the capital. The SUS played an important role in the social protection of dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic, mitigating the economic impacts on the public sector working class.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Unified Health System , COVID-19/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 105-110, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971501


OBJECTIVE@#To compare different methods for calculating sample size based on confidence interval estimation for a single proportion with different event incidences and precisions.@*METHODS@#We compared 7 methods, namely Wald, AgrestiCoull add z2, Agresti-Coull add 4, Wilson Score, Clopper-Pearson, Mid-p, and Jefferys, for confidence interval estimation for a single proportion. The sample size was calculated using the search method with different parameter settings (proportion of specified events and half width of the confidence interval [ω=0.05, 0.1]). With Monte Carlo simulation, the estimated sample size was used to simulate and compare the width of the confidence interval, the coverage of the confidence interval and the ratio of the noncoverage probability.@*RESULTS@#For a high accuracy requirement (ω =0.05), the Mid-p method and Clopper Pearson method performed better when the incidence of events was low (P < 0.15). In other settings, the performance of the 7 methods did not differ significantly except for a poor symmetry of the Wald method. In the setting of ω=0.1 with a very low p (0.01-0.05), failure of iteration occurred with nearly all the methods except for the Clopper-Pearson method.@*CONCLUSION@#Different sample size determination methods based on confidence interval estimation should be selected for single proportions with different parameter settings.

Confidence Intervals , Sample Size , Computer Simulation , Monte Carlo Method , Probability
Cienc. act. fis. (Talca, En linea) ; 23(2): 1-16, dez. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421100


Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es describir el perfil de las variables del EIMP entre las dos posiciones de juego y determinar las posibles asociaciones con las características antropométricas y las cualidades físicas de un grupo de jugadores Rugby amateurs chilenos. Hipótesis: es por eso por lo que podemos plantear como hipótesis la existencia de asociaciones entre las variables de EIMP y las cualidades físicas de los jugadores de RU. Diseño metodológico: este estudio tiene un diseño de cohorte observacional, descriptivo y correlacional. Se investigó la asociación existente entre las variables de EIMP con las pruebas físicas y las variables antropométricas. Fueron evaluados treinta y dos jugadores de rugby varones de nivel amateurs chilenos (promedio ( DE, edad, 23,3 ( 5,4 años). Resultados: para la variable Masa Muscular se encontraron asociaciones grandes (r = 0.53) (p = 0.001) con la FM y asociaciones moderadas (r = 0,48) (r = 0,47) (r = 0,44) (r = 0,46) con F50, F100, F150 y F200 respectivamente. También se pueden observar las asociaciones grandes (R2 = 0,305) (R2 = 0,297) (R2 = 0,267) entre 1RM PB y F200, F100 y F150, respectivamente. Conclusión: en conclusión, este estudio puede demostrar la existencia de asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre algunas de las variables antropométricas y físicos con las variables de Fuerza de EIMP en jugadores de RU amateurs chilenos.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the profile of the EIMP variables between two playing positions and to determine its possible associations with anthropometric characteristics and physical qualities of a group of Chilean amateur rugby players. HYPOTHESIS: There are associations between the EIMP variables and the physical qualities of UR players. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN: This study has an observational, descriptive and correlational cohort design. The association between the EIMP variables, from the physical tests, and the anthropometric variables was investigated. Thirty-two Chilean amateur-level male rugby players were evaluated (mean ( SD, age, 23.3 ( 5.4 years). RESULTS: For the Muscle Mass variable, large associations were found (r=0.53) (p=0.001) to FM, and moderate associations (r=0.48) (r=0.47) (r=0.44) (r =0.46) to F50, F100, F150, and F200 respectively. Large associations (R2=0.305) (R2=0.297) (R2=0.267) between 1RM PB and F200, F100, and F150, respectively, can also be observed. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study can demonstrate the existence of statistically significant associations between some of the anthropometric and physical variables and the EIMP Strength variables in Chilean amateur UR players.

OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o perfil das variáveis EIMP entre as duas posições de jogo e determinar as possíveis associações com as características antropométricas e qualidades físicas de um grupo de jogadores amadores de rugby chilenos. HIPÓTESE: É por isso que podemos hipotetizar a existência de associações entre as variáveis do EIMP e as qualidades físicas dos jogadores do RU. DESENHO METODOLÓGICO: Este estudo tem um desenho de coorte observacional, descritivo e correlacional. Investigou-se a associação entre as variáveis do EIMP com os testes físicos e as variáveis antropométricas. Trinta e dois jogadores de rugby masculinos de nível amador chileno foram avaliados (média ( DP, idade, 23,3 ( 5,4 anos). RESULTADOS: Para a variável Massa Muscular foram encontradas grandes associações (r=0,53ejercicio y cualidades físicos) (r=0,47) (r=0,44) (r=0,46) com F50, F100, F150 e F200 respectivamente. Grandes associações (R2=0,305) (R2=0,297) (R2=0,267) entre 1RM PB e F200, F100 e F150 respebaloncestotambém podem ser observadas. CONCLUSÃO: Em conclusão, este estudo pode demonstrar a existência de associações estatisticamente significativas entre algumas das variáveis antropométricas e físicas com as variáveis EIMP Força em jogadores amadores do RU chilenos.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Anthropometry , Exercise Test/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology , Rugby/physiology , Thigh/physiology , Exercise , Confidence Intervals , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Isometric Contraction/physiology
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(3): 255-264, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1408050


RESUMEN Objetivos: describir la frecuencia del no cumplimiento del control prenatal en gestantes de 35 años o más del departamento del Cauca, Colombia, y hacer un análisis exploratorio de los factores asociados. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se incluyeron gestantes entre 35 y 41 años afiliadas a la Entidad Administradora de Planes de Beneficios Asociación Indígena del Cauca Entidad Promotora de Salud-I (EAPB AIC-I) e inscritas al programa de control prenatal, entre 2016 y 2018. Se excluyeron pacientes con registros sin información completa. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y la frecuencia de no asistencia adecuado al control prenatal a través de estadística descriptiva, y se calcularon Odd Ratios con sus intervalos de confianza para los factores asociados. Resultados: en 1016 pacientes entre 35 y 41 años evaluadas se encontró una frecuencia de no cumplimiento de mínimo seis controles prenatales de 61,3 %. El antecedente de aborto (OR ajustado: 0,46; IC 95 % 0,33-0,64,) y gravidez de cinco o más (OR ajustado: 3,22; IC 95 % 1,50-6,91) fueron los factores asociados. Conclusiones: el no cumplimiento de controles prenatales por gestantes de 35 o más años inscritos en la EAPB AIC-I del Cauca es alto. Se requieren nuevos estudios cualitativos que evalúen factores culturales y sociales presentes en estas comunidades que afectan la adherencia al control prenatal, así como estudios prospectivos que confirmen el análisis exploratorio de los factores asociados a la no adherencia. Es importante que las empresas aseguradoras del régimen subsidiado realicen actividades de promoción en estas comunidades para incrementar su cumplimento.

ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the frequency and factors associated with non-adherence to prenatal follow-up in pregnant women 35 years of age or older in the department of Cauca, Colombia, between 2016 and 2018. Material and methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive observational study of records of pregnant women between 35 and 41 years of age affiliated to the Cauca Indigenous Association Health Benefit Plan Management Organization-I (EAPB AIC-I) and registered in the prenatal care program, between 2016 and 2018. Duplicate records and records with incomplete information were excluded. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, as well as program outcomes, were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Odds ratios and their confidence intervals were calculated. Results: In 1016 patients between 35 and 41 years of age, a frequency of 61.3 % of non-adherence to at least six prenatal visits was found. History of abortion (adjusted OR: 0.46; 95 % CI 0.33-0.64) and pregnancy of five or more (adjusted OR: 3,22; IC 95 % 1,50-6,91) were the associated factors. Conclusions: Non-adherence to prenatal care by pregnant women of 35 years or more affiliated to the Cauca EAPB AIC-I is high. Further qualitative studies are needed to examine the cultural and social factors present in these communities that may affect adherence to prenatal monitoring, together with prospective studies to confirm the exploratory analysis of factors associated with non-adherence. Insurance organizations in the subsidized regime should be called upon to conduct promotion activities in these communities in order to improve adherence.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Confidence Intervals , Maternal Mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Cultural Factors , Social Factors , Sociodemographic Factors
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 163-172, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394945


Abstract Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent malignant primary liver tumor globally. In 2018, it ranked sixth and represented the fourth cause of death from cancer; the five-year overall survival is 18 %. Most cases of HCC develop in patients with cirrhosis of any etiology, especially because of hepatitis B and C viruses, alcohol, and recently nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Aim: To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatments, prognostic variables, and survival. Materials and methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted on a cohort of patients diagnosed with cirrhosis and treated between January 2011 and December 2020 at a health care center in Bogotá. The diagnosis of HCC was confirmed radiologically or by biopsy. We analyzed the information descriptively with absolute frequency measures in the case of categorical variables. For continuous variables, the information was summarized with measures of central tendency (mean or median) and their relevant measures of dispersion. Results: We included 152 patients diagnosed with HCC, with a mean age of 69.4 years; 51.3 % were men. The leading cause of HCC was nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which accounted for almost a third of cases (32 %); other causes were alcohol (15 %) and hepatitis C virus (14 %). The median manifestation of the tumor was two nodules with a size close to 4 cm. Besides, 35 % of patients had a BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) stage with curative options, and 25 % received curative treatment options. The first-line systemic therapy used in this cohort was sorafenib®, used in 35 patients (33.7 %). Survival curves showed that women, Child-Pugh class A, and BCLC stage 0 had higher median survival. Multivariate analysis showed a higher risk of death for males (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.16; confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-3.76), Child-Pugh class B (HR: 2.14; CI 1.16-3.95), and Child-Pugh class C (HR: 7.52; CI 2.88-19.57). Conclusions: NAFLD is the leading cause of HCC in this cohort. A third of patients are diagnosed in early BCLC stages with a curative treatment option, and 25 % are treated with curative therapies. Sorafenib was the first-line therapy in advanced HCC. Overall survival after diagnosis of HCC remains low, being necessary to join forces in the follow-up of patients with cirrhosis to improve these outcomes.

Resumen Introducción: el hepatocarcinoma (HCC) es el tumor hepático primario maligno más frecuente en el mundo: en 2018 ocupó la sexta posición y representó la cuarta causa de muerte por cáncer; la supervivencia global a 5 años es del 18 %. La mayoría de los casos de HCC se desarrolla en pacientes con cirrosis de cualquier etiología, especialmente por virus de la hepatitis B y C, alcohol y, recientemente, por la esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (NASH). Objetivo: analizar las características clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico, tratamientos, variables pronósticas y supervivencia. Metodología: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de cirrosis atendidos entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2020 en un centro de atención médica de Bogotá, con diagnóstico de HCC confirmado radiológicamente o por biopsia. La información se analizó de forma descriptiva con medidas de frecuencia absoluta en el caso de las variables categóricas; para las variables continuas se resumió la información con medidas de tendencia central (media o medianas) y su respectiva medida de dispersión. Resultados: se incluyeron 152 pacientes diagnosticados con HCC, con edad promedio de 69,4 años, 51,3 % eran hombres. La principal causa de HCC fue el hígado graso no alcohólico (NAFLD), que representó casi una tercera parte de los casos (32 %); otras causas fueron el alcohol (15 %) y el virus de la hepatitis C (14 %). La mediana de presentación del tumor fue de 2 nódulos con un tamaño cercano a 4 cm. El 35 % de los pacientes tenía un estadio BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) con opciones curativas y el 25 % de los pacientes recibió opciones curativas de tratamiento. La terapia sistémica de primera línea utilizada en esta cohorte fue el sorafenib®, que se utilizó en 35 pacientes (33,7 %). Las curvas de supervivencia mostraron que las mujeres, el estadio Child-Pugh A y el estadio BCLC 0 presentaron mayores medianas de supervivencia. El análisis multivariado evidenció un mayor riesgo de muerte al ser hombre (Hazard ratio [HR]: 2,16; intervalo de confianza [IC]: 1,24 a 3,76), estar en los estadios Child-Pugh B (HR: 2,14; IC: 1,16 a 3,95) y Child-Pugh C (HR: 7,52; IC: 2,88 a 19,57). Conclusiones: el NAFLD es la principal causa de HCC en la presente cohorte, una tercera parte de los pacientes se diagnostica en estadios BCLC tempranos con opción curativa de tratamiento, y un 25 % se trata con terapias curativas. El sorafenib fue la terapia de primera línea en HCC avanzado. La supervivencia global luego del diagnóstico de HCC sigue siendo baja, y es necesario aunar esfuerzos en el seguimiento de los pacientes con cirrosis para mejorar estos resultados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Therapeutics , Hepatitis B virus , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Sorafenib , Hepatitis B , Liver Neoplasms , Patients , Survival , Confidence Intervals , Causality , Multivariate Analysis , Central Trend Measures , Neoplasms
REME rev. min. enferm ; 26: e1458, abr.2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1422458


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever e comparar os indicadores de exposição a situações de violência vividas por estudantes adolescentes, de acordo com sexo, tipo de escola e unidades federadas nos anos de 2015 e 2019. Métodos: estudo transversal, descritivo com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE). Foram descritas e comparadas as prevalências e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) dos indicadores de exposição às situações de violência envolvendo adolescentes. Resultados: apontaram que: faltaram à escola por insegurança no trajeto 11,6% (IC95%:11,1;12,1); faltaram à escola por insegurança na escola 10,8% (IC95%:10,3;11,2); maiores prevalências de violência foram nas meninas e em estudantes de escolas públicas. Dentre os indicadores do estudo, constatou-se a que a prevalência de escolares que estiveram envolvidos em briga com luta física foi de 10,6% (IC95%:10,2;11,0), em briga com utilização de arma de fogo 2,9% (IC95%:2,7;3,1) e uso de arma branca foi de 4,8% (IC95%:4,5;5,1), dos quais a maioria eram meninos que estudavam em escolas públicas. Relataram ter sofrido acidente ou agressão no último ano 18,2% (IC95%:17,7;18,7) e 21,0% (IC95%:20,5;21,6), tendo sido agredidos pela mãe/pai/responsável e a maioria oriunda de escolas particulares. Ocorreu melhorias nos seguintes indicadores entre 2015 e 2019: envolver-se em briga com arma de fogo, de 6,4% (IC95%: 5,6;7,2) em (2015) para 2,9% (IC95%:2,7;3,1) (2019); e envolver-se em briga com arma branca, de 7,9% (IC95%:7,0;8,8) (2015) para 4,8% (IC95%:4,5;5,1) em (2019). Conclusão: os adolescentes estão expostos a violências no âmbito escolar ou comunitária, além de sofrerem violências no ambiente intrafamiliar/doméstico. Essas instituições deveriam ser capazes de garantir a proteção e o desenvolvimento saudável e seguro do adolescente.

RESUMEN Objetivo: describir y comparar los indicadores de exposición a situaciones de violencia de los estudiantes adolescentes según género, tipo de escuela y unidades federadas, en 2015 y 2019. Métodos: estudio transversal, descriptivo con datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Escolar. Se describieron y compararon la prevalencia y los respectivos intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%) de los indicadores de exposición a situaciones de violencia que afectan a los adolescentes. Resultados: se registraron ausencias escolares: por inseguridad en el camino a la escuela 11,6% (IC95%:11,1;12,1); por inseguridad en la escuela 10,8% (IC95%:10,3;11,2); la mayor prevalencia fue entre las niñas y los estudiantes de escuelas públicas. Entre los indicadores del estudio: la prevalencia de alumnos implicados en peleas con lucha física fue del 10,6% (IC95%:10,2;11,0), en peleas con armas de fuego del 2,9% (IC95%:2,7;3,1); uso de arma blanca del 4,8% (IC95%:4,5;5,1), la mayoría de ellos eran varones, que estudiaban en escuelas públicas. El 18,2% (IC95%:17,7;18,7) declaró haber sufrido un accidente o una agresión en el último año, el 21,0% (IC95%:20,5;21,6) fue agredido por su madre/padre/cuidador y la mayoría procedía de colegios privados. Se produjeron mejoras en los siguientes indicadores entre 2015 y 2019: involucrarse en una pelea con un arma de fuego, del 6,4% (IC 95%:5,6;7,2) en (2015) al 2,9% (IC 95%:2,7;3,1) (2019); involucrarse en una pelea con un cuchillo: del 7,9% (IC 95%:7,0;8,8) (2015) al 4,8% (IC 95%:4,5;5,1) en (2019). Conclusión: los adolescentes están expuestos a la violencia en el ámbito escolar o comunitario, además de sufrirla en el entorno intrafamiliar/doméstico. Estas instituciones deben ser capaces de garantizar la protección y el desarrollo sano y seguro del adolescente.

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe and compare the indicators corresponding to exposure to situations of violence experienced by in-school adolescents according to gender, type of school and Federation Units in 2015 and 2019. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted with data from the National School Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar, PeNSE). The prevalence values and their respective 95% confidence intervals (85% CIs) of the indicators corresponding to exposure to situations of violence involving adolescents were described and compared. Results: They pointed out that: 11.6% missed classes due to insecurity on the way (95% CI: 11.1-12.1); 10.8% missed classes due to insecurity at school (95% CI: 10.3-11.2); and the highest prevalence values of violence were recorded among girls and public school students. Among the study indicators, it was found that the prevalence of students who were involved in physical fights was 10.6% (95% CI: 10.2-11.0), in fights with firearm use, 2.9% (95% CI: 2.7-3.1), and in fights with melee weapon use, 4.8% (95% CI: 4.5-5.1), most of them boys who attended public schools. 18.2% (95% CI: 17.7-18.7) reported having suffered an accident or aggression in the last year and 21.0% (95% CI: 20.5-21.6) stated having been assaulted by their mother/father/guardian, most of them from private schools. There were improvements in the following indicators between 2015 and 2019: engaging in a fight involving a firearm, from 6.4% (95% CI: 5.6-7.2) in 2015 to 2.9% (95% CI: 2.7-3.1) in 2019; and engaging in a fight involving a melee weapon, from 7.9% (95% CI: 7.0-8.8) in 2015 to 4.8% (95% CI: 4.5-5.1) in 2019. Conclusion: Adolescents are exposed to several types of violence in the school or community settings, in addition to experiencing violence in the family/domestic environment. These institutions should be capable of ensuring protection and healthy and safe development to adolescents.

Humans , Adolescent , Students , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Adolescent Health , Gun Violence , Confidence Intervals , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys , Aggression , Protective Factors
PAMJ - One Health ; 9(NA): 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425575


Introduction: National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was implemented in Ghana in 2004 to serve as the lifeline to realizing Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Available evidence suggests that, formal sector workers do not promptly renew their expired NHIS membership cards. This study was therefore conducted to unearth factors responsible for the failure of healthcare workers in the Kintampo North Municipality to promptly renew their health insurance membership whenever it expires. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study, where three hundred and ninety-seven (397) participants were recruited using a proportionate stratified sampling technique. All variables with a p-value <0.25 at the bivariate analysis level were selected and put into multiple logistic regression analysis models for statistical significance (p-value < 0.05). Odds ratios with their corresponding 95% Confidence Interval were reported. A p-value < 0.05 was set as level of significance. Results: almost all the respondents (94.0%) had NHIS membership cards; out of which 70.7% had valid membership cards. Fourty percent did not renew their expired NHIS membership cards for more than 7 months. From the study, reasons given for health workers´ inability to promptly renew NHIS membership included: 212 (19.8%) indicated forgetfulness, busy schedules 191 (17.9%), procrastination 167 (15.6%), self-medication 170 (15.9%) and utilization of spiritual homes (4.5%). All socio-economic factors were significantly associated at the bivariate level (p<0.05). However, in the multiple logistic regression model, employment status, the type of health staff and monthly salary lost their statistical significance. Conclusion: NHIS subscription and membership renewals are high among healthcare workers who participated in the study in Kintampo North District of the Bono East Region of Ghana. However, there is the need to encourage those who do not renew their expired cards by NHIA and its accredited facilities sensitizing the general populace on the utilization of mobile phones to renew NHIS membership cards in order to prevent long waiting time and bureaucracies in renewing NHIS cards. It will be prudent for NHIS to liaise with Government of Ghana (GoG) to put measures in place to facilitate automatic membership renewals for public sector workers who for some other reasons often fail to renew their cards.

Humans , Male , Female , Delivery of Health Care , Universal Health Coverage , National Health Programs , Confidence Intervals , Health Personnel , Health Smart Cards
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(6)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409433


Introducción: La agregación familiar del asma se reconoce desde 1 860 a constatarse en varias generaciones de una familia. Objetivo: Determinar la agregación familiar para asma bronquial y los factores de riesgo. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, analítica, longitudinal, retrospectiva, casos/control a partir de la población perteneciente al área de salud Darío Calzadilla, en Banes, provincia Holguín, durante octubre 2020-marzo 2021. El universo abarcó la totalidad de individuos diagnosticados y sus familias. Por muestreo aleatorio simple, se obtuvo la muestra de 77 casos. Se conformó el grupo control a razón de 3:1, que incluyó 231 individuos sin antecedentes de enfermedad. Fueron aplicados criterios de inclusión/exclusión. Fueron utilizados los estadígrafos: Chi cuadrado, Odd Ratio (OR) e intervalo de confianza. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, grado de consanguinidad y factores de riesgo. Se obtuvo el árbol genealógico. Se cumplieron los requisitos bioéticos. Resultados: Los familiares de primer grado (47 individuos 17 por ciento) y segundo grado (23 individuos 4,3 por ciento) de consanguinidad mostraron la mayor incidencia de la enfermedad. Los grupos de edades 40-49 años (51 individuos, 22,8 por ciento) y 30-39 años (32 individuos, 22,3 por ciento), resultaron los más afectados. Los factores de riesgos mostraron asociación para la enfermedad (X2=111,15 p ≤ 0,001). El hábito de fumar (X2=132,9 OR=6,18 IC95 por ciento (4,49; 8,51)) y los antecedentes familiares de la enfermedad (X2=13,6 OR=1,73 IC95 por ciento (1,29; 2,32)) expresaron asociación altamente significativa. Se demostró agregación familiar para la enfermedad (X2=185,32 OR=9,97 IC95 por ciento (6,7; 14,84)). Conclusiones: El asma bronquial es una enfermedad multifactorial, compleja, poligénica con agregación familiar demostrada(AU)

Introduction: Familial aggregation of asthma has been recognized since 1860 and observed in several generations in one family. Objective: To determine familial aggregation of bronchial asthma as well as its risk factors. Material and Methods: An observational, analytical, longitudinal, and retrospective case-control study was conducted on the population belonging to Darío Calzadilla health area in Banes, Holguín province, from October 2020 to March 2021. The universe consisted of all the individuals diagnosed and their families. A sample composed of 77 cases was obtained by simple random sampling. The control group was formed at a ratio of 3:1, including 231 individuals without previous history of the disease. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The following stadigraphs were used: Chi-square test, Odds Ratio (OR), and confidence interval. The variables analyzed included age, degree of consanguinity, and risk factors. The family tree was obtained. Bioethical principles were fulfilled. Results: The first-degree relatives (47 individuals; 17 percent) and second-degree (23 individuals; 4,3 percent) of consanguinity showed a higher incidence of the disease. The age group 40-49 years (51 individuals; 22,8 percent) and 30-39 years (32 individuals; 22,3 percent), resulted to be the most affected. The risk factors evidenced an association with the disease (X2=111,15 p≤0,001). The smoking habit (X2=132,9 OR=6,18 95 percent CI (4,49; 8,51)) and family history of the disease (X2=13,6 OR=1,73 95 percent CI (1,29; 2,32)) expressed a highly significant association. Familial aggregation of the disease was demonstrated (X2=185,32 OR=9,97 95 % CI (6,7;14,84)). Conclusions: Bronchial asthma is a complex, multifactorial, polygenic disease with confirmed familial aggregation(AU)

Humans , Confidence Intervals , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Consanguinity , Case-Control Studies , Longitudinal Studies
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(4): 231-239, 15/12/2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1368902


Objetivo Determinar los efectos y la seguridad del tadalafilo en el deseo sexual y la excitación/lubricación en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Métodos Estudio cuasi experimental (con comparación antes de la intervención y después), con seguimiento de la cohorte de pacientes: 228 mujeres mayores de 40 años en postmenopausia, que consultaron por bajo deseo sexual y alteración de la excitación /lubricación, en una clínica sexológica en Armenia (Colombia), entre 2018 y 2019. Las mujeres recibieron 2,5 mg diarios de tadalafilo durante 12 semanas. Se determinaron las puntuaciones del instrumento, el Índice de Función Sexual Femenina (IFSF), cada cuatro semanas. Resultados El promedio de edad fue de 54,36 ± 4,92 años. Antes del tratamiento, la media en la puntuación del IFSF fue de 22,41 puntos (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 7,11­29,76); a las 4 semanas, 24,73 puntos (IC95%: 23,51­30,28); a las 8 semanas, 25,97 puntos (IC95%: 24,26­31,53); y, al final, 26,99 puntos (IC95%: 25,97­32,46), con diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las 4 medidas pareadas (p < 0,001). La excitación fue el dominio con mayor puntuación tras el tratamiento (4,83 puntos; IC 95%: 4,36­4,91), seguida por la lubricación (4,77 puntos; IC95%: 4,28­4,87). El deseo sexual mostró un significativo incremento al final del estudio (4,29 puntos; IC95%: 4,07­4,39). Se presentaron efectos adversos leves. Se observó una satisfacción con el consumo de tadalafilo del 84,21%. Conclusiones El tratamiento diario con 2,5 mg de tadalafilo genera mejoría en la función sexual de mujeres en la postmenopausia, y el incremento en la puntuación del IFSF demuestra su efecto positivo.

Objective To determine the effects and safety of tadalafil on sexual desire and arousal/lubrication in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods Quasi-experimental study (with a comparison before and after the intervention) with follow-up of the patient cohort: 228 postmenopausal women older than 40 years of age, who consulted due to low sexual desire and altered arousal/lubrication, in a sexology clinic in Armenia (Colombia) between 2018 and 2019. The women received 2.5 mg of tadalafil daily for 12 weeks. The scores on the instrument used, the Female Sexual Function Index, (FSFI), were determined every four weeks. Results The mean age was 54.36 ± 4.92 years. Before the treatment, the mean FSFI score was of 22.41 points (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 7.11­29.76); at 4 weeks, it was of 24.73 points (95%CI: 23.51­30, 28); at 8 weeks, 25.97 points (95%CI: 24.26­31.53); and, at the end, it was of 26.99 points (95%CI: 25.97­32.46), with statistically significant differences among the four paired measurements (p < 0.001). Arousal was the domain with the highest posttreatment score (4.83 points; 95%CI: 4.36­4.91), followed by lubrication (4.77 points; 95%CI: 4.28­4.87). Sexual desire showed a significant increase at the end of the study (4.29 points; 95%CI: 4.07­4.39). Mild adverse effects occurred. A rate of satisfaction of 84.21% with the intake of tadalafil. Conclusions The daily treatment with tadalafil 2.5 mg results in an improvement in sexual function in postmenopausal women; the increase in the score on the FSFI demonstrates its positive effect.

Humans , Female , Adult , Postmenopause , Tadalafil , Lubrication , Personal Satisfaction , Confidence Intervals , Aftercare , Sexology , Asexuality
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(3): 157-164, 15/09/2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369404


Objectives To identify the effect of duration of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) and other variables on infectious postsurgical complications in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) undergoing urological surgery. Methods We conducted an observational study of a cohort of patients with ASB scheduled for urologic surgery at three health service providers in Colombia. The study population comprised all patients with planned urologic surgery who had ASB prior to surgery from April 2018 to January 2019. The intervention evaluated was the duration of preoperative SAP, and the outcome variable was the development of any postoperative infectious complications for up to 30 days after the procedure. Results The present study included 184 patients with ASB scheduled for urologic surgery. The median duration of preoperative SAP (p = 0.49) or of 1 dose SAP (risk ratio [RR] = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45­3.39) were not statistically different in patients with postsurgical infectious complications. Infectious complications were more frequent among patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (RR = 6.57; 95%CI: 1.98­21.76) and hospitalization in the preceding 3 months (RR = 8.32; 95%CI: 2.69­25.71). Conclusion One dose of antimicrobial therapy is sufficient to avoid infectious complications in patients with ASB. There were other factors associated with postsurgical infectious complications, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and hospitalization in the preceding 3 months.

Objetivos Identificar el efecto de la duración de la profilaxis antibiótica quirúrgica (PAQ) y otras variables sobre las complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas en pacientes con bacteriuria asintomática (BA) sometidos a cirugía urológica. Métodos Se realizó un estudio observacional de una cohorte de pacientes con BA programados para cirugía urológica en tres instituciones de salud en Colombia. La población de estudio comprendió a todos los pacientes programados para cirugía urológica y con BA en el periodo de Abril del 2018 a Enero 2019. La intervención evaluada fue la duración de la PAQ preoperatoria, y la variable de resultado fue el desarrollo de cualquier complicación infecciosa posoperatoria hasta 30 días después del procedimiento. Resultados El estudio incluyó a 184 pacientes con BA programados para cirugía urológica. La mediana de duración de la PAQ preoperatoria (p = 0,49) o 1 dosis de PAQ (razón de riesgo [RR]: 1,24; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 0,45 a 3,39) no fueron estadísticamente diferentes en pacientes con complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas. Las complicaciones infecciosas fueron más frecuentes entre los pacientes con hiperplasia prostática benigna (RR: 6,57; IC del 95%: 1,98 a 21,76) y hospitalización en los 3 meses anteriores (RR: 8,32; IC del 95%: 2,69 a 25,71). Conclusión Una dosis de terapia antimicrobiana es suficiente para evitar complicaciones infecciosas en pacientes con BA. Hubo otros factores asociados con complicaciones infecciosas posquirúrgicas, como hiperplasia prostática benigna y hospitalización en los tres meses anteriores.

Humans , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Bacteriuria , Odds Ratio , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Confidence Intervals
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(3): e3678, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347434


Introducción: La COVID-19 ha impactado en diversos ámbitos de la educación superior, por lo que es necesario generar investigaciones que aporten evidencias sobre el tema. Objetivo: Validar una escala para evaluar las percepciones de los estudiantes cubanos de Estomatología sobre el posible impacto académico a causa de la COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio de tipo instrumental y transversal. A partir de un instrumento en español validado en estudiantes de medicina y otros universitarios peruanos, se realizó el primer paso de la validación mediante el criterio de expertos. Luego se desarrolló un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) por mínimos cuadrados no ponderados y se calculó la consistencia interna con el Alpha de Cronbach. Resultados: Se incluyó a 159 participantes de los cuales el 60,38 por ciento fueron hombres y la media de la edad fue 21,86 años. Todos los ítems recibieron una evaluación favorable por parte de los expertos (V > 0,70). De la escala inicial, el análisis preliminar sugirió eliminar el ítem 6. La pertinencia del análisis factorial exploratorio se justificó con el índice KMO (0,801) y la prueba de Bartlett (344,8; gl = 15; p = 0,000) cuyos valores fueron aceptables y significativos. Se obtuvo un coeficiente de Cronbach de 0,915 (IC 95 por ciento = 0,90-0,91), lo cual indica que la consistencia del instrumento es buena. Conclusiones: Se validó una escala de factor único que mide la percepción que tienen los estudiantes cubanos de Estomatología acerca de las posibles repercusiones académicas de la COVID-19(AU)

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has impacted in different scopes of higher education, that is why is necessary to generate researches that contribute with evidences on this topic. Aim: To validate a scale for evaluating the Cuban dental students' perceptions on the possible academic impact of the COVID-19. Methods: Instrumental and cross-sectional study. Starting from a Spanish language instrument validated in Peruvian medical and other university students, the first step of the validation through the expert's criteria was performed. After, a factorial exploratory analysis (FEA), by not pondered minima squares, was performed and the internal consistency was measured through Alpha of Cronbach. Results : 159 students were suitable for analysis; 60.38 percent were men and the mean age was 21.86 years. All items were evaluated in a favorable way by the expert's criteria. From the initial scale, the preliminary analysis suggested to eliminate the item 6. The relevance of the FEA was justified with the KMO index (0.801) and Bartlett's test (344.8; gl=15; p=0.000) being acceptable and significant. An Alpha of Cronbach's coefficient of 0.915 with a 95 percent confidence interval of 0.90-0.91 was obtained; indicating that the consistency of the instrument is good. Conclusions : A single factor scale measuring Cuban dental students' perception of the possible academic impact of the COVID-19 was validated(AU)

Humans , Students, Dental , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Oral Medicine/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(4): 347-352, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388669


INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha comportado una disminución de la consulta ginecológica al servicio de urgencia. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar las consultas en el servicio de urgencia ginecológica, evaluando la cantidad de hospitalizaciones, la necesidad de intervención quirúrgica y los factores de morbilidad, entre otros, comparado a la situación con la previa a la pandemia. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte no concurrente de pacientes hospitalizadas tras una consulta espontánea al servicio de urgencia ginecológica entre las semanas 12 y 28 de 2019 y 2020 en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica, en Santiago (Chile). Se determinaron distintos factores de morbilidad: diagnóstico de ingreso, intervención quirúrgica, complicación operatoria, días de hospitalización, hemoglobina/hematocrito de ingreso y necesidad de transfusión de unidades sanguíneas. RESULTADOS: Hubo 511 consultas al servicio de urgencia entre las semanas 12 y 28 del año 2019, en comparación con 196 el año 2020. En 2019 fueron hospitalizadas 103 mujeres, y en 2020 ingresaron 72 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3). Disminuyó el ingreso por aborto retenido (24 vs. 12; p = 0.01), mientras que aumentó el ingreso por metrorragia posmenopáusica (9 vs 22; p = 0.01). No hubo cambio en las intervenciones quirúrgicas realizadas (86.4% vs. 84.7%; p = 0.7). Aumentaron los días de hospitalización (2.3 vs. 3.1; p < 0.0001) y la necesidad de transfusión sanguínea (2 vs. 7; p = 0.02; OR: 5.4; intervalo de confianza: 1.09-26). CONCLUSIONES: La pandemia de COVID-19 provocó una disminución en la consulta espontánea por patología ginecológica al servicio de urgencia, provocando un aumento en la relación consulta/ingreso y una mayor morbilidad en las pacientes hospitalizadas, caracterizada por una mayor necesidad de transfusión sanguínea y un aumento de los días de hospitalización.

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has meant a decrease in gynecological visits to the emergency department. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the attending in the gynecological emergency service, evaluating the amount of admissions, hospitalizations, need for surgical intervention, morbidity factors, among others, compared to the pre-pandemic situation. METHOD: A non-concurrent cohort study of hospitalized patients was carried out through a spontaneous attending to the gynecological emergency service between weeks 12 and 28 of 2019 and 2020 at the Hospital Clínico of the Pontificia Universidad Católica, in Santiago (Chile). Different morbidity factors were measured: admission diagnosis, surgical intervention, surgical complication, hospital stay, admission hemoglobin, and need for transfusion of blood units. RESULTS: A total of 511 visitors to the emergency service were registered between weeks 12 and 28 of 2019, compared to 196 in 2020. In 2019 and 2020, 103 and 72 women were hospitalized respectively (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3). Admission for pregnancy loss decreased (24 vs. 12; p = 0.01), while admission for postmenopausal bleeding increased (9 vs. 22; p = 0.01). There was no change in the surgical interventions performed (86.4% vs. 84.7%; p = 0.7). The hospital stays increased (2.3 vs. 3.1; p < 0.0001) and the need for blood transfusion (2 vs. 7; p = 0.02; OR: 5.4; confidence interval: 1.09-26). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a decrease in spontaneous attending for gynecological pathology at the emergency service, causing an increase in the attend/admission ratio and greater morbidity in hospitalized patients characterized by a greater need for blood transfusion and an increase on the hospital stay.

Humans , Female , Adult , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Blood Transfusion , Confidence Intervals , Chile , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-17, jun. 2021. ilus., tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284388


INTRODUCCIÓN: el aumento de la incidencia de las micosis ha generado la necesidad de desarrollar técnicas in vitro para el estudio de la susceptibilidad a los antifùngicos; El documento CLSI M27-A2 es el método de referencia para estudios de sensibilidad en levaduras. No obstante, este no subsana las necesidades de rutina de los laboratorios, principalmente por ser laboriosos; en consecuencia, métodos alternativos surgen ante la necesidad de contar con técnicas más sencillas, una de ellos es el ATB FUNGUS 3 que permite determinar la sensibilidad de Candida frente a diferentes antifùngicos. OBJETIVO: validar el método comercial ATB FUNGUS 3, frente al método de referencia M27-A2, con el fin de conocer su valor diagnóstico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se determinó la eficacia del método a través de parámetros de test diagnóstico; además, se evaluó la sensibilidad de 50 cepas de Candida albicans frente a Fluconazol (FLZ) e Itraconazol (ITZ) mediante el método comercial y el de referencia. RESULTADOS: se encontró que el ATB - FUNGUS 3 presenta una especificidad para FLZ de 100%, sensibilidad de 91%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) de 56%, valor predictivo negativo (VPN) de 100%, con una eficacia diagnóstica de 92%, calculados para un intervalo de confianza (IC) de 95%; para ITZ la especificidad y sensibilidad fue de 88 % y 90% respectivamente, con un VPP de 64%, un VPN de 97%, eficacia diagnóstica de 90%, IC 95%. Para las pruebas de concordancia, el índice Kappa para FLZ e ITZ fue de 0,67 y 0,68 respectivamente. La prueba de Likelihood ratio para el FLZ fue (LR+) de 11,25 mientras que el (LR-) fue 0; para el ITZ (LR+) de 9,19 y el (LR-) fue 0,14. Reproducibilidad de 90 % (FLZ) y 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONES: el ATB FUNGUS 3, es una técnica rápida, de fácil realización y reproducible; pero el desempeño global de la técnica, sugiere que aún no es confiable para el diagnóstico en laboratorios, debido a los valores bajos obtenidos en los VPP, que indican que se podría derivar en errores al momento de determinar una cepa como sensible o resistente, punto importante al momento de decidir la conducta terapéutica.

INTRODUCTION: the higher incidence of mycoses has generated the need to develop in vitro techniques for susceptibility study to antifungal agents. CLSI M27-A2 is a reference method for yeast susceptibility studies. However, this method does not meet the needs of routine laboratories because it is difficult to follow all the processes. Consequently, alternative methods arise due to the need for simpler techniques. Then, one of them is ATB FUNGUS 3 which allows determining Candida's sensitivity to different antifungal agents. OBJECTIVE: validate the commercial method ATB FUNGUS 3 compared with the reference method M27-A2 in order to know its diagnostic value. MATERIAL AND METHODS: efficacy was determined by diagnostic test parameters. Moreover, sensitivity of 50 strains of Candida albicans at Fluconazole (FLZ) and Itraconazole (ITZ) was evaluated by the commercial and reference methods. RESULTS: ATB - FUNGUS 3 presents a specificity for FLZ of 100%, sensitivity of 91%, positive predictive value (PPV) 56%, negative predictive value (NPV) 100% with a diagnostic efficacy of 92%, calculated for a 95% confidence interval (CI). For ITZ, the specificity and sensitivity were 88% and 90% respectively, with a PPV 64%, a NPV 97% with a diagnostic efficacy of 90%, 95% CI. For the concordance tests, the Kappa index for FLZ and ITZ was 0.67 and 0.68 respectively. The Likelihood ratio test for FLZ was (LR +) of 11.25 while the (LR-) was 0; for ITZ (LR +) of 9.19 and the (LR-) was 0.14. Reproducibility of 90% (FLZ) and 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONS: the ATB FUNGUS 3 is a fast, easy and reproducible technique. However, the overall performance of the technique suggests that this method hasn't been reliable for diagnostic laboratory yet, because PPVS obtained low values. These PPVS indicate that it could lead to errors when determining a strain as sensitive or resistant. This is an important point when deciding the therapeutic conduct.

Candida albicans , Antifungal Agents , Confidence Intervals , Diagnosis
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 181-187, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279099


Resumen Introducción: Se desconoce si existe una influencia del sistema sanguíneo ABO en susceptibilidad y gravedad de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Analizar si existe una asociación entre los antígenos del sistema ABO y la susceptibilidad y gravedad de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Material y métodos: Se compararon las frecuencias de los antígenos del sistema ABO en 73 casos confirmados de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y 52 donadores clínicamente sanos. La gravedad de la infección se evaluó comparando la frecuencia de los antígenos por gravedad de la enfermedad y la mortalidad. Resultados: El riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 se incrementa en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR=1.45; IC95 %:1.061-1.921). El fenotipo sanguíneo O disminuye el riesgo de padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2 (OR=0.686; IC95 %: 0.522-0.903). No se encontraron diferencias entre la gravedad de la enfermedad. En los pacientes graves, el riesgo de mortalidad se incrementó en sujetos con antígeno A vs los no-A (OR= 3.34; IC95 %: 1.417-8.159). Conclusión: El grupo sanguíneo A es un factor de riesgo para padecer infección por SARS-CoV-2, no así en la gravedad de la enfermedad, pero en los pacientes graves fue un factor de riesgo para la mortalidad.

Abstract Introduction: Whether there is an influence of the ABO blood system on susceptibility to the disease and its severity is unknown. Objective: To analyze if there is an association between the ABO blood system phenotypes and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severity. Material and methods: The frequency of ABO antigens was compared in 73 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 52 clinically healthy donors. The severity of the infection was evaluated by comparing the frequency of antigens by severity of the disease and mortality. Results: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is increased in subjects with antigen A vs non-A subjects (OR=1.45; 95 %: 1.061-1.921). Blood phenotype O decreases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR= 0.686; 95 % CI: 0.522-0.903). No differences were found regarding disease severity. The mortality risk is increased in subjects antigen A vs non-A (OR= 3.34; 95% IC: 1.417-8.159). Conclusion: Blood group A is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not for disease severity, although in critically ill patients it is a risk factor for mortality.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , ABO Blood-Group System/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Confidence Intervals , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Critical Illness , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 24-29, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251518


Resumen Introducción: la hiperplasia nodular linfoide del colon se define como > 10 nódulos linfoides visibles en colonoscopia. No existen estudios de su validez al compararlo con la histopatología. Objetivos: determinar la validez del hallazgo de nódulos en colonoscopia para el diagnóstico de hiperplasia nodular linfoide. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo de prueba diagnóstica. Se incluyeron colonoscopias realizadas consecutivamente de 2014 al 2018 con equipos Olympus PCFQ150AI y GIFXP150N con obtención de biopsias. El criterio endoscópico fue la presencia de > 10 nódulos de 2 a 10 mm y el criterio histológico fue hiperplasia de folículos linfoides y mantos de linfocitos en lámina propia o submucosa. Los datos se analizaron en Epidat3.1. Se obtuvo la sensibilidad (S), especificidad (E), valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y negativo (VPN), y coeficientes de probabilidad positivo (LR+) y negativo (LR-) con sus intervalos de confianza. Resultados: se incluyeron 327 colonoscopias, la mediana de edad fue de 84 meses. La principal indicación para la colonoscopia fue sangrado digestivo bajo (38,8%). El hallazgo de nódulos se encontró en el 21% y el sitio de mayor frecuencia fue el colon total (46%), mientras que por histopatología se encontró hiperplasia nodular linfoide en el 38%. El hallazgo de nódulos obtuvo una S de 32% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 24-140), E de 84% (IC 95%: 79-89), VPP de 56% (IC 95%: 44-68), VPN de 67% (IC 95%: 61-72), LR+ de 2,04 (IC 95%: 1,4-3) y LR- de 0,8 (IC 95%: 0,8-0,9). Conclusiones: la validez diagnóstica del hallazgo de nódulos en colonoscopia para hiperplasia nodular linfoide es pobre, por lo que la toma de biopsia debe recomendarse siempre.

Abstract Introduction: Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the colon is characterized by the presence of >10 lymphoid nodules visible in colonoscopy. There are no studies that confirm their validity when compared with histopathology. Objective: To determine the validity of nodules detected at colonoscopy for the diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in children. Materials and methods: Prospective study of diagnostic test accuracy. Colonoscopies performed consecutively from 2014 to 2018 using Olympus PCFQ150AI and GIFXP150N biopsy machines were included. The endoscopic criterion was the presence of >10 nodules from 2 to 10mm of diameter, while the histological criterion was presence of follicular lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphocyte mantles in lamina propia or submucosa. Data were analyzed in Epidat3.1. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were obtained with their corresponding confidence intervals. Results: 327 colonoscopies were included; the median age was 84 months. The main indication for colonoscopy was lower gastrointestinal bleeding (38.8%). Nodules were found in 21% of the patients, predominantly throughout the whole colon (46%), whereas histopathology found nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in 38%. SE for the finding of nodules was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24-140), SP was 84% (95% CI: 79-89), PPV was 56% (95% CI: 44-68), NPV was 67% (95% CI: 61-72), LR+ was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.4-3) and LR- was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.8-0.9). Conclusions: The validity of the presence of nodules on colonoscopy for the diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is poor, so biopsy should always be performed.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Hyperplasia , Biopsy , Confidence Intervals , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colon , Methods
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 50(1): 22-28, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251628


RESUMEN Introducción: Los médicos residentes que laboran más horas diarias son propensos a sufrir problemas de salud mental como la depresión, tema que se ha estudiado poco. Por ello, el presente estudio tiene por objetivos determinar la prevalencia de los síntomas depresivos y evaluar la asociación entre el número de horas diarias laboradas y la presencia de síntomas depresivos en residentes del Perú. Métodos: Estudio transversal analítico que usó la base de datos de la Encuesta Nacional para Médicos Residentes-2016, una encuesta voluntaria realizada virtualmente por el Consejo Nacional de Residentado Médico de Perú a médicos que realizaban su residencia en este país. Se consideró presencia de síntomas depresivos una puntuación ≥ 3 con la escala Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Las horas laboradas diariamente se tomaron mediante una pregunta directa. Para evaluar la asociación de interés, se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP) y sus intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%) usando regresiones de Poisson brutas y ajustadas con varianza robusta. Resultados: Se evaluaron las respuestas de 953 residentes (el 41,3% mujeres; media de edad, 32,5 arios), de los que el 14,6% tenía síntomas depresivos. En el análisis ajustado, se encontró que la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos aumentaba por cada hora laborada adicional (RP = 1,11; IC95%, 1,04-1,17). Conclusiones: Uno de cada 7 residentes presentó síntomas depresivos. Por cada hora laborada diariamente extra, la frecuencia de síntomas depresivos aumentó un 11%.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Resident physicians who work more hours a day are prone to suffer mental health problems such as depression, a subject that has been little studied. In this regard, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to evaluate the association between the number of daily working hours and depressive symptoms in Peruvian residents. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study that used the database of the National Survey for Resident Physicians-2016, a voluntary survey issued virtually by the National Council of Medical Residency of Peru to physicians who were undertaking their residency in Peru. The presence of depressive symptoms was considered as having obtained a score ≥3 with the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 scale. The number of hours worked each day was collected through a direct question. To assess the association of interest, prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using crude and adjusted Poisson regressions with robust variance. Results : The responses of 953 residents (41.3% women, mean age: 32.5 years) were evaluated, 14.6% of which presented depressive symptoms. In the adjusted analysis, it was found that the prevalence of depressive symptoms increased for each additional hour worked (PR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). Conclusions: One in seven residents had depressive symptoms. For every extra daily working hour, the frequency of depressive symptoms increased by 11%.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Mental Health , Depression , Internship and Residency , Peru , Work , Confidence Intervals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e814, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251739


Introducción: La pandemia del coronavirus ha generado que muchos estudiantes teman perder el ciclo. Objetivo: Validar una escala que mida la percepción de posibles repercusiones académicas en estudiantes universitarios en el Perú. Metodología: Se realizó un proceso de validación de un test que mide la percepción acerca de las posibles repercusiones académicas en estudiantes universitarios. La validación se realizó mediante búsqueda de literatura científica, construcción del primer bosquejo, validación del test por expertos (59 expertos: epidemiólogos, investigadores, médicos), análisis factorial exploratorio y estadístico. Resultados: Respecto a la relevancia se observa que el ítem 7 es más esencial o importante que los demás (V = 1,00; IC 95 por ciento: 0,73-0,96). El ítem 8 (M = 3,80; /= 1,152) presenta la mayor media y, la más baja, el ítem 6 (M = 3,03; DE = 1,342). La pertinencia del AFE se justifica con el índice KMO (0,85) y la prueba de Bartlett (12577,0; gl = 28; p = / 0,001) siendo aceptables y significativos. Se obtuvo un coeficiente α de Cronbach de 0,899 con un intervalo de confianza del 95 por ciento de 0,882-0,898; indicando que la consistencia del instrumento es buena. Conclusiones: Se validó una escala de factor único que mide la percepción que tienen los estudiantes universitarios acerca de las posibles repercusiones de la pandemia del coronavirus en sus estudios. Es necesario evaluar cada realidad y el instrumento puede servir como una escala base para ello(AU)

Introduction: As a result of the coronavirus pandemic, many students are worried that they may lose their academic term. Objective: Validate a scale to measure the perception of possible academic impacts among Peruvian university students. Method: A validation process was conducted of a test measuring the perception of university students about possible academic impacts. The validation was based on a scientific bibliography search, development of a preliminary overview, validation of the test by 59 experts: epidemiologists, researchers and physicians, exploratory factor analysis, and statistical analysis. Results: In terms of relevance, item 7 was found to be more essential or important than the others (V = 1.00; CI 95 percent: 0.73-0.96). Item 8 (M = 3.80; /= 1.152) exhibits the highest mean, and item 6 the lowest (M = 3.03; SD = 1.342). AFE relevance is justified by the KMO index (0.85) and Bartlett's test (12577.0; gl = 28; p = / 0.001), both of which were found to be acceptable and significant. A Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.899 was obtained, with a confidence interval of 95 percent, SD 0.882-0.898, indicating a good consistency level. Conclusions: A single factor scale was validated which measures the perception of university students about the possible impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on their studies. It is necessary to evaluate each reality, and the tool may serve as a base scale for that purpose(AU)

Humans , Young Adult , Students , Confidence Intervals , Coronavirus Infections
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e856, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289444


Introducción: La identificación de variables antropométricas relacionadas con el rendimiento en un deporte representa un interés en común para los profesionales de la salud y el deporte. Objetivo: Determinar la influencia del índice de masa corporal, la masa grasa y la masa libre de grasa en la velocidad con cambios de dirección en jóvenes futbolistas. Métodos: Se aplicó un estudio descriptivo de tipo correlacional con un enfoque cuantitativo y una muestra a conveniencia conformada por 21 futbolistas. Para valorar la velocidad con cambios de dirección se utilizó el Test de sprint 20 metros con cambios de dirección y el porcentaje de grasa corporal por medio de un monitor OMRON® BF-306. Los datos fueron analizados en el paquete estadístico PSPP en el cual se aplicó la prueba de normalidad de Shapiro-Wilk y el coeficiente correlacional de Pearson (95 por ciento de confianza y un p-valor de 0,05). Resultados: Los resultados reflejaron una distribución normal (p > 0,05); sin embargo, no se obtuvieron relaciones significativas entre el índice de masa corporal (r = -0,29), masa grasa (r = -0,06) y masa libre de grasa (r = 0,06; p > 0,05) con el rendimiento en la prueba de velocidad con cambios de dirección. Conclusiones: Este estudio permitió establecer que no existe relación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal, masa grasa y masa libre de grasa con el rendimiento de la velocidad con cambios de dirección en jóvenes futbolistas(AU)

Introduction: Identification of anthropometric variables related to performance in a given sport is a common topic of interest to health and sports professionals. Objective: Determine the influence of body mass index, fat mass, and fat-free mass on change of direction speed in young soccer players. Methods: A correlational descriptive quantitative study was conducted of a convenience sample of 21 soccer players. Change of direction speed was measured with the Meters Swerve Sprint Test, whereas body fat percentage was evaluated with an OMRON® BF-306 monitor. The data were analyzed with the statistical package PSPP, with application of the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and Pearson's correlational coefficient (confidence interval 95 percent and p-value 0,05). Results: Results show a normal distribution (p > 0,05). However, a significant relationship was not found between body mass (r = -0,29), fat mass (r = -0,06) and fat-free mass (r = 0,06; p > 0,05), and performance in the swerve speed test. Conclusions: The study found that there is not a significant relationship between body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass, and change of direction speed in young soccer players(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Soccer , Sports , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Reaction Time , Confidence Intervals , Anthropometry/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Correlation of Data
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 86(1): 33-41, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388628


OBJETIVO: Evaluar concordancia de sitios de hallazgos de endometriosis profunda encontrados por RM y laparoscopia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo, no experimental, concordancia intertécnica. Se recolectaron datos en nuestra institución de todos los informes de RM de pelvis que incluyeran la palabra "endometriosis", entre mayo de 2015 y abril de 2018 (36 meses), identificando 339 registros. Se establecieron criterios de inclusión. De los 339 registros, 62 pacientes fueron excluidas por cirugía antes de la RM. Otras 243 pacientes fueron excluidas porque no presentaban registro de protocolo quirúrgico posterior a la RM. 34 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión del estudio, lo que equivale al 10% de las RM estudiadas. Se revisaron las ubicaciones de los implantes endometriósicos informados en RM y se correlacionaron con los hallazgos encontrados en la cirugía. Se confecciono tabla para identificar la presencia/ausencia de implantes en las ubicaciones descritas en la literatura. Análisis estadístico mediante software Stata, aplicando kappa ponderada con intervalo de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad de las pacientes llevadas a cirugía fue de 38 años. Los lugares con correlación moderada-importante (0.41-0.80) correspondieron a útero, recto-sigmoides, ovario, vagina y fondos de saco. CONCLUSIÓN: La RM de Pelvis es fundamental en la evaluación de pacientes con endometriosis en las que se plantea un manejo quirúrgico, con el objetivo de caracterizar la ubicación, forma y número de lesiones, y así lograr un satisfactorio tratamiento laparoscópico.

OBJECTIVE: To assess inter-observer reliability of sites of deep endometriosis findings found by MRI and laparoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, non-experimental study, inter-observer reliability. Data were collected at our institution from all pelvic MRI reports that included the word "endometriosis", between May 2015 and April 2018 (36 months), identifying 339 records. The following were established as inclusion criteria. Of the 339 records, 62 patients were excluded for surgery prior to MRI. Another 243 patients were excluded because they had no record of the surgical protocol after the MRI. 34 patients met the study inclusion criteria, equivalent to 10% of the MRIs studied. The locations of the endometrial implants reported on MRI were reviewed and correlated with the findings found in the surgery. A table was prepared to identify the presence / absence of implants in the locations described in the literature. Statistical analysis using Stata software, applying weighted kappa with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The average age of the patients undergoing surgery was 38 years. The places with a moderate-important correlation (0.41-0.80) corresponded to the uterus, recto-sigmoid, ovary, vagina, and recto-uterine pouch. CONCLUSION: Pelvic MRI is essential in the evaluation of patients with endometriosis in whom surgical management is proposed, in order to characterize the location, shape and number of lesions, and thus achieve satisfactory laparoscopic treatment.

Humans , Female , Adult , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Laparoscopy , Endometriosis/surgery , Endometriosis/diagnostic imaging , Confidence Intervals , Retrospective Studies