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1.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 501-508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981892

ABSTRACT

Objective To clarify the effect and mechanism of tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells (Ag-DCs) combined with cytokine-induced killers (CIKs) on the killing of esophageal cancer tumor cells. Methods Peripheral blood DCs and CIKs were induced and cultured, and the DCs were loaded with tumor antigen to obtain Ag-DCs, and Ag-DCs were co-cultured with CIKs. The experiment was divided into CIK group, DC combined with CIK group, Ag-DC combined with CIK group. Flow cytometry was used to detect the phenotype of cells. MTT assay was employed to determine the killing activity against EC9706 cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was used to detect the apoptosis rate of cells, immunofluorescence staining to detect the expression of phosphorylated apoptotic signal-regulated kinase 1 (p-ASK1) and Western blot analysis to detect the expression of ASK1 pathway related proteins. A nude mouse model of esophageal cancer transplantation tumor was constructed and divided into control group, DC combined with CIK group and Ag-DC combined with CIK group. The corresponding immune cells were injected into the tail vein for treatment and the tumor volume was measured every 2 days. After 21 days, all nude mice were sacrificed with the tumors taken out. HE staining was used to observe the tumor pathological changes and immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression of ki67 and ASK1 in the tumor tissue. Results Comparedwith the CIK group alone and the DC combined with CIK group, the ratio of CD3+ CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+ in the cells significantly increased after Ag-DCs and CIKs co-culture, along with the increased killing rate of EC9706 cells, increased apoptosis rate of EC9706 cells, and the improved activation level of ASK1. Compared with the CIK group and the DC combined with CIK group, the growth of the transplanted tumor in nude mice treated with Ag-DCs combined with CIKs was significantly inhibited, and after 21 days, it was observed that the tumor tissue mass in this group was relatively smaller, with sparsely arranged cells in the tumor tissue and a decline in the positive rate of ki67 in tumor tissue, while the positive rate of ASK1 was significantly increased. Conclusion Co-cultivation of tumor antigen-loaded DCs with CIKs can significantly increase the killing activity of esophageal cancer tumor cells. The mechanism of action may be related to the activation of the ASK1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antigens, Neoplasm , Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Dendritic Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Ki-67 Antigen , Mice, Nude
2.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 468-473, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981887

ABSTRACT

Macrophage as a crucial component of innate immunity, plays an important role in inflammation and infection immunity. Notch signal pathway is a highly conserved pathway, which regulates cellular fate and participates in numerous pathological processes. At present, a lot of literature has confirmed the role of Notch signaling in regulating the differentiation, activation and metabolism of macrophage during inflammation and infection. This review focuses on how Notch signaling promotes macrophage pro-inflammatory and anti-infective immune function in different inflammatory and infectious diseases. In this regulation, Notch signaling interact with TLR signaling in macrophages or inflammatory-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. Additionally, the potential application and challenges of Notch signaling as a therapeutic target against inflammation and infectious diseases are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signal Transduction , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Communicable Diseases , Receptors, Notch/metabolism
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 268-273, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the cytokine/chemokine profile in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and assess the prognostic value of survival.@*METHODS@#Serum levels of thirty-eight cytokines/chemokines were measured by multiple cytokine assay kit in EBV-related HLH patients, EBV-infected patients, and controls. The expression profile of cytokines/chemokines was compared among groups. The changes of cytokine/chemokine expression in active and remission stage of EBV-related HLH patients were also compared, and the prognostic values for survival were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Serum levels of interferon-α2 (IFN-α2), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-7 in EBV-related HLH patients were 33.67(23.23-68.78) pg/ml, (74.95±25.53) pg/ml, and 35.35(19.50-63.55) pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in EBV-infected patients[IFN-α2: 16.07(9.87-29.63); IL-6: 55.91±20.29; IL-7: 20.40(13.35-31.40)] and controls [IFN-α2: 11.02(4.67-21.25); IL-6:42.64±13.41; IL-7: 16.95(14.95-33.78)](all P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-8, IL-9, and marcophage-derived chemokine (MDC) in EBV-related HLH patients were 11.00(7.50-15.27) pg/ml, 81.30(40.79-111.0) pg/ml, and (512.6±128.7) pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in controls [IL-8: 6.80(5.56-8.38); IL-9: 41.30(29.82-67.91); MDC: 384.1±156.6](all P<0.05), but there was no remarkable differences compared with EBV-infected patients (P>0.05). Serum IFN-α2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, and MDC in survival and death groups of EBV-related HLH patients were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve with area under curve of 0.781, 0.778, 0.633, 0.805, 0.562, and 0.657, respectively (P=0.019, 0.021, 0.269, 0.015, 0.607, and 0.190). IFN-α2, IL-6, and IL-8 had good predictive effect on survival. Serum level of IFN-α2, IL-6, and MDC of EBV-related HLH patients in remission stage were significantly lower than those in active stage (P<0.05), while IL-7, IL-8, and IL-9 were not different (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#IFN-α2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, and MDC may take part in the pathogenesis of EBV-related HLH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Cytokines/metabolism , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Interleukin-6 , Clinical Relevance , Interleukin-7 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukin-9 , Chemokines , Interferons
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 504-508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986160

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of combined blockade of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and inducible co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS) on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver fibrosis and imbalance of T helper lymphocyte subsets in mice. Methods: There were 40 BALB/c mice in each model and control group. Flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells in the splenic lymphocyte suspension of mice, the expression levels of interferon γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in the splenic lymphocyte suspension of liver fibrosis mice after combined blockade of IL-33 and ICOS, and the pathological changes of liver histopathology in mice with liver fibrosis. Two independent sample t-test was used to compare data between groups. Results: Compared with the non-blocking group, the proportion of Th2 and Th17 cells in the IL-33/ICOS blocking group was significantly down-regulated (Th2: 65.96% ± 6.04% vs. 49.09% ± 7.03%; Th17: 19.17% ± 4.03% vs. 9.56% ± 2.03%), while the proportion of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were up-regulated (Th1: 17.14% ± 3.02% vs. 31.93% ± 5.02%; Th1/Th2: 0.28 ± 0.06 vs. 0.62 ± 0.23), and the difference was statistically significant (t = 5.15, 6.03, 7.14, 4.28, respectively, with P < 0.05). After entering the chronic inflammation stage of liver fibrosis in mice (10 weeks), compared with the non-blocking group, the expression levels of IL-4 and IL-17 in the blockade group were significantly down-regulated [IL-4: (84.75 ± 14.35) pg/ ml vs. (77.88 ± 19.61) pg/ml; IL-17: (72.38 ± 15.13) pg/ml vs. (36.38 ± 8.65) pg/ml], while the expression of interferon γ was up-regulated [(37.25 ± 11.51) pg/ml vs. (77.88 ± 19.61) pg/ml], and the difference was statistically significant (t: IL-4: 4.71; IL-17: 5.84; interferon γ: 5.05, respectively, with P < 0.05). Liver histopathological results showed that hepatic necrosis, hepatic lobular structural disorder, and fibrous tissue hyperplasia were significantly lower in the blockade group than those in the non-blocking group at 13 weeks of liver fibrosis. Conclusion: Combined blockade of the ICOS signaling pathway and IL-33 can regulate Th2 and Th17 polarization, down-regulate the inflammatory response, and inhibit or prevent the occurrence and progression of fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Th2 Cells , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells/pathology , Immunity
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 280-286, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes in percentage of GATA3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and mouse models.@*METHODS@#The nasal mucosa specimens were obtained from 6 AR patients and 6 control patients for detection of nasal mucosal inflammation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 12 AP patients and 12 control patients to determine the percentages of Treg cells and GATA3+ Treg cells. In a C57BL/6 mouse model of AR, the AR symptom score, peripheral blood OVA-sIgE level, and nasal mucosal inflammation were assessed, and the spleen of mice was collected for detecting the percentages of Treg cells and GATA3+ Treg cells and the expressions of Th2 cytokines.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control patients, AR patients showed significantly increased eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell proliferation in the nasal mucosa (P < 0.01) and decreased percentages of Treg cells and GATA3+ Treg cells (P < 0.05). The mouse models of AR also had more obvious allergic symptoms, significantly increased OVA-sIgE level in peripheral blood, eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia (P < 0.01), markedly lowered percentages of Treg cells and GATA3+ Treg cells in the spleen (P < 0.01), and increased expressions of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The percentage of GATA3+ Treg cells is decreased in AR patients and mouse models. GATA3+ Treg cells possibly participate in Th2 cell immune response, both of which are involved in the occurrence and progression of AR, suggesting the potential of GATA3+ Treg cells as a new therapeutic target for AR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , GATA3 Transcription Factor , Inflammation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Ovalbumin , Rhinitis, Allergic/therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th2 Cells/metabolism
6.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1-14, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Ozone is widely applied to treat allergic skin diseases such as eczema, atopic dermatitis, and contact dermatitis. However, the specific mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the effects of ozonated oil on treating 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and the underling mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Besides the blank control (Ctrl) group, all other mice were treated with DNCB to establish an ACD-like mouse model and were randomized into following groups: a model group, a basal oil group, an ozonated oil group, a FcεRI-overexpressed plasmid (FcεRI-OE) group, and a FcεRI empty plasmid (FcεRI-NC) group. The basal oil group and the ozonated oil group were treated with basal oil and ozonated oil, respectively. The FcεRI-OE group and the FcεRI-NC group were intradermally injected 25 µg FcεRI overexpression plasmid and 25 µg FcεRI empty plasmid when treating with ozonated oil, respectively. We recorded skin lesions daily and used reflectance confocal microscope (RCM) to evaluate thickness and inflammatory changes of skin lesions. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, real-time PCR, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and immunohistochemistry were performed to detct and analyze the skin lesions.@*RESULTS@#Ozonated oil significantly alleviated DNCB-induced ACD-like dermatitis and reduced the expressions of IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-1β, TNF-α, and other related inflammatory factors (all P<0.05). RNA-seq analysis revealed that ozonated oil significantly inhibited the activation of the DNCB-induced FcεRI/Syk signaling pathway, confirmed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (all P<0.05). Compared with the ozonated oil group and the FcεRI-NC group, the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and other inflammatory genes in the FcεRI-OE group were significantly increased (all P<0.05), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of FcεRI and Syk were significantly elevated in the FcεRI-OE group as well (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ozonated oil significantly improves ACD-like dermatitis and alleviated DNCB-induced ACD-like dermatitis via inhibiting the FcεRI/Syk signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Dinitrochlorobenzene/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/pathology , Dermatitis, Atopic/chemically induced , Signal Transduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C
7.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 19-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982476

ABSTRACT

Periodontal bone regeneration is a major challenge in the treatment of periodontitis. Currently the main obstacle is the difficulty of restoring the regenerative vitality of periodontal osteoblast lineages suppressed by inflammation, via conventional treatment. CD301b+ macrophages were recently identified as a subpopulation that is characteristic of a regenerative environment, but their role in periodontal bone repair has not been reported. The current study indicates that CD301b+ macrophages may be a constituent component of periodontal bone repair, and that they are devoted to bone formation in the resolving phase of periodontitis. Transcriptome sequencing suggested that CD301b+ macrophages could positively regulate osteogenesis-related processes. In vitro, CD301b+ macrophages could be induced by interleukin 4 (IL-4) unless proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were present. Mechanistically, CD301b+ macrophages promoted osteoblast differentiation via insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. An osteogenic inducible nano-capsule (OINC) consisting of a gold nanocage loaded with IL-4 as the "core" and mouse neutrophil membrane as the "shell" was designed. When injected into periodontal tissue, OINCs first absorbed proinflammatory cytokines in inflamed periodontal tissue, then released IL-4 controlled by far-red irradiation. These events collectively promoted CD301b+ macrophage enrichment, which further boosted periodontal bone regeneration. The current study highlights the osteoinductive role of CD301b+ macrophages, and suggests a CD301b+ macrophage-targeted induction strategy based on biomimetic nano-capsules for improved therapeutic efficacy, which may also provide a potential therapeutic target and strategy for other inflammatory bone diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bone Regeneration , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-4/therapeutic use , Macrophages/physiology , Mammals , Osteogenesis , Periodontitis/drug therapy
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 750-759, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982345

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease caused by inflammatory cells. Various inflammatory cells involved in RA include fibroblast-like synoviocytes, macrophages, CD4+T-lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. The close interaction between various inflammatory cells leads to imbalance of immune response and disorder of the expression of mRNA in inflammatory cells. It helps to drive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate specific antigen-specific T- and B-lymphocytes to produce autoantibodies which is an important pathogenic factor for RA. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) can regulate the expression of mRNA by competitively binding to miRNA. The related ceRNA network is a new regulatory mechanism for RNA interaction. It has been found to be involved in the regulation of abnormal biological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and release of inflammatory factors of RA inflammatory cells. Understanding the ceRNA network in 6 kinds of RA common inflammatory cells provides a new idea for further elucidating the pathogenesis of RA, and provides a theoretical basis for the discovery of new biomarkers and effective therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Synoviocytes/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Cell Proliferation
9.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 394-404, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the anti-inflammatory effect of grape seed extract (GSE) in animal and cellular models and explore its mechanism of action.@*METHODS@#This study determined the inhibitory effect of GSE on macrophage inflammation and Th1 and Th17 polarization in vitro. Based on the in vitro results, the effects and mechanisms of GSE on multiple sclerosis (MS)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice model were further explored. The C57BL/6 mice were intragastrically administered with 50 mg/kg of GSE once a day from the 3rd day to the 27th day after immunization. The activation of microglia, the polarization of Th1 and Th17 and the inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-17 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreted by them were detected in vitro and in vivo by flow cytometry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence staining and Western blot, respectively.@*RESULTS@#GSE reduced the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-6 in bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (P<0.01), inhibited the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ in spleen cells of EAE mice immunized for 9 days (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and reduced the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 mediated by CD3 and CD28 factors (P<0.01). GSE significantly improved the clinical symptoms of EAE mice, and inhibited spinal cord demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration. Peripherally, GSE downregulated the expression of toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4) and Rho-associated kinase (ROCKII, P<0.05 or P<0.01), and inhibited the secretion of inflammatory factors (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the central nervous system, GSE inhibited the infiltration of CD45+CD11b+ and CD45+CD4+ cells, and weakened the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 (P<0.05). Moreover, it reduced the secretion of inflammatory factors (P<0.01), and prevented the activation of microglia (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#GSE had a beneficial effect on the pathogenesis and progression of EAE by inhibiting inflammatory response as a potential drug and strategy for the treatment of MS.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Grape Seed Extract/therapeutic use , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-1beta , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Th1 Cells , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Interleukin-12/therapeutic use , Cytokines/metabolism
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 880-888, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982145

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inflammatory effects of Cinobufotalin on monocytes in resting state and macrophages in activated state and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#THP-1 cells were stimulated with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to induce differentiation into macrophages. Lipopolysaccharides was added to activate macrophages in order to establish macrophage activation model. Cinobufotalin was added to the inflammatory cell model for 24 h as a treatment. CCK-8 was used to detect cell proliferation, Annexin V /PI double staining flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis, flow cytometry was used to detect macrophage activation, and cytometric bead array was used to detect cytokines. Transcriptome sequencing was used to explore the gene expression profile regulated by Cinobufotalin. Changes in the significantly regulated molecules were verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.@*RESULTS@#1∶25 concentration of Cinobufotalin significantly inhibited the proliferation of resting monocytes(P<0.01), and induced apoptosis(P<0.01), especially the activated macrophages(P<0.001, P<0.001). Cinobufotalin significantly inhibited the activation of macrophages, and significantly down-regulated the inflammatory cytokines(IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8) released by activated macrophages(P<0.001). Its mechanism was achieved by inhibiting TLR4/MYD88/P-IκBa signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Cinobufotalin can inhibit the inflammatory factors produced by the over-activation of macrophages through TLR4/MYD88/P-IκBa pathway, which is expected to be applied to the treatment and research of diseases related to the over-release of inflammatory factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2820-2828, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981385

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis" combination(GX) on the activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and the level of autophagy in RAW264.7 macrophage damaged by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and the mechanism of GX against inflammatory response in macrophages. To be specific, LPS was used to induce the injury of RAW264.7 cells. Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) assay was employed to measure the survival rate of cells, and Western blot to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein(ASC), cysteine-aspartic acid protease(caspase)-1, interleukin(IL)-18, IL-1β, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-Ⅱ, and selective autophagy junction protein p62/sequestosome 1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. ELISA was used to measure the levels of IL-18 and IL-1β in RAW264.7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the number of autophagosomes in RAW264.7 cells. Immunofulourescence staining was used to detect the expression of LC3-Ⅱ and p62 in RAW264.7 cells. The result showed that GX significantly reduced the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in RAW264.7 cells, significantly increased the protein expression of LC3Ⅱ, decreased the expression of p62, significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-18 and IL-1β, significantly increased the number of autophagosomes, significantly enhanced the immunofluorescence of LC3Ⅱ, and reduced the immunofluorescence of p62. Furthermore, 3-methyladenine(3-MA) could reverse the inhibitory effect of GX on NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 and reduce the release of IL-18 and IL-1β. In summary, GX can increase of the autophagy activity of RAW264.7 and inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines and suppressing inflammatory response in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , Caspase 1/metabolism , Autophagy , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2803-2809, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981383

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the potentiating effect and mechanism of the extract of Jingfang Granules(JFG) on the activation of macrophages. The RAW264.7 cells were treated with JFG extract and then stimulated by multiple agents. Subsequently, mRNA was extracted, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA transcription of multiple cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. The levels of cytokines in the cell supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). In addition, the intracellular proteins were extracted and the activation of signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. The results showed that JFG extract alone could not promote or slightly promote the mRNA transcription of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1α, MCP-1, CCL5, IP-10, and IFN-β, and significantly enhance the mRNA transcription of these cytokines in RAW264.7 cells induced by R848 and CpG in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, JFG extract also potentiated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-β by RAW264.7 cells stimulated with R848 and CpG. As revealed by mechanism analysis, JFG extract enhanced the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2, IRF3, STAT1, and STAT3 in RAW264.7 cells induced by CpG. The findings of this study indicate that JFG extract can selectively potentiate the activation of macrophages induced by R848 and CpG, which may be attributed to the promotion of the activation of MAPKs, IRF3, and STAT1/3 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2757-2766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981379

ABSTRACT

In this study, the crude polysaccharides was extracted from Shengfupian and purified by Sevag deproteinization. Then, the purified neutral polysaccharide fragment was obtained by the DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography column and Sephadex G-100 co-lumn. The structure of polysaccharides was characterized by ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ion chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shengfupian polysaccharides, LPS was used to induce inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of the CD86 antibody on surface of M1 cells, the function of macrophages, and the content of NO and IL-6 in the supernatant were examined. An immunodepression model of H22 tumor-bearing mice was established, and the immunomodulatory activity of Shengfupian polysaccharides was evaluated based on the tumor inhibition rate, immune organ index and function, and serum cytokine levels. Research indicated that Shengfupian polysaccharides(80 251 Da) was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, and fructose with molar ratio of 0.004∶0.018∶0.913∶0.065. It was smooth and lumpy under the scanning electron microscope. In the concentration range of 25-200 μg·mL~(-1), Shengfupian polysaccharides exhibited little or no toxicity to RAW264.7 cells and could inhibit the polarization of cells to the M1 type and reduce the content of NO and IL-6 in the cell supernatant. It could suppress the phagocytosis of cells at the concentration of 25 μg·mL~(-1), while enhancing the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells within the concentration range of 100-200 μg·mL~(-1). The 200 mg·kg~(-1) Shengfupian polysaccharides could alleviate the spleen injury caused by cyclophosphamide, increase the levels of IL-1β and IL-6, and decrease the level of TNF-α in the serum of mice. In conclusion, Shengfupian polysaccharides has anti-inflammatory effect and weak immunomodulatory effect, which may the material basis of Aconm Lateralis Radix Praeparaia for dispelling cold and relieving pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interleukin-6/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Infrared
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2203-2211, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981351

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of alcohol extract of root and root bark of Toddalia asiatica(TAAE) on collagen-induced arthritis(CIA) in rats through phosphatidylinoinosidine-3 kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. To be specific, CIA was induced in rats, and then the rats were treated(oral, daily) with TAAE and Tripterygium Glycoside Tablets(TGT), respectively. The swelling degree of the hind leg joints was scored weekly. After 35 days of administration, the histopathological changes were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to detect the levels of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin(IL)-6)]. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of synoviocytes in rats. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2)-associated X(Bax), Bcl-2, and caspase-3 and pathway-related proteins phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K), phosphorylated(p)-PI3K, protein kinase B(Akt), and p-Akt. RT-qPCR was conducted to examine the mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and pathway-related proteins PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, and p-Akt. TAAE can alleviate the joint swelling in CIA rats, reduce serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, improve synovial histopathological changes, promote apoptosis of synoviocytes, and inhibit synovial inflammation. In addition, RT-qPCR and Western blot results showed that TAAE up-regulated the level of Bax, down-regulated the level of Bcl-2, and activated caspase-3 to promote apoptosis in synoviocytes. TAAE effectively down-regulated the protein levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt. In this study, TAAE shows therapeutic effect on CIA in rats and reduces the inflammation. The mechanism is that it suppresses PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and promotes synoviocyte apoptosis. Overall, this study provides a new clue for the research on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of TAAE and lays a theoretical basis for the better clinical application of TAAE in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Caspase 3/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Plant Bark , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Experimental/chemically induced , Inflammation/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Apoptosis
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2193-2202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981350

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of tryptanthrin on potential metabolic biomarkers in the serum of mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) induced by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and predict the related metabolic pathways. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a tryptanthrin group, a sulfasalazine group, a control group, and a model group. The mouse model of UC was established by free drinking of 3% DSS solution for 11 days, and corresponding drugs were adminsitrated at the same time. The signs of mice were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) score was recorded from the first day. Colon tissue samples were collected after the experiment and observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-10(IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-8(IL-8) in the serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The serum samples were collected from 6 mice in each group for widely targeted metabolomics. The metabolic pathways were enriched by MetaboAnalyst 5.0. The results showed that compared with the model group, tryptanthrin treatment decreased the DAI score(P<0.05), alleviated the injury of the colon tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, lowered the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and elevated the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. The metabolomic analysis revealed 28 differential metabolites which were involved in 3 metabolic pathways including purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. Tryptanthrin may restore the metabolism of the mice with UC induced by DSS to the normal level by regulating the purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. This study employed metabolomics to analyze the mechanism of tryptanthrin in the treatment of UC, providing an experimental basis for the utilization and development of tryptanthrin.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Tryptophan , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Colon , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Metabolomics , Purines/therapeutic use , Dextran Sulfate/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2530-2537, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981329

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to observe the effect of terpinen-4-ol(T4O) on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) exposed to high glucose(HG) and reveal the mechanism via the Krüppel-like factor 4(KLF4)/nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB) signaling pathway. The VSMCs were first incubated with T4O for 2 h and then cultured with HG for 48 h to establish the model of inflammatory injury. The proliferation, cell cycle, and migration rate of VSMCs were examined by MTT method, flow cytometry, and wound healing assay, respectively. The content of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin(IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in the supernatant of VSMCs was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA), Cyclin D1, KLF4, NF-κB p-p65/NF-κB p65, IL-1β, and IL-18. The KLF4 expression in VSMCs was silenced by the siRNA technology, and then the effects of T4O on the cell cycle and protein expression of the HG-induced VSMCs were observed. The results showed that different doses of T4O inhibited the HG-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs, increased the percentage of cells in G_1 phase, and decreased the percentage of cells in S phase, and down-regulated the protein levels of PCNA and Cyclin D1. In addition, T4O reduced the HG-induced secretion and release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and down-regulated the expression of KLF4, NF-κB p-p65/NF-κB p65, IL-1β, and IL-18. Compared with si-NC+HG, siKLF4+HG increased the percentage of cells in G_1 phase, decreased the percentage of cells in S phase, down-regulated the expression of PCNA, Cyclin D1, and KLF4, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Notably, the combination of silencing KLF4 with T4O treatment further promoted the changes in the above indicators. The results indicate that T4O may inhibit the HG-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by down-regulating the level of KLF4 and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/genetics , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Proliferation , Signal Transduction , Cytokines/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
17.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 269-275, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aimed to clarify the effects of Foxp3 silencing on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLFs) in an inflammatory environment and on cell proliferation and invasiveness, as well as to explore the role of Foxp3 gene in the development of periodontitis.@*METHODS@#An small interfering RNA (siRNA) construct specific for Foxp3 was transfected into hPDLFs. Foxp3 silencing efficiency was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, and the siRNA with the optimum silencing effect of Foxp3 gene was screened. Using lipopolysaccharide to simulate an inflammatory environment in vitro, CCK-8 detected the effect of silencing Foxp3 on hPDLFs proliferation under inflammatory conditions. Wound-healing experiments and transwell assays were conducted to detect the effect of silencing Foxp3 on hPDLF migration under inflammatory conditions. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting under inflammatory conditions.@*RESULTS@#After siRNA transfection, RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in the Foxp3-si3 group decreased significantly (t=21.03, P<0.000 1), and the protein expression of Foxp3 also decreased significantly (t=12.8, P<0.001). In the inflammatory environment, Foxp3 gene silencing had no significant effect on hPDLFs proliferation (P>0.05), and Foxp3 gene silencing promoted hPDLFs migration (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In an inflammatory environment, Foxp3 gene silencing promoted hPDLFs migration but had no significant effect on hPDLFs proliferation. The expression of inflammatory factors expressed in hPDLFs increased after Foxp3 gene silencing, indicating that Foxp3 gene inhibited inflammation in periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gene Silencing , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Periodontal Ligament/metabolism , Periodontitis/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 154-161, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of adipocytes in the bone marrow microenvironment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) on the pathogenesis of MM.@*METHODS@#Bone marrow adipocytes (BMA) in bone marrow smears of health donors (HD) and newly diagnosed MM (ND-MM) patients were evaluated with oil red O staining. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from HD and ND-MM patients were isolated, and in vitro co-culture assay was used to explore the effects of MM cells on the adipogenic differentiation of MSC and the role of BMA in the survival and drug resistance of MM cells. The expression of adipogenic/osteogenic differentiation-related genes PPAR-γ, DLK1, DGAT1, FABP4, FASN and ALP both in MSC and MSC-derived adipocytes was determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The Western blot was employed to detect the expression levels of IL-6, IL-10, SDF-1α, TNF-α and IGF-1 in the supernatant with or without PPAR-γ inhibitor.@*RESULTS@#The results of oil red O staining of bone marrow smears showed that BMA increased significantly in patients of ND-MM compared with the normal control group, and the BMA content was related to the disease status. The content of BMA decreased in the patients with effective chemotherapy. MM cells up-regulated the expression of MSC adipogenic differentiation-related genes PPAR-γ, DLK1, DGAT1, FABP4 and FASN, but the expression of osteogenic differentiation-related gene ALP was significantly down-regulated. This means that the direct consequence of the interaction between MM cells and MSC in the bone marrow microenvironment is to promote the differentiation of MSC into adipocytes at the expense of osteoblasts, and the cytokines detected in supernatant changed. PPAR-γ inhibitor G3335 could partially reverse the release of cytokines by BMA. Those results confirmed that BMA regulated the release of cytokines via PPAR-γ signal, and PPAR-γ inhibitor G3335 could distort PPAR-γ mediated BMA maturation and cytokines release. The increased BMA and related cytokines effectively promoted the proliferation, migration and drug resistance of MM cells.@*CONCLUSION@#The BMA and its associated cytokines are the promoting factors in the survival, proliferation and migration of MM cells. BMA can protect MM cells from drug-induced apoptosis and plays an important role in MM treatment failure and disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis/genetics , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Adipogenesis , Cytokines/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , PPAR gamma/pharmacology , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 20-31, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970940

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the potential function and related mechanism of microRNA-223 (miRNA-223) in the podocyte pyroptosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated glomerulonephritis induced by HBV X protein (HBx). Methods: HBx-overexpressing lentivirus was transfected into human renal podocytes to mimic the pathogenesis of HBV-GN. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blotting experiments were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of pyroptosis-related proteins [nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1], and inflammatory factors (interleukin-1β and interleukin-18), respectively.TUNEL staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the number of pyroptosis cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of podocytes biomarkers desmin and nephrin; Hoechst 33342 staining was used to observe the morphological and quantitative changes of podocyte nuclei. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure caspase-1 activity. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay was used to verify the downstream target of miRNA-223. Podocytes were divided into the following nine groups: control group (no special treatment), empty plasmid group (transfected with empty plasmid), HBx overexpression group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus and miRNA-223 mimic), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus and miRNA-223 inhibitor), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic+NLRP3 group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 mimic+ NLRP3 siRNA group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 siRNA), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor+NLRP3 group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid), HBx overexpression+miRNA-223 inhibitor+NLRP3 siRNA group (transfected with HBx overexpression lentivirus, miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 siRNA). Results: miRNA-223 was down-regulated in HBx overexpression group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). TUNEL and immunofluorescence staining showed that NLRP3 knockdown attenuated podocyte injury and pyroptosis induced by HBx overexpression (P < 0.05). Dual luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated that NLRP3 was one of the downstream targets of miRNA-223. Rescue experiments revealed that NLRP3 overexpression weakened the protective effect of miRNA-223 in podocyte injury (P < 0.05). The addition of miRNA-223 mimic and NLRP3 siRNA decreased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokines, and reduced the number of pyroptosis cells induced by HBx overexpression (all P < 0.05); The addition of miRNA-223 inhibitor and NLRP3 overexpression plasmid significantly increased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokines, caspase-1 activity, and the number of pyroptosis cells (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: HBx may promote podocyte pyroptosis of HBV-GN via downregulating miRNA-223 targeting NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that miRNA-223 is expected to be a potential target for the treatment of HBV-GN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Podocytes/metabolism , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Glomerulonephritis/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 231-247, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970371

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect of anti-PD-1 antibody expressed in mouse mammary gland on the surface antigen protein of spleen T cells, cytokine expression, spleen CD4+ T cell proliferation and proliferation related pathways of transgenic mice at the cellular level. Transgenic mice expressing anti-human PD-1 antibody at 8 weeks of age without pregnancy and 18 weeks of age with lactation were divided into two groups, with transgenic negative mice in each group as the control. Spleen lymphocytes were extracted and the changes of spleen lymphocytes were detected. Compared with transgenic negative mice, the proportion of effector T cells of spleen T cells in the immune system of transgenic mice with anti-PD-1 antibody expressed in breast increased, the proportion of Treg cells decreased, and the IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-2 expressed in CD4+ T cells increased in varying degrees. Moreover, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β in CD4+ T cells did not change, nor did some cell surface protein molecules related to T cell stimulate. There was no significant difference in T cell proliferation between transgenic positive and transgenic negative mice. In transgenic positive mice, the expression of phosphorylated proteins in PI3K/Akt/mTOR and RAS/MEK/ERK pathways were partially up-regulated, but the whole pathway was not completely up-regulated. Therefore, it is feasible to use transgenic mice as host to express monoclonal antibodies related to immune system such as anti-PD-1 antibody.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Female , Mice, Transgenic , Spleen/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism
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