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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 10 (1) 2024;10(1): 34483, 2024 abr. 30. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553344

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:Avaliar a correlação entre a ansiedade com qualidade do sono e sonolência diurna dos estudantes universitários em curso de graduação em enfermagem, assim como caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico dos estudantes. Metodologia:Estudodescritivo transversalcom abordagem quantitativa envolvendo 255 acadêmicos do curso de Enfermagem de uma instituição privada. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em Outubro de 2022 em salas de aula. Os instrumentos utilizados na coleta dos dados foram o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck,Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh, Escala de Sonolência de Epwort-th e um questionário sociodemográfico. Utilizou-se o software estatístico R versão 4.0.2 e foram feitas suas correlações. Resultados: Foram encontrados padrões de ansiedade grave, com níveis de sonolência diurna anormal. A correlação entre o Inventário de Ansiedade de Beckcom a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth e o Índice de Qualidade de sono de Pittsburgh, que embora tenha sido considerada fraca a moderada, por sua vez mostrou-se significativa (r=0,29; p=0,01). Ademais, temos que, a relação entre oinventário de Becke o Índice de qualidade de sono de Pittsburgh mostrou-se também com valor de significância (r=0,35; p=0,01). Conclusões:Foi possível compreender que a ansiedade pode interferir na qualidade do sono e sonolência diurna do público de estudantes de Enfermagem (AU).


Objective: To evaluate the correlation between anxiety and sleep quality and daytime sleepiness among undergraduate nursing students, as well as to characterize the students' sociodemographic profile. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study with a quantitative approach involving 255 nursing students from a private institution. Data collection took place in October 2022 in classrooms. The instruments used to collect the data were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epwort-Th Sleepiness Scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Statistical software R version 4.0.2 was used and correlations were made. Results:Patterns of severe anxiety were found, with abnormal levels of daytime sleepiness. The correlation between the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, although considered weak to moderate, was significant (r=0.29; p=0.01). Furthermore, the relationship between the Beck Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was also found to be significant (r=0.35; p=0.01). Conclusions:It was possible to understand that anxiety can interfere with the quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness among nursing students (AU).


Objetivo:Evaluar la correlación entre la ansiedad y la calidad del sueño y la somnolencia diurna en estudiantes universitarios de enfermería, así como caracterizar el perfil sociodemográfico de los estudiantes. Metodología:Estudio descriptivo transversal con enfoque cuantitativo en el que participaron 255 estudiantes universitarios de enfermería de una institución privada. La recogida de datos tuvo lugar en octubre de 2022 en las aulas. Los instrumentos utilizados para la recogida de datos fueron el Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck, el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh, la Escala de Somnolencia de Epwort-Th y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. Se utilizó el software estadístico R versión 4.0.2 y se realizaron correlaciones. Resultados:Se encontraron patrones de ansiedad severa, con niveles anormales de somnolencia diurna. La correlación entre el Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck con la Escala de Somnolencia de Epworth y el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh, aunque se consideró de débil a moderada, fue significativa (r=0,29; p=0,01). Además, la relación entre el Inventario de Beck y el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh también resultó significativa (r=0,35; p=0,01). Conclusiones: Se pudo comprender que la ansiedad puede interferir en la calidad del sueño y en la somnolencia diurna de los estudiantes de enfermería (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Students, Nursing , Sleep Quality , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Social Determinants of Health , Sociodemographic Factors
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 10 (1) 2024;10(1): 33471, 2024 abr. 30. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553341

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O componente hospitalar da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial preconiza o fechamento progressivo de hospitais psiquiátricos e a implementação de leitos de saúde mental em hospital geral, capazes de fornecer atendimento para os casos agudos que necessitem de internação de forma articulada com os demais pontos de atenção da rede. Objetivo: Diante disso, o objetivo do presente artigo foi analisar a distribuição do número de leitos de atenção hospitalar em saúde mental no Rio Grande do Norte entre 2012 e 2022 e apresentar uma proposta de planejamento e avaliação para fortalecer a Rede de Atenção Psicossocial do estado. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico realizado no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, no período de 2012 a 2022, usando dados secundários sobre as internações, seguido de um estudo propositivo com base em referências de planejamento e avaliação em saúde. Resultados: Observa-se uma redução do número de leitos psiquiátricos ao longo do tempo, mas que não se mostra suficiente e não se traduz em um crescimento satisfatório de leitos de saúde mental em hospital geral. Foram propostas cinco ações com o intuito de fortalecer a Rede de Atenção Psicossocial através da implantação e qualificação de leitos de saúde mental em hospitais gerais. Conclusão: Conclui-se que o movimento de constituição do componente hospitalar da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial do Rio Grande do Norte tem se apresentado em movimento irregular e o número de leitos de saúde mental em hospital geral é insuficiente. Espera-se que as intervenções e avaliações sugeridas possam contribuir para subsidiar importantes encaminhamentos no âmbito das políticas públicas de saúde mental do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil (AU).


Introduction: The hospital component of the Psychosocial Care Network (PCN) advocates the progressive closure of psychiatric hospitals and the implementation of mental health beds in general hospitals, capable of providing care for acute cases that require hospitalization in conjunction with other network attention points. Objective: In view of this, the objective of this article was to analyze the quantitative distribution of hospital mental health care beds in Rio Grande do Norte between 2012 and 2022 and present a planning and evaluation proposal to strengthen the state's PCN. Methodology: This is an ecological study carried out in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from 2012 to 2022 using secondary data on hospitalizations, followed by a proactive study based on health planning and evaluation references. Results:There has been a reduction in the number of psychiatric beds over time, but not sufficient andnot translated into a satisfactory growth in mental health beds in general hospitals. Five actions were proposed with the aim of strengthening the PCN through the implementation and qualification of mental health beds in general hospitals.Conclusion: It is concluded that the movement to establish the hospital component of PCN in Rio Grande do Norte has been irregular and the number of mental health beds in general hospitals is insufficient. It is expected that the suggested interventions and evaluations may contribute to supporting important developments within the scope of public mental health policies in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (AU).


Introducción: El componente hospitalario de la Red de Atención Psicosocial (RAPS) aboga por el cierre progresivo de los hospitales psiquiátricos y la implementación de camas de salud mental en los hospitales generales, capaces de brindar atención a casos agudos que requieran hospitalización en conjunto con otros puntos de atención de la red. Objetivo:Ante esto, el objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la distribución del número de camas hospitalarias de atención a la salud mental en Rio Grande do Norte entre 2012 y 2022 y presentar una propuesta de planificación y evaluación para fortalecer el RAPS del Estado. Metodología:Se trata de un estudio ecológico realizado en el Estado de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de 2012 a 2022, utilizando datos secundarios sobre hospitalizaciones, seguido de un estudio propositivo basado en referencias de planificación y evaluación de la salud. Resultados:Hay una reducción en el número de camas psiquiátricas a lo largo del tiempo, pero esto no es suficiente y no se traduce en un crecimiento satisfactorio de camas de salud mental en los hospitales generales. Se propusieron cinco acciones con el objetivo de fortalecer el RAPS a través de la implementación y habilitación de camas de salud mental en hospitales generales. Conclusión:Se concluye que el movimiento para establecer el componente hospitalario del RAPS en Rio Grande do Norte ha sido irregular y el número de camas de salud mental en un hospital general es insuficiente. Se espera que las intervenciones y evaluaciones sugeridas puedan contribuir a apoyar derivaciones importantes dentro del alcance de las políticas públicas de salud mental en Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil (AU).


Subject(s)
Health Evaluation , Mental Health , Health Planning , Mental Health Services , Tertiary Healthcare , Brazil/epidemiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ecological Studies , Secondary Data Analysis , Hospitals, Psychiatric
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 185-196, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528838

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The new paradigm in Forensic Sciences initiated by the entry of genetics (the current standard of legal evidence) and accentuated by recognized wrongful convictions derived from experts today in the eye of criticism, has highlighted the potential for bias and error in forensic disciplines when they depend on human interpretation and subjectivity, which has not been avoided by Forensic Odontology (FO). However, a subjective judgment is not necessarily wrong, so the refinement of processes, the development of standards, and robust research can contribute to the validity of interpretation to increase objectivity. Latin America (LATAM) has its own realities and needs, which have conditioned the priorities and objectives of FO research. A scoping review is presented to systematically map the investigation of LATAM researchers and identify the objective or subjective nature of their assessments. LATAM shows interesting productivity and intentions to adhere to international standards, with Brazil leading this research significantly, followed by Chile and Colombia, among others. However, there is a disproportionate approach in certain lines of research (dental age estimation), and needs to address other quantitative studies, and to improve the visibility of the LATAM FO research.


El nuevo paradigma en ciencias forenses iniciado por la entrada de la genética (el actual estándar de la evidencia jurídica), y acentuado por reconocidas condenas injustas derivadas de pericias hoy en el ojo de la crítica, ha destacado el potencial de sesgo y error que poseen algunas disciplinas forenses cuando dependen de la interpretación humana y la subjetividad, lo cual no ha sido ajeno a la odontología forense (OF). Sin embargo, un juicio subjetivo no necesariamente es erróneo, con lo que el refinamiento de procesos, el desarrollo de estándares y la investigación robusta pueden contribuir a validar esa interpretación para aumentar su objetividad. Latinoamérica (LATAM) posee realidades y necesidades propias que han condicionado las prioridades y objetivos de la investigación en OF. Se presenta una revisión con búsqueda sistemática para mapear sistemáticamente la investigación en OF realizada por investigadores latinoamericanos, así como identificar la naturaleza objetiva o subjetiva de sus evaluaciones. LATAM demuestra una productividad interesante e intenciones de adherirse a estándares internacionales, con Brasil liderando significativamente esta investigación, seguido por Chile y Colombia entre otros. Sin embargo, se observa un enfoque desproporcionado en ciertas líneas de investigación (estimación de edad dental particularmente), y necesidad tanto de abordar otros estudios cuantitativos como de mejorar la visibilidad de la investigación latinoamericana en OF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Research , Forensic Dentistry , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Qualitative Research , Latin America
4.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 24: e220153, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529138

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the existing state legislation, including not only the ordinary laws, but also their infralegal regulation and the state legislation on Hospital Dentistry. Material and Methods: A survey was carried out in the databases of the Legislative Assemblies of the Brazilian States and the Federal District, as well as the Regional and Federal Councils of Dentistry in Brazil. Subsequently, a survey was carried out in the databases of the Ministry of Health, State Dental Councils and Federal Dental Council in Brazil. Results: Only 8 Brazilian states have legislation in force regarding hospital dentistry, which represents 29.63% of the federative units. Among the Brazilian regions, the Midwest presented the highest prevalence of the laws found (37.50%), followed by the North (25%) and the other regions with the same coverage (12.50%). Also, an orientation and an ordinance from the Ministry of Health, six resolutions from the Federal Council of Dentistry, and a technical note from the National Health Surveillance Agency were found. Conclusion: Several States do not have rules on the subject, making it imperative to create a federal rule that not only imposes the presence of the dentist, but also regulates the proportion of the team, workload, and availability.


Subject(s)
Oral Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Dental Service, Hospital/legislation & jurisprudence , Dental Staff, Hospital/legislation & jurisprudence , Intensive Care Units/legislation & jurisprudence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Workload , Dentists , Legislation, Dental
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529145

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To identify the factors affecting clinical performance among dental students and to help addressing these problems. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study in which students of third and final year of dentistry participated. Data was collected from June 2022 till September 2022. Data was collected from the third and final year dental students of both public and private dental colleges within the Pakistan using a purposive sampling technique. Results: A total of 372 dental students participated in this study. Thirty eight (31.9%) students belonged to third year while 81 (68.1%) were final year students from government college. For the private dental college, 121 (47.8%) were third year students while 132 (52.2%) were final year students. Majority of the participants were males from both the colleges. 42.9% of government dental students and 26.5% of private dental students agreed on well-preparedness of clinical instructors. 5.5% from private and 21.0% from government dental colleges agreed that adequate personal protective equipment were present in clinical departments. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that there should be focus more focus on the factors to enhance clinical skills, supervision of students in clinical practice to help addressing the problems faced during learning and performance in a clinical environment, to produce self-confident, motivated, knowledgeable, skillful and a professional dental graduates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Dental , Occupational Health , Employee Performance Appraisal , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Problem-Based Learning
6.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 39(91): 19-26, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554906

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Evaluar mediante microscopia quirúrgica la presencia del segundo conducto mesiovestibular (MV2) en el piso de la cámara pulpar de los primeros molares superiores, determinar su abordabilidad, establecer el calibre de lima que llegó al tercio apical y tipificar radiovisiográficamente su morfología se-gún la clasificación de Weine. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 48 primeros molares superiores huma-nos extraídos. Sé tomaron radiovisografías preope-ratorias (Carestream 5200) en sentido orto radial y mesio-distal. Se realizó apertura y se localizó entra-da del MV2 con microscopio quirúrgico (Newton MEC XXI, Argentina) a 16 x. Se cateterizó MV1 y MV2 con limas tipo K #10 y #15 (Dentsply Maillefer). Se cortó raíz distovestibular para mejorar visualización ra-diovisográfica. Se tomó conductometria en sentido mesio-distal para establecer la tipología. Se compa-raron frecuencias y porcentajes mediante test de Chi-cuadrado con corrección de Yates, prueba exac-ta de Fisher y test z para diferencia de proporcio-nes. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza 95% para porcentajes mediante método score de Wilson. Re-sultados: El 54% (26 casos) presentó MV2. De los 26 MV2, el 77% (20 casos) fueron abordables, porcen-taje significativamente mayor al 23% no abordable (z=3,62; P<0,05). Al hacer cateterismo, hubo asocia-ción significativa entre tipo de conducto (MV1 y MV2) y calibre de lima que llegó al tercio apical (Chi-cua-drado=29,12; gl=1; P<0,05). La tipología I (58%) fue significativamente mayor que las tipologías II (21%) y III (21%) (P<0,05 para ambas comparaciones). Con-clusión: El alto porcentaje de piezas que presentó MV2 evidencia la importancia clínica de detectarlo y tratarlo correctamente. Dado el alto porcentaje de piezas donde fue abordable, se concluye que el clíni-co debe tener conocimiento, destreza y la tecnología necesaria para poder abordarlo. Si bien la tipología I (58%) fue la más encontrada, cuando el MV2 termina en foramen independiente (tipo III), su omisión puede conducir al fracaso del tratamiento (AU))


Objectives: To evaluate by surgical microscopy the presence of second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) in the pulp chamber floor of the maxillary first molars, determine its approachability, establish the caliber of the file that reached the apical third, and radiographically typify its morphology according to Weine ́s classification. Materials and methods: 48 extracted human maxillary first molars were used. Preoperative radiovisographies (Carestream 5200) were taken in ortho-radial and mesio-distal direction. Coronal access was made and the entrance of MB2 was located with a surgical microscope (Newton MEC XXI, Argentina) at 16x. MB1 and MB2 were catheterized with K files #10 and #15 (Dentsply Maillefer). Distobuccal root was cut to improve radiovisographic visualization. Conductometry was taken in mesio-distal direction to establish the typology. Frequencies and percentages were compared using Chi-square test with Yates correction, Fisher's exact test and z test for difference in proportions. 95% confidence intervals were calculated for percentages using Wilson score method. Results: 54% (26 cases) presented MB2. Of the 26 MB2, 77% (20 cases) were approachable, a significantly higher percentage than those not approachable (z=3.62; P<0.05). When performing catheterization, there was a significant association between type of canal (MB1 and MB2) and file caliber that reached the apical third (Chi-square=29.12; df=1; P<0.05). Typology I (58%) was significantly higher than typologies II (21%) and III (21%) (P<0.05 for both comparisons). Conclusion: The high percentage of specimens that showed MB2 evidence the clinical importance of detecting and treating it correctly. Given the percentage of pieces where it was approachable (77%), it is concluded that the clinician must have the knowledge, skill and necessary technology to be able to approach it. Although typology I (58%) was the most found, when MB2 ends an independent foramen (type III), its omission can lead to treatment failure (AU)


Subject(s)
Tooth Root/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Tooth Root/diagnostic imaging , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Microscopy/methods , Odontometry/methods
7.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 39(91): 77-83, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555168

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar las diferencias entre dos modali-dades de administración de un instrumento, autoad-ministrado o guiado por un investigador, aplicados a tutores legales de infantes de una institución educa-tiva. Materiales y Métodos: muestra de 130 tutores legales de niños/as (3 y 5 años) pertenecientes a un jardín de infantes municipal de Avellaneda. Se aplicó un instrumento de recolección de datos sobre hábi-tos de salud bucal constituido por 14 preguntas sim-ples, múltiples y cerradas. La entrega y devolución del instrumento fue a través de la institución. A los 2 meses se convocó a la misma población para comple-tar el mismo instrumento guiado por un investigador. Se evaluó: porcentajede concurrentes e instrumen-tos respondidos totalmente (modalidad autoadminis-trada), porcentaje de concurrentes que completaron el instrumento guiado y concordancia total y por res-puesta de las 2 modalidades. Se analizaron frecuen-cias y porcentajes. Para comparar la concordancia se utilizó Kappa global y Kappa de Cohen para cada pregunta. Resultados: 76,9% de tutores legales res-pondieron en la modalidad autoadministrada y 48,5% la guiada por el investigador. El 80,0% respondió la totalidad de las preguntas del instrumento autoad-ministrado. Al comparar las respuestas para ambas modalidades, no se observaron diferencias signifi-cativas en la totalidad de las mismas. Al analizar las respuestas solo 3 de las 14 preguntas tuvieron una concordancia menor (0,70). Conclusión: Para la po-blación estudiada, la forma autoadministrada tuvo mayor tasa de respuesta que la guiada por un inves-tigador, sin que se registren diferencias en las res-puestas de ambas formas de administración (AU)


Objective: Analyze the differences between two methods of administration of an instrument, self-administered or guided by a researcher, applied to legal guardians of infants in an educational institution. Materials and Methods: Population 130 legal guardians of children (3 and 5 years old) belonging to a municipal kindergarten in Avellaneda. A data collection instrument on oral health habits was applied, consisting of 14 simple, multiple, and closed questions. The delivery and return of the instrument was through the institution. After 2 months, the same population was called to complete the same instrument guided by a researcher. The following were evaluated: percentage of participants and instruments fully answered (self-administered mode), percentage of participants who completed the guided instrument. The total and response agreement of the 2 modalities was evaluated. Frequencies and percentages were analyzed. To compare agreement, global Kappa was used, and Cohen's Kappa was used for each question. Results: 76.9% of legal guardians responded to the self-administered modality and 48.5% to the one guided by the researcher. 80.0% answered all the questions of the self-administered instrument. When comparing the responses for both modalities, no significant differences were observed in all of them. When analyzing the answers, only 3 of the 14 questions had a lower agreement (0.70). Conclusion: For the population studied, the self-administered form had a higher response rate than the one guided by a researcher, with no differences recorded in the responses of both forms of administration (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Dental Health Surveys , Data Collection/methods , Argentina/epidemiology , Oral Hygiene Index , Health Education, Dental , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical
8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 01, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536768

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to propose a comprehensive alternative to the Bland-Altman plot method, addressing its limitations and providing a statistical framework for evaluating the equivalences of measurement techniques. This involves introducing an innovative three-step approach for assessing accuracy, precision, and agreement between techniques, which enhances objectivity in equivalence assessment. Additionally, the development of an R package that is easy to use enables researchers to efficiently analyze and interpret technique equivalences. METHODS Inferential statistics support for equivalence between measurement techniques was proposed in three nested tests. These were based on structural regressions with the goal to assess the equivalence of structural means (accuracy), the equivalence of structural variances (precision), and concordance with the structural bisector line (agreement in measurements obtained from the same subject), using analytical methods and robust approach by bootstrapping. To promote better understanding, graphical outputs following Bland and Altman's principles were also implemented. RESULTS The performance of this method was shown and confronted by five data sets from previously published articles that used Bland and Altman's method. One case demonstrated strict equivalence, three cases showed partial equivalence, and one showed poor equivalence. The developed R package containing open codes and data are available for free and with installation instructions at Harvard Dataverse at https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/AGJPZH. CONCLUSION Although easy to communicate, the widely cited and applied Bland and Altman plot method is often misinterpreted, since it lacks suitable inferential statistical support. Common alternatives, such as Pearson's correlation or ordinal least-square linear regression, also fail to locate the weakness of each measurement technique. It may be possible to test whether two techniques have full equivalence by preserving graphical communication, in accordance with Bland and Altman's principles, but also adding robust and suitable inferential statistics. Decomposing equivalence into three features (accuracy, precision, and agreement) helps to locate the sources of the problem when fixing a new technique.


Subject(s)
Confidence Intervals , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistical Inference , Data Accuracy
9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 24: e220200, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1550592

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of sharps accidents among dental students in southwest Goiás state, Brazil, and further survey their knowledge of biosafety and post-injury management. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical observational study was carried out in 2018 following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. The study population included dental students in the 4th and 10th course semester. A pre-formulated self-administered questionnaire containing 14 objective questions was used for data collection. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated. Results: A total of 308 responses were obtained. Overall, 15.9% of the respondents reported having previously experienced accidents with sharps. Most dental students who claimed to know the biological risks to which they are exposed were in the 5th and 8th course semesters, and 67.2% of them reported knowing how to proceed in the event of a sharp accident. Conclusion: A low prevalence of sharps accidents has been reported, and dental students are considered to have a good knowledge of biosafety.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Dental , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Stab/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical
10.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 111(3): 1111212, sept.-dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554482

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar dos procedimientos de soldadura convencionales empleando una aleación de Cr-Co, para co- nectar barras coladas seccionadas a ser fijadas sobre implantes. Materiales y métodos: A partir de un modelo maes- tro que representa un maxilar desdentado con cuatro implan- tes, se confeccionaron veinte (n=20) probetas seccionadas en tres partes. Se conformaron dos grupos, cada uno con diez (n=10) ejemplares. Una vez acondicionadas, fueron atornilla- das al modelo maestro. Su desajuste inicial se analizó utili- zando una lupa estereoscópica, con una cámara incorporada y un software. Las partes fueron soldadas empleando un pro- cedimiento diferente para cada grupo. Las correspondientes al Grupo I se invistieron en un block refractario a base de sílico-fosfato. Las del Grupo II se montaron en una estructu- ra metálica Clever Spider. El desajuste fue mensurado y los resultados procesados estadísticamente. El nivel de significa- ción fue establecido en p<0,05. Resultados: El Grupo I tuvo un desajuste inicial de 97,30±13,81µm y el Grupo II de 98,53±11,24µm. Luego de la soldadura, el Grupo I registró 98,53±17,17µm, 1,23µm mayor respecto al inicial. En el Grupo II se observó 103,13±17,61µm, 4,60µm por encima del original. Se analizaron mediante prue- ba t de Student; en ambos casos el resultado fue de p>0,05. Al comparar entre sí los grupos I y II, por medio de la prueba t y de comprobación no paramétrica de Mann-Whitney, se ob- servaron diferencias no significativas, p=0,41 y p=0,38 res- pectivamente (AU)


Aim: Compare two conventional welding procedures us- ing a Cr-Co alloy, to connect sectioned cast bars to be fixed on implants. Materials and methods: From a master model representing a toothless jaw with four implants, twenty (n=20) specimens sectioned into three parts were made. Two groups were formed, each with ten (n=10) specimens. Once conditioned, they were screwed to the master mod- el. Its initial mismatch was analyzed using a stereoscop- ic magnifier, with a built-in camera and a software. The parts were welded using a different procedure for each group. Those corresponding to Group I were invested in a refractory block based on silyl-phosphate. Those of Group II were mounted on a Clever Spider metal structure. The mismatch was measured, and the results processed statisti- cally. The level of significance was established at p<0.05. Results: Group I had an initial mismatch of 97.30 ±13.81µm, and Group II of 98.53±11.24µm. After welding, Group I registered 98.53±17.17µm, 1.23µm higher than the initial one. In Group II, 103.13±17.61µm was observed, 4.60µm above the original. They were analyzed using Stu- dent's t test; in both cases the result was p>0.05. When com- paring groups I and II, using the t-test and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric verification, non-significant differences were observed, p=0.41 and p=0.38 respectively. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, it was ob- served that the two welding methods analyzed were reliable for joining metallic superstructures without affecting their final fit (AU)


Subject(s)
Dental Soldering , Dental Prosthesis Retention/methods , Prosthesis Fitting/methods , Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Chromium Alloys/chemical synthesis , Denture, Overlay
11.
Rev. ADM ; 80(6): 307-311, nov.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555293

ABSTRACT

Introducción: durante diciembre de 2019 se identificó en Wuhan, China, un nuevo coronavirus, denominado SARS-CoV-2 por el Comité Internacional de Taxonomía de Virus. Después de haber presentado esta enfermedad se han encontrado secuelas como ansiedad y depresión. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de ansiedad y depresión en los pacientes post-COVID-19 en primer nivel de atención. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, unicéntrico, homodémico, prospectivo, prolectivo. Se realizó en una Unidad de Primer Nivel de Atención del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en el periodo de enero de 2021 a enero de 2022. Se aplicó la Escala de Hamilton para la Ansiedad y el Inventario de Beck para Depresión. Se realizó un análisis estadístico en el programa SPSS 25, los datos se expresaron como media ± desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución. Las variables cualitativas se expresaron en frecuencias y porcentajes. Resultados: el promedio de edad fue de 27 años; con predominio del sexo femenino (62.4%), presentaron depresión moderada 6%, depresión grave 1.5%, ansiedad leve 20.9% y ansiedad moderada o grave 9.8%. Conclusión: existe una asociación entre el nivel de depresión y ansiedad en los pacientes post-COVID-19, con una p significativa (AU)


Introduction: during December 2019, a new coronavirus, named SARSCoV-2, by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, was identified in Wuhan, China. After presenting with this disease, sequelae such as anxiety and depression have been found. Objective: determine the level of anxiety and depression in post-COVID-19 patients of the Family Medicine Unit No. 34. Material and methods: observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, unicentric, homodemic, prospective, prolective study. It was conducted in a first level unit of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, in the period from January 2021 to January 2022. The Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory were applied. Statistical analysis was performed in the SPSS 25 program, data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median, according to the distribution. Qualitative variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. Results: the mean age was 27 years; with a predominance of females (62.4%), 6% presented moderate depression, 1.5% severe depression, 20.9% mild anxiety and 9.8% moderate or severe anxiety. Conclusions: there is an association between the level of depression and anxiety in post-COVID-19 patients, with a significant p (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Depression/etiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Academies and Institutes , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 9(3): 31547, 26 dez. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1524298

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Programa Nacional de Imunizações presente na Atenção Primária à Saúde coordena o processo de imunização e o torna mais eficaz, porém esse sistema enfrenta problemas como a falta de acesso à internet e desabastecimento de imunizantes, que prejudicam a cobertura vacinal da população e dificultam o registro eletrônico dos dados indicadores, além de aumentar a taxa de abandono vacinal. Objetivo:Analisar os indicadores de Cobertura Vacinal e Taxa de Abandono nas capitais do Nordeste nos últimos cinco anos. Metodologia:Estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo e descritivo. As nove capitais do Nordeste do Brasil foram selecionadas para o estudo. A temática abordada é a Taxa de Abandono Vacinal e a Cobertura Vacinal nos últimos cinco anos nas capitais. Os dados foram coletados através doSistema de Informação do Programa Nacional de Imunização e armazenadosno Microsoft Excel. Resultados:Quanto às taxasde cobertura vacinal, Fortaleza teve o maior percentual, com 74,87%. Maceió obteve o segundo maior índice, com 66,12%. Em relação às taxas de abandono vacinal, Salvador registrou o maior número,com 27,39% nos últimos cinco anos. Não obstante, João Pessoaobteve a menor taxa, com 16,08%. Conclusões:Verificou-se que Fortaleza teve a maiorCobertura Vacinal e Salvador teve a maiorTaxa de Abandono Vacinal.Algumas capitais tiveram redução naCobertura Vacinal e aumento na Taxa de Abandono Vacinalno período pandêmico, indicando a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre o impacto da Covid-19 e a circulação de informações equivocadas sobre vacinação. Logo, a atuação da atenção primária à saúde é crucial para reverter essa tendência, trabalhando na implementação de campanhas de imunização e na educação em saúde (AU).


Introduction: The National Immunization Program present in Primary Health Carecoordinates the immunization process and makes it more effective, but this system faces problems such as lack of internet access and shortages of immunizers, which underminethe population's vaccination coverage and hinderthe electronic recording of indicator data, besides increasing the vaccination abandonment rate.Objective: To analyze the Vaccination Coverage and AbandonmentRate indicators in theNortheasterncapitalsover the last five years.Methodology: Epidemiological, quantitative and descriptive study. The nine capitals of NortheasternBrazil were selected for the study. The themesaddressed arethe VaccinationAbandonment Rate andtheVaccinationCoverage overthe last five years in the capitals. The data was collected through the National Immunization Program Information System and stored in Microsoft Excel.Results:As for vaccination coverage rates, Fortaleza had the highest percentage, with 74.87%. Maceió obtainedthe second highest index, with 66.12%. Regardingvaccinationabandonment rates, Salvador recordedthe highest number,with 27.39% over the last five years. Nonetheless, João Pessoa obtainedthe lowest rate, with 16.08%. Conclusions:It was found that Fortaleza had the highest Vaccination Coverage and Salvador had the highest VaccinationAbandonment Rate.Some capitals had a reduction in Vaccination Coverage and an increase in the VaccinationAbandonment Rate in the pandemic period, indicating the need for more research aboutthe impact of Covid-19 and the circulation of misinformation about vaccination. Therefore, the role of primary health care is essential forreversing this trend, working on the implementation of immunization campaignsand health education (AU).


Introducción:El Programa Nacional de Inmunizaciónpresente en la Atención Primariade Saludcoordina el proceso de inmunización y lo hace más eficaz, pero este sistema se enfrenta a problemas como la falta de acceso a internet y la escasez de inmunizadores, queperjudicanla cobertura de vacunación de la población y dificultan el registro electrónico de los datos de los indicadores, además de aumentar la tasa de abandono de vacunación.Objetivo:Analizar los indicadores de Cobertura de Vacunación y Tasa de Abandono en las capitales del Nordeste en los últimos cinco años.Metodología:Estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo y descriptivo. Fueron seleccionadas para el estudio las nueve capitales del Nordeste de Brasil. LostemasabordadossonlasTasa de Abandono deVacunacióny la Cobertura de Vacunación en los últimos cinco años en las capitales. Los datos se recogieron a través del Sistema de Información del Programa Nacional de Inmunización y se almacenaron en Microsoft Excel.Resultados:En cuanto a las tasas de cobertura de vacunación, Fortaleza tuvo el porcentaje más elevado, con un74,87%. Maceióobtuvo lasegunda tasa más alta, con un66,12%. En cuanto a las tasas de abandono de vacunación, Salvador registró la cifra más alta, con un27,39% en los últimos cinco años. Sin embargo, João Pessoa obtuvola tasa más baja, con un16,08%.Conclusiones:Se notó queFortaleza tuvo la mayor Cobertura de Vacunación y Salvadortuvola mayor Tasa de Abandono de Vacunación. Algunas capitales tuvieron una reducción de la Cobertura de Vacunacióny un aumento de la Tasa de Abandono de Vacunacióndurante el período pandémico, indicandola necesidad de más investigaciones sobre el impacto de laCovid-19 y la circulación de información errónea sobre la vacunación. Por lo tanto, el rolde la atención primaria de salud es crucial para revertiresta tendencia, trabajando en la implementación de campañas de inmunización y educación sanitaria (AU).


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccination Hesitancy , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , COVID-19/epidemiology
13.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534847

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Es objetivo fundamental de la medicina, determinar las causas que producen las enfermedades; para llevar a cabo este estudio, a finales del siglo XX se emplearon técnicas estadísticas multivariadas confiables en el análisis simultáneo de diferentes variables independientes sobre un desenlace. Objetivo: Determinar la aplicación de la validez racional y de apariencia en la metodología empleada para el estudio de la causalidad en salud. Métodos: Para evaluar si la metodología se correspondía con los requerimientos de la investigación, se aplicó la validez de apariencia para valorar los resultados obtenidos en su aplicación, específicamente, si las reglas reflejan verazmente, lo que ocurre en la práctica médica, mediante el empleo de la validez racional. Resultados: Los usuarios potenciales de la metodología la consideraron aceptable en los aspectos medidos sobre la regresión logística binaria. El mayor porcentaje de las reglas analizadas está en correspondencia con lo planteado en la literatura, pocas plantean aspectos que no se dan necesariamente en la práctica médica, pero tampoco se contradicen con la literatura. Los resultados de la validez de apariencia no fueron favorables, pues la metodología no había sido empleada antes en el contexto. En cuanto a la validez racional, se verificó un alto porcentaje de correspondencia entre lo planteado por las reglas y la literatura. Es importante tener en cuenta, que el hallazgo de algo conocido reafirma la validez de esa regla. Conclusiones: Las reglas obtenidas de la aplicación de la metodología reflejan, en general, lo que ocurre en la práctica médica.


Introduction: the fundamental objective of medicine is to determine the causes that produce diseases. At the end of the 20th century, multivariate statistical techniques were used as reliable in the simultaneous analysis of different independent variables on an outcome. Objective: to determine the application of appearance and rational validity of a methodology to study causality in health. Methods: to evaluate whether the methodology corresponded to the research requirements, appearance validity was applied to assess the results obtained in its application, specifically, if the rules accurately reflect what happens in medical practice, through the use of rational validity. Results: the potential users of the methodology considered it acceptable in the measured aspects of the binary logistic regression. The highest percentage of the rules analyzed is in correspondence with what is stated in the literature; few raise aspects that do not necessarily occur in medical practice, but they do not contradict the literature either. The results of face validity were not favourable, since the methodology had not been used before in the context. A high percentage of correspondence regarding rational validity was verified between what was stated by the rules and the literature. It is important to note that finding something known reaffirms the validity of that rule. Conclusions: the rules obtained from the application of the methodology reflect, in general, what happens in medical practice.


Subject(s)
Data Interpretation, Statistical , Validation Study , Evaluation Studies as Topic
14.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 41(3): 141-150, 20231103. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1518856

ABSTRACT

Objective. Within the context of evidence-based practice, this article exposes the reflection on the understanding and usefulness of the information provided by the research findings shared in reports and research publications, exposing differences based on the interpretation of statistical significance and clinical significance. Content synthesis. Basic aspects of the meaning and use of the information reported by research on p value (statistical significance) and the value and usefulness of these results are analyzed and exemplified, contrasting the value for the practice of an additional judgment on clinical significance. In addition to establishing conceptual differences, the need is highlighted for nurses to have the competencies to differentiate and apply each of them according to the clinical contexts of their potential implementation. Conclusion. The real usefulness of research about interventions within the context of nursing care is given by its real application and reach for the practice and benefit for patients. For this to occur, nurses must interpret adequately the information provided by scientific publications and other research reports.


Objetivo. En el contexto de una práctica basada en evidencia, este artículo expone la reflexión sobre la comprensión y utilidad de la información que proveen los hallazgos de investigación reportados en informes y publicaciones de investigación, exponiendo las diferencias a partir de la interpretación de la significancia estadística y significancia clínica. Síntesis del contenido. Se analizan y ejemplifican aspectos básicos sobre el significado y uso de la información que reportan las investigaciones sobre valor p (significancia estadística) y el valor y utilidad de estos resultados contrastando el valor para la práctica de un juicio adicional sobre significancia clínica. Además de establecer diferencias conceptuales, se resalta la necesidad de que las enfermeras tengan las competencias para diferenciar y aplicar cada uno de ellos según los contextos clínicos de su potencial implementación. Conclusión. La real utilidad de la investigación sobre intervenciones en el contexto del cuidado de enfermería está dada por su real aplicación y alcance para la práctica y el beneficio para los pacientes. Para que ello ocurra, las enfermeras deben interpretar adecuadamente la información que proveen las publicaciones científicas y otros reportes de investigación.


Objetivo. No contexto de uma prática baseada em evidências, este artigo apresenta a reflexão sobre a compreensão e utilidade da informação fornecida pelos resultados da investigação relatados em relatórios de investigação e publicações, expondo as diferenças com base na interpretação da significância estatística e da significância clínica. Síntese de conteúdo. Aspectos básicos sobre o significado e uso das informações relatadas pelas pesquisas sobre valor p (significância estatística) e o valor e utilidade desses resultados são analisados e exemplificados, contrastando o valor para a prática de um julgamento adicional sobre significância clínica. Além de estabelecer diferenças conceituais, destaca-se a necessidade de o enfermeiro ter competências para diferenciar e aplicar cada uma delas de acordo com os contextos clínicos de seu potencial implementação. Conclusão. A real utilidade da investigação sobre intervenções no contexto dos cuidados de enfermagem é dada pela sua real aplicação e âmbito de prática e benefício para os pacientes. Para que isso ocorra, os enfermeiros devem interpretar adequadamente as informações fornecidas pelas publicações científicas e outros relatórios de pesquisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nursing Research , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Evidence-Based Practice , Clinical Relevance , Nursing, Practical
15.
Psico USF ; 28(4): 727-739, Oct.-Dec. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529183

ABSTRACT

Valores são aspectos fundamentais da psicologia humana, sendo permeados pela forma como os indivíduos se veem e aspiram ser. Este estudo objetivou avaliar associações entre valores humanos e crença em informações enganosas sobre a COVID-19 no Brasil. Participaram 238 sujeitos, que responderam a três instrumentos de autorrelato: Questionário de Atitudes Frente ao Coronavírus, Questionário de Consumo de Informações e a Escala de Valores Pessoais - PQV-21. Evidenciou-se correlações estatisticamente significativas entre os valores de Tradição e crença em informações enganosas. Assim, quando as prioridades axiológicas envolvem a manutenção do status quo, as informações consumidas tendem a ser aquelas que negam ou minimizam a gravidade da doença. Aqueles que priorizam valores coletivistas, por outro lado, tendem a maior adesão a medidas preventivas e de controle. Ressalta-se a importância do desenvolvimento de estratégias assertivas na comunicação e orientação em saúde pública alinhadas ao estudo dos valores humanos.(AU)


Values are fundamental aspects of human psychology, permeated by the way individuals see themselves and aspire to be. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between human values and the belief in misleading information about COVID-19 in Brazil. A total of 238 participants completed three self-reporting questionnaires: one on Attitudes towards Coronavirus, another on Information Consumption, and the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PQV-21). The study revealed statistically significant correlations between the value of Tradition and the tendency to believe in misleading information. This suggests that individuals who prioritize maintaining the status quo are more likely to consume information that denies or mitigates the severity of the disease. Conversely, those who prioritize collectivist values tend to be more inclined to follow preventive and control measures. The study highlights the importance of developing assertive public health communication and guidance strategies, taking into account the influence of human values.(AU)


Los valores son aspectos fundamentales de la psicología humana, moldeados por la forma en que los individuos se ven a sí mismos y aspiran a ser. Este estudio pretendió evaluar las asociaciones entre valores humanos y creencia en información engaños sobre la COVID-19 en Brasil. Participaron 238 sujetos, que respondieron a tres instrumentos de autorregistro: el Cuestionario de Actitudes Frente al Coronavirus, el Cuestionario de Consumo de Informaciones y Escala de Valores Personales (PQV-21). Se evidenciaron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre los valores de Tradición y creencia en información engaños. Así, cuando las prioridades axiológicas involucran la preservación del status quo, la información consumida tiende a ser aquella que niega o minimiza la gravedad de la enfermedad. Por otro lado, aquellos que priorizan valores colectivistas tienden a mayor adhesión a medidas preventivas y de control. Se resalta la importancia del desarrollo de estrategias asertivas en la comunicación y orientación en salud pública, en consonancia con el estudio de los valores humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , COVID-19 , Disinformation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Self Report , Correlation of Data , Sociodemographic Factors
16.
Psico USF ; 28(4): 741-751, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529176

ABSTRACT

A Escala RASH (relação, autonomia, separação e heteronomia) foi desenvolvida para investigar padrões de self em estudos transculturais. No presente estudo, foi realizada uma análise fatorial da escala RASH em amostras brasileiras e norte-americanas, com o objetivo de fornecer uma medida de quatro fatores com bons índices de ajuste. Buscou-se confirmar o padrão de self autônomo-relacionado nas duas amostras e também a relação entre o nível de escolaridade dos pais e tipos de valores que desejam para seus filhos. Coletou-se dados de 756 participantes (EUA, n = 519, Brasil, n = 237), pais ou responsáveis por alunos de 7 a 14 anos. Foram realizadas análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória, medidas de invariância e estatísticas básicas como média, desvio padrão e correlação. Os resultados corroboram uma estrutura de quatro fatores do instrumento e os padrões autorrelatados nas duas culturas. O instrumento pode auxiliar em pesquisas transculturais sobre o desenvolvimento de valores e captar diferenças entre culturas.(AU)


The RASH scale (which stands for relation, autonomy, separation, and heteronomy) was developed to investigate patterns of self in cross-cultural studies. In the present study, a factor analysis of the RASH scale was conducted in Brazilian and North American samples, with the aim of providing a four-factor measure with good fit indices. The aim was to confirm the pattern of autonomous-relational self in the two samples and also the relationship among the parents' level of education and the types of values they want for their children. We collected data from 756 participants (n = 519, USA; n = 237, Brazil), parents or guardians of students aged 7 to 14 years. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, invariance measures and basic statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and correlation were performed. The results confirmed the four-factor structure of the instrument and self-reported patterns in the two cultures. The instrument can help in cross-cultural research on the development of values and capture differences between cultures.(AU)


La escala RASH (relación, autonomía, separación y heteronomía) se desarrolló para investigar patrones del self en estudios transculturales. En el presente estudio, se realizó una validación de la escala RASH en muestras brasileñas y norteamericanas, con el objetivo de proporcionar una medida de cuatro factores con buenos índices de ajuste. Se buscó confirmar el patrón de self autónomo-relacionado en ambas muestras, así como la relación entre el nivel educativo de los padres y los tipos de valores que desean para sus hijos. Se recopilaron datos de 756 participantes (n = 519 en EE. UU.; N = 237 en Brasil), padres o tutores de estudiantes de 7 a 14 años. Se llevaron a cabo análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios, seguidos de medidas de invarianza y cálculos de estadísticas básicas como media, desviación estándar y correlación. Los resultados respaldaron la estructura de cuatro factores del instrumento y los patrones autoinformados en ambas culturas. El instrumento puede ser útil para investigaciones interculturales sobre el desarrollo de valores y para capturar las diferencias entre culturas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Social Values , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Moral Development , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Cultural Diversity , Self Report , Correlation of Data , Sociodemographic Factors
17.
Psico USF ; 28(4): 767-781, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529174

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the characteristics of the social networks of older adults and to assess associations between social support, functional capacity and mental health. The sample consisted of 134 community-dwelling older adults, assessed in terms of their social network through the Minimum Map of Older Adult Relationships; functional capacity for performance in activities of daily living; depressive symptoms, assessed through the Geriatric Depression Scale and; anxiety, assessed through the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Cluster analyses were performed. The social network was characterized by being informal, functioning as affective support that occurs through visits. Social support perceived as insufficient was more frequent in men, in those who were dependent regarding instrumental activities of daily living, and in those with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reduced social support networks and lack of support were associated with limitations in functional capacity and worse mental health, sparking debate about the centrality of the family in the provision of support.(AU)


Este estudo objetivou descrever as características da rede social de pessoas idosas e avaliar associações entre apoio social, capacidade funcional e saúde mental. A amostra foi composta por 134 idosos comunitários, avaliados quanto à rede social pelo Mapa Mínimo das Relações do Idoso; capacidade funcional pelo desempenho em atividades de vida diária; sintomas depressivos, avaliados pela Escala de Depressão Geriátrica e; ansiedade, avaliada pelo Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck. Foram realizadas análises de conglomerados. A rede social caracterizou-se por ser informal, funcionando como suporte afetivo que ocorre por meio de visitas. O apoio social percebido como insuficiente foi mais frequente no sexo masculino, entre idosos dependentes em atividades instrumentais de vida diária, com ansiedade e sintomas depressivos. Redes de suporte social reduzidas e com baixo apoio estão associadas com limitações na capacidade funcional e pior saúde mental, colocando em debate a centralidade da família na provisão de suporte.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las características de la red social de personas mayores y evaluar las asociaciones entre el apoyo social, la capacidad funcional y la salud mental. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 134 ancianos comunitarios, quienes fueron evaluados en cuanto a su red social mediante el Mapa Mínimo de Relaciones del Anciano; su capacidad funcional en las actividades de la vida diaria; los síntomas depresivos mediante la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica; y la ansiedad a través del Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck. Se realizaron análisis de conglomerados. La red social se caracterizó por ser informal, funcionando como apoyo afectivo que se manifiesta a través de visitas. El apoyo social percibido como insuficiente fue más frecuente en el sexo masculino, entre los ancianos dependientes en actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria, y aquellos con síntomas de ansiedad y depresión. Las redes de apoyo social reducidas y con bajo apoyo se asocian con limitaciones en la capacidad funcional y un peor estado de salud mental, lo que plantea el debate sobre el papel central de la familia en la provisión de apoyo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Social Support , Aged/psychology , Mental Health , Functional Status , Anxiety/psychology , Quality of Life , Cluster Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Depression/psychology , Correlation of Data , Sociodemographic Factors
18.
Psico USF ; 28(4): 811-824, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529169

ABSTRACT

This study had as general objective to characterize and associate social skills, behavior problems, and academic competence of students with intellectual disabilities in school inclusion and; as specific objectives to verify predictive values for social skills and differences between groups diagnosed with intellectual disability and other associated diagnoses. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational, predictive, and comparative study. Forty-four students with intellectual disability participated (11 of them presented other associated diagnoses), who were evaluated by 42 guardians and 34 teachers. The instruments used were Social Skills Rating System (SSRS-BR) and the Parental Educative Social Skills Interview Script (RE-HSE-P). The evaluation from guardians and teachers were different. Social skills were negatively associated with behavior problems and positively associated with academic competence; behavior problems and diagnosis were negative predictors to social skills. There were significant differences in the groups. The results highlight the importance of intervention programs to develop social skills.(AU)


O estudo teve como objetivo geral caracterizar e associar habilidades sociais, problemas de comportamento e competência acadêmica de alunos com deficiência intelectual em inclusão educacional e; como objetivos específicos verificar valores preditivos para habilidades sociais e diferenças entre grupos com diagnóstico de deficiência intelectual somente e com outros diagnósticos associados. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, transversal, descritivo, correlacional, preditivo e comparativo. Participaram 44 alunos com deficiência (11 apresentavam outros diagnósticos associados), que foram avaliados por 42 responsáveis e 34 professoras. Os instrumentos utilizados foram Social Skills Rating System (SSRS-BR) e Roteiro de Entrevista de Habilidades Sociais Educativas Parentais (RE-HSE-P). A avaliação de responsáveis e professores foi diferente. Habilidades sociais foram negativamente associadas aos problemas de comportamento e positivamente associadas a competência acadêmica; problemas de comportamento e diagnósticos associados foram preditores negativos de habilidades sociais. Houve diferença significativa entre grupos. Resultados evidenciam a importância de programas para promoção de habilidades sociais.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo general caracterizar y asociar las habilidades sociales, los problemas de conducta y la competencia académica de estudiantes con discapacidad intelectual en la inclusión escolar; y como objetivos específicos verificar los valores predictivos de las habilidades sociales y las diferencias entre grupos diagnosticados con discapacidad intelectual y otros diagnósticos asociados. Se trató de un estudio cuantitativo, transversal, descriptivo, correlacional, predictivo y comparativo. Participaron 44 estudiantes con discapacidad intelectual (11 de ellos presentaban otros diagnósticos asociados), quienes fueron evaluados por 42 tutores y 34 docentes. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Sistema de Evaluación de Habilidades Sociales (SSRS-BR) y el Guion de Entrevista de Habilidades Sociales para Educación de los Padres (RE-HSE-P). Las evaluaciones de los tutores y docentes fueron diferentes. Las habilidades sociales se asociaron negativamente con problemas de conducta y positivamente con la competencia académica; los problemas de conducta y el diagnóstico fueron predictores negativos de las habilidades sociales. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos. Los resultados destacan la importancia de los programas de intervención para desarrollar habilidades sociales con la población estudiada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Social Skills , Problem Behavior/psychology , Academic Performance/psychology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Mainstreaming, Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Predictive Value of Tests , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Correlation of Data , Sociodemographic Factors
19.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 9(2): 30628, 31 ago. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509333

ABSTRACT

Mesmo em emergências sanitárias, quando terapias experimentais são empregadas, é importante prezar pela segurança e eficácia no uso de medicamentos, e a análise de prescrições médicas é uma das maneiras de monitorar aspectos de segurança. Objetivo: Quantificar e classificar as interações medicamentosas potenciais com hidroxicloroquina de acordo com o riscoem prescrições de pacientes com COVID-19 em pacientes com COVID-19 em uso de hidroxicloroquina admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um Hospital de Ensino.Metodologia:Este estudo transversal baseou-se na análise de 162 prescrições de 38 pacientes admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um Hospital de ensino entre abril e junho de 2020.O Micromedex® e o UpToDate® foram as bases de dados de apoio à conduta clínica utilizadas para estabelecer as interações medicamentosas potenciais. Resultados:A média de dias de internamento foi de 16,1 ± 14,0 e a média de dias em uso de hidroxicloroquina foi de 4,26 ± 1,74. 87,14% das prescrições apresentaram interações medicamentosas potenciais e a mais comum foi entre hidroxicloroquina e azitromicina. 76,4% das prescrições analisadas apresentaram interações medicamentosas potenciais com hidroxicloroquina. 73,5% das prescrições tiverampelo menos uma interação medicamentosa potencial entre medicamentos que prolongam o intervalo QT. Conclusões: Tendo em vista os riscos da exposição de pacientes críticos às interações medicamentosas, este estudo demonstra a necessidade de fortalecer nas instituições hospitalares a cultura de monitoramento de parâmetros de segurança e eficáciano uso de medicamentos, inclusive em terapias experimentais com a utilização de medicamentos off-labelpara minimizar riscos e ampliar possíveis benefícios (AU).


Even in health emergencies, when experimental therapies are employed, it is important to ensure the safety and efficacy of medicines, and the analysis of medical prescriptions is one of the ways to monitor safety aspects.Objective: Quantify and rank potential drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine according to risk in prescriptions of COVID-19 patients taking hydroxychloroquine admitted to an intensive care unit of a TeachingHospital.Methodology: This cross-sectional study was based on the analysis of 162 prescriptions of 38 patients admitted to an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital between April and June 2020. Micromedex® and UpToDate® were the clinical practice support databases used to establish potential drug interactions. Results: The mean number of days of hospitalization was 16.1 ± 14.0 and the mean number of days of days on hydroxychloroquine was 4.26 ± 1.74. 87.14% of the prescriptions presented potential drug interactions and the most common was between hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. 76.4% of the analyzed prescriptions had potential drug interactions with hydroxychloroquine. 73.5% of prescriptions had at least one potential drug interaction between drugs that prolong the QT interval. Conclusions: In view of the risks of exposure of critically ill patients to drug interactions, this study interactions, this study demonstrates the need to strengthen in hospital institutions the culture of institutions the culture of monitoring safety and efficacy parameters in the use of medicines, including experimental therapies with the use of off-label drugs to minimize risks and increase possible benefits (AU).


Aunque en médio aemergencias sanitarias, cuando son empleadas terapias experimentales, es importante estimar la seguridad y eficacia en el uso de los medicamentos, y el análisis de prescripciones es una de las formas de acompanhar los aspectos de seguridad. Objetivo:Cuantificar y clasificar las interaciones farmacologicas potenciales con hidroxicloroquina de acuerdo com el riesgo em prescripciones de pacientes com Covid-19 em uso de hidroxicloroquina andmitidos em unidad de terapia intensiva de um Hospital Docente. Metodología: Este estudio transversal se asienta en el análisis de 162 prescripciones de 38 pacientes admitidos em uma unidad de terapia intensiva de um Hospital Docente entre abril y junio de 2020. El Micromedex®ï¸y el UpToDate®ï¸fueron las bases de datos de apoyo a la actuación clínica utilizadas para establecer las interacciones farmacológicas potenciales. Resultados:El promedio de días de internamiento fue de 16,1 ± 14,0 y el promedio de días en uso hidroxicloroquina fuede 4,26 ± 1,74. 87,14% de las prescripciones presentaron interacciones farmacológicas potenciales y la más común fue entre hidroxicloroquina y azitromicina. 76,4% de las prescripciones analizadas presentaron interaciones farmacológicas com hidroxicloroquina. 73,5% de las prescripciones tuvierion por lo menos uma interacción farmacológica potencial entre medicamentos que prolongam el intervalo QT. Conclusiones:Tenendo a la vista los riesgos de la exposición de pacientes críticos a las interaciones farmacológicas, este estudio demuestra la necesidad de reforzar em las instituiciones hospitalarias la cultura de monitoreo de parâmetros de seguridade y eficacio em el uso de medicamentos, incluso en terapias experimentales con utilización de medicamentos off-label, para minorar riesgos y ampliar los posibles beneficios (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Utilization , Prescriptions , COVID-19/transmission , Hydroxychloroquine/analysis , Intensive Care Units , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Drug Interactions , Hospitals, Teaching
20.
Natal; s.n; 28 jul. 2023. 73 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1532152

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O líquen plano oral é uma doença crônica imunologicamente mediada relativamente comum, que acomete a mucosa oral. Clinicamente, o LPO é classificado em seis padrões bem identificados: placa, reticular, bolhoso, atrófico, papular e erosivo.Sendo os mais comuns oos tipos reticulares e erosivos. A ativação dos linfócitos TCD4+ no LPO, pode induzir os ceratinócitos ao processo de apoptose através da respostaimunológica citotóxica. A proteína Bax desempenha uma função relevante para o processo apoptótico. Deste modo, a presente pesquisa consistiu em um estudo transversal retrospectivo, descritivo, quantitativo e comparativo. Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão imuno-histoquímica das proteínas MMP9 e Bax no LPO. Método: Foram utilizados 43 casos de LPO para análise da imunoexpressão de Bax e MMP-9. Os resultados foram analisados através dos testes estatísticos apropriados e serão considerados significativos, valores onde p<0,05. Resultado: A imunoexpressão de MMP9 foi significativamente maior nos ceratinócitos e quando analisados os subtipos de líquen plano oral, não foram observados diferenças estatísticas entre os tipos reticulares e erosivos para as proteínas analisadas. Conclusões: Com essas observações, infere-se que a alteração na expressão das proteínas estudadas sugere um distúrbio nos mecanismos apoptóticos, os quais estão associados às lesões de LPO, e podemos concluir também que as imunoexpressões dessas proteínas não apresentaram diferença, quando relacionada ao tipo clínico reticular ou erosivo. Com esse resultado pode-se contribuir para um maior entendimento sobre os possíveis mecanismos celulares envolvidos na etiopatogenia dessa lesão (AU).


Background: Oral lichen planus is a relatively common immune-mediated chronic disease that affects the oral mucosa. Clinically, OLP is classified into six well-identified patterns: plaque, reticular, bullous, atrophic, papular, and erosive. The most common being the reticular and erosive types. The activation of TCD4+ lymphocytes in the OLP can induce keratinocytes to the process of apoptosis through the cytotoxic immune response. Thus, the present research consisted of a retrospective, descriptive, quantitative and comparative crosssectional study. Objective: to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-9 and Bax proteins in OLP. Methods: We used 20 cases of Inflammatory Fibrous Hyperplasia as control. The results were analyzed through the appropriate statistical tests and will be considered significant, values where p<0.05. Results: The immunoexpression of MMP-9 was significantly higher in keratinocytes and when the subtypes of oral lichen planus were analyzed, no statistical differences were observed between the reticular and erosive types for the proteins analyzed. Conclusions: With these observations, it is inferred that the alteration in the expression of the studied proteins suggests a disturbance in the proliferative and apoptotic mechanisms, which are associated with a pathological behavior of the oral mucosa, and consequently with a repercussion on the lesions of OLP, and we can also conclude that the immunoexpression of these proteins had no difference, when related to the reticular or erosive clinical type. This research aims to contribute to a greater understanding of the possible cellular mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of this lesion, thus enabling the understanding of the clinical aspects of the pathology (AU).


Subject(s)
Lichen Planus, Oral/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diagnosis, Differential , Mouth Mucosa/injuries
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