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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 245-249, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970275

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the characteristics of plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in primary infection in pediatric cases. Methods: The laboratory and clinical data of 571 children diagnosed with EBV primary infection in Children's Hospital of Fudan University during September 1st, 2017 to September 30th, 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the results of plasma EBV DNA, they were divided into positive group and negative group. According to the EBV DNA, they were devided into high plasma virol load group and low plasma virol load group. The Chi-square test, Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the differences between groups. Results: Among the 571 children with EBV primary infection, 334 were males and 237 were females. The age of first diagnosis was 3.8 (2.2, 5.7) years. There were 255 cases in positive group and 316 cases in negative group. The percentage of cases with fever,hepatomegaly and (or) splenomegaly, elevated transaminase in the positive group were higher than those in the negative group (235 cases (92.2%) vs. 255 cases (80.7%), χ2=15.22, P<0.001; 169 cases (66.3%) vs. 85 cases (26.9%), χ2=96.80, P<0.001; and 144 cases (56.5%) vs. 120 cases (38.0%), χ2=18.27, P<0.001; respectively).In the positive group, 70 cases were followed up for 46 (27, 106) days, 68 cases (97.1%) turned negative within 28 days, with the exception of 2 cases (2.9%) developed chronic active EBV infection by follow-up revision.There were 218 cases in high plasma viral DNA copies group and 37 cases in low copies group. More cases presented with elevated transaminases in the high plasma viral DNA copies group than those in the low group (75.7% (28/37) vs. 56.0%(116/207), χ2=5.00, P=0.025).Both the positive rate of EBV DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (84.2% (266/316) vs. 44.7% (255/571), χ2=76.26, P<0.001) and the copies of EBV DNA (7.0×107 (1.3×107, 3.0×108) vs. 3.1×106 (1.6×106, 6.1×106) copies /L, Z=15.23, P<0.001) were higher than that of plasma. Conclusions: In immunocompetent pediatric cases diagnosed as EBV primary infection, cases with positive plasma EBV DNA were prone to have fever, hepatomegaly and (or) splenomegaly, and elevated transaminase than those with negative plasma viral DNA. The plasma EBV DNA usually turns negative within 28 days after initial diagnosis.Most cases with high viral load in plasma showed elevated aminotransferase.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , DNA, Viral , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatomegaly , Retrospective Studies , Splenomegaly , Fever , Transaminases
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2686-2693, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance is vital for a functional cure of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the incidence and predictors of HBsAg seroclearance in patients co-infected with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain largely unknown in Guangdong, China.@*METHODS@#Between 2009 and 2019, patients co-infected with HBV/HIV undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University were retrospectively reviewed with the endpoint on December 31, 2020. The incidence and risk factors for HBsAg seroclearance were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1550 HBV/HIV co-infected patients were included in the study, with the median age of 42 years and 86.0% (1333/1550) males. Further, 98.3% (1524/1550) received ART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus lamivudine (3TC). HBV DNA was examined in 1283 cases at the last follow-up. Over the median 4.7 years of follow-up, 8.1% (126/1550) patients achieved HBsAg seroclearance, among whom 50.8% (64/126) obtained hepatitis B surface antibody, 28.1% (137/488) acquired hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and 95.9% (1231/1283) undetectable HBV DNA. Compared with patients who maintained HBsAg positive, cases achieving HBsAg seroclearance showed no differences in age, gender, CD4 + T cell count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, or fibrosis status; however, they presented lower HBV DNA levels, lower HBsAg levels, and higher rates of HBV genotype B at the baseline. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline HBsAg <1500 cutoff index (COI) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.74, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.48-5.09), ALT elevation >2 × upper limit of normal during the first six months after receiving ART (aHR, 2.96, 95% CI: 1.53-5.77), and HBV genotype B (aHR, 3.73, 95% CI: 1.46-9.59) were independent predictors for HBsAg seroclearance (all P <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long-term TDF-containing ART has high anti-HBV efficacy including relatively high overall HBsAg seroclearance in HBV/HIV co-infected patients. Lower baseline HBsAg levels, HBV genotype B, and elevated ALT levels during the first six months of ART are potential predictors of HBsAg seroclearance.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , DNA, Viral , Incidence , Coinfection/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy
3.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 42-48, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970950

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the demographic characteristics and clinical influencing factors which associates with the occurrence probability of persistent or intermittent hypoviremia (LLV) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs). Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed on patients with CHB who received outpatient NAs therapy for≥48 ± 2 weeks. According to the serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load at 48±2 weeks treatment, the study groups were divided into LLV (HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml and < 2 000 IU/ml) and MVR group (sustained virological response, HBV DNA < 20 IU/ml). Demographic characteristics and clinical data at the start of NAs treatment (considered as baseline) were retrospectively collected for both patient groups. The differences in the reduction of HBV DNA load during treatment was compared between the two groups. Correlation and multivariate analysis were further conducted to analyze the associated factors influencing the LLV occurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent samples t-test, c2 test, Spearman analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, or area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 509 cases were enrolled, with 189 and 320 in the LLV and MVR groups, respectively. Compared to patients with MVR group at baseline: (1) the demographics characteristics of patients showed that LLV group was younger in age (39.1 years, P = 0.027), had a stronger family history (60.3%, P = 0.001), 61.9% received ETV treatment, and higher proportion of compensated cirrhosis (20.6%, P = 0.025) at baseline; (2) the serum virological characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had higher HBV DNA load, qHBsAg level, qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive rate, and the proportion of genotype C HBV infection but decreased HBV DNA during treatment (P < 0.001) at baseline; (3) the biochemical characteristics of patients showed that LLV group had lower serum ALT levels (P = 0.007) at baseline; (4) the noninvasive fibrosis markers of patients showed that LLV group were characterized by high aspartate aminotransferase platelet ratio index (APRI) (P = 0.02) and FIB-4 (P = 0.027) at baseline. HBV DNA, qHBsAg and qHBeAg were positively correlated with LLV occurrence (r = 0.559, 0.344, 0.435, respectively), while age and HBV DNA reduction were negatively correlated (r = -0.098, -0.876, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that ETV treatment history, high HBV DNA load at baseline, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, HBeAg positive, low ALT and HBV DNA level were independent risk factors for patients with CHB who developed LLV with NAs treatment. Multivariate prediction model had a good predictive value for LLV occurrence [AUC 0.922 (95%CI: 0.897 ~ 0.946)]. Conclusion: In this study, 37.1% of CHB patients treated with first-line NAs has LLV. The formation of LLV is influenced by various factors. HBeAg positivity, genotype C HBV infection, high baseline HBV DNA load, high qHBsAg level, high qHBeAg level, high APRI or FIB-4 value, low baseline ALT level, reduced HBV DNA during treatment, concomitant family history, metabolic liver disease history, and age < 40 years old are potential risk factors for developing LLV in patients with CHB during the therapeutic process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B e Antigens , DNA, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Demography
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 698-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986197

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand ten-year changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns of chronic hepatitis B in China. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection:demographic, virologic, hematologic, blood biochemistry, and antiviral treatment data were extracted from the China Registry of Hepatitis B (CR-HepB) database between 2012 and 2022 for descriptive statistics and change trend analysis. Multiple group comparisons were conducted using the Kruskal Wallis H test, while counting data was compared between groups using χ (2) test. Results: A total of 180 012 patients with chronic HBV infection were included, with a median age of 40 years old, and a male proportion accounting for 60.2%. The HBeAg positive rate was 43.3%. Over time, the median age of new patients each year increased from 39 to 47 years, while the HBeAg positive rate decreased from 51.3% to 32.8%. The initial diagnosis of patients was mainly CHB (71.4%), followed by hepatitis B cirrhosis (11.8%), inactive HBsAg carrier status (10.6%), and chronic HBV carrier status (6.2%). Among the newly registered patients every year from 2012 to 2022, the proportion of hepatitis B cirrhosis remained stable, but after 2019, the proportion of CHB increased and the proportion of other diagnoses decreased. The proportion of patients with cirrhosis increased with age in different age groups, with 3.5%, 19.3%, and 30.4% in the < 40, 40-69, and≥70 age groups, respectively. The proportion of women in patients with cirrhosis also increased with age, from 16.1% in those < 30 years old to 44.3% in those≥80 years old. From 2012 to 2022, the proportion of patients receiving first-line nucleos(t)ide analog antiviral treatment increased year by year, from 51.0% in 2012-2013 to 99.8% in 2022. Conclusion: The CR-HepB registration data reflect the changes in clinical characteristics and antiviral treatment patterns in patients with chronic HBV infection in China over the past ten years and can thus provide a reference to promote hepatitis B diagnosis and treatment practice, as well as scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis A , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Registries , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , DNA, Viral
5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 545-550, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986167

ABSTRACT

The resolution of the hepatitis C issue has raised expectations for a chronic hepatitis B cure, driving the industry to expand investment in research and development efforts to strengthen functional cure strategies. These strategies have a wide variety of types, and the published research findings are heterogeneous. The theoretical analysis of these strategies is of great significance for determining prioritized research orientations as well as sensibly allocating research and development resources. However, due to a paucity of necessary conceptual models, current theoretical analysis has not been able to unify various therapeutic strategies into a proper theoretical framework. In view of the fact that the decrease in the quantity of cccDNA is an inevitable core event accompanied by the process of functional cure, this paper intends to analyze several chronic hepatitis B cure strategies using cccDNA dynamics as a framework. Furthermore, there are currently few studies on the dynamics of the cccDNA field, hoping that this article can promote recognition and research in this field.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Virus Replication , DNA, Circular/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 868-876, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985489

ABSTRACT

Objective: This article investigated the clinical characteristics and distribution of drug resistance mutation sites in HBV RT region of hepatitis B infected patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made on 1 948 patients with HBV infection, who had been tested for NAs resistance mutation and had a medical history of NAs in the Laboratory Department of the Fifth Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021. Basic clinical information and drug resistance related mutation information were recorded. Meanwhile, the serological index data of hepatitis B were collected. Drug resistance gene mutant group and non-mutated group were grouped according to whether the drug resistance genes had a mutation in HBV RT region, and the clinical characteristics and genotype distribution of the two groups were statistically analyzed. The pattern of drug resistance gene mutation, number of mutation sites, drug resistance type and mutation of NAs resistance-related sites were analyzed in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region. χ2 Inspection was used for counting data. Meanwhile, two independent samples t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for measurement data. Results: Among the 1 948 patients with chronic HBV infection, 917 patients had drug resistance gene mutation in RT region (47.07%). The proportion of patients with acute hepatitis B and CHB in HBV RT resistance gene mutant group was lower than that in the non-mutated group, while the proportion of patients with HBV-related cirrhosis was higher than that in the non-mutated group, these differences were statistically significant. Compared with the non-mutated group in HBV RT region, the age, the positive rates of HBeAg and HBV DNA, and HBV DNA load of these patients were increased in drug resistance gene mutant group, these differences were statistically significant. Genotypes of patients in both groups were dominated by C, followed by B and D. The proportion of patients with genotype C in HBV RT drug resistance gene mutant group was higher than that of non-mutated group, the difference was statistically significant. There were 53 gene mutation patterns in 917 patients with drug resistance gene mutation in HBV RT region, and the main pattern was rtL180M+rtM204V+rtS202G (9.70%). The mutation sites were dominated by 3 (20.74%). There were 5 types of drug resistance, LAM+Ldt (21.25%) was the most. Among the 18 sites that were clearly associated with LAM, ADV, ETV and Ldt resistance in the HBV RT region, 14 sites were mutated, and the most common mutation sites were rtL180M, rtM204V, rtM204 and rtS202G. what's more, the proportion of patients with NAs drug resistance was LAM>Ldt>ETV>ADV. Conclusion: In order to prevent adverse consequences of this study such as disease recurrence or disease progression caused by HBV drug resistance, HBV infected patients, who have long-term use of NAs antiviral therapy, should monitor the level of HBV DNA and drug resistance genes in HBV RT region in order to optimize the treatment plan in time or guide individualized treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Mutation , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Lamivudine/therapeutic use
7.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984616

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the optimal cutoff value of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load that can assist in the diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) . Methods: The data of patients with EBV infection after haplo-HSCT from January to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Through constructing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculating the Youden index to determine the cutoff value of EBV-DNA load and its duration of diagnostic significance for PTLD. Results: A total of 94 patients were included, of whom 20 (21.3% ) developed PTLD, with a median onset time of 56 (40-309) d after transplantation. The median EBV value at the time of diagnosis of PTLD was 70,400 (1,710-1,370,000) copies/ml, and the median duration of EBV viremia was 23.5 (4-490) d. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the peak EBV-DNA load (the EBV-DNA load at the time of diagnosis in the PTLD group) and duration of EBV viremia between the PTLD and non-PTLD groups. The results showed that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.018 and P=0.001) . The ROC curve was constructed to calculate the Youden index, and it was concluded that the EBV-DNA load ≥ 41 850 copies/ml after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had diagnostic significance for PTLD (AUC=0.847) , and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.611 and 0.932, respectively. The duration of EBV viremia of ≥20.5 d had diagnostic significance for PTLD (AUC=0.833) , with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.778 and 0.795, respectively. Conclusion: Dynamic monitoring of EBV load in high-risk patients with PTLD after haplo-HSCT and attention to its duration have important clinical significance, which can help clinically predict the occurrence of PTLD in advance and take early intervention measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Viremia , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/etiology , DNA, Viral , Viral Load
8.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1242-1248, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008956

ABSTRACT

The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in severe consequences, including chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. Effective antiviral treatment has the potential to slow down the progression of the disease. HBV serum biomarkers play a crucial role in the dynamic management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, the conventional hepatitis B virus markers, such as hepatitis B serologic testing and HBV DNA, are insufficient to meet the clinical requirements. This review provided a comprehensive overview of the current research on the quantification of HBsAg and anti-HBc, HBV RNA and HBV core-associated antigen, which summarized the crucial role these markers play in the administration of antiviral medications, predicting the efficacy of treatment and anticipating the likelihood of virologic rebound following drug cessation, as well as assessing disease progression in CHB patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Clinical Relevance , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B e Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy
9.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 698-706, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Long-term hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause recurrent inflammation in the liver, and then develop into liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The hepatic pathological change is one of the important criteria for guiding antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Due to the limitations of liver biopsy, it is necessary to find valuable non-invasive indicators to evaluate the hepatic pathological changes in CHB patients and guide the antiviral therapy. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of different pathological changes in CHB patients, and to explore the factors influnencing the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT).@*METHODS@#This retrospective study was conducted on 310 CHB patients. Liver biopsy was performed in all these patients. The clinical data of the patients were collected. The liver biopsy pathological results were used as the gold standard to analyze the relationship between clinical indicators and liver pathological changes. Then CHB patients with normal ALT were screened, and the independent factors influencing the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis were explored.@*RESULTS@#Among the 310 patients with CHB, there were 249 (80.3%) patients with significant liver inflammation [liver inflammation grade (G) ≥2] and 119 (38.4%) patients with significant liver fibrosis [liver fibrosis stage (S) ≥2]. The results of univariate analysis of total samples showed that the ALT, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and HBV DNA were related to the significant liver pathological changes. Among the 132 CHB patients with normal ALT, the patients with liver pathology G/S≥2, G≥2, and S≥2 were 80.3% (106/132), 68.2% (90/132), and 43.2% (57/132), respectively. The results showed that the independent influencing factor of significant liver inflammation was HBV DNA>2 000 U/mL (OR=3.592, 95% CI 1.534 to 8.409), and the independent influencing factors of significant liver fibrosis were elevated alkaline phosphatase level (OR=1.022, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.043), decreased platelet count (OR=0.990, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.998), and positive in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) (OR=14.845, 95% CI 4.898 to 44.995). According to the multivariate analysis, a diagnostic model for significant liver fibrosis in CHB patients with normal ALT was established, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.844 (95% CI 0.779 to 0.910).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The liver pathological changes should be evaluated in combination with different clinical indicators. A considerable number of CHB patients with normal ALT still have significant liver pathological changes, which need to be identified and treated with antiviral therapy in time. Among them, HBV DNA>2 000 U/mL suggests the significant liver inflammation, and the diagnostic model for significant liver fibrosis based on alkaline phosphatase, platelet count, and HBeAg can help to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B e Antigens/therapeutic use , Alkaline Phosphatase , DNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 117-225, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388345

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En Chile, el cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU) es la segunda causa de muerte por neoplasias malignas en la mujer. El principal agente causal es el virus papiloma humano (VPH). Comparando con la población general, los o las trabajadoras(es) sexuales (TS) tienen alto riesgo de adquirir VPH. OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y genotipos del VPH cervical y vaginal en TS que se atienden en un Centro de Salud Sexual de Santiago, Chile. Pacientes y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 97 mujeres TS, de 19 a 70 años de edad. Se obtuvieron dos muestras por paciente, una de exocérvix y otra de paredes vaginales. El ADN de VPH fue identificado por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) y su genotipo fue investigado para 32 tipos de VPH. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de VPH global fue de 45%, observándose portación cervical en 41,2% y vaginal en 36,1%, con una coinfección de 32%. El 63% de las muestras tenía genotipos de alto riesgo. Los VPH de alto riesgo más frecuentes fueron el VPH 66 (12%), VPH 58 (9,3%), seguidos por VPH 16, VPH 59 y VPH 82 con igual frecuencia (8% c/u). Treinta y dos mujeres (43%) fueron infectadas con genotipos múltiples. CONCLUSIÓN: El VPH es una infección frecuente entre las TS. Este es el primer estudio en Chile sobre prevalencia y genotipos de VPH en TS.


BACKGROUND: In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignancy in women. The main causal agent of cervical cancer is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Compared with the general population, sex workers (SW) are at increased risk of acquiring HPV. AIM: To analyze the prevalence and genotypes of cervical and vaginal HPV in female SW attending a Sexual Control Centre. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 97 women (19-70 years old). Two samples were taken per patient, one from exocervix and the other from vaginal walls. HPV DNA. was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using specific probes for 32 types of HPV. RESULTS: The overall frequency of HPV was 45%, 41.2% in cervical carrier and 36.1% in vaginal carrier, 32% were co-infected, 63% of HPV were high-risk genotypes. The most frequent high-risk HPV was HPV 66 (12%), HPV 58 (9.3%), followed by HPV 16, HPV 59 and HPV 82 with the same frequency (8% each one). Thirty two (43%) of females were infected with multiple genotypes. CONCLUSION: HPV is frequent infection among SW. This is the first study in Chile on the prevalence and genotypes of HPV in sex workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphapapillomavirus/genetics , Sex Workers , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral/analysis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype
11.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 272-277, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936146

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on helper T lymphocytes 17 (Th17), regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) and Th17/Treg ratio in chronic hepatitis B patients in different alanine aminetransferase (ALT) stages.@*METHODS@#In the study, 336 chronic hepatitis B patients in the first hospital of Lanzhou University were analyzed. The hepatitis B antigen antibody parameters were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer, the liver function parameters were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer, the HBV loads were measured by quantitative PCR, Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratios were detected by flow cytometry. Among them, 111 cases (ALT < 40 U/L) of ALT were normal hepatitis B, 108 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above normal upper limit and < 2 times higher (40 U/L≤ALT < 80 U/L), and 117 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above 2 times normal upper limit (80 U/L≤ALT). According to the viral load, they were divided into low replication group with HBV DNA < 4.0 lg copies/mL, medium replication group with 4.0 lg copies/mL≤HBV DNA < 6.0 lg copies/mL and high replication group with HBV DNA ≥ 6.0 lg copies / mL. Dunnett T3 variance analysis were used to analyze the effects of HBV on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio in the chronic hepatitis B patients in different ALT stages. The changes of virological and immunological indexes before and after treatment were observed for 24 weeks of antiviral therapy in the hepatitis B patients with ALT≥double upper limit of normal group.@*RESULTS@#In the ALT normal group, different virus load HBV had minor effects on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio. In the ALT≥2 times upper limit of normal group, with the virus load increased, Th17 (3.18%±0.79% in low replication group, 3.78%±0.92% in medium replication group and 4.57%±1.15% in high replication group), Treg cells (5.52%±1.58% in low replication group, 5.89%±1.84% in medium replication group and 6.37%±2.35% in high replication group) and their ratio Th17/Treg (0.57±0.25 in low replication group, 0.65±0.29 in medium replication group and 0.73±0.36 in high replication group) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). After entecavir treatment 24 weeks, the patient' s HBV-DNA decreased significantly, Th17 (3.89%±1.02% vs. 2.06%±0.46%), Treg (6.02%±2.03% vs. 5.06%±1.25%), Th17/Treg ratio (0.65±0.28 vs. 0.41±0.14) decreased significantly (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Investigation on the effects of HBV on Th17 and Treg cells and their ratios in different ALT states can clarify the effects of HBV on the body from the immunological perspective and can further understand the ALT grouping for antiviral treatment theoretical significance, which is helpful for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alanine/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
12.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 389-394, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935956

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of nucleos(t)ide analogues in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B with normal alanine aminotransferase and high level of HBV DNA. Methods: Treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients who were followed up at the Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to January 2020 were selected as subjects. Demographic characteristics, the results of laboratory examination before treatment and one year after treatment were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into tenofovir dipivoxil (TDF) and propofol fumurate tenofovir (TAF) treatment group according to different types of medication. The changes of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg serological conversion and HBsAg quantitative level were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 38 cases were enrolled. Among them, there were 16 and 22 cases in the TDF and TAF group, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in demographic characteristics, baseline HBV DNA levels and HBsAg quantitative levels between the two groups. Virological response was achieved in 60.5% (23/38) of patients after one year of antiviral therapy. Serum HBV DNA levels below the lower limit of detection [68.2% (15/22) vs. 50.0% (8/16), P=0.258] and higher HBeAg seroconversion rate [18.2%] (4/22) vs. 6.3% (1/16), P=0.374] was obtained in TAF than TDF group; however, there was no statistically significant differences between the two. Serum HBsAg quantitative level was significantly reduced with TDF and TAF treatment. In addition, alanine aminotransferase elevation was reduced in TAF than TDF treated group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age was an independent predictor of a virological response to antiviral therapy. Conclusion: HBeAg-positive CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase, and high HBV DNA level can obtain better curative effect after TDF and TAF treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
13.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 316-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935944

ABSTRACT

Objective: To dynamically observe the clinical efficacy of entecavir and the changes of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 levels in peripheral blood of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers treated with entecavir, and further explore its clinical significance. Methods: There were 31 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (A), 32 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (B), and 15 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the non-treatment group (C).Three groups peripheral blood samples and clinical data at 0, 24 and 48 weeks were collected and compared. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry, and the level of sPD-1 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ANOVA and Spearman correlation analysis were performed on the measurement data among the three groups. Results: At week 0, the serum levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA were significantly higher in groups A and C than group B. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were significantly higher in group B (4.70%±1.58%) than group A (3.25%±1.01%) and group C (2.77%±0.67%) (F=16.65, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 in group B [(1 866.62±1 472.70) pg/ml] was significantly higher than group A [(824.86±538.66) pg/ml] and group C [(618.19±602.62) pg/ml] (F=10.95, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). At 48 weeks, the serum HBsAg did not decrease significantly in groups A and C than baseline (P>0.05), but were significantly higher than group B (P<0.05). Serum HBeAg levels were decreased significantly in groups A and B than baseline (P<0.05). <0.05), but group A was significantly higher than group B (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Serum HBV DNA level was significantly lower in groups A and B than group C (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group B (P>0.05). Peripheral blood PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were significantly lower in Group A (1.56%±0.73%) and group B (1.32%±0.43%) than group C (2.64%±0.85%) (P<0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 were significantly lower in group A [(289.05±215.86) pg/ml] and group B [(236.01±173.92) pg/ml] than group C [(650.34±598.46) pg/ml] (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group B. Correlation analysis results: In group A at 48 weeks, the decreased level of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocyte ratio had no correlation with the decreased level of HBsAg and HBV DNA, but was positively correlated with the decreased level of HBeAg (r=0.376, P<0.05). The decreased level of sPD-1 had no correlation with the changes of HBsAg, but was positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBeAg and HBV DNA (r=0.598 and 0.384, P<0.05). In group B at 48 weeks, the decreased levels of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 were positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA (P<0.05). Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus replication and expressions in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers were significantly inhibited after 48 weeks of antiviral treatment, which is related not only to entecavir treatment, but also to the immunological mechanism involved in sPD-1. Moreover, the inhibition of HBeAg expression is associated with a decrease in the number and/or activity of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Receptors, CXCR5/analysis , T-Lymphocytes
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 304-308, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935942

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy of entecavir antiviral therapy on the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Tibet region. Methods: HBeAg-positive CHB patients who were treated with entecavir in the outpatient and inpatient Department of Infectious Diseases of the Tibet Autonomous Region people's Hospital between January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 140 subjects with CHB, 95 cases were CHB alone, and the other 45 cases were diagnosed as CHB combined with NAFLD by ultrasound. All patients were given entecavir 0.5 mg orally once daily on an empty stomach for 48 weeks. HBeAg negative conversion rate, blood glucose, blood lipid, liver function and the degree of liver fibrosis were compared between the two groups at the 12th, 24th and 48th weeks of treatment to evaluate the virological response. SPSS 19.0 statistical software was used to process the data. Measurement data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (x¯±s). Descriptive statistical analysis was used for t-test, and the categorical variables were expressed as percentage (%) and χ2 test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After 48 weeks of treatment, the HBeAg and HBV DNA negative conversion rate were significantly better in patients with CHB alone (group B) than CHB combined with NAFLD (group A), that is to say, HBeAg negative conversion rate in group A and B patients were 28.90% and 40%, respectively, and group B was better than group A. HBV DNA negative conversion rate was significantly elevated in group B (83.2%) than group A (64.4%), with statistical significance (P<0.05), and the difference between the both groups was statistically significant. Alanine aminotransferase level was significantly decreased in patients with CHB alone than patients with CHB combined with NAFLD. Aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index was significantly decreased after treatment than before treatment in both group of patients, and the depletion was more pronounced in CHB alone group. Liver stiffness values were significantly decreased in patients with CHB combined with NAFLD than CHB alone group. Moreover, liver stiffness values was higher in group A than group B before treatment under the influence of fat attenuation factors, and the differences before treatment and after treatment were 3.50±4.66 and 2.05±2.53, respectively; however, group B was not affected by fat attenuation factors, so LSM value reduction in group A was more obvious, and the differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in blood glucose and blood lipids levels before and after treatment between the two groups. Conclusion: NAFLD has a certain effect on antiviral therapy and liver fibrosis in patients with CHB, i.e., the effect of antiviral therapy in patients with CHB alone is better than patients with CHB combined with NAFLD. Patients with CHB combined with NAFLD when treated with antiviral therapy had a significantly greater degree of liver stiffness reduction than patients with CHB alone. Therefore, it is necessary to actively intervene the risk factors associated with NAFLD according to the actual situation of different individuals to improve clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tibet , Treatment Outcome
15.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 99-102, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935916

ABSTRACT

Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the template for HBV replication. Currently, there is a lack of therapeutic drugs that directly target cccDNA. Therefore, blocking cccDNA supplements as fast as possible and reducing the existing cccDNA is the key to achieving a complete cure of chronic hepatitis B. Previous studies have suggested that cccDNA had a long half-life, but a recent study showed that it only took a few months to update cycle of cccDNA pool, and its number was much less than previously predicted. In the future, with the advent of new antiviral drugs that can completely inhibit HBV replication, it is expected that the cccDNA pool will be completely cleared due to its supplement complete blockade, so as to achieve virological cure of chronic hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Circular/genetics , DNA, Viral , Half-Life , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Virus Replication
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 728-733, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935451

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the type, length, and CG loci of HBV DNA CpG islands in HBsAg positive maternal C genotype and its relationship with intrauterine HBV transmission, so as to provide a new perspective for the study of intrauterine transmission of HBV. Methods: From June 2011 to July 2013, HBsAg-positive mothers and their newborns who delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan were collected. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face questionnaires and electronic medical records. Serum HBV markers and serum HBV DNA were detected by electrochemiluminescence and quantitative fluorescence PCR, respectively. Intrauterine transmission of HBV was determined by positive HBsAg and/or HBV DNA in femoral venous blood before injection of HBV vaccine/Hepatitis B immunoglobulin within 24 h of birth. A total of 22 mothers and their newborns with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml in intrauterine transmission were selected as the intrauterine transmission group, and 22 mothers with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml without intrauterine transmission were chosen as the control group by random seed method. The distribution prediction of CpG islands of HBV DNA in 39 mothers with genotype C by HBV DNA sequencing was analyzed. Results: Among 39 mothers with HBV C genotype, 19 were in the intrauterine transmission group, and 20 were in the control group. The HBV DNA of 39 patients with genotype C traditional CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ, while the control group had traditional CpG island Ⅰ and novel CpG island Ⅳ and Ⅴ. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ and the number of CG loci of CpG island Ⅱ in the intrauterine transmission group differed from those in the control group (P<0.05). The CpG island Ⅱ length ≥518 bp and the number of CG loci ≥40 in the intrauterine transmission group (11/19) were significantly higher than those in the control group (2/20) (P<0.05). The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG loci in the X gene promoter region (Xp region) were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the HBV intrauterine transmission group, most of maternal (12/19) HBV DNA CpG island Ⅱ completely covered the Xp region, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (5/20), and the number of HBV DNA Xp region CG loci was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The distribution of maternal C genotype HBV DNA CpG islands is related to intrauterine transmission. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG sites may increase the risk of intrauterine transmission of HBV.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Biomarkers , CpG Islands , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 85-91, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935354

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of HBV intrauterine transmission and their interaction effects by integrating logistic regression model and Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree model. Methods: A total of 689 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates in the obstetrics department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled, and the basic information of mothers and their neonates were obtained by questionnaire survey and medical record review, such as the general demographic characteristics, gestational week and delivery mode. HBV DNA and HBV serological markers of the mothers and newborns were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay respectively. The CHAID decision tree model and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to explore the factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission in neonates of HBsAg-positive mothers. Results: Among the 689 neonates, the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission was 11.47% (79/689). After adjusted for confounding factors, the first and second logistic multivariate analysis showed that cesarean delivery was a protective factor for HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.14-0.43; OR=0.27, 95%CI: 0.15-0.46); both models indicated that maternal HBeAg positivity and HBV DNA load ≥2×105 IU/ml before delivery were risk factors of HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=3.89, 95%CI: 2.32-6.51; OR=3.48, 95%CI: 2.12-5.71), respectively. The CHAID decision tree model screened three significant factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission, the most significant one was maternal HBeAg status, followed by delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load. There were interactions between maternal HBeAg status and delivery modes, as well as delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load before delivery. The rate of HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns of HBeAg-positive mothers by vaginal delivery increased from 19.08% to 29.37%; among HBeAg-positive mothers with HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml, the rate of HBV intrauterine transmission increased to 33.33% in the newborns by vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Maternal HBeAg positivity,maternal HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml and vaginal delivery could be risk factors for HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns. Interaction effects were found between maternal HBeAg positivity and vaginal delivery, as well as vaginal delivery and high maternal HBV DNA load. Logistic regression model and the CHAID decision tree model can be used in conjunction to identify the high-risk populations and develop preventive strategies accurately.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , DNA, Viral/genetics , Decision Trees , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Logistic Models , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 347-353, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935219

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of HBsAg expression in peritumoral tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients on their postoperative recurrence. Methods: The HCC patients treated in Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from October 2009 to August 2010 were selected. The clinicopathological data and adjacent tissues of 718 patients were collected, and dextran polymer immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues. According to the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues, the tissues were divided into HBsAg positive group and HBsAg negative group. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 718 patients in the whole group, 153 were HBsAg negative and 565 were HBsAg positive. There was a statistically significant difference in serum HBV DNA level between HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients (P<0.001). The number of patients with serum DNA≥2 000 IU/ml and<2 000 IU/ml in HBsAg negative group were 52 and 93, while the patients in HBsAg positive group were 325 and 205. The cumulative recurrence rates of all patients at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery were 30.2%, 54.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. The expression of HBsAg was related to the recurrence (P=0.038). Multivariate analysis showed that γ-GT, PT, multiple tumors, tumor length, and portal vein invasion were independent risk factors for recurrence of HCC (P<0.05). In HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load (HBV DNA <2 000 IU/ml) and without cirrhosis, the recurrence rates of HBsAg-positive patients were 14.3% and 31.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively, compared with HBsAg negative patients (all 0), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.021). Conclusion: The positive expression of HBsAg in peritumoral tissue increases the postoperative recurrence risk of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , China , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 264-269, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the risk of reentry in HBV reactive blood donors and feasibility of HBV reentry strategy.@*METHODS@#HBsAg+ or HBV DNA+ donors who had been quarantined for more than 6 months in Jiangsu Province could propose for reentry application. Blood samples were routinely screened by dual-ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV Ab/Ag, and anti- Treponema pallidum and those non-reactive ones were tested by minipool nucleic acid testing (NAT) for three times. To identify occult HBV donors, samples of NAT non-reactive were further tested by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for HBV seromarkers (including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb). Donors of only 4 ECLIA patterns were accepted to reentry, including all 5 HBV seromarkers negative, anti-HBs only but having history of hepatitis B vaccine injection, HBcAb only, HBsAb+ / HBcAb+ with HBsAb more than 200 IU/L. Additionally, the detection rate of HBV infection was compared between routine screening mode and ECLIA, as well as the reentry qualified rate of HBsAg+ and HBV DNA+ blood donors.@*RESULTS@#From Oct. 2016 to Aug. 2019, a total of 737 HBV reactive donors had applied for reentry, including 667 HBsAg+ reactive and 70 HBV DNA+ reactive donors. Among 3 screening methods, the highest HBV detection rate (43.15%, 318/737) was observed on ECLIA, while only 4.75% (35/737) on ELISA and 3.12% (23/737) on NAT, respectively. Among 4 qualified patterns of HBV serological markers, the highest proportion was found in the all negative group (22.90%, 155/677), followed by the group with HBsAb+ only and history of hepatitis B vaccine injection (19.35%, 131/677), and the median concentration of HBsAb was 237.7 IU/L. The unqualified rate of HBV DNA+ donors was 82.86%, which was significantly higher than 47.98% of HBsAg+ donors.@*CONCLUSION@#Routine screening tests merely based on ELISA and NAT could miss occult HBV donors and may not be sufficient for blood safety. HBsAb concentration and vaccine injection history should be included in the evaluation of HBV reactive donors who intend to apply for reentry. There is a relatively larger residual risk of occult HBV infection in blood donors quarantined for HBV DNA reactive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 429-438, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928467

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains to be the major cause of chronic liver diseases in China. Since the nucleos(t)ide analogues and pegylated interferon-alpha do not directly target the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of HBV-infected hepatocytes, those standard-of-care medications cannot efficiently cure the infected hepatocytes and rarely achieve the functional cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, new antiviral drugs targeting distinct steps of HBV replication and immunotherapeutics reinvigorating antiviral immune responses are urgently needed for the functional cure of CHB. Based on the extensive discussion of the biological and clinical significance of new virologic biomarkers and distinct mechanism of drug candidates currently in clinical development, we propose that the selection of virologic and immunological biomarkers for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy as well as setting the therapeutic endpoints in the clinical trials should be based on the mode of action of investigational drugs. In addition, due to the complexity of CHB pathogenesis, selection of specific subpopulation of CHB patients for the clinical trials of drugs with a specific mode of action should also be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , DNA, Circular , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Virus Replication
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