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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530140

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las evidencias científicas han demostrado que durante el período pandémico por la COVID-19 ha existido un incremento de la incidencia de muerte súbita cardiovascular, proporcional al incremento de los casos y a la letalidad por la enfermedad. Objetivos: Compilar información sobre los fármacos empleados en el tratamiento de la COVID-19 y sus posibles efectos en la prolongación del intervalo QT y la aparición de muerte súbita. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de información a partir de las bases de datos PubMed, Medline y SciELO, en los idiomas español e inglés en el período de enero de 2020 a enero de 2023. Resultados: Los hallazgos más recientes sugieren que los factores relacionados con el tratamiento médico del paciente para sus enfermedades cardiovasculares previas, el empleo concomitante de drogas para otras comorbilidades, el ensayo de nuevas drogas que se investigan en la actualidad para el tratamiento de la enfermedad y el uso inadecuado de fármacos en complicaciones graves por la COVID-19, pueden ocasionar prolongación del intervalo QT y arritmias ventriculares tipo torsades de pointes, lo que puede conllevar a la aparición de muerte súbita. Conclusiones: Ha sido demostrado el efecto deletéreo de los fármacos en el tratamiento de la COVID-19 y sus posibles asociaciones a la terapéutica del paciente, en la prolongación del tiempo de repolarización ventricular cardíaca, cuya traducción eléctrica es un intervalo QT prolongado y su contribución a la génesis de arritmias malignas potencialmente fatales capaces de desencadenar un paro cardíaco y evolucionar a la muerte súbita(AU)


Scientific evidence has shown an increase in the incidence of sudden cardiovascular death during the COVID-19 pandemic period. This has been proportional to the increase in cases and mortality from the disease. Direct and indirect injury to the myocardium and vascular system allow to partially explain the statistics. Among the factors related to the medical treatment of the patient for previous cardiovascular diseases, it is the concomitant use of drugs for other comorbidities. The trial of new drugs for the treatment of this condition and the inappropriate use of drugs in serious complications from COVID-19 are currently being investigated. These can cause QT prolongation and torsades de pointes ventricular arrhythmias, which can lead to sudden death. Monitoring the QT interval is recommended, before and during treatment, in patients who come to the emergency room with a clinical condition suggestive of COVID-19. Additionally, modifiable factors favoring its prolongation should be evaluated. Decision-making in the application of therapeutic protocols in patients with COVID-19 with prolonged QTc at baseline, or with increased QTc after starting treatment, must go through the analysis of the risk/benefit ratio defined by a multi- and interdisciplinary team(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Long QT Syndrome , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , COVID-19/epidemiology
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202593, abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1424937

ABSTRACT

Commotio cordis o conmoción cardíaca es un síndrome arritmogénico mecano-eléctrico raro y mortal. Es la segunda causa de muerte súbita en atletas jóvenes. Se asocia con una lesión que se produce durante la práctica deportiva, en la que un proyectil impacta a alta velocidad en el precordio y provoca una arritmia que conduce a la muerte inmediata del individuo sin una reanimación cardíaca. En las autopsias, los corazones son estructuralmente sanos. Con el conocimiento de este síndrome y las capacitaciones de reanimación cardiorrespiratoria a la comunidad, las tasas de supervivencia han mejorado. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un paciente que llegó a nuestro hospital con conmotio cordis y su evolución, enfatizando la importancia de medidas de prevención y capacitación de la población en técnicas de reanimación cardiopulmonar y uso del desfibrilador externo automático para la supervivencia de los pacientes que sufren esta entidad.


Commotio cordis or cardiac concussion is a rare and fatal mechano-electric arrhythmogenic syndrome. It is the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. It is most commonly associated with a sports-related injury, wherein, there is a high-velocity impact between a projectile and the precordium, causing arrhythmia that leads to the immediate death of the individual without cardiac resuscitation. On autopsy, the heart is structurally normal. With increasing awareness of this condition and community training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival rates have been improving. The objective of this study is to describe the case of a patient who arrived at our hospital with commotio cordis and his course, emphasizing the importance of prevention and training of the population in cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques and the use of the automated external defibrillator for the survival of patients suffering from commotio cordis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Athletic Injuries/complications , Athletic Injuries/diagnosis , Athletic Injuries/therapy , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Commotio Cordis/complications , Commotio Cordis/diagnosis , Autopsy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 619-625, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984694

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in the risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: HCM patients who underwent CMR examination in Fuwai Hospital between March 2012 and May 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. Baseline clinical and CMR data were collected and patient follow-up was performed using telephone contact and medical record. The primary composite endpoint was sudden cardiac death (SCD) or and equivalent event. The secondary composite endpoint was all-cause death and heart transplant. Patients were divided into SCD and non-SCD groups. Cox regression was used to explore risk factors of adverse events. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the performance and the optimal cut-off of late gadolinium enhancement percentage (LGE%) for the prediction of endpoints. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to compare survival differences between groups. Results: A total of 442 patients were enrolled. Mean age was (48.5±12.4) years and 143(32.4%) were female. At (7.6±2.5) years of follow-up, 30 (6.8%) patients met the primary endpoint including 23 SCD and 7 SCD equivalent events, and 36 (8.1%) patients met the secondary endpoint including 33 all-cause death and 3 heart transplant. In multivariate Cox regression, syncope(HR=4.531, 95%CI 2.033-10.099, P<0.001), LGE% (HR=1.075, 95%CI 1.032-1.120, P=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (HR=0.956, 95%CI 0.923-0.991, P=0.013) were independent risk factors for primary endpoint; Age (HR=1.032, 95%CI 1.001-1.064, P=0.046), atrial fibrillation (HR=2.977, 95%CI 1.446-6.131, P=0.003),LGE% (HR=1.075, 95%CI 1.035-1.116, P<0.001) and LVEF (HR=0.968, 95%CI 0.937-1.000, P=0.047) were independent risk factors for secondary endpoint. ROC curve showed the optimal LGE% cut-offs were 5.1% and 5.8% for the prediction of primary and secondary endpoint, respectively. Patients were further divided into LGE%=0, 0<LGE%<5%, 5%≤LGE%<15% and LGE%≥15% groups. There were significant survival differences between these 4 groups whether for primary endpoint or secondary endpoint (all P<0.001) and the accumulated incidence of primary endpoint was 1.2% (2/161), 2.2% (2/89), 10.5% (16/152) and 25.0% (10/40), respectively. Conclusion: LGE is an independent risk factor for SCD events as well as all-cause death and heart transplant. LGE is of important value in the risk stratification in patients with HCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Contrast Media , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Gadolinium , Ventricular Function, Left , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Risk Assessment
4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 1-6, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the gross pathological data of sudden cardiac death (SCD) with different causes, to provide data support for the identification of sudden cardiac death with unknown causes.@*METHODS@#A total of 167 adult SCD cases in the archive of the Forensic Expertise Institute of Nanjing Medical University from 2010 to 2020 were collected. The gross pathological data of SCD cases were summarized and the characteristics of different causes of death were statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The ratio of male to female SCD cases was 3.4∶1. Coronary heart disease was the leading cause of SCD, and mainly distributed in people over 40 years old. SCD caused by myocarditis was mainly distributed in young people and the mean age of death was (34.00±9.55) years. By analyzing the differences in cardiac pathological parameters of SCD with different causes, it was found that the aortic valve circumference was significantly dilated in the SCD caused by aortic aneurysm or dissection (P<0.05). The heart weight of SCD caused by aortic aneurysm or dissection and combined factors was greater, and both pulmonary and tricuspid valvular rings were dilated in the SCD caused by combined factors in adult males (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Various gross pathological measures of SCD with different causes are different, which has reference value in the cause of death identification of SCD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/pathology , Coronary Disease , Heart , Forensic Medicine , Autopsy
5.
In. Acquistapace Peroni, Federico Andres; Agorrody Vidal, Guillermo; Arocena, María; Cuesta Holgado, Alejandro Nicolás; Dell'Oca Runco, Nicolás; Raggio Risso, Víctor Enrique; Reyes Cabrera, María Ximena; Ríos Valdez, Mateo; Tortajada Belocon, Gustavo. Pautas de prevención en las principales cardiopatías hereditarias. [Montevideo], Comisión Honoraria para la Salud Cardiovascular, [2023?]. p.11-22, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1436195
6.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 9(2): 7-14, 2023. graf., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1551603

ABSTRACT

Justificación: La muerte súbita constituye un problema de salud pública a nivel global. Su presentación súbita e inesperada tiene implicaciones médico-legales por lo que su abordaje diagnóstico en el ámbito forense es de gran importancia.Objetivo: Analizar la muerte súbita y su abordaje diagnóstico en la Dirección de Medicina Forense de Honduras. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de autopsias por muerte súbita en población de 10 a 55 años, realizadas en la sede de Tegucigalpa durante un período de cinco años (2015-2019). Los cálculos estadísticos fueron realizados con el programa R. Resultados: Se analizaron 165 casos de muerte súbita, 56% fueron de origen no cardiovascular y 44% de origen cardiovascular, 67% varones, con una media de edad de 39 años, DS+/-9,75. Las causas más frecuentes de muerte súbita no cardiovascular fueron digestivas (36%), respiratorias (34%), eventos cerebrovasculares hemorrágicos (14%) y muerte súbita en epilepsia (9%). Entre las muertes súbitas cardiovasculares las causas más frecuentes fueron la enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica (67%), miocarditis (12%) y la muerte arrítmica con corazón estructuralmente normal (10%). Desde el punto de vista toxicológico destaca en ambas la asociación con el consumo de etanol (19%). Conclusiones: La muerte súbita de origen no cardiovascular fue la más frecuente, resultado condicionado por las limitantes del estudio. El abordaje actual de los casos de muerte súbita presenta importantes limitaciones por lo que se recomienda fortalecerlo implementando mejoras en la investigación medicolegal de la escena de la muerte, de los antecedentes familiares y el uso adecuado de los estudios complementarios toxicológicos e histopatológicos...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Death, Sudden , Autopsy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1551676

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la muerte súbita se trata de un evento fatal e imprevisible. Realizada la autopsia y estudios complementarios, en ausencia de otros hallazgos que expliquen la causa de muerte, se clasifica como muerte súbita inexplicada. Siendo recomendable en estos casos realizar análisis genéticos, especialmente con metodologías de secuenciación de siguiente generación, las que permiten explicar un porcentaje importante de estos casos. Objetivo: analizar las publicaciones más relevantes sobre secuenciación de siguiente generación, aplicada a la autopsia molecular, para determinar aquellas muertes súbitas inexplicables relacionadas a cardiomiopatías y canalopatías. Metodología: se realizó la búsqueda en PubMed del Instituto Nacional de Salud usando palabras clave en inglés y español: NGS, muerte súbita, autopsia molecular y sus combinaciones. Además, se realizaron búsquedas en OMIN y ClinVar relacionada a las diferentes afecciones cardiacas relacionadas a muerte súbita. Los criterios de inclusión: artículos completos en español e inglés de libre acceso, con antigüedad máxima de diez años, realizados en cualquier área geográfica y que trataran sobre la temática. Resultados: para secuenciación de siguiente generación, muerte súbita se encontraron más de 22000 y 65000 publicaciones, respectivamente. En cambio, al combinar las palabras clave se recuperaron 74 trabajos, según los criterios de inclusión y objetivo del trabajo se revisaron 67 artículos. La aplicación de las plataformas de secuenciación en la investigación de casos de muerte súbita tomo auge en el 2014 y en poco tiempo, demostraron su versatilidad para el análisis de una gran cantidad de genes simultáneamente, de forma rápida y a bajo costo. Conclusiones: las patologías asociadas a muerte súbita son múltiples, complejas y pueden generar fenotipos variables que dificultan el análisis genético de las mismas. Las plataformas de secuenciación de siguiente generación son sumamente útiles en los casos de muerte súbita inexplicada, además permiten la identificación de variantes genéticas en familiares para la implementación de medidas preventivas...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autopsy/methods , Death, Sudden , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 1018-1023, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013216

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the current application status and implementation difficulties of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) in children with sudden cardiac arrest. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 35 hospitals. A Children's ECPR Information Questionnaire on the implementation status of ECPR technology (abbreviated as the questionnaire) was designed, to collect the data of 385 children treated with ECPR in the 35 hospitals. The survey extracted the information about development of ECPR, the maintenance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) machine, the indication of ECPR, and the difficulties of implementation in China. These ECPR patients were grouped based on their age, the hospital location and level, to compare the survival rates after weaning and discharge. The statistical analysis used Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance for the comparison between the groups, LSD method for post hoc testing, and Bonferroni method for pairwise comparison. Results: Of the 385 ECPR cases, 224 were males and 161 females. There were 185 (48.1%) survival cases after weaning and 157 (40.8%) after discharge. There were 324 children (84.2%) receiving ECPR for cardiac disease and 27 children (7.0%) for respiratory failure. The primary cause of death in ECPR patients was circulatory failure (82 cases, 35.9%), followed by brain failure (80 cases, 35.0%). The most common place of ECPR was intensive care unit (ICU) (278 cases, 72.2%); ECPR catheters were mostly inserted through incision (327 cases, 84.9%). There were 32 hospitals (91.4%) had established ECMO emergency teams, holding 125 ECMO machines in total. ECMO machines mainly located in ICU (89 pieces, 71.2%), and the majority of hospitals (32 units, 91.4%) did not have pre-charged loops. There were no statistically significant differences in the post-withdrawal and post-discharge survival rates of ECPR patients among different age groups, regions, and hospitals (all P>0.05). The top 5 difficulties in implementing ECPR in non-ICU environments were lack of ECMO machines (16 times), difficulty in placing CPR pipes (15 times), long time intervals between CPR and ECMO transfer (13 times), lack of conventional backup ECMO loops (10 times), and inability of ECMO emergency teams to quickly arrive at the site (5 times). Conclusion: ECPR has been gradually developed in the field of pediatric critical care in China, and needs to be further standardized. ECPR in non-ICU environment remains a challenge.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Aftercare , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , East Asian People , Heart Arrest/therapy , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 542-548, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To diagnose coronary artery stenosis by using the postmortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), and to explore the diagnostic value of PMCTA in sudden cardiac death.@*METHODS@#Six death cases were selected, and the contrast medium iohexol was injected under high pressure through femoral artery approach with 5F pigtail catheter to obtain coronary image data and then the data was analyzed. The results of targeted coronary imaging and coronary artery calcium score (CaS) were compared with the results of conventional autopsy and histopathological examination.@*RESULTS@#The autopsy and histopathological examination of cases with coronary artery stenosis obtained similar results in targeted coronary angiography, with a diagnostic concordance rate of 83.3%. Targeted coronary angiography could effectively show coronary artery diseases, and the CaS was consistent with the results of conventional autopsy and histopathological examination.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Targeted coronary angiography can be used as an effective auxiliary method for conventional autopsy in cases of sudden cardiac death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/pathology
10.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 535-541, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze myocardial infarction tissues at different stages of pathological change to achieve the forensic pathology diagnosis of acute and old myocardial infarction.@*METHODS@#FTIR spectra data of early ischemic myocardium, necrotic myocardium, and myocardial fibrous tissue in the left ventricular anterior wall of the sudden death group of atherosclerotic heart disease and the myocardium of the normal control group were collected using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining as a reference, and the data were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#The mean normalized spectra of control myocardium, early ischemic myocardium and necrotic myocardium were relatively similar, but the mean second derivative spectra were significantly different. The peak intensity of secondary structure of proteins in early ischemic myocardium was significantly higher than in other types of myocardium, and the peak intensity of the α-helix in necrotic myocardium was the lowest. The peaks of amide Ⅰ and amide Ⅱ in the mean normalized spectra of myocardial fibrous tissue significantly shifted towards higher wave numbers, the peak intensities of amide Ⅱ and amide Ⅲ were higher than those of other types of myocardium, and the peak intensities at 1 338, 1 284, 1 238 and 1 204 cm-1 in the mean second derivative spectra were significantly enhanced. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed that FTIR could distinguish different types of myocardium.@*CONCLUSIONS@#FTIR technique has the potential to diagnose acute and old myocardial infarction, and provides a new basis for the analysis of the causes of sudden cardiac death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amides , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Forensic Pathology
11.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 75-80, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397652

ABSTRACT

Sudden death is the most serious complication of acute coronary syndromes. The highest percentage occurs at home with a very low survival rate. The highest risk group are patients with ejection fraction under 40% after an acute myocardial infarction. So far the indication of the clinical practice guides are the implantation of ICD as a secondary prevention, and as a primary prevention when the systolic function is severely diminished, however there is an interval of 40 days in which the implant has not managed to demonstrate benefits. In this critical period patients should be managed with beta-blockers. So far, the absolute benefit of using portable cardioverter-defibrillators as a prophylactic bridge to the ICD implant has not been demonstrated. The following revision is based on the most relevant clinical practice guides in the field carried out in relation to a clinical case


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Coronary Angiography , Defibrillators, Implantable
12.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e801, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1383633

ABSTRACT

Se presentan, en un trabajo conjunto, las recomendaciones para la evaluación cardiovascular de personas menores de 35 años que realizan ejercicio y deportes. Se establecen pautas en cuanto a la valoración y la habilitación que tendrá dicha evaluación, quiénes estarán a cargo de su realización y cuáles son los componentes fundamentales de una correcta valoración cardiovascular. Se toman en cuenta los antecedentes familiares y personales, el examen físico exhaustivo y se considera conveniente la realización del ECG como parte integrante obligatorio. Se hacen referencia a otros estudios funcionales como opcionales, así como la posible derivación a los especialistas cuando se considere necesario.


We hereby present joint recommendations for cardiovascular assessment of people under 35 years of age who do exercise and sports. We set the guidelines regarding evaluation and score of such assessment, the agents in charge of implementing it and the main components of a correct cardiovascular assessment. We take into account the family and personal history and perform a comprehensive physical examination as well as an ECG as a mandatory part of this comprehensive approach. We mention other optional functional studies as well as reference to specialists whenever necessary.


Apresentamos através dum paper conjunto recomendações para a avaliação cardiovascular de pessoas de 35 anos de idade que praticam exercício e esportes. Estabelecem-se as diretrizes quanto à qualificação dessa avaliação, quem a realizará e quais são os componentes fundamentais de uma correta avaliação cardiovascular. Consideramos obrigatório incluir a história familiar e pessoal, o exame físico exaustivo e o ECG opcional. Referimo-nos a outros estudos funcionais opcionais, assim como ao possível encaminhamento para especialistas quando for necessário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sports , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Physical Examination , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Electrocardiography , Medical History Taking
14.
J. health inform ; 14(1): 26-34, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370952

ABSTRACT

Objective: Identify the risk of patients with Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy (CCC) to prevent them from having Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Methods: We developed an SCD prediction system using a heterogeneous dataset of chagasic patients evaluated in 9 state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to select the most critical clinical variables and predict SCD in chagasic patients even when the interval between the most recent exams and the SCD event is months or years. Results: 310 patients were analyzed, being 81 (14,7%) suffering from SCD. In the study, Balanced Random Forest showed the best performance, with AUC:80.03 and F1:75.12. Due to their high weights in the machine learning classifiers, we suggest Holter - Non-Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia, Total Ventricular Extrasystoles, Left Ventricular Systolic Diameter, Syncope, and Left Ventricular Diastolic Diameter as essential features to identify SCD. Conclusion: The high-risk pattern of SCD in patients with CCC can be identified and prevented based on clinical and laboratory variables.


Objetivo: Identificar o risco de pacientes com Cardiomiopatia Chagásica Crônica (CCC) para prevenir a Morte Súbita Cardíaca (MSC). Métodos: Desenvolvemos um sistema de MSC usando um conjunto de dados heterogêneo de pacientes chagásicos avaliados em 9 algoritmos de aprendizado de máquina de última geração para selecionar as variáveis clínicas mais críticas e prever MSC em pacientes chagásicos mesmo quando o intervalo mais recente entre os mais recentes exames e o evento MSC é meses ou anos. Resultados: Foram analisados 310 pacientes, sendo 81 (14,7%) portadores de CCC. No estudo, o algoritmo Balanced Random Forest apresentou o melhor desempenho, com AUC:80,03 e F1:75,12. Devido ao seu alto peso nos classificadores de aprendizado de máquina, sugerimos Holter - Taquicardia Ventricular Não Sustentada, Extrassístoles Ventriculares Totais, Diâmetro Sistólico do Ventrículo Esquerdo, Síncope e Diâmetro Diastólico do Ventrículo Esquerdo como características essenciais para identificar a CCC. Conclusão: O padrão de alto risco de MSC em pacientes com CCC pode ser identificado e prevenido com base em variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais.


Objetivo: Identificar el riesgo de los pacientes con Miocardiopatía Chagásica Crónica (MCC) para evitar que presenten Muerte Cardíaca Súbita (MCS). Métodos: Desarrollamos un sistema MCS utilizando un conjunto de datos heterogéneo de pacientes chagásicos evaluados en 9 algoritmos de aprendizaje automático de última generación para seleccionar las variables clínicas más críticas y predecir MCS en pacientes chagásicos incluso cuando el intervalo más reciente entre los más recientes exámenes y el evento MCS es meses o años. Resultados: Se analizaron 310 pacientes, siendo 81 (14,7%) con MSC. En el estudio, Balanced Random Forest mostró el mejor desempeño, con AUC:80.03 y F1:75.12. Debido a su alto peso en los clasificadores de aprendizaje automático, sugerimos Holter - Taquicardia ventricular no sostenida, Extrasístoles ventriculares totales, Diámetro sistólico del ventrículo izquierdo, Síncope y Diámetro diastólico del ventrículo izquierdo como características esenciales para identificar la MSC. Conclusión: El patrón de alto riesgo de MSC en pacientes con MCC se puede identificar y prevenir con base en variables clínicas y de laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Machine Learning , Algorithms , Chronic Disease , Probability , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 14-24, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356322

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The risk of sports-related sudden cardiac arrest after COVID-19 infection can be a serious problem. There is an urgent need for evidence-based criteria to ensure patient safety before resuming exercise. Objective: To estimate the pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and to provide an easy-to-use cardiovascular risk assessment toolkit prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection. Methods: We searched the Medline and Cochrane databases for articles on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury associated with COVID-19 infection. The pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury was calculated for hospitalized patients treated in different settings (non-intensive care unit [ICU], ICU, overall hospitalization, and non-survivors). Statistical significance was accepted for p values <0.05. We propose a practical flowchart to assess the cardiovascular risk of individuals who recovered from COVID-19 before resuming sports activities. Results: A total of 20 studies (6,573 patients) were included. The overall pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury in hospitalized patients was 21.7% (95% CI 17.3-26.5%). The non-ICU setting had the lowest prevalence (9.5%, 95% CI 1.5-23.4%), followed by the ICU setting (44.9%, 95% CI 27.7-62.8%), and the cohort of non-survivors (57.7% with 95% CI 38.5-75.7%). We provide an approach to assess cardiovascular risk based on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury in each setting. Conclusions: Acute myocardial injury is frequent and associated with more severe disease and hospital admissions. Cardiac involvement could be a potential trigger for exercise-induced clinical complications after COVID-19 infection. We created a toolkit to assist with clinical decision-making prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Sports , Heart Disease Risk Factors , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Risk Assessment/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Athletes
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 618-624, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984156

ABSTRACT

Physical exercise can reduce the overall risk of cardiovascular disease, prolong lifespan and improve the quality of life, but some studies have shown that there is a certain correlation between vigorous physical exercise and sudden cardiac death. A number of retrospective or prospective studies on sports-related sudden cardiac death (SrSCD) have been conducted at home and abroad. This article reviews the related studies on the definition, epidemiological characteristics, common causes of SrSCD and effects of excercise on cardiovascular function, pre-exercise screening and evaluation of SrSCD, in order to understand the latest research progress on SrSCD and provide clues and references for SrSCD research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Incidence , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 374-384, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984130

ABSTRACT

Hereditary cardiac disease accounts for a large proportion of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young adults. Hereditary cardiac disease can be divided into hereditary structural heart disease and channelopathies. Hereditary structural heart disease mainly includes hereditary cardiomyopathy, which results in arhythmia, heart failure and SCD. The autopsy and histopathological examinations of SCD caused by channelopathies lack characteristic morphological manifestations. Therefore, how to determine the cause of death in the process of examination has become one of the urgent problems to be solved in forensic identification. Based on the review of recent domestic and foreign research results on channelopathies and hereditary cardiomyopathy, this paper systematically reviews the pathogenesis and molecular genetics of channelopathies and hereditary cardiomyopathy, and discusses the application of postmortem genetic testing in forensic identification, to provide reference for forensic pathology research and identification of SCD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Autopsy/methods , Channelopathies/genetics , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/pathology , Genetic Testing , Heart Diseases/genetics
19.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 246-253, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#By retrospective study of the epidemiological characteristics of sports-related sudden death (SrSD), the risk factors associated with SrSD were analyzed and explored to provide a scientific basis for comprehensive prevention and treatment of SrSD.@*METHODS@#The personal information (sex, age, occupation, etc.), case information (time, place, type of sports, relative time between SrSD occurrence and exercise, etc.), death related information (sign or prodrome, medical history and surgical history, etc.), rescue situation (witnesses, on-site assistance, the availability of paramedics, etc.) of 374 SrSD cases in Guangdong Province from 2017 to 2021 were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted aiming at the key factors.@*RESULTS@#In the 374 cases, there were significantly more males than females (19.78:1); the number of people aged between >39 and 59 was the largest (151, 40.37%); non-manual workers (68.98%) were more than manual workers; the top three sports with the highest number cases were basketball (34.49%), running (19.52%) and badminton (12.03%); from 3 pm to 9 pm (63.10%) was the time period with the highest incidence of events; sudden death mainly occurred during exercise (75.27%) and within 1 h after exercise (20.05%); the on-site rescue rate was very low (6.15%); the rate of autopsies was extremely low (1.07%); sudden cardiac death was the most common cause (67.11%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SrSD is most common in males aged >39 to 59 years old, mostly in non-manual workers, and usually occurs in basketball and running. Sudden death is more likely to occur during exercise and within 1 h after exercise. Therefore, the above potential risk factors should be focused on and studied in daily comprehensive prevention and treatment to provide scientific basis for accurate prevention and first aid of such sudden death.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autopsy , China/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Sports
20.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc300, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411512

ABSTRACT

A disjunção do anel mitral (DAM) é uma inserção anormal da linha de flexão do anel mitral na parede atrial. O anel mostra uma separação (disjunção) entre a junção folheto posterior-parede atrial e a crista miocárdica ventricular esquerda.1 A DAM foi descrita pela primeira vez há mais de 30 anos em estudo de autópsia, estando relacionada com prolapso da valva mitral (PVM) em 92% dos casos.2 Desde então, foram realizados diversos estudos, sendo a prevalência de DAM em pacientes com PVM reportada de forma variável, podendo ou não estar associada à insuficiência mitral. O ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT) faz parte da avaliação inicial do prolapso valvar mitral, permitindo o diagnóstico e a avaliação de complicações relacionadas. Com a evolução de novos métodos diagnósticos, a ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e o ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE) passaram a aprimorar a avaliação dessa patologia, bem como de sua extensão e localização. Contudo, as características fenotípicas do PVM que estão mais associadas a DAM permanecem incertas, sobretudo devido ao número limitado de pacientes, nos estudos clássicos sobre o tema. Portadores de DAM podem desenvolver sintomas relacionados a arritmias ventriculares, configurando a síndrome arrítmica da DAM (SDAM), podendo evoluir para morte súbita. Na literatura, os dados prognósticos ainda são conflitantes entre os diversos estudos acerca do tema, indo desde critérios claros de diagnóstico, o melhor método de imagem a ser aplicado, o tratamento e o prognóstico. Esta revisão descreve as características da DAM associada ou não ao prolapso valvar, auxiliando no diagnóstico e na conduta dessa importante patologia. (AU)


Mitral annulus disjunction (MAD) is an abnormal insertion of the flexion line of the mitral annulus into the atrial wall. The annulus presents a separation (disjunction) between the posterior leaflet­atrial wall junction and the left ventricular myocardial crest.1 MAD was first described more than 30 years ago in an autopsy study and is reportedly related to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in 92% of cases.2 Since then, several studies have been conducted, and reports on the prevalence of MAD in patients with MVP have varied. Ultimately, it may or may not be associated with mitral regurgitation. Transthoracic echocardiography is part of initial MVP assessment, allowing its diagnosis and the assessment of related complications. As new diagnostic methods emerged, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and transesophageal echocardiography improved the assessment of this pathology in terms of its diagnosis, extension, and location. However, the phenotypic characteristics of MVP that are more closely associated with MAD remain uncertain mainly due to the limited number of patients in classic studies on the subject. Patients with MAD may develop symptoms related to ventricular arrhythmias, configuring the MAD arrhythmic syndrome, which may progress to sudden death. The literature presents conflicting prognostic data among several studies on the subject from clear diagnostic criteria and best imaging method to be used to treatment and prognosis. This review describes MAD characteristics associated (or not) with valve prolapse to improve the diagnosis and management of this important pathology. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mitral Valve Prolapse/complications , Mitral Valve Prolapse/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Prognosis , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities
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