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2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 649-653, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, and interferon regimen as maintenance therapy for blast phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-BP).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of CML-BP patients who received the first major hematological response after induction therapy at The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2015 to December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The event-free survival, duration of remission, and overall survival of patients in TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, interferon group(n=18) and TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy group(n=10) were compared by log-rank test.@*RESULTS@#A total of 28 patients were included, with a median age of 46 (24-58) years old. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients in TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine, interferon group had longer event-free survival (7.4 vs 4.3 months, P=0.043, HR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.17-1.14), duration of overall remission (16.1 vs 6.6 months, P=0.005, HR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.11-0.89), overall survival (34.3 vs 13.5 months, P=0.006, HR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.10-0.82) compared with patients in TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy group.@*CONCLUSION@#The TKI combined with decitabine, homoharringtonine and interferon regimen can significantly prolong the survival of CML-BP patients who obtained the major hematological response compared with TKI combined with conventional chemotherapy regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Blast Crisis/drug therapy , Homoharringtonine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Inhibitors, Tyrosine Kinase , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 633-642, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of decitabine combined with modified CAG regimen (D-CAG regimen) in patients aged ≥70 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 59 AML patients (≥70 years old) who were newly diagnosed and treated in the Hematology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from November 2010 to June 2021 were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 59 AML patients, 28 were males and 31 were females, with a median age of 74 (70-86) years. The complete remission (CR) rate was 69.4% (34/49), and the median duration of CR was 10.7 (0.6-125.4) months after 2 courses of D-CAG treatment. According to the British Medical Research Council (MRC) classification, there was only one patient in the favorable-risk group, and the CR rate was 71.8% (28/39) in the intermediate-risk group, and 55.6% (5/9) in the adverse-risk group, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the CR rate between the intermediate-risk and adverse-risk group. Referring to ELN 2017 genetic risk classification, CR rate was 88.2% (15/17) in the favorable-risk group, 45.5% (5/11) in the intermediate-risk group, and 66.7% (14/21) in the adverse-risk group. There was no significant difference in CR rate between the favorable-risk and adverse-risk categories, but both were significantly higher than that in the intermediate-risk group (P <0.05). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis showed that 11 gene mutations with a frequency of more than 10%, including TET2 mutation (35.6%), ASXL1 mutation (30.5%), NPM1 mutation (28.8%), FLT3-ITD mutation (27.1%), DNMT3A mutation (22.0%), IDH1 mutation (15.3%), CEBPA single mutation (13.6%), TP53 mutation (13.6%), IDH2 mutation (11.9%), RUNX1 mutation (11.9%), and NRAS mutation (10.2%). There were no statistical differences in mutation frequency of these 11 genes between CR group and non-CR group. Compared with normal karyotypes, patients with complex karyotypes were more likely to develop TP53 mutations (P <0.001), while FLT3-ITD and DNMT3A mutations were more likely to occur in patients with normal karyotypes (P =0.04, P =0.047). The median follow-up, overall survival (OS), and event-free survival (EFS) of all the patients was 11.7 (1.5-128.2) months, 12.3 (1.5-128.2) months, and 8.5 (1.5-128.2) months, respectively. The median OS and EFS of CR patients were 19.8 and 13.3 months, respectively, which were significantly longer than 6.4 and 5.7 months in patients experiencing treatment failure (P < 0.001, P =0.009). In regard to genes with mutation frequency >10%, there were no statistical differences in CR rate, median OS, and median EFS between mutated and wild-type patients by Chi-square test and survival analysis. Univariate analysis showed that age, hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, cytogenetics and CR were factors affecting prognosis, while multivariate analysis showed that only CR failure was an independent adverse prognostic factor for OS. The major adverse reactions to D-CAG regimen were grade 3-4 myelosuppression, pulmonary infection, and fever (infection focus was not identified).@*CONCLUSION@#D-CAG regimen is safe and effective in the treatment of AML patients ≥70 years old, and can partially improve the prognosis of elderly and high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Male , Female , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Mutation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 522-531, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy and safety of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with decitabine (Dec)-conditioning regimen in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MDS transformed acute myeloid leukemia (MDS-AML).@*METHODS@#The characteristics and efficacy data of 93 patients with MDS and MDS-AML who received allo-HSCT in our center from April 2013 to November 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered by myeloablative conditioning regimen containing Dec (25 mg/m2 /d×3 d).@*RESULTS@#Among the 93 patients, 63 males and 30 females, were diagnosed as MDS(n =77), MDS-AML(n =16). The incidence of I/II grade regimen-related toxicity (RRT) was 39.8%, and III grade RRT was only found in 1 patient (1%). Neutrophil engraftment was successful in 91 (97.8%) patients after a median neutrophil engraftment time of 14 (9-27) days; Successful platelet engraftment was achieved in 87 (93.5%) patients, with a median engraftment time of 18 (9-290) days. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease(aGVHD) and grade III-IV aGVHD was 44.2% and 16.2%, respectively. The incidence of chronic graft versus host disease(cGVHD) and moderate-to-severe cGVHD was 59.5% and 37.1%, respectively. Of the 93 patients, 54 (58%) developed posttransplant infections, among which lung infection (32.3%) and bloodstream infection (12.9%) were the most common. The median follow-up after transplantation was 45 (0.1-108) months. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate, disease-free survival (DFS) rate, treatment-related mortality, and cumulative incidence of relapse were 72.7%, 68.4%, 25.1%, and 6.5%, respectively. And the 1-year graft-versus-host disease/relapse-free survival rate was 49.3%. The patients in different group of relative high-risk prognostic scoring or low-risk prognostic scoring, with or without poor-risk mutation(s), with mutations number ≥3 or <3 had similar 5-year OS rate (more than 70%). Multivariate analysis showed that the incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD was the independent risk factor affecting OS(P =0.008)and DFS (P =0.019).@*CONCLUSION@#Allo-HSCT with Dec-conditioning regimen is feasible and effective in the treatment of patients with MDS and MDS-AML, especially those in high prognostic risk and with poor-risk mutations.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Decitabine , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Transplantation Conditioning/adverse effects , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Recurrence
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 442-447, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982078

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the biological effects and its relative mechanism of decitabine combined with anlotinib on multiple myeloma cells.@*METHODS@#The human MM cell lines and primary cells were treated with different concentrations of decitabine, anlotinib, and decitabine+anlotinib, respectively. The cell viability was detected and combination effect was calculated by CCK-8 assay. The apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry and the level of c-Myc protein was determined by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Both decitabine and anlotinib could effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of MM cell lines NCI-H929 and RPMI-8226. The effect of combined treatment on the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis was stronger than that of single-drug treatment. The combination of the two drugs also showed strong cytotoxicity in primary MM cells. Decitabine and anlotinib could down-regulate the level of c-Myc protein in MM cells and the c-Myc level in the combination group was the lowest.@*CONCLUSION@#Decitabine combined with anlotinib can effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of MM cells, which provides a certain experimental basis for the treatment of human MM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Decitabine , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 338-343, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy, prognosis and safety of decitabine combined with modified EIAG regimen in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 44 patients with relapsed/refractory AML and high-risk MDS admitted to our hospital from January 2017 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were equally divided into D-EIAG group (decitabine combined with EIAG regimen) and D-CAG group (decitabine combined with CAG regimen) according to clinical treatment regimen. The complete response (CR), CR with incomplete hematologic recover (CRi), morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS), partial response (PR), overall response rate (ORR), modified composite complete response (mCRc), overall survival (OS) time, 1-year OS rate, myelosuppression and adverse reactions between the two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#In D-EIAG group, 16 patients (72.7%) achieved mCRc (CR+CRi+MLFS), 3 patients (13.6%) achieved PR, and ORR (mCRc+PR) was 86.4%. In D-CAG group, 9 patients (40.9%) achieved mCRc, 6 patients (27.3%) achieved PR, and ORR was 68.2%. Difference was observed in mCRc rate between the two groups (P=0.035), but not in ORR (P>0.05). The median OS time of D-EIAG group and D-CAG group was 20 (2-38) months and 16 (3-32) months, and 1-year OS rate was 72.7% and 59.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference in 1-year OS rate between the two groups (P>0.05). After induction chemotherapy, the median time for absolute neutrophil count recovery to 0.5×109/L in D-EIAG group and D-CAG group was 14 (10-27) d and 12 (10-26) d, for platelet count recovery to 20×109/L was 15 (11-28) d and 14 (11-24)d, the median red blood cell suspension transfusion volume was 8 (6-12) U and 6 (6-12) U, and the median apheresis platelet transfusion volume was 4 (2-8) U and 3 (2-6) U, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in comparison of the above indicators between the two groups (P>0.05). The hematological adverse reactions of patients were mainly myelosuppression. Grade III-IV hematological adverse events occurred in both groups (100%), with no increase in the incidence of non-hematological toxicities such as gastrointestinal reactions or liver function damage.@*CONCLUSION@#Decitabine combined with EIAG regimen in the treatment of relapsed/refractory AML and high-risk MDS can improve remission rate, provide an opportunity for subsequent therapies, and have no increase in adverse reactions compared with D-CAG regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Cytarabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Bone Marrow Diseases/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use
7.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 550-555, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985907

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of decitabine combined with low dose chemotherapy (LDC) in the treatment of high-risk, refractory and relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: Clinical data of 19 AML children treated with decitabine combined with LDC in the Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University from April 2017 to November 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The therapeutic response, adverse effects and survival status were analyzed,and the outcomes of patients were followed up. Results: Among 19 AML cases, there were 10 males and 9 females. Five cases were high-risk AML, 7 cases were refractory AML, and 7 cases were relapsed AML. After one course of decitabine+LDC treatment, 15 cases achieved complete remission, 3 cases got partial remission, and only 1 case didn't get remission. All patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as consolidation therapy. The follow-up time of all cases was 46 (37, 58) months, 14 children had survived. The cumulative three-year overall survival rate was (79±9) %, events free survival rates was (68±11) %, and recurrence free survival rate was (81±10) %. The most common adverse effects related to the induction treatment were cytopenia (19 cases) and infection (16 cases).There were no treatment-related death during the therapy. Conclusion: Decitabine combined with LDC is a safe and effective option for high-risk, refractory and relapsed AML children, which provides an opportunity for HSCT.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , Decitabine , Retrospective Studies , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
8.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 472-478, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984646

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the early effect and safety of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with a 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) /myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) . Methods: From April 2021 to May 2022, 31 AML/MDS patients who received allo-HSCT with a 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen were analyzed. Results: AML (n=10), MDS-AML (n=6), CMML-AML (n=1), and MDS (n=14) were identified in 31 patients, 16 males, and 15 females, with a median age of 41 (20-55) yr. Neutrophils and platelets were successfully implanted in 31 patients (100%), with a median implantation duration of 12 (9-30) and 14 (9-42) days, respectively. During the preconditioning period, 16 patients (51.6%) developed oral mucositis, with 15 cases of Ⅰ/Ⅱ grade (48.4%) and one case of Ⅲ grade (3.2%). After transplantation, 13 patients (41.9%) developed CMV viremia, six patients (19.4%) developed hemorrhagic cystitis, and four patients (12.9%) developed a local infection. The median time of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) following transplantation was 33 (12-111) days. The cumulative incidence of aGVHD and Ⅲ/Ⅳ grade aGVHD was 41.9% (95% CI 26.9%-61.0%) and 22.9% (95% CI 13.5%-47.5%), respectively. There was no severe cGVHD, and mild and moderate chronic GVHD (cGVHD) incidence was 23.5% (95% CI 12.1%-43.6%). As of November 30, 2022, only one of the 31 patients had relapsed, with a 1-yr cumulative relapse rate (CIR) of 3.2% (95% CI 0.5%-20.7%). There was only one relapse patient death and no non-relapse deaths. The 1-yr overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 92.9% (95% CI 80.3%-100%) and 96.8% (95% CI 90.8%-100%), respectively. Conclusions: A 10-day decitabine-containing conditioning regimen for allo-HSCT reduced relapse and was safe and feasible in treating AML/MDS.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Decitabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Disease-Free Survival , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Recurrence , Chronic Disease , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Transplantation Conditioning/adverse effects , Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 36-42, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928667

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative content in peripheral blood and bone marrow of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with or without decitabine (DAC), analyze the immunomodulatory of Tregs in pathogenesis and remission of MDS and AML, as well as effect of DAC on Tregs.@*METHODS@#From October 2018 to February 2019, 15 patients with MDS and 49 patients with AML (newly diagnosed, treated with DAC or other chemotherapy regimens) were enrolled in this study, and 14 cases with iron deficiency or megaloblastic anemia while without malignant tumor and autoimmune disease as controls. The Tregs relative contents in bone marrow and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry, meanwhile clinical data of the objects were collected.@*RESULTS@#In peripheral blood and bone marrow of the patients with MDS and AML, the Tregs relative contents at newly diagnosed were higher than those of the control group (P=0.05, P=0.043). The Tregs relative content of AML patients in DAC regimen treatment group was significantly lower than that in the newly diagnosed group and non-DAC chemotherapy group (P<0.05). In DAC regimen treatment group, the Tregs relative contents was significantly lower in remission group than in non-remission group (P<0.05). There was no difference between DAC regimen treatment group and control group in Tregs relative content.@*CONCLUSION@#DAC may increase the body's anti-tumor immunity by consuming Tregs content, enhance the body's immune function to identify and kill tumor cells, thereby promote the patients' reliefs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bone Marrow , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Treatment Outcome
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 6-11, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of decitabine (DEC) combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the number of immune cells, efficacy and adverse reactions in the treatment of myeloid neoplasms patients.@*METHODS@#Eighty-four patients with myeloid tumors, including AML, MDS-EB-1 or MDS-EB-2 treated by the regimen containing decitabine in our hospital from January 2009 to October 2019 were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed, among the patients, 21 patients treated with DEC alone, 24 patients treated with DEC combined with ATRA (DEC/ATRA) and 39 patients treated with DEC combined with G-CSF priming regimen (DEC/priming). The changes of peripheral blood immune cell levels before and after treatment of the patients between the three groups were compared, and the differences in clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of the patients between the three groups were also compared.@*RESULTS@#There was no statistical differences in the number of immune cells among the patients in the three groups before treatment (P>0.05). NK cell levels decreased significantly in the patients in DEC and DEC/ATRA group after treatment (P<0.05); After treatment, the levels of CD8+ and CD3+T cells in the patients treated by DEC /priming regimen significantly increased (P<0.05), while the levels of CD3-HLA-DR+ B cells significantly decreased (P<0.05). The overall response rate (ORR) of the patients in DEC/ATRA group (75%) and DEC/priming group (74.36%) was significantly higher than 42.86% in DEC monotherapy group, and the differences showed statistically significant (P<0.05), while the ORR between the patients in DEC/ATRA and DEC/priming group showed no statistic differences (P>0.05). There were no statistical differences in overall survival (OS) and incidence of bleeding between the patients in the three groups (P>0.05). The incidences of grade 3 to 4 bone marrow suppression and the infection rate of the patients in DEC monotherapy and DEC/ATRA group were significantly lower than that in DEC/priming regimen group after treatment (all P<0.05), however, there was no statistical difference between DEC monotherapy and the DEC/ATRA group.@*CONCLUSION@#The efficacy of DEC/ATRA on myeloid neoplasms is comparable to that of DEC/priming regimen, and the anti-myeloid tumor effect of DEC/ATRA regimen may be related to the regulation of NK cells and T cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tretinoin/therapeutic use
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1851-1857, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid single or combination of decitabine on tumor cells of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and explore its related mechanism.@*METHODS@#The human MDS cell lines SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 were treated with different concentrations of ascorbic acid, and the cell proliferation activity was detected by the CCK-8 assay. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, labile iron pool (LIP), cell cycle, and apoptosis of SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The control group, ascorbic acid monotherapy group, decitabine monotherapy group, and combination group of ascorbic acid and decitabine were set up, the cell proliferation activity and apoptosis were detected in each group.@*RESULTS@#High-dose ascorbic acid could reduce the cell proliferation activity of SKM-1 (R=0.886, p=0.000) and MUTZ-1 (R=0.880, p=0.000). With the increase of ascorbic acid concentration, the ROS level in SKM-1 and MUTZ-1 cells increased (r=0.816, r=0.942), the proportion of cells stagnation in G@*CONCLUSION@#High-dose ascorbic acid shows a cytotoxic effect on MDS tumor cells, inhibiting cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis. Ascorbic acid combined decitabine have a synergistic effect of anti-MDS tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascorbic Acid , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Decitabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
13.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1845-1850, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients treated by different doses of decitabine (DAC) and its safety.@*METHODS@#Thirty patients with high-risk MDS were all treated by demethylation drug DAC. According to the doses of DAC, 30 patients were divided into 10-day regimen [6 mg/(m@*RESULTS@#The patients were followed up to May 2020, in the 10-day regimen group, 10 cases achieved complete remission (CR), 3 cases achieved partial remission (PR), and 2 cases were progressive disease (PD). Four cases died, including 1 case for heart failure, 2 cases for respiratory failure and 1 case for serious infection. In the 5-day regimen group, 11 cases achieved CR, 1 case achieved PR, 3 cases were PD. Five cases died, including 2 cases for heart failure and 3 for serious infection. The CR rate and ORR of the patients in the two groups were 66.67% vs 73.33%, 86.67% vs 80.00%, respectively, which showed no significant differences, and the efficacy also showed no significant difference. After treatment, the levels of WBC, NE, Hb and PLT of the patients in 10-day regimen group were higher than those in 5-day regimen. In the 10-day regimen group, there were 11 cases of pneumonia, 2 cases of bacteremia, 1 case of skin infection and 1 case of urinary tract infection. While in the 5-day regimen group, 13 cases of pneumonia, 5 cases bacteremia, 1 case of skin infection and 3 cases of urinary tract infection. There were 2 cases with mild gastrointestinal response in the 10-day regimen group, and 7 cases with obvious nausea and anorexia in the 5-day regimen group. The symptoms were relieved after the treatment of acid suppression, stomach protection and antiemetic. The liver, kidney and heart function were monitored. One case liver function damage and 2 cases cardiac insufficiency were observed in the 10-day regimen group. Seven cases regimen cardiac insufficiency and 4 cases regimen liver function damage were observed in the 5-day regimen group.@*CONCLUSION@#10-day regimen and 5-day regimen are equally effective, but 10-day regimen is less myelosuppressive and more safer, which can be applied in clinical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 828-832, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the efficacy of small dose HAG combined with decitabine regimen in the treatment of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#134 elderly AML patients treated in our hospital from March 2015 to December 2018 were selected, and the patients were divided into CAG group and combined treatment group. The AML patients in CAG group was treated with CAG regimen, while the AML patients in combined treatment group was treated with small dose HAG regimen combined with decitabine. Efficacy was evaluated after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the OR rate of the patients in combined treatment group was significantly higher than that in CAG group (χ=5.311, P=0.021). The nausea and vomiting rate, infection rate, myelosuppression rate, bleeding rate and intestinal discomfort rate showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The CD3, CD4 and CD8 levels of patients in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in CAG group (P<0.05). The result of followed-up for 2 years, showed that the overall survival rate of patients in combined treatment group was significantly higher than that in CAG group [(76.2±6.3)% vs (45.7±7.6)%] (χ=4.214, P<0.05), while the disease free survival rate of patients in combined treatment group were (57.4±7.7)%, which was significantly higher than that in CAG group (30.3±7.9)% (χ=5.250, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Small dose HAG regimen combined with decitabine for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia has a certain curative efficacy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Cytarabine , Decitabine , Disease-Free Survival , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
15.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 894-898, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the influence of conventional CAG regimen and decitabine + decreased dose CAG (D+dCAG) regimen on the clinical efficacy and safety of patients with MDS-RAEB/AML-MRC.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 67 patients with MDS-RAEB/AML-MRC hospitalized in our hospital from March 2012 to July 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. According to chemotherapecctic regimens, 76 patients were divided into 2 groups: 37 patients treated with conventional CAG regimen were enrolled in control group, 30 patients treated with decitabine + decreased dose CAG regimen were enrolled in D+dCAG group. The complete remission (CR) rate, overall remission rate (ORR), OS and PFS time and incidence of adverse reactions in 2 groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#The CR in D+dCAG group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). ORR was not significanly different between 2 groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the cumulative OS rate between 2 groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the cumulative OS rate and PFS rate in nonimplantation between 2 groups (P>0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions of hematological system, pulmonary infection, skin and soft tissue infection, agranulocytosic fever and mycotic infection was not significanly different between 2 groups (P>0.05). The duration of granulocyte deficiency and platelet count less than 20×10/L were not significanly different between 2 groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with conventional CAG regimen, decitabine + decreased dose CAG regimen in the treatment of patients with MDS-RAEB/AML-MRC can efficiently improve the remission effects and showed the well overall safety, but can not increase the survival rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Cytarabine , Decitabine , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1197-1204, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827140

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of decitabine combined with bortezomib on the proliferation of mantle cell lymphoma cell lines (Jeko-1 and Grante519) in vitro and explore the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells were treated with different concentrations of decitabine and/or bortezomib alone and their combination.The cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay. the cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry, the mRNA and protein expression levels of genes related with the cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot respactively.@*RESULTS@#Low dose DAC could significantly inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells which shows a dose-and time-dependent manner. After DAC treatment, caspase 3, BAX and PCDH8 expression levels increased, while BCL-2 and CCND1 expression levels decreased in Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells, but there was no significant difference in NF-κB expression. High dose BTZ could significantly inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells which shows a dose-and time-dependent manner; single drug BTZ could increase the expression level of Caspase 3 and BAX, and decrease the expression level of NF-κB, BCL-2 and CCDN1 in Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells, but there was significant difference in PCDH8 expression level. Compared with single-drug treatment group, DAC combined with BTZ significantly increased the inhibitory rate and apoptotic rate of Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells; PCDH8, Caspase 3 and BAX expression levels significantly increased, and the expression levels of NF-κB, BCL-2 and CCND1 significantly decreased in Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#The combination of DAC and BTZ has obviously synergistic effects on the growth inhibition of Jeko-1 and Grante519 cells which maybe relates with enhancing inbibitory effect on NF-κB signal pathway, down-regulating BAX expression, up-regulating BAX expression as well as increasing cospase 3 expression. This study provides a novel therapeutic approach for mantle cell lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Apoptosis , Bortezomib , Cadherins , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Decitabine , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1292-1297, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study therapeutic efficacy and side effects of single decitabine for DNMT3A myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients.@*METHODS@#The clinical characteristics, efficacy and side effects of 59 myelodysplastic syndrome patients received the decitabine therapy in our center from January 2015 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Based on gene mutations, these patients were divided into 2 groups: DNMT3A MDS patients (n=27) and DNMT3A MDS patients (n=32). All patients in two groups were treated with decitabine for 4 circles. The efficacy and side effects in the two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#The median age of patients in DNMT3A MDS group was 56.2 (37-81) which was no statistic difference from DNMT3A MDS group. And there was no statistical difference including age, white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelet count between the two groups (P>0.05). The ORR and complete response (CR) rate of DNMT3A group were 70.37% and 40.74%, the ORR and CR rate of DNMT3A group were 40.63% and 21.88% respectively. Significant differences were observed in ORR rate (P=0.035) between two groups. However, significant differences did not found in CR rate (P=0.159) between two groups, The similar adverse reaction was observed in DNMT3A and DNMT3A MDS patients. Among the 59 patients, 21 patients showed TP53+ mutation. DNMT3A/TP53 MDS patients (n=13) had similar ORR and CR compared with the DNMT3A/TP53 MDS patients (n=8) (P>0.05). The overall survival (OS) in DNMT3A MDS group and DNMT3A MDS group were 29.1±13.4 months and 27.8±14.4 months, respectively, no significant differences between two groups were observed (P=0.475).@*CONCLUSION@#Decitabine treatment is an effective and safe for DNMT3A MDS patients, but not shows better survival advantage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Azacitidine , Decitabine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1991-1997, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of decitabine combined with low-dose CEG regimen (DCEG) and decitabine combined with low-dose CAG regimen (DCAG) in the treatment of elderly patients with MDS and MDS-transformed acute myeloid leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted in 7 medical centers, 45 patients with MDS (≥ 60 years old) and MDS-transformed AML from October 2016 to January 2019 were enrolled, with the median age of 68.5 years old. The risk stratification of patients was poor or very poor, according to IPSS-R score. The treament results of decitabine combined with CEG and decitabine combined with CAG were compared.@*RESULTS@#The comparison of the two regiem showed that the DCEG regimen had advantages on total effective rate (ORR, 86.4% vs 47.8%, respectively), overall survival time (OS) (10.0 months vs 6.0 months, respectively) and progression-free survival time (PFS) (9.0 months vs 3.0 months, respectively). About 50% of MDS patients treated by DCEG regimen achieved PR or CR, with a median OS of 31 months. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with PR or CR after induction therapy and DCEG regimen had longer survival time (31months). The incidence of bone marrow suppression, infection and treatment-related mortality rate were similar between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Decitabine combined with CEG regimen could improve the survival of patients with high-risk MDS and MDS-transformed AML. The conclusion of the reaserch needs to be validated by a larger prospective randomized clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Aclarubicin , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Cytarabine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Patients , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 169-177, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia are particularly difficult to treat, as they have a high risk of comorbidities, poor performance status and less tolerability to chemotherapy, as well as a more aggressive disease biology, responsible for the resistance to treatment. There is a need to explore novel therapeutic agents that are more effective and tolerable. Venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor is a promising agent, as BCL-2 overexpression is present in 84% of acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis and 95% of patients at relapse and has been associated with leukemia cell survival, chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. Objective: To review the available data about venetoclax in acute myeloid leukemia and how it can influence the treatment in older patients. Methods: Using the Pubmed database, we selected 29 articles published within the last 15 years, considering preclinical and clinical trials and review studies that combined venetoclax with acute myeloid leukemia. Results: Venetoclax has demonstrated promising results in preclinical and clinical trials, especially in patients with poor prognosis and the IDH mutation, with an excellent side-effect profile. However, resistance seems to develop rapidly with venetoclax monotherapy, because of antiapoptotic escape mechanisms. Conclusions: While the results with the use of venetoclax seem encouraging, it is not likely that targeting a single pathway will result in long-term disease control. The solution includes the use of combined therapy to block resistance mechanisms and enhance apoptosis, by reducing MCL-1, increasing BIM or inhibiting the complex IV in the mitochondria.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Genes, bcl-2 , BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Decitabine/therapeutic use
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 494-503, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of DCAG regimen for treating the intermediate or high risk MDS and AML.@*METHODS@#PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, WanFang Data and CNKI databases were searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of decitabine combined with CAG regimen for intermediate or high risk MDS and AML from inception to March, 2018. The quality of each RCT was evaluated by the Cochrane collaboration´s tool for assessing the risk of bias.Then, the data were analyzed by using RevMan 5.3.@*RESULTS@#Twenty-four RCTs were included in the meta-analysis, containing 1 557 patients with intermediate or high-risk MDS and AML, of whom 594 were AML patients and 590 were MDS patients. The patients treated with the DCAG regimen were enrolled in DCAG group, and the patients treated with single-agent decitabine or CAG regimen were enrolled in control group.@*RESULTS@#The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with other therapies, the complete remission rate of DCAG regimen in patients with intermediate or high-risk MDS and AML was high (RR=1.63,95% CI=1.43-1.85,P<0.000 01), and the overall response rate was also high (RR=1. 35,95% CI=1.24-1.46,P<0.000 01); Subgroup analysis results showed that DCAG regimen was better than CAG regimen in the complete remission rate (RR=1.71,95% CI=1.49-1.97,P<0.000 01), and slightly better than single-agent decitabine group (RR=1.43,95% CI=1.08-1.91,P=0.01). In terms of adverse reactions, there was no statistically significant difference in the rates of myelosuppression, pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal reactions, and bleeding events between the 2 groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#DCAG regimen has significant efficacy in the treatment of intermediate or high-risk MDS and AML, and is superior to CAG regimen and single-agent dicitabine regimen. As compared with control group, there was no significant difference in adverse events. Due to limited quantity and quality of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify above mentioned conclusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aclarubicin , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Cytarabine , Decitabine , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Drug Therapy
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