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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 322-330, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970070


BACKGROUND@#There are few data comparing clinical outcomes of complex percutaneous coronary intervention (CPCI) when using biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) or second-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stents (DP-DES). The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of BP-DES and compare that with DP-DES in patients with and without CPCI during a 5-year follow-up.@*METHODS@#Patients who exclusively underwent BP-DES or DP-DES implantation in 2013 at Fuwai Hospital were consecutively enrolled and stratified into two categories based on CPCI presence or absence. CPCI included at least one of the following features: unprotected left main lesion, ≥2 lesions treated, ≥2 stents implanted, total stent length >40 mm, moderate-to-severe calcified lesion, chronic total occlusion, or bifurcated target lesion. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and total coronary revascularization (target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization [TVR], and non-TVR) during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary endpoint was total coronary revascularization.@*RESULTS@#Among the 7712 patients included, 4882 (63.3%) underwent CPCI. Compared with non-CPCI patients, CPCI patients had higher 2- and 5-year incidences of MACE and total coronary revascularization. Following multivariable adjustment including stent type, CPCI was an independent predictor of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.017-1.303, P  = 0.026) and total coronary revascularization (aHR: 1.199; 95% CI: 1.037-1.388, P  = 0.014) at 5 years. The results were consistent at the 2-year endpoints. In patients with CPCI, BP-DES use was associated with significantly higher MACE rates at 5 years (aHR: 1.256; 95% CI: 1.078-1.462, P  = 0.003) and total coronary revascularization (aHR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.052-1.502, P  = 0.012) compared with that of DP-DES, but there was a similar risk at 2 years. However, BP-DES had comparable safety and efficacy profiles including MACE and total coronary revascularization compared with DP-DES in patients with non-CPCI at 2 and 5 years.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients underwent CPCI remained at a higher risk of mid- to long-term adverse events regardless of the stent type. The effect of BP-DES compared with DP-DES on outcomes was similar in CPCI and non-CPCI patients at 2 years but had inconsistent effects at the 5-year clinical endpoints.

Humans , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Polymers/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Absorbable Implants , Prosthesis Design
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 82-87, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970043


BACKGROUND@#Preliminary studies have indicated that Shexiang Baoxin Pill (MUSKARDIA) has a coronary artery dilation effect and increases the coronary blood flow, relieving the symptoms of angina. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of MUSKARDIA on patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM).@*METHODS@#This was a subgroup analysis of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase IV trial. CAD patients with a medical history of DM or baseline fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥7.0 mmol/L were grouped according to the treatment (standard therapy plus MUSKARDIA or placebo). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), which was the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. The secondary outcome was the composite outcome of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure, and coronary angioplasty.@*RESULTS@#MACEs occurred in 2.6% (9/340) and 4.8% (18/376) of patients in the MUSKARDIA and placebo groups, respectively ( P  = 0.192). Secondary composite outcome was significantly less frequent with MUSKARDIA than with placebo (15.3% [52/340] vs . 22.6% [85/376], P  = 0.017). Risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-1.57) was comparable between two groups. In patients with uncontrolled DM (≥4 measurements of FBG ≥7 mmol/L in five times of follow-up), the risk of secondary outcome was significantly lower with MUSKARDIA (5/83, 6.0%) than with placebo (15/91, 16.5%) (HR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.13-0.95).@*CONCLUSION@#As an add-on to standard therapy, MUSKARDIA shows a trend of reduced MACEs in patients with stable CAD and DM. Furthermore, MUSKARDIA may reduce the frequency of all-cause death, hospitalization, and coronary angioplasty in this population, especially in those with uncontrolled DM.@*TRIAL, ChiCTR-TRC-12003513.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Stroke/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 158-163, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969758


Objective: To analyze the risk factors of coronary artery occlusion in female patients with ischemic angina pectoris. Methods: Clinical data of 1 600 patients (666 females and 934 males) who underwent coronary angiography from January 2013 to December 2015 due to angina pectoris in 6 major coronary intervention centers in China were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics were compared between the female and male groups, and between the non-obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) and ischemic obstructive coronary artery disease (IOCA) subgroups of female subjects with angina pectoris. The risk factors related to the degree of coronary artery occlusion in female patients were analyzed. Results: In the enrolled patients who underwent coronary angiography for angina pectoris, female group was older than the male group, and the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes and ischemia accompanied by IOCA was significantly higher than that of the male group (P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that age≥65 years, hypertension, diabetes, and typical angina symptoms were associated with an increased risk of IOCA in female patients with angina pectoris. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age≥65 years old (OR=1.784, 95%CI: 1.146-2.776, P=0.010), hypertension (OR=1.782, 95%CI: 1.201-2.644, P=0.004) and typical angina symptoms (OR=1.642, 95%CI: 1.127-2.393, P=0.010) were independent risk factors for female patients with angina pectoris diagnosed as IOCA. The correlation analysis between the number of risk factors and the type of coronary artery disease obstruction showed that the incidence of INOCA decreased significantly with the increase of the number of risk factors, from 45.5% to 14.2%. The incidence of IOCA increased significantly with the number of risk factors, from 54.5% to 85.8% (P for trend<0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of INOCA in female patients with angina pectoris suspected of coronary heart disease is higher than that of male. The incidence of IOCA increased significantly, and the incidence of INOCA decreased significantly in proportion to the increase of the number of combined risk factors.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Retrospective Studies , Angina Pectoris/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Hypertension/complications , Coronary Occlusion/complications , Ischemia/complications
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 66-72, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969744


Objective: To compare the efficacy of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angiography guided drug eluting stent (DES) implantation for the treatment of left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies, which compared IVUS with coronary angiography guided DES implantation for the treatment of LMCA lesions published before August 2021 were searched in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Baseline data, interventional procedures and endpoint events of each study were collected. The primary endpoint was major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE), and the secondary endpoints were all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool were used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Results: Nine studies were included, including 3 RCT and 6 observational studies, with a total of 5 527 cases of LMCA. All the 6 observational studies had NOS scores≥6, and the 3 RCT had a low risk of overall bias. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with coronary angiography guided group, MACE rate (OR=0.55, 95%CI 0.47-0.66, P<0.001), all-cause death (OR=0.56, 95%CI 0.43-0.74, P<0.001), cardiac death (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.30-0.61, P<0.001), MI (OR=0.64, 95%CI 0.52-0.79, P<0.001), TLR (OR=0.49, 95%CI 0.28-0.86, P=0.013) and TVR (OR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60-0.98, P=0.037) were all significantly lower in the IVUS guided group. Conclusions: Compared with angiography guided, IVUS guided PCI with DES implantation in LMCA lesions could significantly reduce the risk of MACE, death, MI, TLR and TVR. IVUS is thus superior to coronary angiography for guiding PCI treatment among patients with LMCA.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Angiography , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction/etiology
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2459-2467, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007556


BACKGROUND@#We have recently developed a new Coronary Artery Tree description and Lesion EvaluaTion (CatLet) angiographic scoring system. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated its superiority over the the Synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score with respect to outcome predictions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. The current study hypothesized that the residual CatLet (rCatLet) score predicts clinical outcomes for AMI patients and that a combination with the three clinical variables (CVs)-age, creatinine, and ejection fraction, will enhance its predicting values.@*METHODS@#The rCatLet score was calculated retrospectively in 308 consecutively enrolled patients with AMI. Primary endpoint, major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including all-cause mortality, non-fatal AMI, transient ischemic attack/stroke, and ischemia-driven repeat revascularization, was stratified according to rCatLet score tertiles: rCatLet_low ≤3, rCatLet_mid 4-11, and rCatLet_top ≥12, respectively. Cross-validation confirmed a reasonably good agreement between the observed and predicted risks.@*RESULTS@#Of 308 patients analyzed, the rates of MACCE, all-cause death, and cardiac death were 20.8%, 18.2%, and 15.3%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves for all endpoints showed increasing outcome events with the increasing tertiles of the rCatLet score, with P values <0.001 on trend test. For MACCE, all-cause death, and cardiac death, the area under the curves (AUCs) of the rCatLet score were 0.70 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.63-0.78), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.77), and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.63-0.79), respectively; the AUCs of the CVs-adjusted rCatLet score models were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78-0.89), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.92), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.84-0.94), respectively. The performance of CVs-adjusted rCatLet score was significantly better than the stand-alone rCatLet score in terms of outcome predictions.@*CONCLUSION@#The rCatLet score has a predicting value for clinical outcomes for AMI patients and the incorporation of the three CVs into the rCatLet score will enhance its predicting ability.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@# , ChiCTR-POC-17013536.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Death , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1198-1206, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980888


BACKGROUND@#Right ventricular (RV)-arterial uncoupling is a powerful independent predictor of prognosis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Coronary artery disease (CAD) can contribute to the pathophysiological characteristics of HFpEF. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of RV-arterial uncoupling in acute HFpEF patients with CAD.@*METHODS@#This prospective study included 250 consecutive acute HFpEF patients with CAD. Patients were divided into RV-arterial uncoupling and coupling groups by the optimal cutoff value, based on a receiver operating characteristic curve of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to pulmonary artery systolic pressure (TAPSE/PASP). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent ischemic events, and HF hospitalizations.@*RESULTS@#TAPSE/PASP ≤0.43 provided good accuracy in identifying patients with RV-arterial uncoupling (area under the curve, 0.731; sensitivity, 61.4%; and specificity, 76.6%). Of the 250 patients, 150 and 100 patients could be grouped into the RV-arterial coupling (TAPSE/PASP >0.43) and uncoupling (TAPSE/PASP ≤0.43) groups, respectively. Revascularization strategies were slightly different between groups; the RV-arterial uncoupling group had a lower rate of complete revascularization (37.0% [37/100] vs . 52.7% [79/150], P <0.001) and a higher rate of no revascularization (18.0% [18/100] vs . 4.7% [7/150], P <0.001) compared to the RV-arterial coupling group. The cohort with TAPSE/PASP ≤0.43 had a significantly worse prognosis than the cohort with TAPSE/PASP >0.43. Multivariate Cox analysis showed TAPSE/PASP ≤0.43 as an independent associated factor for the primary endpoint, all-cause death, and recurrent HF hospitalization (hazard ratios [HR]: 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-3.39, P <0.001; HR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.30-8.47, P = 0.012; and HR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.10-3.37, P = 0.021, respectively), but not for recurrent ischemic events (HR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.75-2.90, P = 0.257).@*CONCLUSION@#RV-arterial uncoupling, based on TAPSE/PASP, is independently associated with adverse outcomes in acute HFpEF patients with CAD.

Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler/adverse effects , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 702-708, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984707


Objective: To explore the relationship between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with the severity of coronary artery disease and 2-yeat outcome in patients with premature coronary heart disease. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study is originated from the PROMISE study. Eighteen thousand seven hundred and one patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were screened from January 2015 to May 2019. Three thousand eight hundred and sixty-one patients with premature CHD were enrolled in the current study. According to the median LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (2.4), the patients were divided into two groups: low LDL-C/HDL-C group (LDL-C/HDL-C≤2.4, n=1 867) and high LDL-C/HDL-C group (LDL-C/HDL-C>2.4, n=1 994). Baseline data and 2-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were collected and analyzed in order to find the differences between premature CHD patients at different LDL-C/HDL-C levels, and explore the correlation between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio with the severity of coronary artery disease and MACCE. Results: The average age of the low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group was (48.5±6.5) years, 1 154 patients were males (61.8%); the average age of high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group was (46.5±6.8) years, 1 523 were males (76.4%). The number of target lesions, the number of coronary artery lesions, the preoperative SNYTAX score and the proportion of three-vessel coronary artery disease in the high LDL-C/HDL-C group were significantly higher than those in the low LDL-C/HDL-C group (1.04±0.74 vs. 0.97±0.80, P=0.002; 2.04±0.84 vs. 1.85±0.84, P<0.001; 13.81±8.87 vs. 11.70±8.05, P<0.001; 36.2% vs. 27.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and preoperative SYNTAX score, the number of coronary artery lesions, the number of target lesions and whether it was a three-vessel coronary artery disease (all P<0.05). The 2-year follow-up results showed that the incidence of MACCE was significantly higher in the high LDL-C/HDL-C group than that in the low LDL-C/HDL-C group (6.9% vs. 9.1%, P=0.011). There was no significant difference in the incidence of all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization and bleeding between the two groups. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has no correlation with 2-year MACCE, death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke and bleeding events above BARC2 in patients with premature CHD. Conclusion: High LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is positively correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with premature CHD. The incidence of MACCE of patients with high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is significantly higher during 2 years follow-up; LDL-C/HDL-C ratio may be an indicator for evaluating the severity of coronary artery disease and long-term prognosis in patients with premature CHD.

Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Prospective Studies , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke , Risk Factors
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 504-512, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984682


Objective: To investigate current use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy and influencing factors among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in China. Methods: Results of this study derived from "China Atrial Fibrillation Registry Study", the study prospectively enrolled atrial fibrillation (AF) patients from 31 hospitals, and patients with valvular AF or treated with catheter ablation were excluded. Baseline data such as age, sex and type of atrial fibrillation were collected, and drug history, history of concomitant diseases, laboratory results and echocardiography results were recorded. CHA2DS2-VASc score and HAS-BLED score were calculated. The patients were followed up at the 3rd and 6th months after enrollment and every 6 months thereafter. Patients were divided according to whether they had coronary artery disease and whether they took OAC. Results: 11 067 NVAF patients fulfilling guideline criteria for OAC treatment were included in this study, including 1 837 patients with CAD. 95.4% of NVAF patients with CAD had CHA2DS2-VASc score≥2, and 59.7% of patients had HAS-BLED≥3, which was significantly higher than NVAF patients without CAD (P<0.001). Only 34.6% of NVAF patients with CAD were treated with OAC at enrollment. The proportion of HAS-BLED≥3 in the OAC group was significantly lower than in the no-OAC group (36.7% vs. 71.8%, P<0.001). After adjustment with multivariable logistic regression analysis, thromboembolism(OR=2.48,95%CI 1.50-4.10,P<0.001), left atrial diameter≥40 mm(OR=1.89,95%CI 1.23-2.91,P=0.004), stain use (OR=1.83,95%CI 1.01-3.03, P=0.020) and β blocker use (OR=1.74,95%CI 1.13-2.68,P=0.012)were influence factors of OAC treatment. However, the influence factors of no-OAC use were female(OR=0.54,95%CI 0.34-0.86,P=0.001), HAS-BLED≥3 (OR=0.33,95%CI 0.19-0.57,P<0.001), and antiplatelet drug(OR=0.04,95%CI 0.03-0.07,P<0.001). Conclusion: The rate of OAC treatment in NVAF patients with CAD is still low and needs to be further improved. The training and assessment of medical personnel should be strengthened to improve the utilization rate of OAC in these patients.

Humans , Female , Male , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , China , Administration, Oral , Stroke
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 434-443, July-Aug. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385265


Abstract Background: The 9p21 region is the most relevant locus associated with coronary heart disease in different populations. However, there are no studies that prove that this region is a risk factor in the Venezuelan population. Objectives: To analyze whether or not the 9p21 rs1333049 polymorphism is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Venezuelan patients, as well as to investigate its correlation with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), age of occurrence, type and severity of infarction, and the correlation of the rs10757274 polymorphism with severity of coronary artery disease. Methods: This was an association study, including 487 unrelated Venezuelan individuals, grouped in 354 patients with AMI and 133 controls. The rs1333049 and rs10757274 polymorphisms were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with sequence-specific primers. The analysis of association was determined using the SNPStats tool. The continuous variable description and the correlations were performed using the SPSS statistical software. Significance was established at p<0.05. Results: A positive correlation was observed between the rs1333049 polymorphism and the presence of hypertension ( r: 0.145, p: 0.006), and between hypertension and heart infarction ( r: 0.318, p: <0.0001). A positive correlation was found between the rs10757274 polymorphism and the number of coronary vessels that presented obstructive lesions in patients aged ≤ 55 years ( r: 0.276, p: 0.0078). Conclusion: The rs1333049 polymorphism at the 9p21 locus is correlated with hypertension in Venezuelan patients, while the rs10757274 polymorphism is associated with the progression of coronary atherosclerosis, suggested by the correlation with the number of coronary vessels that presented significant obstructive lesions.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Coronary Artery Disease/ethnology , Chromosomes/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Venezuela , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Hypertension/ethnology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 607-613, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364344


Resumo Fundamento A ventriculografia esquerda é um método invasivo para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Depois do advento de métodos não invasivos, o seu uso tem sido questionado por resultar em algum risco para o paciente. Objetivos Avaliar quais fatores associam-se independentemente com a decisão de realizar ventriculografia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos Tratou-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, avaliando prontuários eletrônicos e banco de dados e comparando 21 variáveis de interesse pré-definidas entre pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia. Foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliamos 600 pacientes consecutivos, e a ventriculografia esquerda foi realizada na maioria dos pacientes submetidos a uma cineangiocoronariografia (54%). Depois da análise multivariada, os pacientes com síndromes coronarianas crônicas ( odds ratio [OR] 1,72; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,20-2,46; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de serem submetidos ao procedimento. Os pacientes com função ventricular conhecida (OR = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,40-0,85; p < 0,01), os revascularizados (OR 0,31; IC 95% 0,14-0,69; p < 0,01), os hipertensos (OR 0,58; IC 95%: 0,36-0,94; p = 0,02) e aqueles com maiores valores de creatinina (OR 0,42; IC 95% 0,26-0,69; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de não realizar ventriculografia. Conclusões Nos pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia, o diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana crônica associou-se de modo independente com uma maior realização da técnica, enquanto ter a função ventricular previamente conhecida, ser hipertenso, ter sido submetido a revascularização cirúrgica prévia e ter valores de creatinina mais elevados associaram-se a uma maior chance de não realizar o método.

Abstract Background Left ventriculography is an invasive method for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Since the advent of noninvasive methods, its use has been questioned, as it carries some risk to the patient. Objective To assess which factors are independently associated with the decision to perform ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Analytical, retrospective, database review study of electronic medical records comparing 21 predefined variables of interest among patients undergoing coronary angiography. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results We evaluated 600 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Left ventriculography was performed in the majority of cases (54%). After multivariate analysis, patients with chronic coronary syndrome (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46; p < 0.01) were more likely to undergo the procedure. Patients with known ventricular function (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; p < 0.01); those with a history of CABG (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69; p < 0.01) or hypertension (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94; p = 0.02); and those with higher creatinine levels (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.69; p < 0.01) had greater odds of not undergoing ventriculography. Conclusions In patients undergoing coronary angiography, a diagnosis of chronic coronary syndrome was independently associated with greater likelihood of left ventriculography, while having previously determined ventricular function, a history of hypertension or CABG, and higher creatinine levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing this procedure.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Heart
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc242, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371030


Fundamento: O tempo de aceleração na artéria pulmonar (TAP) pode ser utilizado para avaliação da hipertensão pulmonar na análise da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Objetivo: Avaliar se existe correlação entre o valor do tempo de aceleração na artéria pulmonar e parâmetros da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo em indivíduos com função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo preservada e de acordo com sexo, idade e fatores de risco cardiovasculares. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal. Foram selecionados 119 pacientes (59 mulheres; 49,6%). Os indivíduos foram submetidos ao ecocardiograma transtorácico incluindo os valores de tempo de aceleração na artéria pulmonar; ondas E e A e relação E/A ao Doppler espectral do influxo mitral; ondas e' septal, e' lateral e relação E/e' ao Doppler tecidual do anel mitral; pressão sistólica na artéria pulmonar e volume atrial esquerdo. Resultados: No sexo feminino, foi encontrada correlação positiva (coeficiente de correlação de Spearman) entre o valor do tempo de aceleração na artéria pulmonar e e' lateral (coeficiente de correlação de Spearman de 0,47; p=0,002), relação E/A (coeficiente de correlação de Spearman de 0,32; p=0,04) e e' septal (coeficiente de correlação de Spearman de 0,36; p=0,023) e uma correlação negativa entre o valor do tempo de aceleração na artéria pulmonar e pressão sistólica na artéria pulmonar (coeficiente de correlação de Spearman de -0,43; p=0,034). No sexo masculino, não foi encontrada correlação significativa. Foram encontrados menores valores de tempo de aceleração na artéria pulmonar em mulheres com hipertensão arterial sistêmica quando comparadas a mulheres sem hipertensão arterial sistêmica (0,13±0,03 segundos versus 0,16±0,03 segundos; p = 0,015). Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou correlação significativa dos valores do TAP com alguns parâmetros da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo apenas no sexo feminino, sendo que mulheres hipertensas apresentaram menores valores de TAP. (AU)

Background: Pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAAT) can be used as a parameter in the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension and aids left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF) analyses. Objective: To assess whether there is a correlation between PAAT and LVDF parameters in individuals with a preserved left ventricular systolic function and by sex, age, and cardiovascular risk factors. Method: Observational cross-sectional study. One hundred nineteen patients were selected (59 women [49.6%]). The subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography including measurements of PAAT, E and A waves and E/A ratio, e' septal and e' lateral waves and E/e' ratio, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and left atrial volume. Results: In female patients, a positive correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient ­ Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC]) was found between the PAAT value and the lateral e' (SCC, 0.47; p = 0.002), with the E/A ratio (SCC, 0.32; p = 0.04), and with septal e' (SCC, 0.36; p = 0.023), and a negative correlation between PAAT and PASP (SCC, -0.43; p = 0.034). In men, no correlation was found between PAAT. and any parameters. Lower PAAT values were found in women with systemic arterial hypertension (hypertension) than in women without hypertension (0.13 ± 0.03 s versus 0.16 ± 0.03 s; p = 0.015). Conclusion: The present study showed a significant correlation between PAAT and some LVDF parameters in female patients only. Hypertension was correlated with lower PAAT values in women. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Artery/physiology , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed/methods , Dyslipidemias/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20081, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403733


Abstract Caveolin, the protein of the caveolar membrane, interacts and binds with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), forming a caveolin-eNOS complex leading to suppression of the eNOS activity. Caveolin, therefore, maintains eNOS in the inactivated state leading to reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. Ischemic preconditioning disrupts the caveolin-eNOS complex leading to activation of the eNOS and thus results in cardioprotection. During ischemic preconditioning, NO produces cardioprotection by the opening of the KATP channel, and the caveolin forms a suitable signalling platform facilitating the interaction of NO with the KATP channel. Estrogen deficiency has been reported to upregulate caveolin-1 expression. The article aims to review the various mechanisms that placed the women at the risk of coronary artery diseases after postmenopausal estrogen deficiency and their role in the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning.

Role , Women , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Postmenopause/metabolism , Caveolins/analysis , Ischemic Preconditioning/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5,supl.1): 1-9, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346348


Abstract Background Some of the patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction have non-obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA). Their prognosis is not always benign, making it necessary the development of tools for risk stratification of these patients. Objectives To describe the characteristics of a sample of patients admitted for suspected MINOCA and to evaluate the prognostic value of GRACE score in this population. Methods This was a retrospective, observational, single-center, cohort study involving 56 consecutive patients with MINOCA. During one-year follow-up, patients were assessed for mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) - a composite of all-cause mortality and hospitalization due to acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, ischemic stroke, and acute limb ischemia. Statistical analysis was performed using a non-parametric approach, with the Mann-Whitney U test for quantitative variables and ROC curves for assessing the discriminatory power of the Grace score in predicting cardiovascular events. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results Of the 56 MINOCA patients included in the study (median age 67 years), 55.4% were female. During the one-year follow-up, mortality rate was 5.5% and 9.1% of patients had MACE. A higher GRACE score was associated with mortality (p = 0.019; AUC 0.907; 95%CI 0.812-1.000; cut off 138) and MACE (p =0.034; AUC 0.790; 95%CI 0.632-0.948; cutoff 114). Conclusion The definition of MINOCA includes various diagnoses and prognoses, and the GRACE score is useful for risk stratification of patients with this condition.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Heart Disease Risk Factors , MINOCA/mortality , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , MINOCA/complications
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(2): 139-147, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388090


RESUMEN: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares, particularmente la enfermedad coronaria (EC), resultan de especial interés y preocupación en pacientes portadores del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). La ateromatosis acelerada como causa del aumento de prevalencia de enfermedad coronaria ha sido reconocida desde hace varios años en estos pacientes. No obstante, los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados son múltiples y complejos e incluyen factores virales, la respuesta inflamatoria e inmunológica desencadenada por el virus, factores de riesgo cardiovascular tradicionales y efectos de la terapia antirretroviral combinada. Esta revisión de la literatura aborda dichos mecanismos y hace una actualización de los principales estudios clínicos que los sustentan. Se comenta además la evaluación de riesgo cardiovascular y los lineamientos para la revascularización de pacientes con EC portadores de VIH.

ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease are relevant in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For several years accelerated atheromatosis, a cause of increased prevalence in coronary disease, has been recognized in these patients. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are multiple and complex, including viral factors, the inflammatory and immune response triggered by the virus, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and the effects of combined antiretroviral therapy. This review of the literature addresses these mechanisms and updates the main clinical studies that support them. Cardiovascular risk assessment and guidelines for revascularization of HIV patients with CHD are also discussed.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/therapy , Risk Factors
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(4): 443-451, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286841


Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women and requires early diagnosis for defining the appropriate treatment. Objective To identify the positive predictive value (PPV) and safety of the early use of handgrip exercise in pharmacological stress echocardiography using dobutamine (early-ECHO) in women. Methods Positive ischemic early-ECHO records from 111 women were evaluated from January 2012 to March 2018. Subsequently, the hospital medical records were verified to locate patients who underwent conventional coronary angiography (CCA), and we analyzed the medical conduct adopted for these patients. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS employing one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Fisher's exact test, or Pearson's chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 for all analyses. Results Four patients (4.4%) presented serious complications during the examination. Out of 90 patients who underwent CCA, 71 (78.9%) had CAD. Among these 71 patients, 58 (81.7%) had severe lesions and 13 (18.3%) presented moderate CAD. Moreover, CCA did not demonstrate relevant coronary lesions in 19 of the 90 patients (21.1%). Among patients with severe CAD, 16 (27.6%) underwent myocardial revascularization surgery; 34 (58.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty; and 08 (13.7%) had their clinical treatments intensified. The PPV for early-ECHO was 78.9%. Conclusions Early-ECHO showed a high PPV for diagnosing myocardial ischemia in women. It presented a low complication rate and provided rapid disease identification, allowing the early treatment of injuries and potentially preventing CAD complications.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Hand Strength , Echocardiography, Stress , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Predictive Value of Tests , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1679-1684, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143668


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the prevalence of smoking rates and comorbidities and evaluate the relationship between them and disease severity and mortality in inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were divided into the following groups: clinic group, intensive care unit (ICU) group, survivors, and non-survivors. Non-COVID-19 patients were included as a control group. The groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with and without COVID-19 in terms of smoking, asthma, diabetes, dementia, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, chronic renal failure and arrhythmia (p>0.05). Older age (Odds ratio (OR), 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041-1.082; p< 0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 2.775; 95% CI: 1.128-6.829; p=0.026) and CAD (OR, 2.696; 95% CI: 1.216-5.974; p=0.015) were significantly associated with ICU admission. Current smoking (OR, 5.101; 95% CI: 2.382-10.927; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 3.789; 95% CI: 1.845-7.780; p<0.0001) were risk factors for ICU admission. Older age (OR; 1.082; 95% CI: 1.056-1.109; p<0.0001), COPD (OR, 3.213; 95% CI: 1.224-8.431; p=0.018), CAD (OR, 6.252; 95% CI: 2.171-18.004; p=0.001) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (OR, 5.917; 95% CI 1.069-32.258; p=0.042), were significantly associated with mortality. Current smoking (OR, 13.014; 95% CI: 5.058-33.480; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 6.507; 95% CI 2.731-15.501; p<0.0001) were also risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Smoking, older age, COPD, and CAD were risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19. CHF was not a risk factor for ICU admission; however, it was a risk factor for mortality.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Buscamos explorar as taxas de prevalência de tabagismo e de comorbidades e avaliar a relação entre elas e a severidade e mortalidade da doença em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com COVID-19 foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: grupo clínico, grupo da unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), grupo de sobreviventes e não-sobreviventes. Pacientes sem COVID-19 foram incluídos em um grupo de controle. Os grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os pacientes com e sem COVID-19 em termos de tabagismo, asma, diabetes, demência, doença arterial coronariana (DAC), hipertensão arterial, insuficiência renal crônica e arritmia (p>0,05). Idade mais avançada (odds ratio (OR), 1,061; 95% de intervalo de confiança (IC): 1,041-1,082; p< 0,0001), doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) (OR, 2,775; 95% IC: 1,128-6,829; p=0,026) e DAC (OR, 2,696; 95% IC: 1,216-5,974; p=0,015) estavam significativamente associados com a admissão na UTI. O tabagismo atual (OR, 5,101; 95% IC: 2,382-10,927; p < 0,0001) e tabagismo prévio (OR, 3,789; 95% IC: 1,845-7,780; p< 0,0001) foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI. Idade mais avançada (OR; 1,082; 95% IC: 1,056-1,109;< 0,0001), DPOC (OR, 3,213; 95% IC: 1,224-8,431; p=0,018), DAC (OR, 6,252; 95% IC: 2,171-18,004; p=0,001) e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) (OR, 5,917; 95% IC 1,069-32,258; p=0,042) estavam significativamente associados com mortalidade. O tabagismo atual (OR, 13,014; 95% IC: 5,058-33,480; p<0,0001) e o tabagismo prévio (OR, 6,507; 95% IC 2,731-15,501; p<0,0001) também foram fatores de risco para mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo, a idade avançada, DPOC e DAC foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI e mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. ICC não foi um fator de risco para admissão na UTI; no entanto, foi um fator de risco para mortalidade.

Humans , Adult , Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 268-272, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088864


Abstract Background: Periodontitis and coronary artery disease (CAD) share an inflammatory etiology; there is a recent concern regarding the investigation of an association between these two conditions. Current theories indicate that cytokines and proteins have an important role in this process. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 are inflammatory derivatives produced in the presence of periodontitis and in the pathophysiology of coronary disease. The polymorphisms of CRP + 1444 C > T and IL6-174 G > C are recognized in the literature as being related to CAD. Objective: This study investigates the association between periodontitis and coronary artery disease, through the presence of PCR and IL-6 polymorphisms. Methods: We selected 80 patients who underwent diagnostic catheterization in the HU of UFSM. The presence of periodontitis was determined by the Community Periodontal Index, whereas the CAD was established by the medical report. DNA was collected from a saliva sample and the presence of polymorphism was determined by PCR and restriction enzymes. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: The mean age of all participants (p = 0.035, OR 2.65; 95%CI: (1.02-6.87) male gender (p = 0.012, OR 3.37; 95% CI: (1.28- (p = 0.013, OR 3.66; 95% CI: (1.27-10.5)), PCR polymorphism + 1444C > T (p = 0.001, OR 6.37; 95% CI:, (2.25-17.9)) and IL6 -174 G > C polymorphism (p = 0.025, OR 2.87, 95% CI: (1.09-7.55)) were statistically associated with the presence of CAD. Age > 60 years and presence of the PCR +1444 C > T polymorphism remained independently associated with CAD after adjustment by logistic regression. Conclusions: The presence of the PCR + 1444 C > T polymorphism in this study was independently associated with the presence of coronary artery disease.

Resumo Fundamento: A periodontite e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) compartilham uma etiologia inflamatória. Existe preocupação na investigação de associação entre essas duas condições. Há citocinas e proteínas com papel importante neste processo, como a proteína C-reativa (PCR) e a interleucina 6 (IL-6), que são derivados inflamatórios produzidos na presença da periodontite e na fisiopatologia da DAC. Os polimorfismos da PCR+1444 C > T e da IL-6 -174 G > C são reconhecidos na literatura como relacionados à DAC. Objetivo: Este estudo objetiva comprovar a associação entre periodontite e DAC, através da presença dos polimorfismos da PCR e da IL-6. Métodos: Foram selecionados 80 pacientes que se submeteram ao cateterismo diagnóstico no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM). A periodontite foi determinada pelo índice periodontal comunitário; a DAC, pelo laudo médico. Foi coletado o ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA) pela saliva e estabelecido o polimorfismo pela avaliação da PCR/RFLP. Foi adotado um nível de significância estatística de 5%. Resultados: A idade mediana de todos os participantes (p = 0,035; OR 2,65; IC 95% [1,02-6,87]), gênero masculino (p = 0,012; OR 3,37; IC 95% [1,28-8,9]), periodontite (p = 0,013; OR 3,66; IC 95% [1,27-10,5]), polimorfismo da PCR +1444 C > T (p = 0,001; OR 6,37; IC 95% [2,25-17,9]) e polimorfismo da IL-6 -174G > C (p = 0,025; OR 2,87; IC 95% [1,09-7,55]) foram estatisticamente relacionados à DAC. Após ajuste com a regressão logística, mantiveram-se independentemente associadas à DAC a idade maior que 60 anos e o polimorfismo da PCR +1444 C > T. Conclusões: O polimorfismo da PCR +1444 C > T, neste estudo, esteve independentemente relacionado à DAC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Brazil , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Interleukin-6/analysis , Alleles
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(1): 57-64, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090642


Abstract Background: Although associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors, it is unclear whether obesity alone is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Objective: To investigate the role of obesity as a risk factor for CAD, defined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: This study retrospectively included 1,814 patients referred for CCTA in a hospital in São Paulo, from August 2010 to July 2012. CAD was identified by coronary calcium score and presence of coronary stenosis > 50%. Images were analyzed by two specialists, and the coronary findings were compared between obese and non-obese groups. A multivariate analysis model was used to assess obesity as an independent variable for the occurrence of obstructive CAD. Results: Among the study population, mean age was 58.5 +/- 11.5 years, 22.8% were obese (BMI = 30 kg/m2) and 66.3% were male. The prevalence of obstructive CAD was 18.4% in both groups. Obese patients had higher median calcium score compared to non-obese subjects (14.7 vs. 1.4, respectively, p = 0.019). In the multivariate analysis, obesity was not an independent factor for obstructive CAD (coefficient = -0.035, p = 0.102). Conclusion: Although no differences were observed in the prevalence of obstructive CAD between obese and non-obese individuals, coronary calcium scores were significantly in lower the latter group.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Obesity/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Calcium/blood , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Dyslipidemias , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors