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2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1181-1190, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364685

ABSTRACT

Resumo A distribuição da cárie é desigual e fortemente associada aos diferentes perfis socioeconômicos dos países. Objetivou-se descrever as mudanças da prevalência de dentes permanentes cariados no Brasil e em países de renda média-alta nos anos 1990 e 2017. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo realizado a partir de dados secundários extraídos do Global Burden of Disease. Foram incluídos os 53 países pertencentes ao grupo de renda média-alta. As estimativas de prevalência de cárie foram coletadas nos anos de 1990 e 2017. A variação percentual da prevalência foi calculada entre os dois anos. Também foram coletados os valores do Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) para cada país. Os resultados evidenciam tendência de redução da prevalência de dentes permanentes cariados no Brasil e na maioria dos países de renda média-alta. A prevalência de cárie não tratada no Brasil foi de 38,17%, em 1990, e de 37,46% em 2017. O Brasil ocupa a 41ª posição no ranking de redução na prevalência de cárie entre os 53 países avaliados. Os países que alcançaram as maiores reduções na prevalência de cárie foram os que melhoraram o seu IDH. Nesse sentido, considera-se a necessidade de rever as políticas públicas de saúde bucal, bem como uma reflexão acerca do enfrentamento das iniquidades presentes nos países pesquisados.


Abstract The distribution of caries is uneven and strongly associated with the different socioeconomic profiles of countries. The scope of this study was to describe the changes in the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth in Brazil and in upper-middle income countries for the years 1990 and 2017. It is a descriptive study based on secondary data extracted from the Global Burden of Disease. The 53 countries included in the upper-middle income group were included. Caries prevalence estimates were collected for the years 1990 and 2017. The percentage change in prevalence was calculated between the two years. The values of the Human Development Index (HDI) for each country were also collected. The results show the trend of a reduction in the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth in Brazil and in most upper-middle income countries. The prevalence of untreated caries in Brazil was 38.17% in 1990 and 37.46% in 2017. Brazil occupies the 41st position in the ranking of the reduction in the prevalence of caries among the 53 countries evaluated. The countries that achieved the greatest reductions in the prevalence of caries were those with an improvement in their HDI. In this respect, the need to review public oral health policies is revealed, as well as a reflection on addressing the inequities present in the countries surveyed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentition, Permanent , Developing Countries , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Income
3.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(1): 2-11, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374126

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La evaluación de la calidad de la atención del ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) es una prioridad para los sistemas de salud, debido a su relación con la disminución de la discapacidad y la muerte. En este estudio se analizan los marcadores de calidad en ACV en un hospital de referencia en Nariño, Colombia. OBJETIVO: Evaluar los marcadores de calidad de atención en ACV en el Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño E. S. E., entre junio del 2018 y diciembre del 2019. Como referencia se comparó con los registros de Colombia en la plataforma RES-Q. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes con ACV atendidos intrahospitalariamente. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la plataforma RES-Q, en tanto que el análisis se efectuó por medio de estadísticos descriptivos y frecuencias absolutas y relativas y las diferencias con pruebas analíticas. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 457 pacientes con predominio de ACV isquémico y se llevó a cabo trombólisis endovenosa al 7,2% en el 2018 y al 9,2 % en el 2019, el 27,7 % con tiempo puerta aguja menor a 60 minutos en el 2018 y el 42,8 % en el 2019. Entre los marcadores de calidad, se encontró mejoría en realización de NIHSS, evaluación de disfagia en las primeras 24 horas, realización de doppler carotideo en los primeros siete días. En comparación con Colombia, se encontró un porcentaje inferior en trombólisis endovenosa y trombectomía. La mayoría de los indicadores de atención en ACV es similar al promedio nacional. CONCLUSIONES: La mejoría en el cumplimiento de marcadores de calidad en ACV refleja el impacto de programas de atención en ACV. El monitoreo de los parámetros de calidad permite generar programas para fortalecer la atención integral del ataque cerebrovascular en la región.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of the quality of care for Stroke is a priority for health systems, given its relationship with disability and death. In this study, Stroke quality markers are analyzed in stroke in a referral hospital in Narino, Colombia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the markers of quality of care in stroke in the Hospital Departamental Universitario de Narino E.S.E between June 2018 and December 2019. As a reference, the outcomes were compared with the Colombian registries on RES-Q platform. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of patients treated in-hospital with stroke, data collection was performed using the RES-Q platform. The analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and absolute and relative frequencies and the differences with analytical tests. RESULTS: 457patients were evaluated, with ischemic stroke predominance, endovenous thrombolysis was performed in 7.2 % in 2018, and 9.2 % in 2019, 27.7 % of patients had door to needle time less than 60 minutes in 2018 and 42.8 % in 2019. Among the quality markers evaluated, an improvement was found in the performance of NIHSS, dysphagia evaluation, and carotid doppler performance in ischemic stroke. Compared with Colombian registry, a lower percentage was found in endovenous thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Most of Stroke Care Markers are similar to national average. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in compliance of standard of Stroke Care Quality Markers reflects the impact of stroke care programs. The monitoring of quality parameters allows the generation of comprehensivestroke care programs in the region.


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Colombia , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Stroke , Developing Countries
4.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(1)jan./fev./mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370993

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common among all malignancies. Objective: To describe trends in NMSC mortality rates in Brazil and its macroregions from 2001 to 2018. Method: Adjusted mortality rates stratified by sex were estimated and presented per 100,000 person-years. An autoregressive analysis was implemented to assess temporal trends, annual percent change (APC) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Results: There were 27,550 NMSC deaths in Brazil with higher frequency in males (58.1%) and among individuals aged ≥70 years (64.3%). The overall rates were 2.25 (males) and 1.22 (females) per 100,000 person-years. The trends followed an upward direction in Brazil for males (APC: 2.91%; 95% CI: 1.96%; 3.86%) and females (APC: 3.51%; 95% CI: 2.68%; 4.34%). The same occurred in the North Region, in males (APC: 9.75%; 95% CI: 7.68%; 11.86%) and in females (APC: 10.38; 95% CI: 5.77%; 15.21%), as well as in Northeast Region, in males (APC: 9.98%; 95% CI: 5.59%; 14.57%) and in females (APC: 8.34%; 95% CI: 3.29%; 13.64%). Conclusion: NMSC deaths are not rare in Brazil. Upward mortality trends were observed for the whole country and in the North and Northeast regions, which are the closest to the Equator line and also the least developed socioeconomically. A synergism between different types of inequalities and environmental exposure in these macroregions may be promoting an increase in the number of NMSC deaths, a type of cancer which is considered completely preventable


Introdução: O câncer de pele não melanoma (CPNM) é o mais comum entre todas as malignidades. Objetivo: Descrever as tendências da mortalidade por CPNM no Brasil e nas suas Macrorregiões, de 2001 a 2018. Método: As taxas de mortalidade ajustadas por idade e estratificadas por sexo foram apresentadas por 100 mil pessoas-ano. Uma análise autorregressiva foi implementada para avaliar tendências, Mudança Percentual Anual (MPA) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%). Resultados: Houve 27.550 óbitos por CPNM no Brasil com maior frequência em homens (58,1%) e entre pessoas de 70 anos e mais (64,3%). As taxas globais foram de 2,25 (homens) e 1,22 (mulheres) por 100 mil pessoas-ano. As tendências seguiram em elevação no Brasil, em homens (MPA: 2,91%; IC95%: 1,96%; 3,86%) e em mulheres (MPA: 3,51%; IC95%: 2,68%; 4,34%). O mesmo ocorreu na Região Norte, em homens (MPA: 9,75%; IC95%: 7,68%; 11,86%) e em mulheres (MPA: 10,38%; IC95%: 5,77%; 15,21%), bem como na Região Nordeste, em homens (MPA: 9,98%; IC95%: 5,59%; 14,57%) e em mulheres (MPA: 8,34%; IC95%: 3,29%; 13,64%). Conclusão: Os óbitos por CPNM não são raridade no Brasil. O país e as Regiões Norte e Nordeste experimentaram taxas com tendência em elevação. Norte e Nordeste são as Regiões mais próximas da Linha do Equador e as menos desenvolvidas socioeconomicamente. Nessas Macrorregiões, um sinergismo entre diferentes tipos de desigualdades e exposições ambientais pode estar promovendo um aumento dos óbitos por esse tipo de câncer considerado totalmente evitável


Introducción: El carcinoma de piel no melanoma (CPNM) es el más común dentre todas las neoplasias malignas. Objetivo: Describir las tendencias de la mortalidad por CPNM en Brasil y sus macrorregiones, de 2001 a 2018. Método: Las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad y estratificadas según sexo fueron presentadas por 100.000 personas-año. Se implementó una análisis autoregresiva para evaluar las tendencias, el porcentaje estimado de cambio anual (PECA) y sus intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC 95%). Resultados: Hubo 27.550 muertes por CPNM en Brasil con mayor frecuencia en hombres (58,1%) y entre personas de edad ≥70 años (64,3%). Las tasas generales fueron 2,25 (hombres) y 1,22 (mujeres) por 100.000 personas-año. Las tendencias continuaron aumentando en Brasil, en hombres (PECA: 2,91%; IC 95%: 1,96%; 3,86%) y en mujeres (PECA: 3,51%; IC 95%: 2,68%; 4,34%). Lo mismo ocurrió en el Norte, en hombres (PECA: 9,75%; IC 95%: 7,68%; 11,86%) y en mujeres (PECA: 10,38%; IC 95%: 5,77%; 15,21%), así como en el Nordeste, en hombres (PECA: 9,98%; IC 95%: 5,59%; 14,57%) y en mujeres (PECA: 8,34%; IC 95%: 3, 29%; 13,64%). Conclusión: Las muertes por CPNM no son una rareza en Brasil. El país y las regiones Norte y Nordeste experimentaron tasas con tendencia ascendente. Las regiones Norte y Nordeste son las más cercanas al Ecuador y también las menos desarrolladas socioeconómicamente. En estas regiones, una sinergia dentre diferentes tipos de desigualdades y exposiciones ambientales puede estar promoviendo un aumento de las muertes por este tipo de cáncer considerado totalmente prevenible. Palabras clave: neoplasias cutáneas/mortalidad


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms/mortality , Time Series Studies , Ethical Analysis , Developing Countries
5.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 20-28, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1354557

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 remains a major public health threat globally, and has challenged healthcare systems and services including oral health Objective: This study examines the key public health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic in low resource settings. While healthcare services are learning to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, dental care services, in particular restorative dental practice have been adversely impacted because of the closeness of caregivers to the patient's mouth as well as the generation of aerosols during most restorative procedures. This presents a challenge for low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as Nigeria where weak and poor governance structures characterize healthcare systems in addition to paucity of economic resources. Another challenge in the form of COVID-19 conspiracy theories has threatened to undermine public health efforts designed to control the pandemic. Conclusion: The implementation of optimal guidelines and safety protocols for effective COVID -19 infection prevention and control is a major challenge for restorative dental care practice in low resource settings owing to paucity of key material resources and inappropriate behaviour associated with lingering doubts about COVID-19 reality among the majority of the populace. The Safer Aerosol-Free Emergent Dentistry concept offers a viable practical approach for restorative dental practice in LMICs during and in the post COVID-19 pandemic era. There is a need to deploy all resources, human and material, in the education and enlightenment of the populace regarding the reality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Exposure , Dental Care , Developing Countries , COVID-19 , Public Health , Dentists , General Practice, Dental
6.
SA j. radiol ; 26(1): 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1354430

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, adults presenting with seizures account for 1% ­ 2% of visits to emergency departments (EDs), of which 25% are new-onset seizures. Neuroimaging is essential as part of the initial workup. Multiple studies have demonstrated abnormal CT brain (CTB) findings in these patients. Objectives: To review the CTB findings in adults presenting with new-onset seizures in a resource restricted setting. Method: A retrospective review of 531 CTBs was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Gauteng on adults presenting to the ED with new-onset seizures. Results: The mean age of the patients was 45.6 ± 17.1 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Generalised and focal seizure types were almost equally represented. Of the total 531 patients, 168 (31.6%) were HIV positive. The CTB findings were abnormal in 257 (48.4%) patients, albeit vascular pathology accounted for 21.9%. Infective pathology accounted for 14.1% with a statistically significant association with HIV (p = 0.003). Trauma related pathology was 2.4%, whilst neoplastic pathology was seen in 3.0%. Other causes included congenital pathology, calcifications, atrophy and gliosis. Clinical factors associated with abnormal CTB findings were age ≥ 40 years, HIV infection, hypertension, focal seizures, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and presence of lymphocytes. Conclusion: A high yield of abnormal CTB findings was noted in adult patients who presented with new-onset seizures, supporting the use of urgent CTB in patients with certain clinical risk factors. Patients without these risk factors can be scanned within 24­48 h in a resource restricted setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Seizures , Brain , Medical Audit , Developing Countries
7.
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 21(2): 1-6, 28 Jul 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1391079

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Globally, control measures have been communicated to reverse the COVID-19 pandemic. In Uganda, as soon as the first case of COVID-19 was identified, strict lockdown measures were enforced, including a ban on all public and private transport, night curfew, closure of schools, and suspension of religious and social gatherings and closure of non-essential shops and markets. These measures affected access to health services, which could have been worse for older people living with HIV (PLHIV). In this study, we explored how COVID-19 affected the health and social life of older PLHIV. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in HIV clinics of two hospitals in Uganda. We completed 40 in-depth interviews with adults above 50 years who had lived with HIV for more than 10 years. The interviews explored the effect of COVID-19 on their health and social life during the lockdown. We analysed data thematically. Results: The overarching themes regarding the effects of COVID-19 on older adults living with HIV were fear and anxiety during the lockdown, lack of access to health care leading to missing HIV clinic appointments and not taking their ART medicines, financial burden, loss of loved ones, and effect on children's education. Some patients overcame health-related challenges by sending motorcycles to their health facilities with their identifying documents to get the medicines refilled. Some health care providers took the ART medicines to their patients' homes. Conclusion: The COVID-19 lockdown negatively affected the health and social well-being of older PLHIV. This calls for strategies to improve HIV care and treatment access during the lockdown to sustain the HIV program gains in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Quarantine , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , COVID-19 , Health , Developing Countries , Healthy Aging
8.
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 21(2): 110-122, 28 Jul 2022. Figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390801

ABSTRACT

This article assesses the impact of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics and debt dynamics on health, HIV and pandemic preparedness and response-related financing in developing countries. Using a novel dataset, we did a cross-national systematic analysis of all data sources available for government expenditures on health, HIV, COVID-19 and debt servicing in selected developing countries. We found an inadequate multilateral response with the ensuing gaps allowing both pandemics to thrive. The G20 Debt Service Suspension Initiative and the Common Framework only covered countries with a third of the global population of people living with HIV. Rising and unsustainable debt levels are limiting the capacity of governments to protect the health of their populations. Government spending is already falling in response to high debt payments. Specifically, debt servicing is crowding out lifesaving investments. In 2020, for every USD 5 available, USD 4 was spent on debt servicing. Only USD 1 was invested in health. This is a binding constraint on countries' efforts to control COVID-19. Even with a gargantuan effort to increase health expenditure, the outlook for health financing remains negative. Fiscal consolidation, with a heavy emphasis on expenditure cuts, is expected to take place across 139 countries in the coming years. These findings suggest that fiscal policymakers should be concerned about the crowding-out and constraining effects of public debt. To this end, pragmatic recommendations are made to treat and cancel debt as a critical policy lever to accelerate the end of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics in developing countries as a key condition to addressing the growing inequalities and to ensure debt can be a benefit, not a burden.


Subject(s)
HIV , COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Developing Countries , Fiscal Policy , Analysis of the Budgetary Impact of Therapeutic Advances
10.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(4): 189-196, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349890

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: El ataque cerebrovascular (ACV) es la segunda causa de muerte y tercera causa de discapacidad en el mundo. La trombólisis intravenosa, como tratamiento agudo del ACV isquémico ha demostrado reducir discapacidad y mortalidad; sin embargo, está directamente ligado al tiempo de administración y un adecuado programa hospitalario. Mediante este trabajo se evalúan los tiempos de atención en trombólisis intravenosa en el Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño E.S.E, como institución de referencia departamental en Colombia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo, incluyó pacientes con ACV isquémico que recibieron trombólisis intravenosa entre 2014 y 2019. El análisis se realizó mediante estadísticos descriptivos, y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Para evaluar las diferencias se dividió en tres periodos de atención. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 50 pacientes, con edad promedio 67,6 años, 58% hombres. En 70% se observó una disminución mayor a 3 puntos NIHSS post-trombólisis. El 58 % tuvo escala modificada Rankin (mRS) 0 a 1. Hubo una diferencia significativa entre las medianas del tiempo Puerta-TAC con 36,5 (n=10, 2014-2015 ), 34,5 (n=16, 2016-2017) y 16 minutos (n=24, 2018-2019). Y en el tiempo Puerta-Aguja fue de 154,8; 98,2 y 79,9 minutos en los mismos periodos. En 45,8% el tiempo Puerta-Aguja fue menor a 60 minutos en el tercer periodo. CONCLUSIONES: Se evidencia aumento del número de pacientes que reciben trombólisis intravenosa a través de los años evaluados, así como disminución en tiempo Puerta-TAC y Puerta-Aguja, como marcadores de mejoría en la atención clínica.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and third of disability in the world. Intravenous Thrombolysis as a treatment for acute ischemic stroke has been shown to reduce disability and mortality; however, it is directly linked to administration time and adequate stroke care attention. Through this work, the times of attention in thrombolysis are evaluated at the Hospital Universitario Departamental de Narino E.S.E, as a local reference institution in Colombia. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study included patients with ischemic stroke who received intravenous thrombolysis between 2014 and 2019. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and absolute and relative frequencies. To assess the differences, it was divided into three attention periods. RESULTS: 50 patients were evaluated, with an average age of 67.6 years, 58% men. In 70% a decrease greater than 3 NIHSS points was observed post-thrombolysis. The 58% had mRS 0-1. There was a difference between the medians in the Door-CT time with 36.5 (n = 10, 2014-2015), 34.5 (n = 16, 2016-2017) and 16 minutes (n = 24, 2018-2019). And in the Door-Needle time was 154.8; 98.2 and 79.9 minutes in the same periods. In 45.8%, the Door-Needle time was less than 60 minutes in the third period. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of an increase in the number of patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis throughout the years evaluated, as well as a decrease in Door-CT and Door-Needle times, as markers of improvement in clinical care.


Subject(s)
Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Stroke , Developing Countries
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(6): I-II, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351671
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 571-578, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between physical education classes and PA among adolescents from 50 lowand middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: A self-reported questionnaire from the Global School-based Student Survey (GSHS) was used to collect information on participation frequency of physical education classes and being physically active over the last week, as well as other control variables (e.g., sex, age, country, sedentary behavior). Multivariable logistic regression and a pooled meta-analysis were performed to explore the association and compared country-wise differences. Results: Included adolescents aged from 13 to 17 years (n = 187,386, %boys = 51.7; mean age = 14.6 years), the prevalence of sufficient PA (meeting the PA guidelines) was 14.9%. The prevalence of 5 days or more to engage in physical education classes was 16.5%. Compared with adolescents who had 0 days for physical education classes, higher participation frequency was more likely related to sufficient PA (OR: 1 day = 1.34, 2 days = 1.66, 3 days = 1.67, 4 days = 1.79, 5 days or more = 2.46), these findings were also observed in both sexes. A moderate inconsistency on the association across the included countries was found (I2 = 53%, p < 0.01), although the pooled OR was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.36-1.65). Conclusions: Participating in more physical education classes may be an effective approach to increase physical activity levels among adolescents in LMICs. However, promoting physical activity levels among adolescents in LMICs through physical education classes should consider more country-specific factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Physical Education and Training , Developing Countries , Poverty , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sedentary Behavior
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 589-598, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351658

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The Technical Performance Score (TPS) was developed and subsequently refined at the Boston Children's Hospital. Our objective was to translate and validate its application in a developing country. Methods: The score was translated into the Portuguese language and approved by the TPS authors. Subsequently, we studied 1,030 surgeries from June 2018 to October 2020. TPS could not be assigned in 58 surgeries, and these were excluded. Surgical risk score was evaluated using Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery (or RACHS-1). The impact of TPS on outcomes was studied using multivariable linear and logistic regression adjusting for important perioperative covariates. Results: Median age and weight were 2.2 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0.5-13) years and 10.8 (IQR = 5.6-40) kilograms, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 6.58% (n=64), and postoperative complications occurred in 19.7% (n=192) of the cases. TPS was categorized as 1 in 359 cases (37%), 2 in 464 (47.7%), and 3 in 149 (15.3%). Multivariable analysis identified TPS class 3 as a predictor of longer hospital stay (coefficient: 6.6; standard error: 2.2; P=0.003), higher number of complications (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3; P=0.01), and higher mortality (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7; P=0.004). Conclusion: TPS translated into the Portuguese language was validated and showed to be able to predict higher mortality, complication rate, and prolonged postoperative hospital stay in a high-volume Latin-American congenital heart surgery program. TPS is generalizable and can be used as an outcome assessment tool in resource diverse settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Heart Defects, Congenital , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Boston , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Developing Countries , Length of Stay
14.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(3): 193-202, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use a wavelet technique to determine whether the number of suicides is similar between developed and emerging countries. METHODS: Annual data were obtained from World Health Organization (WHO) reports from 1986 to 2015. Discrete nondecimated wavelet transform was used for the analysis, and the Daubechies wavelet function was applied with five-level decomposition. Regarding clustering, energy (variance) was used to analyze the clusters and visualize the clustering process. We constructed a dendrogram using the Mahalanobis distance. The number of groups was set using a specific function in the R program. RESULTS: The cluster analysis verified the formation of four groups as follows: Japan, the United States and Brazil were distinct and isolated groups, and other countries (Austria, Belgium, Chile, Israel, Mexico, Italy and the Netherlands) constituted a single group. CONCLUSION: The methods utilized in this paper enabled a detailed verification of countries with similar behaviors despite very distinct socioeconomic, geographic and climate characteristics.


OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe relação de similaridade entre o número de suicídio em países desenvolvidos e emergentes usando a técnica de ondaletas. MÉTODOS: Os dados anuais foram obtidos a partir do relatório da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), no período de 1986 a 2015. Para análise, foi empregada a transformada discreta não decimada de ondaleta (NDWT), a função ondaleta aplicada foi a Daubechies com cinco níveis de decomposição. Com relação ao agrupamento, utilizou-se a energia (variância) para analisar os clusters e, para a visualização do processo de clusterização, trabalhamos com o dendograma, no qual se empregou a distância de Mahalanobis. A quantidade de grupos foi definida por meio da função NbCluster. RESULTADOS: A partir da análise de cluster, verificou-se a formação de quatros grupos. No qual, Japão e Estados Unidos e Brasil localizam-se em grupos distintos e isolados. E os demais países (Áustria, Bélgica, Chile, Israel, México, Itália e Holanda) em um único grupo. CONCLUSÃO: Utilizando esse método, foi possível verificar com mais detalhes quais países apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes, mesmo apresentando características bem distintas entre si, tanto socioeconômica, geográfica e climática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Wavelet Analysis , Time Series Studies , Risk Factors , Mental Disorders/epidemiology
15.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 249-255, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346271

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: To date, many studies have validated the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) scoring system in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), but studies from developing countries remain scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and categorize Mexican patients using the HCT-CI at a referral center. Methods: One hundred and nineteen consecutive patients undergoing allo-HSCT at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition in Mexico City were included. Patients were classified according to the HCT-CI scores. Results: The median age was 31 years and most were males (56%). Most patients had hematological malignancies (73%) and a low HCT-CI score (72%). The non-relapse mortality and survival were predicted according to the score. Conclusions: This is one of the few studies to evaluate the HCT-CI in adults with HLA-matched donors in a developing country and our findings suggest that the high percentage of patients with a low HCT-CI scores, contrary to international reports, could be explained by different comorbidities and demographics, but mainly due to stricter filters applied to HSCT candidates and consequently, a potential selection bias caused by limited resources.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Comorbidity , Developing Countries , Mexico
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(9): 4101-4114, set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339596

ABSTRACT

Resumo Literacia para a Saúde (LS) relaciona-se às capacidades individuais de acesso, compreensão, avaliação e aplicação das informações de saúde, a fim de se tomar decisões na vida diária, para manter ou melhorar a saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar os estudos sobre LS conduzidos nos países de renda baixa ou média, com ênfase na definição utilizada para LS. Revisão sistemática nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Scopus, LILACS e SciELO. Foram incluídos estudos que apresentavam a definição de LS, estudos em países de economias de renda baixa ou média e estudos latino-americanos. Inicialmente foi feita leitura dos títulos e/ou resumos. Dois avaliadores independentes realizaram a leitura do texto completo. Discordâncias foram discutidas por consenso. Foram encontradas 6.025 referências e selecionadas 36 para a amostra final. A maioria dos estudos (58,3%) era de países do continente asiático, seguidos pelos estudos em países da América do Sul (27,8%), incluindo o Brasil. A maior parte (58,3%) avaliou a dimensão funcional da LS (LFS). As definições mais frequentes foram do Instituto de Medicina dos Estados Unidos e da Organização Mundial de Saúde. Aproximadamente 30% dos estudos que avaliaram a LFS utilizaram como referencial teórico definições mais abrangentes de LS.


Abstract Health literacy (HL) is linked to individual capacities of access, understanding, assessment and application of health information to make decisions in everyday life, in order to maintain or improve health. The scope of this article is to review studies on HL conducted in low- and middle-income countries, with an emphasis on the definition used for HL. It involved a systematic search in the Medline, Embase, Scopus, LILACS and SciELO databases. It included studies that showed the definition of HL, studies in countries with low- and middle-income economies and Latin American studies. Initially, a selection of studies was made by reading the titles and/or abstracts. Two independent evaluators conducted the reading of the full text. Disagreements were discussed by consensus. A total of 6,025 references were located and 36 were selected for the final sample. Most studies (58.3%) were from countries on the Asian continent, followed by studies from South American countries (27.8%), including Brazil. Most studies (58.3%) evaluated the functional dimension of the HL (FHL). The most frequent definitions were from the Institute of Medicine and from the World Health Organization. Approximately 30% of the studies that evaluated FHL used broader definitions of HL as theoretical frameworks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Literacy , Brazil , Developing Countries , Income
18.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 10 set. 2021. 21 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1358551

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão rápida foi comissionada e subsidiada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no âmbito do projeto GEREB-010-FIO-20 e faz parte da Coleção "Rapid response for health promotion". Contexto: A alimentação adequada e saudável é um direito humano básico e para o seu cumprimento requer programas e políticas públicas que incidam sobre a produção, a disponibilidade, a distribuição e o acesso aos alimentos, visando à redução de iniquidades no consumo alimentar. O guia alimentar para a população brasileira orienta a preferência por alimentos in natura e minimamente processados, dentre eles as frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão. Assim, a identificação dos determinantes para o consumo de frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão pode contribuir para o fortalecimento das políticas públicas. Pergunta: Quais fatores determinam o consumo de frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão em países de baixa e média renda? Métodos: A primeira busca nas bases de dados foi realizada para identificar revisões sistemáticas (RS), tendo recuperado 930 registros e incluído 5 RS, após processo de seleção e elegibilidade. Na avaliação da qualidade metodológica com a ferramenta AMSTAR 2, todas as RS foram consideradas de confiança criticamente baixa. Como as RS abordaram apenas o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, realizou-se uma busca adicional para identificar estudos primários sobre determinantes do consumo de arroz e feijão. De 1.442 registros identificados, nenhum atendeu aos critérios desta revisão. Resultados: Cinco revisões sistemáticas apresentaram determinantes para o consumo de frutas e hortaliças. Atributos sensoriais e físicos dos alimentos, acessibilidade e preço dos alimentos, fatores sociodemográficos como renda, educação e local de moradia, influência de pais, pares e mídias sociais, conhecimento, expectativa e conveniência foram os determinantes descritos pelas revisões que impactam no consumo de frutas e hortaliças. Não foram encontrados resultados sobre fatores que influenciam no consumo de arroz e feijão. Considerações finais: Embora as RS tenham apresentado diversas categorias de determinantes sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, elas se referem a poucos estudos primários, com baixa representatividade de estudos brasileiros. Uma importante lacuna são estudos sobre o padrão alimentar no Brasil que abordem o consumo de arroz e feijão. Além disso, é importante considerar a baixa qualidade metodológica das RS.


This rapid review was commissioned and subsidized by the Ministry of Health, within the scope of the GEREB-010-FIO-20 project and is part of the "Rapid response for health promotion" Collection. Context: Adequate and healthy food is a basic human right and its fulfillment requires public programs and policies that affect the production, availability, distribution and access to food, with a view to reducing inequities in food consumption. The food guide for the Brazilian population guides the preference for fresh and minimally processed foods, including fruits, vegetables, rice and beans. Thus, the identification of the determinants for the consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans can contribute to the strengthening of public policies. Question: What factors determine the consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans in low- and middle-income countries? Methods: The first search in the databases was performed to identify systematic reviews (SR), having retrieved 930 records and included 5 RS, after the selection and eligibility process. In the assessment of methodological quality with the AMSTAR 2 tool, all SRs were considered critically low confidence. As the SRs only addressed the consumption of fruits and vegetables, an additional search was carried out to identify primary studies on determinants of rice and beans consumption. Of 1,442 records identified, none met the criteria for this review. Results: Five systematic reviews presented determinants for the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Sensory and physical attributes of food, accessibility and price of food, sociodemographic factors such as income, education and place of residence, influence of parents, peers and social media, knowledge, expectation and convenience were the determinants described by the reviews that impact fruit consumption and vegetables. No results were found on factors that influence the consumption of rice and beans. Final considerations: Although the SRs have presented several categories of determinants on the consumption of fruits and vegetables, they refer to few primary studies, with low representation of Brazilian studies. An important gap is studies on the dietary pattern in Brazil that address the consumption of rice and beans. In addition, it is important to consider the low methodological quality of the SRs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Eating , Diet, Healthy/economics , Social Factors , Vegetables , Developing Countries , Fruit
19.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 10 set. 2021. 21 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, PIE, SDG | ID: biblio-1370640

ABSTRACT

A alimentação adequada e saudável é um direito humano básico e para o seu cumprimento requer programas e políticas públicas que incidam sobre a produção, a disponibilidade, a distribuição e o acesso aos alimentos, visando à redução de iniquidades no consumo alimentar. O guia alimentar para a população brasileira orienta a preferência por alimentos in natura e minimamente processados, dentre eles as frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão. Assim, a identificação dos determinantes para o consumo de frutas, verduras, legumes, arroz e feijão pode contribuir para o fortalecimento das políticas públicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Whole Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Developing Countries
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