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1.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 137(1): 4-10, mar. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552830

ABSTRACT

Se exponen los hallazgos históricos y la importancia biológica de los telómeros en la vida celular y en los aspectos genéticos del ADN humano. (AU)


The discovery and the biological importance of the telomeres are exposed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA/genetics , Telomere/physiology , Telomere/genetics , Telomerase/physiology , Telomerase/genetics , Aging/physiology , DNA/metabolism , Cellular Senescence , Telomerase/metabolism , DNA Replication/physiology , Telomere Shortening , Neoplasms/physiopathology
2.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 194-205, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927653

ABSTRACT

Objective@#SET8 is a member of the SET domain-containing family and the only known lysine methyltransferase (KMT) that monomethylates lysine 20 of histone H4 (H4K20me1). SET8 has been implicated in many essential cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, DNA damage response, and carcinogenesis. There is no conclusive evidence, however, regarding the effect of SET8 on radiotherapy. In the current study we determined the efficacy of SET8 inhibition on radiotherapy of tumors and the underlying mechanism.@*Methods@#First, we explored the radiotherapy benefit of the SET8 expression signature by analyzing clinical data. Then, we measured a series of biological endpoints, including the xenograft tumor growth in mice and apoptosis, frequency of micronuclei, and foci of 53BP1 and γ-H2AX in cells to detect the SET8 effects on radiosensitivity. RNA sequencing and subsequent experiments were exploited to verify the mechanism underlying the SET8 effects on radiotherapy.@*Results@#Low expression of SET8 predicted a better benefit to radiotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and invasive breast carcinoma (BRCA) patients. Furthermore, genetic deletion of SET8 significantly enhanced radiation treatment efficacy in a murine tumor model, and A549 and MCF7 cells; SET8 overexpression decreased the radiosensitivity. SET8 inhibition induced more apoptosis, the frequency of micronuclei, and blocked the kinetics process of DNA damage repair as 53BP1 and γ-H2AX foci remained in cells. Moreover, RNF8 was positively correlated with the SET8 impact on DNA damage repair.@*Conclusion@#Our results demonstrated that SET8 inhibition enhanced radiosensitivity by suppressing DNA damage repair, thus suggesting that SET8 potentiated radiotherapy of carcinomas. As new inhibitors of SET8 are synthesized and tested in preclinical and clinical settings, combining SET8 inhibitors with radiation warrants consideration for precise radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Damage , DNA Replication , HeLa Cells , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Radiotherapy
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2322-2332, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss worldwide. However, the mechanisms involved in the development and progression of AMD are poorly delineated. We aimed to explore the critical genes involved in the progression of AMD.@*METHODS@#The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in AMD retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)/choroid tissues were identified using the microarray datasets GSE99248 and GSE125564, which were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. The overlapping DEGs from the two datasets were screened to identify DEG-related biological pathways using gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses. The hub genes were identified from these DEGs through protein-protein interaction network analyses. The expression levels of hub genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction following the induction of senescence in ARPE-19 with FK866. Following the identification of AMD-related key genes, the potential small molecule compounds targeting the key genes were predicted by PharmacoDB. Finally, a microRNA-gene interaction network was constructed.@*RESULTS@#Microarray analyses identified 174 DEGs in the AMD RPE compared to the healthy RPE samples. These DEGs were primarily enriched in the pathways involved in the regulation of DNA replication, cell cycle, and proteasome-mediated protein polyubiquitination. Among the top ten hub genes, HSP90AA1, CHEK1, PSMA4, PSMD4, and PSMD8 were upregulated in the senescent ARPE-19 cells. Additionally, the drugs targeting HSP90AA1, CHEK1, and PSMA4 were identified. We hypothesize that Hsa-miR-16-5p might target four out of the five key DEGs in the AMD RPE.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Based on our findings, HSP90AA1 is likely to be a central gene controlling the DNA replication and proteasome-mediated polyubiquitination during the RPE senescence observed in the progression of AMD. Targeting HSP90AA1, CHEK1, PSMA4, PSMD4, and/or PSMD8 genes through specific miRNAs or small molecules might potentially alleviate the progression of AMD through attenuating RPE senescence.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Replication , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Macular Degeneration/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 485-490, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826336

ABSTRACT

To explore the molecular mechanism of human papillomavirus subtype 16(HPV-16)E7 oncogene-induced DNA re-replication in response to DNA damage. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle changes in RPE1 E7 cells stably expressing HPV-16 E7 and its control cell RPE1 Vector after DNA damage.Immunoblotting assay was used to evaluate the early mitotic inhibitor 1(Emi1)expression in RPE1 E7 and RPE1 Vector cells with or without DNA damage.The changes of the proportion of polyploidy was detected by flow cytometry in DNA-damaged RPE1 E7 cells interfered by Emi1 small interfering RNA. Compared with the control cells,the proportion of polyploids in RPE1 E7 cells was significantly increased in response to DNA damage(=6.397,=0.0031).Emi1 protein expression was significantly increased in DNA damaged RPE1 E7 cells(=8.241,=0.0012).The polyploid ratio of RPE1 E7 cells was significantly reduced after Emi1 was interfered by two independent small interfering RNAs(=2.916,=0.0434;=3.452,=0.0260). In response to DNA damage,Emi1 promoted DNA re-replication caused by HPV-16 E7.


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , DNA Replication , Human papillomavirus 16 , Mitosis , Oncogene Proteins, Viral
5.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 876-880, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the correlation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA (MP-DNA) replication level in throat swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with disease severity in children with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (SMPP).@*METHODS@#A total of 44 children with SMPP who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage were enrolled as subjects. The serum levels of cytokines and MP-DNA replication times in throat swab were measured in the acute stage and the recovery stage, and the levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and MP-DNA replication times in BALF were measured in the acute stage. According to whether mechanical ventilation was needed for respiratory failure, the children were divided into a mechanical ventilation group (n=19) and a non-mechanical ventilation group (n=25), and the two groups were compared in MP-DNA replication times in BALF.@*RESULTS@#For the children with SMPP, serum levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lactate dehydrogenase, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 in the acute stage were significantly higher than those in the recovery stage (P<0.05). In the acute stage, MP-DNA replication times in throat swab were positively correlated with those in BALF (r=0.613, P<0.05), and MP-DNA replication times in BALF were positively correlated with IL-18 levels in peripheral blood and BALF (r=0.613 and 0.41 respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the non-mechanical ventilation group, the mechanical ventilation group had significantly higher MP-DNA replication times in BALF, a significantly longer duration of systemic hormone treatment, significantly higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-18, and significantly higher white blood cell count and IL-18 level in BALF (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with SMPP, MP-DNA replication level in throat swab and BALF can be used as a reference index for the assessment of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cytokines , DNA Replication , DNA, Bacterial , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma
6.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 240-245, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786434

ABSTRACT

Baller-Gerold syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature fusion of the cranial sutures and malformation of the upper limb extremities at birth. Although the pathogenesis of Baller-Gerold Syndrome is not fully understood, it is mainly caused by mutations in the RecQ like helicase 4 (RECQL4) gene located on chromosome 8q24.3, which encodes the RECQL4 protein involved in normal DNA replication and repair. This study reports the case of a female premature infant with craniosynostosis of bilateral coronal sutures, resulting in a dysmorphic face and hypoplastic thumbs on both hands at birth, which are consistent with the core characteristics of Baller-Gerold syndrome. Diagnostic whole exome sequencing of the patient revealed a homozygous deletion from exon 13 to 18 in the RECQL4 gene. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first reported case of Baller-Gerold syndrome with RECQL4 gene mutation confirmed by diagnostic whole exome sequencing in Korea.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cranial Sutures , Craniosynostoses , DNA Replication , Exome , Exons , Extremities , Hand , Hand Deformities , Infant, Premature , Korea , Parturition , Sutures , Thumb , Upper Extremity
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(3): 388-397, jul.-set. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third cause of death risk in Colombia and the first cause of physical disability worldwide. Different studies on the silencing of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) have shown that reducing its activity is beneficial in ischemic contexts. However, its effect on neural cell production after cerebral ischemia has not been well studied yet. Objective: To evaluate CDK5 silencing on the production of neurons and astrocytes after a focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Materials and methods: We used 40 eight-week-old male Wistar rats. Both sham and ischemia groups were transduced at CA1 hippocampal region with an adeno-associated viral vector using a noninterfering (shSCRmiR) and an interfering sequence for CDK5 (shCDK5miR). We injected 50 mg/kg of bromodeoxyuridine intraperitoneally from hour 24 to day 7 post-ischemia. We assessed the neurological abilities during the next 15 days and we measured the immunoreactivity of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), doublecortin (DCX), NeuN, and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) from day 15 to day 30 post-ischemia. Results: Our findings showed that CDK5miR-treated ischemic animals improved their neurological score and presented increased BrdU+ cells 15 days after ischemia, which correlated with higher DCX and lower GFAP fluorescence intensities, and, although mature neurons populations did not change, GFAP immunoreactivity was still significantly reduced at 30 days post-ischemia in comparison with untreated ischemic groups. Conclusion: CDK5miR therapy generated the neurological recovery of ischemic rats associated with the induction of immature neurons proliferation and the reduction of GFAP reactivity at short and longterm post-ischemia.


Resumen Introducción. La isquemia cerebral es la tercera causa de riesgo de muerte en Colombia y la primera causa de discapacidad física en el mundo. En diversos estudios en los que se silenció la cinasa 5 dependiente de la ciclina (CDK5) se ha demostrado que la reducción de su actividad es beneficiosa frente a la isquemia. Sin embargo, su efecto sobre la neurogénesis después de la isquemia no se ha dilucidado suficientemente. Objetivo. Evaluar el silenciamiento de la CDK5 en la neurogénesis y la gliogénesis después de la isquemia cerebral focal en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron 40 machos de rata Wistar de ocho semanas de edad. Los grupos de control y los isquémicos sometidos a transducción en la región del hipocampo CA1, se inyectaron intraperitonealmente por estereotaxia con 50 mg/kg de bromodesoxiuridina (BrdU) a partir de las 24 horas y hasta el día 7 después de la isquemia, con un vector viral asociado a adenovirus usando una secuencia no interferente (SCRmiR) y una interferente (CDK5miR). Se evaluó la capacidad neurológica durante los quince días siguientes y se detectó la capacidad de inmunorreacción para la BrdU, la proteína doblecortina (DCX), los núcleos neuronales (NeuN), y la proteína fibrilar acídica de la glía (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP) a los 15 y 30 días de la isquemia. Resultados. Los animales isquémicos tratados con CDK5miR mejoraron su puntuación neurológica y presentaron un incremento de la BrdU+ a los 15 días de la isquemia, lo cual se correlacionó con una mayor intensidad de la DCX+ y una menor de la GFAP+. No hubo modificación de los NeuN+, pero sí una reducción significativa de la GFAP+ a los 30 días de la isquemia en los animales tratados comparados con los animales isquémicos no tratados. Conclusión. La terapia con CDK5miR generó la recuperación neurológica de ratas isquémicas asociada con la inducción de la neurogénesis y el control de la capacidad de reacción de la proteína GFAP a corto y largo plazo después de la isquemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Genetic Therapy , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Neuroglia/physiology , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , RNA Interference , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurogenesis/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Genetic Therapy/methods , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Astrocytes/pathology , Carotid Stenosis , Rats, Wistar , Dependovirus/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , DNA Replication , Drug Evaluation , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Doublecortin Protein , Ligation , Neurons/pathology
8.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 432-440, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Skin hydration is a common problem both in elderly and young people as dry skin may cause irritation, dermatological disorders, and wrinkles. While both genetic and environmental factors seem to influence skin hydration, thorough genetic studies on skin hydration have not yet been conducted. OBJECTIVE: We used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic elements underlying skin hydration by regulating epidermal differentiation and skin barrier function. METHODS: A GWAS was conducted to investigate the genetic factors influencing skin hydration in 100 Korean females along with molecular studies of genes in human epidermal keratinocytes for functional study in vitro. RESULTS: Among several single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in GWAS, we focused on Single Stranded DNA Binding Protein 3 (SSBP3) which is associated with DNA replication and DNA damage repair. To better understand the role of SSBP3 in skin cells, we introduced a calcium-induced differentiation keratinocyte culture system model and found that SSBP3 was upregulated in keratinocytes in a differentiation dependent manner. When SSBP3 was overexpressed using a recombinant adenovirus, the expression of differentiation-related genes such as loricrin and involucrin was markedly increased. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that genetic variants in the intronic region of SSBP3 could be determinants in skin hydration of Korean females. SSBP3 represents a new candidate gene to evaluate the molecular basis of the hydration ability in individuals.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Adenoviridae , Cell Differentiation , DNA Damage , DNA Replication , DNA, Single-Stranded , DNA-Binding Proteins , Genome-Wide Association Study , In Vitro Techniques , Introns , Keratinocytes , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Skin
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 365-379, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756937

ABSTRACT

NEDDylation has been shown to participate in the DNA damage pathway, but the substrates of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8) and the roles of NEDDylation involved in the DNA damage response (DDR) are largely unknown. Translesion synthesis (TLS) is a damage-tolerance mechanism, in which RAD18/RAD6-mediated monoubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promotes recruitment of polymerase η (polη) to bypass lesions. Here we identify PCNA as a substrate of NEDD8, and show that E3 ligase RAD18-catalyzed PCNA NEDDylation antagonizes its ubiquitination. In addition, NEDP1 acts as the deNEDDylase of PCNA, and NEDP1 deletion enhances PCNA NEDDylation but reduces its ubiquitination. In response to HO stimulation, NEDP1 disassociates from PCNA and RAD18-dependent PCNA NEDDylation increases markedly after its ubiquitination. Impairment of NEDDylation by Ubc12 knockout enhances PCNA ubiquitination and promotes PCNA-polη interaction, while up-regulation of NEDDylation by NEDD8 overexpression or NEDP1 deletion reduces the excessive accumulation of ubiquitinated PCNA, thus inhibits PCNA-polη interaction and blocks polη foci formation. Moreover, Ubc12 knockout decreases cell sensitivity to HO-induced oxidative stress, but NEDP1 deletion aggravates this sensitivity. Collectively, our study elucidates the important role of NEDDylation in the DDR as a modulator of PCNA monoubiquitination and polη recruitment.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Damage , DNA Repair , Genetics , DNA Replication , Genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Genetics , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Genetics , Endopeptidases , Genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , Hydrogen Peroxide , Toxicity , NEDD8 Protein , Genetics , Oxidative Stress , Genetics , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Genetics , Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes , Genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Genetics , Ubiquitination , Genetics , Ultraviolet Rays
10.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 58-62, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741476

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are numerous prostate cancer-related genes that involve in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Among the genes, DNA mismatch repair genes recognize and repair misincorporated nucleotides during DNA replication. In this analysis, we evaluated the association of hMSH2 which is one of the mismatch repair genes, with risk of aggressive prostate cancer and prostate cancer recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed in 46 patients who diagnosed prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between January 2006 and December 2012 at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. We evaluated an association between the degree of hMSH2 immunohistochemical staining and various clinical variables including prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, pathological stage, and biochemical recurrence. The intensity of immunostaining for hMSH2 was divided into 2 groups: low expression group (immunostaining score < 2) and high expression group (immunostaining score ≥2). RESULTS: Although seminal vesicle invasion was marginally associated with the degree of hMSH2 immunohistochemical staining, PSA, Gleason score, lymph node metastasis, presence of lymphatic, perineural, vascular invasion, and extracapsular extension were not associated with the degree of hMSH2 immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, the association of biochemical recurrence free survival with hMSH2 expression was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The hMSH2 expression was marginally associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer such as seminal vesicle invasion. Further evaluation with a larger number of cases is needed to verify these results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Base Pair Mismatch , Carcinogenesis , DNA Mismatch Repair , DNA Repair , DNA Replication , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nucleotides , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Seminal Vesicles
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e303-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) is an essential regulator of DNA replication and plays important roles in the activation and maintenance of the checkpoint mechanisms in the cell cycle. CDC6 has been associated with oncogenic activities in human cancers; however, the clinical significance of CDC6 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether the CDC6 mRNA expression level is a diagnostic and prognostic marker in PCa. METHODS: The study subjects included 121 PCa patients and 66 age-matched benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. CDC6 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical (IH) staining, and then compared according to the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa. RESULTS: CDC6 mRNA expression was significantly higher in PCa tissues than in BPH control tissues (P = 0.005). In addition, CDC6 expression was significantly higher in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (> 20 ng/mL), a high Gleason score, and advanced stage than in those with low PSA levels, a low Gleason score, and earlier stage, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high expression of CDC6 was significantly associated with advanced stage (≥ T3b) (odds ratio [OR], 3.005; confidence interval [CI], 1.212–7.450; P = 0.018) and metastasis (OR, 4.192; CI, 1.079–16.286; P = 0.038). Intense IH staining for CDC6 was significantly associated with a high Gleason score and advanced tumor stage including lymph node metastasis stage (linear-by-linear association, P = 0.044 and P = 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSION: CDC6 expression is associated with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics in PCa. CDC6 may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in PCa patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Cycle , DNA Replication , Gene Expression , Logistic Models , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2827-2835, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772915

ABSTRACT

Background@#DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion 1 (DSCC1) (also called DCC1) is a component of an alternative replication factor C complex that loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto DNA during S phase of the cell cycle. It is located at 8q24 and frequently amplified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of DSCC1 in the carcinogenesis and progress of HCC has not been fully investigated. Here, we aimed to assert the importance of DSCC1 in the HCC.@*Methods@#In this study, copy number variation data and RNA sequencing data were used to calculate the DNA copy number and mRNA expression of DSCC1 in HCC. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to determine the mRNA and protein level of DSCC1 in HCC. The Kaplan-Meier analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to assess the association of DSCC1 with the overall survival (OS) of HCC patients. Moreover, lentiviral shRNA was used to knockdown DSCC1, and then, colony-forming assay, cell cycle assay, and cell proliferation assay were performed to evaluate the impact of DSCC1 silencing on HCC cell lines.@*Results@#We found that DSCC1 was amplified and highly expressed in HCC tumor tissues than in nontumor tissues. We then found that the overexpression of both mRNA and protein of DSCC1 was linked to the bad prognosis of HCC patients. Astonishingly, the protein level of DSCC1 was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.74; P = 0.007). Furthermore, the clonogenic capacity of DSCC1-amplified HCC cell lines (MHCC-97H, MHCC-97L, and Hep3B) was significantly inhibited by transduction of a lentiviral shRNA that targets DSCC1. We also showed that knockdown of DSCC1 induced G0-G1 cell cycle arrest (increased from 60% to more than 80%) and greatly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cell lines.@*Conclusion@#These results suggest that DSCC1 is a putative HCC driver gene that promotes proliferation and is associated with poor prognosis in HCC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Genetics , Pathology , Cell Cycle , Genetics , Physiology , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Genetics , Physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Genetics , Physiology , DNA Replication , Genetics , Physiology , Hep G2 Cells , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Neoplasms , Genetics , Pathology , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-16, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cellular senescence is induced either internally, for example by replication exhaustion and cell division, or externally, for example by irradiation. In both cases, cellular damages accumulate which, if not successfully repaired, can result in senescence induction. Recently, we determined the transcriptional changes combined with the transition into replicative senescence in primary human fibroblast strains. Here, by γ-irradiation we induced premature cellular senescence in the fibroblast cell strains (HFF and MRC-5) and determined the corresponding transcriptional changes by high-throughput RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Comparing the transcriptomes, we found a high degree of similarity in differential gene expression in replicative as well as in irradiation induced senescence for both cell strains suggesting, in each cell strain, a common cellular response to error accumulation. On the functional pathway level, "Cell cycle" was the only pathway commonly down-regulated in replicative and irradiation-induced senescence in both fibroblast strains, confirming the tight link between DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. However, "DNA repair" and "replication" pathways were down-regulated more strongly in fibroblasts undergoing replicative exhaustion. We also retrieved genes and pathways in each of the cell strains specific for irradiation induced senescence. CONCLUSION: We found the pathways associated with "DNA repair" and "replication" less stringently regulated in irradiation induced compared to replicative senescence. The strong regulation of these pathways in replicative senescence highlights the importance of replication errors for its induction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Fibroblasts/radiation effects , Time Factors , DNA Damage , Immunoblotting , Down-Regulation/radiation effects , Up-Regulation/radiation effects , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Cellular Senescence/radiation effects , Cellular Senescence/genetics , beta-Galactosidase/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Gene Expression Profiling , Aborted Fetus , DNA Repair/radiation effects , DNA Replication/radiation effects , Fibroblasts/physiology , Gamma Rays , Lung
14.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 478-488, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757417

ABSTRACT

Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder that mainly affects tissues derived from mesoderm. We have recently developed a novel human WS model using WRN-deficient human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This model recapitulates many phenotypic features of WS. Based on a screen of a number of chemicals, here we found that Vitamin C exerts most efficient rescue for many features in premature aging as shown in WRN-deficient MSCs, including cell growth arrest, increased reactive oxygen species levels, telomere attrition, excessive secretion of inflammatory factors, as well as disorganization of nuclear lamina and heterochromatin. Moreover, Vitamin C restores in vivo viability of MSCs in a mouse model. RNA sequencing analysis indicates that Vitamin C alters the expression of a series of genes involved in chromatin condensation, cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and DNA damage repair pathways in WRN-deficient MSCs. Our results identify Vitamin C as a rejuvenating factor for WS MSCs, which holds the potential of being applied as a novel type of treatment of WS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Ascorbic Acid , Pharmacology , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line , Cellular Senescence , DNA Damage , DNA Repair , DNA Replication , Disease Models, Animal , Heterochromatin , Metabolism , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolism , Pathology , Nuclear Lamina , Metabolism , Pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Telomere Homeostasis , Werner Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism
15.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 472-476, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264019

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the pattern of DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in S-phase cells after thermal damage and explore the mechanisms behind heat sensitivity of S-phase cells and delayed DSBs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle arrest in H1299 cells exposed to thermal damage, and EdU incorporation assay was employed to evaluate the DNA replication capacity of the cells. The cells synchronized in S phase were obtained by serum starvation and DSBs were observed dynamically using neutral comet assay. Trypan blue dye exclusion technique was used to analyze the cell viability after thermal damage. Western blotting (WB) was used to detect the phosphorylation of ATM and DNA binding RAD18.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The percentage of S-phase cells increased significantly after exposure of the cells to 45 degrees celsius; for 1 h (P<0.01). The time-dependent variation pattern of EdU incorporation was similar to that of S-phase cell fraction. The comet tail began to appear only after incubation of the cells at 37 degrees celsius; for some time and the Olive tail moment (OTM) increased with prolonged incubation. Cell death remained low until 7.5 h after heat exposure of the S-phase cells and then increased rapidly. The phosphorylation of ATM first increased but then decreased drastically. In cells with heat exposure, DNA binding RAD18 was attenuated obviously compared that in non-exposed cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Thermal damage causes cell cycle arrest in S phase, and delayed fatal DSBs occur in the arrested cells due to persistent replication and DNA damage repair suppression, which are the possible cause of heat sensitivity of S-phase cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins , Metabolism , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Comet Assay , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair , DNA Replication , DNA-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Phosphorylation , S Phase , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 98-106, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331678

ABSTRACT

Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that regulate the overwinding or underwinding of DNA helix during replication, transcription, recombination, repair, and chromatin remodeling. These enzymes perform topological transformations by providing a transient DNA break, through which the unique problems of DNA entanglement that occur owing to unwinding and rewinding of the DNA helix can be resolved. In mammals, topoisomerases are classified into two types, type I topoisomerase (Top1) and type II topoisomerase (Top2), depending on the number of strands cut in one round of action. Top1 induces single-strand breaks in DNA, and Top2 induces double-strand breaks. In cells from vertebrate species, there are two forms of Top2, designated alpha and beta. Top2α is involved in the cellular proliferation and pluripotency, while Top2β plays key roles in neurodevelopment. In this review, we cover recent advances in structural, mechanistic and functional insights into Top2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , DNA Replication , DNA Topoisomerases, Type II , Chemistry
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 322-333, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64173

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Heterochromatin protein 1gamma (HP1gamma) interacts with chromosomes by binding to lysine 9-methylated histone H3 or DNA/RNA. HP1gamma is involved in various biological processes. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of how HP1gamma functions in these processes by identifying HP1gamma-binding proteins using mass spectrometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed affinity purification of HP1gamma-binding proteins using G1/S phase or prometaphase HEK293T cell lysates that transiently express mock or FLAG-HP1gamma. Coomassie staining was performed for HP1gamma-binding complexes, using cell lysates prepared by affinity chromatography FLAG-agarose beads, and the bands were digested and then analyzed using a mass spectrometry. RESULTS: We identified 99 HP1gamma-binding proteins with diverse cellular functions, including spliceosome, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, tight junction, pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway, nucleotide excision repair, DNA replication, homologous recombination, and mismatch repair. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that HP1gamma is functionally active in DNA damage response via protein-protein interaction.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Biological Phenomena , Chromatography, Affinity , DNA Damage , DNA Mismatch Repair , DNA Repair , DNA Replication , DNA , Escherichia coli Infections , Heterochromatin , Histones , Homologous Recombination , Lysine , Mass Spectrometry , Prometaphase , Sirolimus , Spliceosomes , Tight Junctions
18.
Clinics ; 70(5): 333-338, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748272

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the acute hemodynamic responses to multiple sets of passive stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Fifteen healthy men aged 21 to 29 years with poor flexibility performed stretching protocols comprising 10 sets of maximal passive unilateral hip flexion, sustained for 30 seconds with equal intervals between sets. Protocols without and with the Valsalva maneuver were applied in a random counterbalanced order, separated by 48-hour intervals. Hemodynamic responses were measured by photoplethysmography pre-exercise, during the stretching sets, and post-exercise. RESULTS: The effects of stretching sets on systolic and diastolic blood pressure were cumulative until the fourth set in protocols performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. The heart rate and rate pressure product increased in both protocols, but no additive effect was observed due to the number of sets. Hemodynamic responses were always higher when stretching was performed with the Valsalva maneuver, causing an additional elevation in the rate pressure product. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sets of unilateral hip flexion stretching significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product values. A cumulative effect of the number of sets occurred only for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, at least in the initial sets of the stretching protocols. The performance of the Valsalva maneuver intensified all hemodynamic responses, which resulted in significant increases in cardiac work during stretching exercises. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Thiophenes/pharmacology , Topoisomerase I Inhibitors/pharmacology , Urea/analogs & derivatives , DNA Replication/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Urea/pharmacology
19.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 45-51, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The consensus about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment has gone from a cause and effect association between TMD and orthodontic treatment to the idea that there is no reliable evidence supporting this statement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the beliefs, despite scientific evidence, of Brazilian orthodontists about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment with regards to treatment, prevention and etiology of TMD. METHODS: A survey about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment was prepared and sent to Brazilian orthodontists by e-mail and social networks. Answers were treated by means of descriptive statistics and strong associations between variables were assessed by qui-square test. RESULTS: The majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment not only is not the best treatment option for TMD, but also is not able to prevent TMD. Nevertheless, the majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment can cause TMD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that orthodontists' beliefs about the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD are in accordance with scientific evidence only when referring to treatment and prevention of TMD. The majority of orthodontists believe that, despite scientific evidence, orthodontic treatment can cause TMD. .


INTRODUÇÃO: o consenso sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico foi de uma associação de causa e efeito à ideia de que não há evidências confiáveis que suportem essa afirmação. OBJETIVO: avaliar as crenças, sem considerar as evidências, de ortodontistas brasileiros sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico com relação ao tratamento, prevenção e etiologia da DTM. MÉTODOS: um questionário sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico foi preparado e enviado a ortodontistas brasileiros por meio de e-mail e mídias sociais. As respostas foram analisadas por estatística descritiva, e fortes associações entre as variáveis foram verificadas pelo teste χ2. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que o tratamento ortodôntico não é o melhor tratamento para DTM. Além disso, acreditam que não é a melhor forma para sua prevenção. Também, a maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que o tratamento ortodôntico pode causar sintomas de DTM. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo sugere que as crenças dos ortodontistas sobre a relação entre tratamento ortodôntico e DTM estão de acordo com as evidências científicas apenas quando se trata do tratamento e da prevenção de DTM. A maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que, apesar das evidências científicas, o tratamento ortodôntico pode causar DTM. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , DNA Replication/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , G1 Phase/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Replication Origin/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Blotting, Western , Cell Fractionation , Cell Line , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , /metabolism , DNA Primers/genetics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Immunoblotting , Immunoprecipitation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Interference
20.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 194-210, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757602

ABSTRACT

DNA primase catalyzes de novo synthesis of a short RNA primer that is further extended by replicative DNA polymerases during initiation of DNA replication. The eukaryotic primase is a heterodimeric enzyme comprising a catalytic subunit Pri1 and a regulatory subunit Pri2. Pri2 is responsible for facilitating optimal RNA primer synthesis by Pri1 and mediating interaction between Pri1 and DNA polymerase α for transition from RNA synthesis to DNA elongation. All eukaryotic Pri2 proteins contain a conserved C-terminal iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-binding domain that is critical for primase catalytic activity in vitro. Here we show that mutations at conserved cysteine ligands for the Pri2 Fe-S cluster markedly decrease the protein stability, thereby causing S phase arrest at the restrictive temperature. Furthermore, Pri2 cysteine mutants are defective in loading of the entire DNA pol α-primase complex onto early replication origins resulting in defective initiation. Importantly, assembly of the Fe-S cluster in Pri2 is impaired not only by mutations at the conserved cysteine ligands but also by increased oxidative stress in the sod1Δ mutant lacking the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Together these findings highlight the critical role of Pri2's Fe-S cluster domain in replication initiation in vivo and suggest a molecular basis for how DNA replication can be influenced by changes in cellular redox state.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Cysteine , Genetics , Metabolism , DNA Primase , Genetics , Metabolism , DNA Replication , DNA, Fungal , Genetics , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Metabolism , Immunoblotting , Immunoprecipitation , Iron , Metabolism , Iron-Sulfur Proteins , Metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Genetics , Oxidative Stress , Protein Binding , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Genetics , Metabolism , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Sulfur , Metabolism
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