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1.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 137(1): 4-10, mar. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552830

ABSTRACT

Se exponen los hallazgos históricos y la importancia biológica de los telómeros en la vida celular y en los aspectos genéticos del ADN humano. (AU)


The discovery and the biological importance of the telomeres are exposed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA/genetics , Telomere/physiology , Telomere/genetics , Telomerase/physiology , Telomerase/genetics , Aging/physiology , DNA/metabolism , Cellular Senescence , Telomerase/metabolism , DNA Replication/physiology , Telomere Shortening , Neoplasms/physiopathology
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 6-20, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010785

ABSTRACT

Originating but free from chromosomal DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are organized in circular form and have long been found in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Their biogenesis and function are poorly understood as they are characterized by sequence homology with linear DNA, for which few detection methods are available. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revealed that eccDNAs play crucial roles in tumor formation, evolution, and drug resistance as well as aging, genomic diversity, and other biological processes, bringing it back to the research hotspot. Several mechanisms of eccDNA formation have been proposed, including the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) and translocation-deletion-amplification models. Gynecologic tumors and disorders of embryonic and fetal development are major threats to human reproductive health. The roles of eccDNAs in these pathological processes have been partially elucidated since the first discovery of eccDNA in pig sperm and the double minutes in ovarian cancer ascites. The present review summarized the research history, biogenesis, and currently available detection and analytical methods for eccDNAs and clarified their functions in gynecologic tumors and reproduction. We also proposed the application of eccDNAs as drug targets and liquid biopsy markers for prenatal diagnosis and the early detection, prognosis, and treatment of gynecologic tumors. This review lays theoretical foundations for future investigations into the complex regulatory networks of eccDNAs in vital physiological and pathological processes.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals , Humans , Swine , DNA, Circular/genetics , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Semen , DNA , Reproduction
3.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1-7, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009344

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the results of prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy for women with a high risk for fetal aneuploidies.@*METHODS@#A total of 747 cases of prenatal diagnosis by amniocentesis due to high risks by non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) were selected from January 2015 to March 2022 in the Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical School. The amniotic fluid samples were subjected to chromosomal karyotyping and/or chromosomal microarray analysis. All cases were followed up by searching the birth information or telephone calls, and the results were recorded. 2 test or F test were used for comparing the difference between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Among the 747 pregnant women with a high risk by NIPT, 387 were true positives, and the overall positive predictive value (PPV) was 51.81%. The PPVs for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), trisomy 13 (T13) and sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) were 80.24% (199/248), 60% (48/80), 14% (7/50) and 38.97% (106/272), respectively. The PPV for T21 was significantly higher than T18 and T13 (χ2 = 85.216, P < 0.0001). The PPV for other chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were 11.11% (5/45) and 40.74% (22/52), respectively. The PPV for increased X chromosomes was significantly higher than X chromosome decreases (64.29% vs. 22.22%, χ2 = 5.530, P < 0.05). The overall PPV for elder women (≥ 35 years old) was significantly higher than younger women (69.35% vs. 42.39%, χ2 = 49.440, P < 0.0001). For T21 and T18, the PPV of Z ≥ 10 group was significantly higher than that for 3 ≤ Z < 5 group or 5 ≤ Z < 10 group (P < 0.05). Among 52 cases with a high risk for CNVs, the PPV for the ≤ 5 Mb group was significantly higher than the 5 Mb < CNVs < 10 Mb or > 10 Mb groups (60% vs. 30%60% vs. 23.53%, P < 0.05). Among the 387 true positive cases, 322 had opted for induced labor, 53 had delivered with no abnormal growth and development, and 12 were lost during the follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The PPVs for common chromosomal aneuploidies are related to the age and Z value of the pregnant women, which were higher in the elder group and higher Z value group. In addition, the PPV is associated with high risk types. The PPV for T21 was higher than T18 and T13, and that for 45,X was lower than 47,XXX, 47,XYY or 47,XXY syndrome. NIPT therefore has relatively high PPVs for the identification of chromosomal CNVs.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Aged , Adult , DNA Copy Number Variations , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Down Syndrome/genetics , Aneuploidy , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics , Trisomy 13 Syndrome/diagnosis , DNA , Trisomy/genetics
4.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 764-768, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Propofol is a widely used anesthetic and its dose is closely related to aging. Telomere length (TL) is a unique heritable trait, and emerging as a biomarker of aging, health and disease. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) plays an important role in maintaining TL. We proposed a hypothesis that propofol dose in general anesthesia can be predicted by measuring TL before operation, which greatly reduced the risk of anesthesia, especially the elderly. Methods: The association between the propofol dose in anesthesia induction and: TL in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes; body weight; sex; difference of the Bispectral Index (BIS) before and after anesthesia induction in patients was evaluated by multivariable linear regression analyses. The mutation at the 5'end or 3'end of TERC was detected. We recruited 100 patients of elective surgery. Results: We found that propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated significantly with TL (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p= 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p = 0.004), and difference of BIS before and after anesthesia induction (r = 0.85, p = 0.029). By comparing the absolute values of standardized regression coefficients (0.58, 0.21, 0.19, and 0.12) of the four variables, it can be seen that TL contributes the most to the propofol dose in anesthesia induction. However, the mutation at the 5' end or 3' end of TERC was not found. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that the propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated with genetically determined TL. TL may be a promising predictor of the propofol dose, which is beneficial to improve the safety of anesthesia and reduce perioperative complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Propofol/pharmacology , Body Weight , DNA , Telomere , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Electroencephalography , Anesthesia, General , Leukocytes
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 132-143, ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533891

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica y endémica en Latinoamérica. El cambio climático y el movimiento migratorio del huésped enfatizan la necesidad de optimizar el diagnóstico de esta infección. Objetivo. Evaluar la implementación de la detección de ADN de Paracoccidioides spp. al diagnóstico micológico de pacientes con sospecha de paracoccidioidomicosis. Materiales y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo con datos de laboratorio de pacientes con sospecha de paracoccidioidomicosis en un hospital de área no endémica. Resultados. Se analizaron los resultados de las muestras de 19 pacientes con sospecha clínica de paracoccidioidomicosis. El 90 % de los pacientes había nacido o visitado un área endémica de esta micosis en Latinoamérica. En 14 pacientes varones adultos se confirmó paracoccidioidomicosis por diagnóstico convencional. El examen directo fue positivo en 12 pacientes con enfermedad comprobada y en 4 de ellos se obtuvo crecimiento del hongo. Se detectaron anticuerpos contra Paracoccidioides spp. en ocho pacientes con la enfermedad. Se realizó PCR anidada con muestras de 14 pacientes para detectar ADN de Paracoccidioides spp. En 9 de los 10 pacientes con diagnóstico convencional de paracoccidioidomicosis se obtuvo una prueba de PCR positiva. Conclusiones. La implementación de técnicas moleculares para detectar ADN de Paracoccidioides spp. complementa el diagnóstico convencional de paracoccidioidomicosis y permite instaurar el tratamiento antifúngico, sobre todo en los casos clínicos donde no se observa la presencia del hongo en las muestras clínicas. La migración actual de poblaciones humanas dificulta el diagnóstico de paracoccidioidiomicosis y otras infecciones endémicas, por lo que se requiere optimizar el diagnostico micológico en los laboratorios clínicos para tratar pacientes con este tipo micosis desatendida.


Introduction. Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Climate change and host migration emphasize the need to optimize this infection diagnosis. Objective. To evaluate the implementation of Paracoccidioides spp. DNA detection in the mycological diagnosis of patients with suspected paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods. It is a retrospective study with laboratory data from patients with clinical suspicion of paracoccidioidomycosis, who consulted a university hospital from a non-endemic area. Results. We analyzed the laboratory results of samples from 19 patients with suspected paracoccidioidomycosis. Seventeen out of 19 patients were born in or had visited an endemic area in Latin America. Fourteen adult male patients were confirmed to have paracoccidioidomycosis by conventional diagnosis: the direct examination was positive in 12 samples while fungal growth was found only in 4. Anti-Paracoccidioides spp. antibodies were detected in 10 patients, 8 of them with proven paracoccidioidomycosis. Nested PCR for Paracoccidioides spp. detection was performed on clinical samples from 14 patients, and positive results were obtained for 9 out of 10 patients with the conventional diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. Conclusions. The incorporation of molecular techniques to detect Paracoccidioides spp. DNA complements the conventional diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. This tool allows the prescription of antifungal treatment in those cases where the fungus is not observed in the clinical samples. Current human migrations difficult the mycological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis and other fungal infections. For this reason, it is necessary to improve mycological diagnosis in clinical laboratories to adequately treat patients with this neglected mycosis.


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioidomycosis , Paracoccidioides , DNA , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mycoses
7.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(3): 138-142, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515202

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el grupo RhD fetal a través del estudio del gen RHD en ADN fetal que se encuentra libre en plasma de embarazadas RhD negativo. Método: Se analizó la presencia de los genes RHD, SRY y BGLO en ADNfl obtenido de plasma de 51 embarazadas RhD negativo no sensibilizadas, utilizando una qPCR. Los resultados del estudio genético del gen RHD se compararon con el estudio del grupo sanguíneo RhD realizado por método serológico en muestras de sangre de cordón, y los resultados del estudio del gen SRY fueron cotejados con el sexo fetal determinado por ecografía. Se calcularon la sensibilidad, la especificidad, los valores predictivos y la capacidad discriminativa del método estandarizado. Resultados: El gen RHD estaba presente en el 72,5% de las muestras y el gen SRY en el 55,5%, coincidiendo en un 100% con los resultados del grupo RhD detectado en sangre de cordón y con el sexo fetal confirmado por ecografía, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Fue posible deducir el grupo sanguíneo RhD del feto mediante el estudio del ADN fetal que se encuentra libre en el plasma de embarazadas con un método molecular no invasivo desarrollado y validado para este fin. Este test no invasivo puede ser utilizado para tomar la decisión de administrar inmunoglobulina anti-D solo a embarazadas RhD negativo que portan un feto RhD positivo.


Objective: To determine the fetal RhD group through the study of the RHD gene in fetal DNA found free in plasma of RhD negative pregnant women. Method: The presence of the RHD, SRY and BGLO genes in fetal DNA obtained from plasma of 51 non-sensitized RhD negative pregnant women was analyzed using qPCR. The results of the genetic study of the RHD gene were compared with the RhD blood group study performed by serological method in cord blood samples, and the results of the SRY gene study were compared with the fetal sex determined by ultrasound. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and discriminative capacity of the standardized method were calculated. Results: The RHD gene was present in 72.5% of the samples and the SRY gene in 55.5%, coinciding 100% with the results of the RhD group detected in cord blood, and with the fetal sex confirmed by ultrasound, respectively. Conclusions: It was possible to deduce the RhD blood group of the fetus through the study of fetal DNA found free in the plasma of pregnant women with a non-invasive molecular method developed and validated for this purpose. This non-invasive test can be used to make the decision to administer anti-D immunoglobulin only to RhD-negative pregnant women carrying an RhD-positive fetus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics , DNA , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/diagnosis , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/genetics , Phenotype , Prenatal Diagnosis , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Rho(D) Immune Globulin , Genes, sry/genetics , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/blood , Fetal Diseases/diagnosis , Fetal Diseases/genetics , Fetal Diseases/blood , Genotype
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39001, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425129

ABSTRACT

Molecular markers are important tools in the characterization of plant genetic diversity and can provide support for conservation strategies for endangered populations. The different molecular techniques involve the evaluation of many individuals; therefore, it is crucial to have fast, efficient, and inexpensive methods for DNA extraction. Given the importance of the Aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All.) it is pertinent to optimize a protocol that allows the obtainment of intact and pure DNA, aiming to assist conservation strategies for this species that is threatened with extinction. Thus, this study aimed to compare five DNA extraction methods: Dellaporta et al. (1983), Doyle and Doyle (1987) modified, Ferreira and Grattapaglia (1995), Romano and Brasileiro (2015), and Khanuja et al. (1999) and optimize the most efficient protocol for M. urundeuva. The modified DNA extraction protocol proposed by Doyle and Doyle (1987), using 100 mg of leaf tissue and 6 µl of ß-mercaptoethanol was the protocol that presented the sharpest bands after DNA electrophoresis and after the reactions of amplification employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Therefore, it is suggested to use the protocol described by Doyle and Doyle (1987) modified for the extraction of DNA from young M. urundeuva leaves to carry out techniques involving molecular markers.


Subject(s)
DNA/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anacardiaceae , Cetrimonium
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e385723, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519884

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study evaluated the DNA damage caused by repeated doses of xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in the liver and kidneys. Methods: In this study, 60 rats were used. The rats were divided into group 1 (xylazine-ketamine), and group 2 (medetomidine-ketamine), and these anesthetic combinations were administered to the rats at repeated doses with 30-min intervals. The effects of these anesthetic agents on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene for DNA damage were investigated. Results: According to the gene expression results, it was observed that a single dose of xylazine-ketamine was 2.9-fold expressed, while first and second repeat doses did not show significant changes in expression levels. However, in the case of the third repetition, it was observed to be 3.8-fold overexpressed. In the case of medetomidine-ketamine administration, it was observed that a single-dose application resulted in a 1.04-fold expression, while the first and the third repeat doses showed a significant down expression. The samples from the second repeat dose administration group were found to have insignificant levels of expression. Conclusions: This study can contribute to understanding the safe anesthetic combination in research and operations in which xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine combinations are used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Xylazine/administration & dosage , DNA , Gene Expression Profiling , Anesthesia , Ketamine/administration & dosage
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4708-4717, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008052

ABSTRACT

Plasmids are the most commonly used gene carriers in the field of gene synthesis and sequencing. However, the main problems faced by traditional plasmid DNA extraction technology are low extraction throughput and high production cost, so they cannot meet the growing demand. In this study, a double-magnetic-bead method (DMBM) for plasmid extraction was developed based on the principle of plasmid extraction. The effects of the input of magnetic beads, the size of plasmid DNA fragments, and the volume of bacterial on plasmid DNA extraction were explored. In addition, the quality, throughput, and cost of plasmid DNA extraction were also compared between this technique and the commercial plasmid DNA extraction kits. The results showed that the DMBM can meet the needs of extracting plasmid DNA with different cell densities and fragment lengths. Moreover, the sensitivity and quality of plasmid extraction by the DMBM method were both superior to those of the centrifugal adsorption column method. In addition, this technique could be applied on a 96-channel automated nucleic acid extractor, resulting in higher purity of the extracted plasmid DNA, 80% reduction in extraction time, and 57.1% reduction in cost. It also reduces manual operations, achieving high-throughput and low-cost plasmid DNA extraction, thus may facilitate gene synthesis and sequencing.


Subject(s)
Plasmids/genetics , DNA/genetics , Nucleic Acids , Genetic Techniques , Magnetic Phenomena
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4204-4218, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008021

ABSTRACT

During the gene editing process mediated by CRISPR/Cas9, precise genome editing and gene knock-in can be achieved by the homologous recombination of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) donor template. However, the low-efficiency of homologous recombination in eukaryotic cells hampers the development and application of this gene editing strategy. Here, we developed a novel CRISPR/Cas9-hLacI donor adapting system (DAS) to enhance the dsDNA-templated gene editing, taking the advantage of the specific binding of the LacI repressor protein and the LacO operator sequence derived for the Escherichia coli lactose operon. The codon-humanized LacI gene was fused as an adaptor to the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) and Staphylococcus lugdunensis Cas9 (SlugCas9-HF) genes, and the LacO operator sequence was used as the aptamer and linked to the dsDNA donor template by PCR. The Cas9 nuclease activity after the fusion and the homology-directed repair (HDR) efficiency of the LacO-linked dsDNA template were firstly examined using surrogate reporter assays with the corresponding reporter vectors. The CRISPR/Cas9-hLacI DASs mediated genome precise editing were further checked, and we achieved a high efficiency up to 30.5% of precise editing at the VEGFA locus in HEK293T cells by using the CRISPR/SlugCas9-hLacI DAS. In summary, we developed a novel CRISPR/Cas9-hLacI DAS for dsDNA-templated gene editing, which enriches the CRISPR/Cas9-derived gene editing techniques and provides a novel tool for animal molecular design breeding researches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Gene Editing , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Homologous Recombination , DNA
12.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 642-648, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012206

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the prognostic factors of extracellular NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) treated with pegaspargase/L-asparaginase. Methods: The clinical data of 656 ENKTL patients diagnosed at 11 medical centers in the Huaihai Lymphoma Working Group from March 2014 to April 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: a training set (460 cases) and a validation set (196 cases) at 7∶3, and the prognostic factors of the patients were analyzed. A prognostic scoring system was established, and the predictive performance of different models was compared. Results: Patients' median age was 46 (34, 57) years, with 456 males (69.5% ) and 561 nasal involvement (85.5% ). 203 patients (30.9% ) received a chemotherapy regimen based on L-asparaginase combined with anthracyclines, and the 5-year overall survival rate of patients treated with P-GEMOX regimen (pegaspargase+gemcitabine+oxaliplatin) was better than those treated with SMILE regimen (methotrexate+dexamethasone+cyclophosphamide+L-asparaginase+etoposide) (85.9% vs 63.8% ; P=0.004). The results of multivariate analysis showed that gender, CA stage, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) score, HGB, and EB virus DNA were independent influencing factors for the prognosis of ENKTL patients (P<0.05). In this study, the predictive performance of the prognostic factors is superior to the international prognostic index, Korean prognostic index, and prognostic index of natural killer lymphoma. Conclusion: Gender, CA stage, ECOG PS score, HGB, and EB virus DNA are prognostic factors for ENKTL patients treated with pegaspargase/L-asparaginase.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Asparaginase/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Etoposide , Cyclophosphamide , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , DNA/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
13.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1045-1052, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the causal relationship between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) and sepsis based on Mendelian randomization analysis.@*METHODS@#The genome wide association study (GWAS) dataset for the NET biomarker myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complex based on Donkel et al. 's Rotterdam study (RS) and GWAS dataset for identifying sepsis from the UK biobank were selected to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) associated with MPO-DNA complex as instrumental variable (IV) for genetic variation, using MPO-DNA complex as exposure factor. Potential causal associations between MPO-DNA complex and the risk of occurrence of sepsis, 28-day death from sepsis, need for intensive care due to sepsis, and 28-day death from sepsis requiring intensive care were analyzed using a two-sample, one-way Mendelian randomization analysis primary analysis method of inverse analysis of variance (IVW). Potential pleiotropy was assessed using the MR Egger regression intercept test. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the "leave one out" test.@*RESULTS@#The GWAS data were obtained from a European population of both sexes, and the screening criteria was based on the three main assumptions of Mendelian randomization, resulting in 22 SNP entering the Mendelian randomization analysis. The results of the Mendelian randomization causal association effect analysis using the IVW method showed that for every standard deviation increase in the level of the MPO-DNA complex, the risk of sepsis increased by approximately 18% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.07-1.29, P < 0.001], the risk of 28-day death from sepsis increased by approximately 51% (OR = 1.51, 95%CI was 1.27-1.81, P < 0.001), an increase of approximately 38% in the risk of occurrence of needing intensive care due to sepsis (OR = 1.38, 95%CI was 1.12-1.70, P = 0.002), and an increase of approximately 125% in the risk of 28-day death from sepsis requiring intensive care (OR = 2.25, 95%CI was 1.21-4.18, P = 0.01). MR Egger regression intercept test suggested that there was no horizontal pleiotropy in the included SNP, and the MR-PRESSO test did not find outliers. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the results of Mendelian randomization were robust.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Rising NET can increase the risk of sepsis onset, progression and death as derived from Mendelian randomization analysis.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Extracellular Traps , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Sepsis/genetics , Nonoxynol , DNA
14.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 591-602, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010770

ABSTRACT

While Mek1/2 and Gsk3β inhibition ("2i") supports the maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a homogenous naïve state, prolonged culture in 2i results in aneuploidy and DNA hypomethylation that impairs developmental potential. Additionally, 2i fails to support derivation and culture of fully potent female ESCs. Here we find that mouse ESCs cultured in 2i/LIF supplemented with lipid-rich albumin (AlbuMAX) undergo pluripotency transition yet maintain genomic stability and full potency over long-term culture. Mechanistically, lipids in AlbuMAX impact intracellular metabolism including nucleotide biosynthesis, lipid biogenesis, and TCA cycle intermediates, with enhanced expression of DNMT3s that prevent DNA hypomethylation. Lipids induce a formative-like pluripotent state through direct stimulation of Erk2 phosphorylation, which also alleviates X chromosome loss in female ESCs. Importantly, both male and female "all-ESC" mice can be generated from de novo derived ESCs using AlbuMAX-based media. Our findings underscore the importance of lipids to pluripotency and link nutrient cues to genome integrity in early development.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Female , Mice , Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells , Embryonic Stem Cells , Genomic Instability , Lipids , DNA/metabolism , Cell Differentiation
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 1165-1173, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010591

ABSTRACT

Eukaryotic organisms constantly face a wide range of internal and external factors that cause damage to their DNA. Failure to accurately and efficiently repair these DNA lesions can result in genomic instability and the development of tumors (Canela et al., 2017). Among the various forms of DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are particularly harmful. Two major pathways, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), are primarily responsible for repairing DSBs (Katsuki et al., 2020; Li and Yuan, 2021; Zhang and Gong, 2021; Xiang et al., 2023). NHEJ is an error-prone repair mechanism that simply joins the broken ends together (Blunt et al., 1995; Hartley et al., 1995). In contrast, HR is a precise repair process. It involves multiple proteins in eukaryotic cells, with the RAD51 recombinase being the key player, which is analogous to bacterial recombinase A (RecA) (Shinohara et al., 1992). The central event in HR is the formation of RAD51-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) nucleoprotein filaments that facilitate homology search and DNA strand invasion, ultimately leading to the initiation of repair synthesis (Miné et al., 2007; Hilario et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2017).


Subject(s)
Recombinational DNA Repair , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , DNA Repair , DNA Damage , DNA
16.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 883-895, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010569

ABSTRACT

This study aims to gain insight into the DNA-specific recognition mechanism of c-Myb transcription factor during the regulation of cell early differentiation and proliferation. Therefore, we chose the chicken myeloid gene, mitochondrial import protein 1 (mim-1), as a target to study the binding specificity between potential dual-Myb-binding sites. The c-Myb-binding site in mim-1 is a pseudo-palindromic sequence AACGGTT, which contains two AACNG consensuses. Simulation studies in different biological scenarios revealed that c-Myb binding with mim-1 in the forward strand (complex F) ismore stable than that inthereverse strand (complex R). The principal component analysis (PCA) dynamics trajectory analyses suggested an opening motion of the recognition helices of R2 and R3 (R2R3), resulting in the dissociation of DNA from c-Myb in complex R at 330 K, triggered by the reduced electrostatic potential on the surface of R2R3. Furthermore, the DNA confirmation and hydrogen-bond interaction analyses indicated that the major groove width of DNA increased in complex R, which affected on the hydrogen-bond formation ability between R2R3 and DNA, and directly resulted in the dissociation of DNA from R2R3. The steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation studies also suggested that the electrostatic potential, major groove width, and hydrogen bonds made major contribution to the DNA‍-specific recognition. In vitro trials confirmed the simulation results that c-Myb specifically bound to mim-1 in the forward strand. This study indicates that the three-dimensional (3D) structure features play an important role in the DNA-specific recognition mechanism by c-Myb besides the AACNG consensuses, which is beneficial to understanding the cell early differentiation and proliferation regulated by c-Myb, as well as the prediction of novel c-Myb-binding motifs in tumorigenesis.


Subject(s)
Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Consensus , DNA , Hydrogen
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2743-2761, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981230

ABSTRACT

Nitrate is the main form of inorganic nitrogen that crop absorbs, and nitrate transporter 2 (NRT2) is a high affinity transporter using nitrate as a specific substrate. When the available nitrate is limited, the high affinity transport systems are activated and play an important role in the process of nitrate absorption and transport. Most NRT2 cannot transport nitrates alone and require the assistance of a helper protein belonging to nitrate assimilation related family (NAR2) to complete the absorption or transport of nitrates. Crop nitrogen utilization efficiency is affected by environmental conditions, and there are differences between varieties, so it is of great significance to develop varieties with high nitrogen utilization efficiency. Sorghum bicolor has high stress tolerance and is more efficient in soil nitrogen uptake and utilization. The S. bicolor genome database was scanned to systematically analyze the gene structure, chromosomal localization, physicochemical properties, secondary structure and transmembrane domain, signal peptide and subcellular localization, promoter region cis-acting elements, phylogenetic evolution, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) recognition and annotation, and selection pressure of the gene family members. Through bioinformatics analysis, 5 NRT2 gene members (designated as SbNRT2-1a, SbNRT2-1b, SbNRT2-2, SbNRT2-3, and SbNRT2-4) and 2 NAR2 gene members (designated as SbNRT3-1 and SbNRT3-2) were identified, the number of which was less than that of foxtail millet. SbNRT2/3 were distributed on 3 chromosomes, and could be divided into four subfamilies. The genetic structure of the same subfamilies was highly similar. The average value of SbNRT2/3 hydrophilicity was positive, indicating that they were all hydrophobic proteins, whereas α-helix and random coil accounted for more than 70% of the total secondary structure. Subcellular localization occurred on plasma membrane, where SbNRT2 proteins did not contain signal peptides, but SbNRT3 proteins contained signal peptides. Further analysis revealed that the number of transmembrane domains of the SbNRT2s family members was greater than 10, while that of the SbNRT3s were 2. There was a close collinearity between NRT2/3s of S. bicolor and Zea mays. Protein domains analysis showed the presence of MFS_1 and NAR2 protein domains, which supported executing high affinity nitrate transport. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SbNRT2/3 were more closely related to those of Z. mays and Setaria italic. Analysis of gene promoter cis-acting elements indicated that the promoter region of SbNRT2/3 had several plant hormones and stress response elements, which might respond to growth and environmental cues. Gene expression heat map showed that SbNRT2-3 and SbNRT3-1 were induced by nitrate in the root and stem, respectively, and SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-3 were induced by low nitrogen in the root and stem. Non-synonymous SNP variants were found in SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-1a. Selection pressure analysis showed that the SbNRT2/3 were subject to purification and selection during evolution. The expression of SbNRT2/3 gene and the effect of aphid infection were consistent with the expression analysis results of genes in different tissues, and SbNRT2-1b and SbNRT3-1 were significantly expressed in the roots of aphid lines 5-27sug, and the expression levels of SbNRT2-3, SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT3-2 were significantly reduced in sorghum aphid infested leaves. Overall, genome-wide identification, expression and DNA variation analysis of NRT2/3 gene family of Sorghum bicolor provided a basis for elucidating the high efficiency of sorghum in nitrogen utilization.


Subject(s)
Nitrate Transporters , Nitrates/metabolism , Sorghum/metabolism , Anion Transport Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics , Nitrogen/metabolism , DNA , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2465-2484, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981212

ABSTRACT

Large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome refers to the genetic modification of large fragments of DNA using knockout, integration and translocation. Compared to small-scale gene editing, large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome allows for the simultaneous modification of more genetic information, which is important for understanding the complex mechanisms such as multigene interactions. At the same time, large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome allows for larger-scale design and reconstruction of the genome, and even the creation of entirely new genomes, with great potential in reconstructing complex functions. Yeast is an important eukaryotic model organism that is widely used because of its safety and easiness of manipulation. This paper systematically summarizes the toolkit for large-scale genetic manipulation of the yeast genome, including recombinase-mediated large-scale manipulation, nuclease-mediated large-scale manipulation, de novo synthesis of large DNA fragments and other large-scale manipulation tools, and introduces their basic working principles and typical application cases. Finally, the challenges and developments in large-scale genetic manipulation are presented.


Subject(s)
DNA , Gene Editing , Genetic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Translocation, Genetic
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 261-267, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) children with different EB virus (EBV) DNA loads, and to explore the relationship between differential indicators and prognosis.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 73 children with HLH treated in our hospital from January 2015 to April 2022 were collected. According to EBV DNA loads, the children were divided into negative group (≤5×102 copies/ml), low load group (>5×102-<5×105 copies/ml) and high load group (≥5×105copies/ml). The clinical symptoms and laboratory indexes of the three groups were compared, and the ROC curve was used to determine the best cut-off value of the different indexes. Cox regression model was used to analyze the independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of children, and to analyze the survival of children in each group.@*RESULTS@#The proportion of female children, the swelling rate of liver and spleen lymph nodes and the involvement rate of blood, liver, circulation and central nervous system in the high load group were higher than those in the negative group. The incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) and central nervous system(CNS) involvement in the high load group were higher than those in the low load group. The liver swelling rate and circulatory system involvement rate in the low load group were higher than those in the negative group(P<0.05). PLT counts in the high load group were significantly lower than those in the negative group, and the levels of GGT, TBIL, CK-MB, LDH, TG, SF, and organ involvement were significantly higher than those in the negative group. The levels of CK, LDH, SF and the number of organ involvement in the high load group were significantly higher than those in the low load group. The levels of GGT and TBIL in low load group were significantly higher than those in negative group. In terms of treatment, the proportion of blood purification therapy in the high and low load group was significantly higher than that in the negative group(P<0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that the best cut-off values of PLT, LDH, TG and SF were 49.5, 1139, 3.12 and 1812, respectively. The appellate laboratory indicators were dichotomized according to the cut-off value, and the differential clinical symptoms were included in the Cox regression model. Univariate analysis showed that LDH>1139 U/L, SF>1812 μg/L, dysfunction of central nervous system, number of organ damage, DIC and no blood purification therapy were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of children (P<0.05); Multivariate analysis shows that PLT≤49.5×109/L and dysfunction of central nervous system were risk factors affecting the prognosis of children (P<0.05). Survival analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the survival rate among the three groups.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of adverse prognostic factors in children with HLH in the EBV-DNA high load group is higher, and there is no significant difference in the survival rate of the three groups after blood purification therapy. Therefore, early identification and application of blood purification therapy is of great significance for children with HLH in the high load group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , DNA , Prognosis
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 842-857, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970409

ABSTRACT

The modern bio-fermentation industry requires design and creation of efficient microbial cell factories for directed conversion of raw materials to target products. The main criteria for assessing the performance of microbial cell factories are their product synthesis capacity and stability. Due to the deficiencies of plasmids in gene expression such as instability and being easy to lose, integration of genes into chromosome is often a better choice for stable expression in microbial hosts. To this end, chromosomal gene integration technology has received much attention and has developed rapidly. In this review, we summarize the recent research progresses of chromosomal integration of large DNA fragments in microorganisms, illustrate the principles and features of various technologies, highlight the opportunity brought by the CRISPR-associated transposon systems, and prospect future research direction of this technology.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , Plasmids , DNA , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation
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