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2.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 36-43, ene.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393213

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: No conocemos datos sobre evaluación de pruebas inmunológicas para mejorar el diagnóstico de Giardia duodenalis y Cryptosporidium spp., agentes etiológicos de diarrea de importancia mundial, en Honduras. Objetivos: Comparar dos pruebas inmunológicas para el diagnóstico de Giardia y Cryptosporidium spp. con microscopía de rutina y determinar su aplicabilidad local. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. En 2013, 134 muestras de heces recibidas en el Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela (HE) y 67 muestras del Centro de Salud Alonso Suazo (CSAS) se analizaron con una Prueba Rápida Inmunocromatográfica (PDR). En 2019-2020, 60 muestras de heces del HE se analizaron con una prueba inmunoenzimática ELISA. El protocolo de rutina incluyó examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol, coloración tricrómica y coloración ácido resistente modificada (ARM) (HE) y examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol (CSAS). Resultados: Cada prueba inmunológica mostró mayor positividad que la microscopía: en 134 muestras del HE para Giardia (6.7% vs 4.5%) y Cryptosporidium (3.7% vs 0.7%), similar en 67 muestras del CSAS (14.9% vs 7.5% para Giardia; 0.7% para Cryptosporidium con la prueba inmunológica). De 60 muestras analizadas por ELISA en HE, 31.7% fue positiva por Giardia vs 18.3% en examen directo y 23.3% en coloración tricrómica; 6.7% positiva por Cryptosporidium spp. vs 3.3% por coloración ARM. Discusión: Pruebas inmunológicas aumentaron significativamente el diagnóstico de ambas parasitosis; sin embargo, publicaciones sobre pruebas similares ofrecieron resultados no concluyentes. Por costo elevado podrían reservarse para pacientes pediátricos, pacientes inmunocomprometidos en hospitales, complementando microscopía. Los laboratorios de salud deben fortalecer capacidad diagnóstica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Immunologic Tests/methods , Giardiasis/parasitology , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cross-Sectional Studies , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Honduras/epidemiology
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(3): 203-211, set-out. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348210

ABSTRACT

As parasitoses intestinais constituem um importante problema de Saúde Pública, especialmente entre os pré-escolares, devido à imaturidade do sistema imune. Assim, este estudo objetivou realizar uma revisão integrativa dos estudos publicados entre os anos de 2010 a 2017 sobre parasitoses intestinais e os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento em crianças matriculadas em creches brasileiras. Foi realizada busca bibliográfica através das bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores: infecção, parasitoses, diarreia e creches, e seus correspondentes em inglês: "infection", "parasitc diseases", "diarrhea" e "child day care centers". No caso das buscas no Medline o descritor Brazil também foi usado. Foram identificados 59 estudos, dos quais 11 foram incluídos no presente trabalho. Foi observado variação de 19,4% a 98,4% de parasitos e, a Giardia duodenalis foi o mais prevalente em crianças entre um e seis anos de idade, gênero masculino, com baixo peso, advindas de residências com alta densidade familiar e nível socioeconômico baixo. As análises mostraram a importância da compreensão dos fatores de risco para a incidência de parasitos, indicando a necessidade da promoção de estratégias efetivas para prevenção e controle das infecções parasitárias no país, visto que, tais infecções influenciam diretamente no desenvolvimento da criança, e em alguns casos, evoluindo a óbito.


Intestinal parasitosis is an important public health issue especially among pre-school children due to the immaturity of their immune system. Thus, this study aimed at carrying out an integrative review of studies published between 2010 and 2017 regarding intestinal parasites and associated factors in children registered in Brazilian day care centers. A bibliographic survey was performed through the Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO databases using the following descriptors: infection, parasitic diseases, diarrhea, and child day care centers, as well as their corresponding translations in Portuguese: "infecção", "parasitoses", "diarreia" and "creches". In the case of Medline searches, the descriptor Brazil was also used. Fifty-nine studies were identified, from which, 11 were included in this study. A variation of 19.4% to 98.4% of parasites could be observed, with Giardia duodenalis being the most prevalent in children between one and six years old, male, with low weight, coming from homes with high family density and low socioeconomic status. The analyzes showed the importance of understanding the risk factors for the incidence of parasites, showing the need to promote effective strategies for the prevention and control of parasitic infections in the country, since such infections have direct influence on the child's development, and in some cases, even evolving to death.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Child , Child Day Care Centers , Ascariasis/parasitology , Trichuris/parasitology , Public Health , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Infections/parasitology
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(4): 204-206, out./dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491691

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to conduct a retrospective study of causes of diarrhea in calves in southern Rio Grande do Sul between 1980 and 2014. All necropsy protocols and materials received in the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory of the Veterinary School of the Federal University of Pelotas were reviewed. Ninety-four cases of calves with diarrhea were diagnosed, of these, 44.7% were caused by parasitic infections and 34.0% by bacterial infections. Parasites as cause of diarrhea was the most important diagnostic in southern Rio Grande do Sul and affected calves from three to 12 months of age. The occurrence of diarrhea in animals even infants may be associated with environmental factors and the form of management that these animals are kept. Bacterial diseases are also important causes of diarrhea in calves up to three months of age in the region.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os dados de um estudo retrospectivo nos registros de 34 anos atividade de um laboratório de diagnóstico sobre as causas de diarreia em bezerros na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais desta espécie encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Foram diagnosticados 94 casos de bezerros com diarreia, destes, 44,7% foram de causas parasitárias e 34,0% de causas bacterianas. Diarreia de causa parasitária foi a mais importante na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul e afetou bezerros de três a 12 meses de idade. A ocorrência de diarreia em animais mesmo lactentes pode estar associada a fatores ambientais e a forma de manejo no qual esses animais são mantidos. As enfermidades bacterianas foram, também, importantes causas de diarreia em bezerros de até três meses de idade na região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/parasitology , Colimetry , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/parasitology
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(2): 89-95, maio-ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-996686

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o conhecimento prévio e a assimilação das informações sobre giardíase pelos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS) de Foz do Iguaçu após intervenção educativa. Trata-se de um estudo comparativo de abordagem quantitativa com 55 ACS, do distrito sanitário Norte de Foz do Iguaçu. Foi utilizado um questionário contendo 10 questões fechadas sobre a giardíase que foi aplicado em dois momentos sequenciais da pesquisa. Inicialmente, foi aplicado um questionário para a avaliação do conhecimento prévio dos ACS sobre a giardíase. Em seguida, foi ministrada uma palestra sobre a doença para esse público e, aplicado novamente o questionário para a avaliação da assimilação das informações sobre a giardíase. Os dados coletados foram analisados pelo programa BioEstat 5.0® e utilizado o teste de Poisson, com significância de 5%. Foram identificadas fragilidades no conhecimento dos ACS na avaliação prévia para as variáveis investigadas (p<0,05). Após a intervenção educativa, observou-se aumento na média de acertos em todas as variáveis estudadas (p<0,05). A intervenção educativa favorece conhecimento aos ACS, possibilitando mudança no panorama da giardíase e, consequentemente melhora na qualidade de saúde da população.


The objective of this study was to compare the prior knowledge and assimilation of information regarding giardiasis by the Health Community Agents (HCA) from Foz do Iguaçu after educational intervention. This is a comparative study of the quantitative approach using 55 HCA from the northern health district in Foz do Iguaçu. A questionnaire containing 10 yes-or-no questions about giardiasis that was applied in two sequential moments of the research. Initially, a questionnaire was applied for assessing the HCA's prior knowledge regarding giardiasis. Then, the subjects attended a lecture on the disease and then, the questionnaire was applied again for assessing the assimilation of information on giardiasis. The data collected were analyzed using BioEstat 5.0® and the Poisson test with 5% significance. Weak points in the knowledge of the HCA were identified in the previous assessment for the investigated variables (p<0.05). After the educational intervention, there was an increase in the average number of correct answers in all variables studied (p<0.05). The educational intervention favors the retention of knowledge by the HCA, allowing a change in the panorama of giardiasis and, consequently, an improvement in the health quality of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Border Areas , Giardiasis/prevention & control , Community Health Workers/education , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Water Pollution/prevention & control , Hygiene/education , Basic Sanitation/prevention & control , Lecture , Diarrhea/parasitology , Coliforms/analysis , Population Health
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 1-11, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990813

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tritrichomonas foetus is a parasite that has been definitively identified as an agent of trichomonosis, a disease characterized by chronic diarrhea. T. foetus colonizes portions of the feline large intestine, and manifests as chronic and recurrent diarrhea with mucus and fresh blood, which is often unresponsive to common drugs. Diagnosis of a trichomonad infection is made by either the demonstration of the trophozoite on a direct fecal smear, fecal culture and subsequent microscopic examination of the parasite, or extraction of DNA in feces and amplification by the use of molecular tools. T. foetus is commonly misidentified as other flagellate protozoa such as Giardia duodenalis and Pentatrichomonas hominis. Without proper treatment, the diarrhea may resolve spontaneously in months to years, but cats can remain carriers of the parasite. This paper intends to serve as a source of information for investigators and veterinarians, reviewing the most important aspects of feline trichomonosis, such as trichomonad history, biology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, world distribution, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.


Resumo Tritrichomonas foetus é um parasito que foi identificado definitivamente como agente de tricomoníase, caracterizada por diarreia crônica. T. foetus coloniza porções do intestino grosso dos felinos e se manifesta como uma diarreia crônica e recorrente, com muco e sangue, geralmente irresponsiva às drogas comumente usadas no tratamento. O diagnóstico da infecção por tricomonadídeos é feito pela demonstração de trofozoítos no exame direto de fezes frescas, cultura fecal e subsequente exame microscópico ou extração do DNA do parasito na amostra fecal e amplificação, utilizando-se técnicas moleculares. T. foetus é comumente confundido com outros protozoários flagelados, como Giardia duodenalis e Pentatrichomonas hominis. Sem tratamento adequado, a diarreia pode cessar espontaneamente em meses ou anos, porém os gatos podem permanecer portadores do parasito. Esse artigo pretende servir como fonte de informação para pesquisadores e veterinários, revisando os mais importantes aspectos da tricomoníase felina, como histórico, biologia, manifestações clínicas, patogênese, distribuição mundial, fatores de risco, diagnóstico e tratamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Protozoan Infections, Animal/diagnosis , Protozoan Infections, Animal/drug therapy , Protozoan Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Feces/parasitology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/drug therapy , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Tritrichomonas foetus/genetics , Diarrhea/parasitology
7.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(1): e20180150, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-975236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical aspects involved in the transmission and manifestation of schistosomiasis in a community of fishermen from the endemic area of Alagoas. Methods: Epidemiological, transversal, prospective, descriptive, quantitative study. The coproparasitological survey included 275 family units of fish workers and the epidemiological and clinical ones, those with a positive diagnosis for S. mansoni. Results: The prevalence of schistosomiasis was 13.9% (fishermen), 2.1% (shellfish) and 2.1% (family members). The occurrence of the infection varied according to gender, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Exposure occurred near the home. Autochthonous and predominant low parasite burden, intestinal clinical presentation, abdominal pain and diarrhea were observed. There were no nutritional and pressure changes associated with parasitosis. Adherence to drug therapy and use of the schistosomicidal drug was feared. Conclusion: Fish workers are at high risk for contracting the disease with clinical hepatointestinal manifestation, which requires more intense health actions.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos involucrados en la transmisión y manifestación de la esquistosomiasis en una comunidad de pescadores de área endémica de Alagoas. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico, transversal, prospectivo, descriptivo, cuantitativo. La encuesta coproparasitológica contempló 275 unidades familiares de los trabajadores de la pesca y el epidemiológico y clínico, aquellos con diagnóstico positivo para S. mansoni. Resultados: La prevalencia de la esquistosomiasis fue 13,9% (pescadores), 2,1% (marisqueras) y 2,1% (familiares). La ocurrencia de la infección varió según el género, edad, etnia y condición socioeconómica. La exposición ocurrió cerca del domicilio. Se observó autoctonía y predominio de carga parasitaria baja, presentación clínica intestinal, dolor abdominal y diarrea. No hubo alteraciones nutricionales y presión arterial asociadas a la parasitosis. Existia el temor de la adhesión a la terapia medicamentosa y al uso de la droga esquistomicida. Conclusión: Los trabajadores de la pesca presentan alto riesgo para contraer la enfermedad con manifestación clínica hepatointestinal, lo que requiere acciones de salud más intensas.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos envolvidos na transmissão e manifestação da esquistossomose em uma comunidade de pescadores de área endêmica de Alagoas. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, prospectivo, descritivo, quantitativo. O inquérito coproparasitólogico contemplou 275 unidades familiares de trabalhadores da pesca e o epidemiológico e clínico, àqueles com diagnóstico positivo para S. mansoni. Resultados: A prevalência da esquistossomose foi 13,9% (pescadores), 2,1% (marisqueiras) e 2,1% (familiares). A ocorrência da infecção variou conforme gênero, idade, etnia e condição socioeconômica. A exposição ocorreu próxima ao domicílio. Observou-se autoctonia e predominância de carga parasitária baixa, apresentação clínica intestinal, dor abdominal e diarreia. Não ocorreram alterações nutricionais e pressóricas associadas à parasitose. Houve receio na adesão à terapêutica medicamentosa e ao uso do fármaco esquistossomicida. Conclusão: Os trabalhadores da pesca apresentam alto risco para contrair a doença com manifestação clínica hepatointestinal, o que requer ações de saúde mais fortalecidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Fisheries , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Occupational Risks , Abdominal Pain/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Basic Sanitation , Diarrhea/parasitology , Parasite Load
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180204, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003128

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cystoisospora belli infection manifests as diarrhea, and can potentially progress to malabsorption in HIV patients. Here, we report a case of C. belli infection in an HIV/AIDS patient with chronic diarrhea symptoms for at least 2 years. Coproscopic analyses based on direct technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique without a commercial kit were performed. The current case report highlights the protocol to be adopted in coproscopic analyses applied to HIV patients. The importance of including the appropriate parasitological testing of patients with chronic intestinal isosporiasis in parasitological test routines must be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Isosporiasis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Isospora/isolation & purification , Chronic Disease , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Isosporiasis/diagnosis , Isospora/classification
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(4): 374-379, Dec. 2018. map, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-977260

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se realizó un relevamiento de los informes del centro de salud ubicado en Vaqueros (Salta, Argentina) durante un período de 8 meses. Al mismo tiempo se determinó la concentración de Escherichia coli y de quistes de Giardia spp. en muestras procedentes de cuatro fuentes de agua diferentes. No se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la calidad del agua y los casos de diarrea. Sin embargo, mediante un cálculo de odds ratios, se pudo determinar que uno de los sistemas de potabilización estudiados actúa como factor de protección contra diarreas. El presente trabajo brinda información útil para la planificación de medidas preventivas por parte del sistema de salud local.


In this study, we analyzed the reports of the health care center located in Vaqueros (Salta, Argentina) over an 8-month period. Moreover, we determined the concentration of Escherichia coli and Giardia spp. cysts in samples from four different drinking water sources. A statistical relationship between water quality and cases of diarrhea could not be found. However, using an odds ratio calculation, it was possible to determine that one of the studied drinking water systems acts as a protection factor in cases of diarrhea. The present work provides useful information for planning preventive measures by the local health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Water Quality , Water/parasitology , Registries , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Giardia/isolation & purification , Argentina , Incidence , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/parasitology
10.
São Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 449-453, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979388

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Pakistani children is currently unknown. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia lamblia in children exhibiting diarrhea. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at different district healthcare hospitals in Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 800 samples were collected from children aged 0-10 years. Information regarding personal data, demographic data and supposed risk factors was collected through a structured questionnaire. Giardia lamblia was detected through direct microscopy and antigens through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was 2.75% through direct microscopy and inflated to 9.5% through ELISA. The demographic factors positively associated with occurrences of giardiasis were age (P = 0.035; odds ratio, OR = 1.96; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.094-3.533), mother's educational level (P = 0.031; OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.186-6.045) and father's educational level (P = 0.004; OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 1.612-7.899). Similarly, among the supposed risk factors, rural residency (P = 0.032; OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.098- 2.851), absence of proper sewerage system (P = 0.000; OR = 6.60; 95% CI = 4.029-10.841) and unavailability of safe drinking water (P = 0.000; OR = 4.08; 95% CI = 2.207-7.547) were the factors strongly connected with giardiasis. Abdominal discomfort was a prominent clinical sign with 46% frequency. CONCLUSION: Various risk factors were associated with occurrences of Giardia, thus emphasizing the importance of parents' education, safe drinking water and proper sewerage systems for Pakistani children's health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Pakistan/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Giardiasis/parasitology , Sex Distribution , Diarrhea/parasitology
11.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S49-S52, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117784

ABSTRACT

Amebiasis is the infection by Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan capable of invading the colonic mucosa causing a diarrheic syndrome, although most of the time is mild, it can lead to a fulminating colitis. Sometimes it can spread to other organs; among extra-intestinal manifestations of this parasite, the most frequent is the amebic liver abscess. In the next pages, general aspects of this protozoan, its epidemiology, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed, emphasizing the possibilities of diagnosis and treatment available in Chile.


La amebiasis corresponde a la infección por Entamoeba histolytica, protozoo capaz de invadir la mucosa del colon provocando un cuadro diarréico que, si bien la mayoría de las veces es leve, puede llegar a una colitis fulminante. En algunas oportunidades puede diseminarse a otros órganos; dentro de las manifestaciones extra-intestinales de este parásito, la más frecuente es el absceso hepático amebiano. A continuación se revisan aspectos generales de este protozoo, su epidemiología, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico y tratamiento, destacando las posibilidades de diagnóstico y tratamiento disponibles en Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dysentery, Amebic/diagnosis , Dysentery, Amebic/drug therapy , Liver Abscess, Amebic/diagnosis , Liver Abscess, Amebic/drug therapy , Diarrhea/parasitology , Dysentery, Amebic/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/pathogenicity , Liver Abscess, Amebic/parasitology , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268541

ABSTRACT

Introduction: bacterial agents are among pathogens implicated to cause diarrhea in children resulting to huge mortality and morbidities. Bacterial etiologies causing diarrhea in children below five years are rarely investigated in Central Kenya, which would otherwise guide prescription and target health education.Methods: a cross-sectional study approach was applied on 163 randomly selected stool samples from children below five years who presented with diarrhea in Murang`a and Muriranja`s hospitals. The objective was to determine the bacterial agents of diarrhea. Enteric bacterial pathogens were cultured using appropriate media and identified. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA v.13. Chi-square or Fisher exact-test were used to check for evidence of relationship whenever applicable.Results: there were nearly equal distributions in gender 86 (52.8%) female vs. 77 (47.2%) male, majority (35.6%) aged between 0-12 months. Bacterial isolates were highly diverse in female than the male, children aged 49-60 months and least among those aged 0-12 months. A total of 188 bacterial isolates belonging to 11 genera were recovered. The predominant bacteria was nonpathogenic Escherichia coli 85 (45.2%), while 13 (6.9%) Escherichia coli were positive for virulence genes, including 8 (4.3%) positive for LT and STp Shiga-like or Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 3 (1.6%) positive for eae and bfpA Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and 2 (1.1%) positive for Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli gene. Others included: Salmonella 21 (11.2%), Pseudomonas 14 (7.4%), Shigella 14 (7.4%), Klebsiella 12 (6.4%), Aeromonas 8 (4.3%), Enterobacter 7 (3.7%), Proteus 8 (4.3%), Citrobactor 3 (1.6%), Yersinia 2 (1.1%) and Vibrio 1 (0.5%).Conclusion: salmonella was the major bacterial isolate and majority of the bacteria were statistically significant cause of diarrhea (p=0.001)


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Enterobacteriaceae , Kenya , Virulence
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(1): 27-32, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736358

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens.


Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e o perfil etiológico de enteropatógenos em crianças de uma creche. Métodos: No período de outubro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011 foram coletadas e analisadas amostras de fezes de 100 crianças matriculadas em creche do governo no município de São José do Rio Preto, Estado de São Paulo. Resultados: Um total de 246 bactérias foram isoladas em 99% das amostras de fezes; 129 eram diarreicas e 117 não-diarreicas. Foram isoladas setenta e três cepas de Escherichia coli, 19 de Enterobacter, uma de Alcaligenes e uma de Proteus. Foram detectados 14 casos de colonização mista com Enterobacter e de E. coli. Norovírus e Astrovirus foram detectados em crianças com sinais clínicos sugestivos de diarréia. Estes vírus foram detectados exclusivamente entre as crianças residentes em áreas urbanas. Todas as amostras fecais foram negativas para a presença das espécies de rotavírus A e C. Foi observada a presença de Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana e ancilostomídeos. Foi encontrada associação significativa entre o consumo de alimentos fora do centro da casa e creche e a presença de parasitos intestinais. Conclusões: Para as crianças desta creche, a infecção intestinal por patógenos não parece ter contribuido para a ocorrência de diarreia ou outros sintomas intestinais. As diferenças observadas podem ser atribuídas à grande diversidade de características geográficas, sociais e econômicas e o clima do Brasil, as quais tem sido relatadas como fatores críticos para a modulação da frequência de diferentes enteropatógenos.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Feces , Intestinal Diseases/microbiology , Intestinal Diseases/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/etiology , Intestinal Diseases/virology , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
14.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 81(2): 180-185, abr.-jun. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1005022

ABSTRACT

A população de bubalinos estimada no Brasil é de aproximadamente 3 milhões de animais, encontrando-se distribuídos em todos os Estados brasileiros, com crescimento médio anual de 12%. Apesar disso, os trabalhos realizados buscando os avanços na bubalinocultura são escassos. Em função da complexidade etiológica da diarreia em bubalinos e da falta de informações recentes nesta área, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência dos principais agentes bacterianos e parasitários envolvidos na diarreia de bezerros búfalos lactentes, de explorações leiteiras semi-intensivas e intensivas em regiões dos estados de São Paulo e Paraná. De março de 2010 a junho de 2011, foram colhidas 53 amostras para exame coproparasitológico e 46 amostras para o exame bacteriológico de animais com quadro de diarreia nos municípios paulistas de São João da Boa Vista, Dourado, Pirassununga, Registro, Pariquera Açu, Pilar do Sul e uma propriedade no estado do Paraná, município de Santana do Itararé. No exame parasitológico, 45,28% (24) foram positivos para Eimeria spp., 26,42% (14) para Strongyloidea e 1,88 (1) para Toxocara vitulorum. No exame bacteriológico, 97,83%, (45) das amostras foram positivas para E. coli, contudo, somente duas foram consideradas patogênicas (E. coli STEC). Em uma amostra (2,17%) isolou-se Klebsiella pneumoniae; já a presença de Salmonella spp. não foi constatada. Para o presente estudo, a presença de endoparasitas foi bastante relevante, principalmente os casos Eimeria spp., sendo a higiene das instalações e falhas de manejo fatores importantes na ocorrência de diarreia em bezerros búfalos no estado de São Paulo.(AU)


There are about 3 million buffalos in Brazil, spread through all of the Brazilian states; with mean annual growth of 12%. In spite of that, to the best of our knowledge few studies looking for advances in the industry have been done. Due to the etiological complexity of buffalo diarrhea and the lack of information in this area, this aimed at developing a clinical evaluation on the causes of buffalo calves bacterial and parasitical diarrhea in dairy farms of the states of São Paulo and Paraná. The survey was done in farms located in the cities of São João da Boa Vista, Dourado, Pirassununga, Registro, Pariquera Açu, Pilar do Sul (SP), and Santana do Itararé (PR). From March, 2010, to June, 2011, 53 diarrhea samples were collected and screened for endoparasite and bacteria; 45.28% (24) were positive for Eimeria spp.; 26.42% (14) had Strongyloidea; and 1.88% (1) had Toxocara vitulorum. In the bacteriological test, 97.83% (45) had E. coli, but only two were considered pathogenic (E. coli STEC); 2.17% had Klebsiella pneumonia and none presented Salmonella spp. In this study, the mainly causative agent of buffalo diarrhea was Eimeria spp., and the poor hygiene in installations and breeding failure are important factors on this diarrhea occurrence.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes , Diarrhea/parasitology , Eimeria/virology , Escherichia coli/virology , Food Safety
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(2): 218-227, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712404

ABSTRACT

Introducción. No se han descrito las fuentes potenciales de infección por Blastocystis sp . en Colombia. Objetivos. Estimar la frecuencia de Blastocystis sp . y explorar posibles asociaciones entre la infección, las manifestaciones clínicas y algunas fuentes ambientales. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo con una población de 1.993 menores de 5 años (lactantes y preescolares) de estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, atendidos en hogares infantiles de Calarcá, Colombia. Se calculó una muestra de 275 y se seleccionó aleatoriamente a los participantes en 10 % de los hogares infantiles. Se practicaron exámenes coprológicos y encuestas y se tomaron muestras para la identificación del parásito en heces, uñas, animales domésticos y algunas fuentes ambientales. Se hicieron preparaciones en fresco con lugol al 1 % y se utilizó una técnica de concentración con formol-éter. Se estimaron prevalencias y razones de momios; para las variables cualitativas se utilizó el test de ji al cuadrado y, para las cuantitativas, la prueba t de Student. Resultados. La prevalencia de infección en los niños fue de 57,5 %. Hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la presencia del parásito en heces y su hallazgo en recipientes de agua de panela (OR=1,70; IC 95% 1,05-2,79), en los pisos de madera o de tierra en la vivienda (OR=3,43; IC 95% 1,12-10,48), y en alimentos diferentes a la leche en el tetero (OR=3,23; IC 95% 1,41-4,41); y se encontró una prevalencia alta sin asociación en muestras de uñas (OR=1,62; IC 95% 0,99-2,67). La diarrea fue más frecuente en niños con Blastocystis sp. (45 %) que en aquellos sin el parásito (33 %) (OR: 1,95; IC 95% 0,99-2,77) (p<0,05). Conclusiones. Blastocystis sp . se asoció significativamente con síntomas de diarrea en los niños menores de 5 años y se encontró distribuido ampliamente en el ambiente y en el agua. Se requeriría determinar si hay huéspedes específicos para genotipos patógenos por medio de técnicas moleculares.


Introduction: There are no reports of the potential sources of Blastocystis sp . in Colombia. Objectives: To estimate the frequency of Blastocystis sp . and explore possible associations among infection, clinical manifestations and environmental sources. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was conducted; a representative sample was calculated from a population of 1,993 children less than 5 years old of the lowest socioeconomic levels (1 and 2) attending day care centers in Calarcá, Colombia. The calculated sample size was 275 children, who were selected randomly in 10 % of the centers. Stool testing, questionnaires and sampling to identify the parasite in feces, nails, pets and environmental sources, were performed. Fresh preparations were made with 1% iodine solution, and a concentration technique with formalin-ether was used. Prevalence and odd ratios were estimated; the chi-square test was utilized for qualitative variables, and Student´s t for the quantitative ones. Results: The prevalence of infection in children was of 57.5%. A statistically significant association was found between the Blastocystis sp . positive stool tests and the presence of the parasite in containers of sugar cane beverage (OR=1.70; 95% CI: 1.05-2.79), wood or ground floors (OR=3.43; 95% CI: 1.12-10.48) and in foods other than bottled milk (OR=3.23; 95% CI: 1.41-4.41) . A non-significant high prevalence was found in nails (OR=1.62; 95% CI: 0.99-2.67), as well as a significantly higher prevalence of diarrhea (OR=1.95; 95% CI: 0.99-2.77) in children with Blastocystis sp . (45%) as compared with those without the parasite (33%; p<0.05). Conclusions: Blastocystis sp . showed a significant association with diarrhea symptoms in children 0 to 5 years old and was widely distributed in the environment and in water. It is necessary to determine if there are specific hosts with pathogenic potential through molecular techniques.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Blastocystis Infections/parasitology , Blastocystis Infections/transmission , Colombia , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Fomites , Food Parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Housing , Nails/parasitology , Oocysts , Poverty , Prevalence , Pets/parasitology , Sampling Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Water/parasitology
16.
Invest. clín ; 54(4): 373-381, dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740354

ABSTRACT

Para determinar la prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica como productora de diarrea, se realizó un estudio en niños menores de cinco años con diarrea que asistieron a diversas consultas del Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, Venezuela. A las muestras de heces obtenidas, se les realizó examen macroscópico, microscópico con solución salina fisiológica 0,85% y lugol, así como coloración de Kinyoun. El resto de la muestra se congeló hasta la extracción del ADN y luego se amplificaron mediante PCR separadas para E. histolytica y E. dispar. De las 50 muestras analizadas mediante examen microscópico, ninguna presentó trofozoítos y/o quistes de Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, ni coccidios intestinales. Los parásitos detectados fueron Giardia lamblia (6%), Blastocystis sp. (6%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2%) y Trichuris trichiura (2%). Mediante PCR, 6 muestras (12%) presentaron ADN de E. dispar y 2 (4%) ADN de E. histolytica. Ningún niño presentó asociación de ambas amibas. Los dos niños que presentaron E. histolytica tenían 1 año de edad. E. dispar si fue detectada en niños de menor edad. Se sugiere que la prevalencia de E. histolytica en niños menores de cinco años con diarrea es realmente baja.


To determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica as a producer of diarrhea, a study was conducted in children, less than five years of age, with diarrhea who attended several out patient clinics of the Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario, Maracaibo, Venezuela. A macroscopic and microscopic examination with physiological saline, lugol and Kinyoun staining were performed to the stool samples obtained. The remainder of the sample was frozen until DNA extraction, and PCR amplification was performed separately for E. histolytica and E. dispar. Microscopic examination showed no trophozoites and/or cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, or intestinal coccidians in any of the 50 samples analyzed. Parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (6%), Blastocystis sp. (4%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). By PCR, six samples (12%) had DNA of E. dispar and two (4%) had DNA from E. histolytica; no child showed association of both amoebae. The two children who had E. histolytica were one-year-old. E. dispar was detected in younger children. We suggest that the prevalence of E. histolytica in children under five years is really low.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Diarrhea/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Venezuela
17.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 30(2): 326-330, abr.-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-681000

ABSTRACT

La Cystoisospora belli, antes denominada Isospora belli, es el agente etiológico de la cystoisosporiasis, una infección oportunista que afecta a pacientes inmunodeprimidos, caracterizada por diarrea crónica y pérdida ponderal. La incidencia de diarrea crónica por este agente, en pacientes infectados por el VIH, ha disminuido considerablemente. Ello gracias al advenimiento de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA), con la que se ha logrado mejorar la respuesta inmunológica del paciente y disminuir su carga viral. Se presentan seis casos de cystoisosporiasis recurrente y refractaria en pacientes con infección por VIH, en quienes se diagnosticó cystoisosporiasis pese a que previamente se encontraban recibiendo profilaxis con trimetropin/sulfametoxazol (TMP/SMX). Cinco de ellos evolucionaron de manera tórpida y fallecieron, a pesar de una buena respuesta al TARGA (adecuado incremento de CD4 y disminución de la carga viral hasta rangos indetectables), y de tratamiento con TMP/SMX por vía oral y otros medicamentos de segunda línea.


The Cystoisospora belli, before denominated as Isospora belli, is the etiologic agent of cystoisosoporiasis, an opportunistic infection affecting immunocompromised patients, characterized by chronic diarrhea and weight loss. The incidence of chronic diarrhea for this agent, in HIV patients, has decreased considerably. This thanks to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has improved the patient’s immune response and decrease viral load. We present six cases of cystoisosoporiasis recurrent and refractory to treatment in HIV patients, who was being treated with with trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (TMP / SMX) orally as a prophylaxis. Five of these patients passed away due to the infection, despite of the fact that they had a good response to HAART (adequate increase in CD4 and viral load undetectable) and they had been treated with second line drugs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coccidiosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sarcocystidae , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/drug therapy , Diarrhea/parasitology , Recurrence
18.
Invest. clín ; 54(1): 90-108, mar. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740339

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos gastrointestinales o TGI son afecciones debilitantes muy comunes en individuos infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), que pueden conducir a muerte. Numerosos agentes etiológicos y mecanismos patofisiológicos han sido propuestos causar esta afección. A pesar del uso de terapia antirretroviral, que ha reducido enormemente la prevalencia de TGI en estos pacientes, patógenos entéricos como virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos logran actuar todavía como agentes oportunistas. Citomegalovirus, adenovirus, calicivirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, picobirnavirus y algunos más recientemente descritos, como bocavirus y Aichi virus han sido detectados en pacientes con VIH. Sin embargo, a excepción del citomegalovirus, hay muy poca certeza acerca del papel que juegan algunos de ellos en estas afecciones. Varias especies de Criptosporidium, microsporidos, Salmonella, micobacterias atípicas y Campylobacter jejuni han sido reconocidos también como una importante causa de TGI en estos pacientes. La progresiva incorporación de técnicas inmunoenzimáticas y moleculares, cada vez más sensibles para la detección de antígenos, anticuerpos y agentes patógenos en heces ha mejorado el diagnóstico de las diarreas y contribuido a esclarecer la importancia etiológica de algunos microorganismos en los pacientes inmunocompetentes. En Venezuela existen algunos datos acerca de la prevalencia de patógenos entéricos en pacientes inmunodeficientes infectados con VIH. La identificación del agente etiológico responsable de TGI podría ser de gran utilidad para el manejo y tratamiento de estos pacientes, para quienes la enteritis viral es una manifestación morbosa que reduce la calidad de vida y ocasiona un elevado gasto en salud pública.


Gastrointestinal disorders or GID are debilitating conditions common in individuals infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), capable of leading to death. Numerous etiological agents and pathophysiological mechanisms have been involved in this status. Although the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in many countries has greatly reduced the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections, enteric pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses may still act as opportunist agents in these patients. Cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, calicivirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, picobirnavirus and some more recently described, like bocavirus and Aichi virus, have been detected in HIV patients. However, except for cytomegalovirus, which is an established etiological agent of GID in these patients, the role of the other viruses remains unclear. Several species of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia, Salmonella, atipical mycobacteria and Campylobacter jejuni, have also been recognized as important causes of GID in HIV patients. The progressive incorporation of increasingly sensitive immunological and molecular assays for antigen, antibody and pathogens detection from faeces, has improved the diagnosis of diarrhea and contributed to clarify the etiological significance of some microorganisms in immunocompetent patients. In Venezuela, some information is available about the prevalence of enteric pathogens in immunocompromised patients infected with HIV. The identification of the etiologic agent responsible for this condition may be useful for the management and treatment of these patients, for whom viral enteritis is a disease, which reduces their quality of life and causes a high public health spending.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/virology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Immunocompromised Host , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/microbiology , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/microbiology
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(1): 32-40, Jan.-Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665772

ABSTRACT

In this study, Entamoeba histolytica had high prevalence and unusual presentation by affecting high proportion of infants under 1 year; severe clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings that were known to be usually encountered in invasive amebiasis as significant leukocytosis for age, neutrophilic leukocytosis for age, and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Saudi infants and children with E. histolytica infection in our locality. E. histolytica can be a re-emerging serious infection when it finds favorable environmental conditions and host factors which are mainly attributed to inadequate breastfeeding in this study. This may occur in any other area of the world with the same risk factors, so we must be ready to tackle it with effective and more powerful preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/isolation & purification , Entamoebiasis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Entamoebiasis/diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 983-989, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196076

ABSTRACT

The first case of human cryptosporidiosis was reported in Korea in 1995; however, an outbreak of Cryptosporidium has not been reported in Korea until now. This paper describes the first outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Korea. On May 24, 2012, a local public health center filed a report on 126 residents with gastrointestinal symptoms in an old apartment complex in Seoul. Epidemiological investigations were implemented on 125 of the 126 patients. The patients were reported continuously over a period of 22 days. Diarrhea was the most common clinical symptom, and lasted for 5 days on average. The tap water was the only common exposure of the patients. During the environmental investigation it was discovered that the water and septic tanks were situated closely and that the waste water pipes were corroded where they passed over the water pipes. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 3 of the 7 stool specimens by PCR-RFLP. A number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in the water specimens from the water tank. In conclusion, Cryptosporidium parvum was the key causal pathogen of this outbreak. It is presumed that the tap water was contaminated by a sewage leak from the aged pipelines.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/parasitology , Disease Outbreaks , Drinking Water/parasitology , Food Contamination , Public Health , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sewage/parasitology
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