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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): e75-e79, abril 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363969

ABSTRACT

La morfea lineal en golpe de sable es una entidad dermatológica caracterizada por la inflamación esclerosante y progresiva del tejido cutáneo en la región frontal y/o en el cuero cabelludo. La cefalea y las crisis convulsivas son dos de los síntomas extracutáneos más frecuentes y están causados por el crecimiento subyacente de la lesión. Es importante un diagnóstico temprano para frenar la progresión e intentar evitar las complicaciones secundarias, principalmente neurológicas. El diagnóstico se basa en el cuadro clínico y el estudio histológico, que permite la confirmación definitiva. El tratamiento de elección es la terapia combinada con corticoides orales y metotrexato. Aun con el tratamiento farmacológico adecuado, esta patología puede presentar un curso recidivante y dejar secuelas a largo plazo. Se presenta el caso de una niña en quien se realizó un diagnóstico rápido de esta enfermedad, a pesar de un cuadro clínico inespecífico. Fue tratada con metotrexato oral con buena respuesta, sin efectos secundarios.


Linear morphea in coup de sabre is a dermatological entity characterized by progressive, sclerosing inflammation of the skin tissue in the frontal region and on the scalp. Headache and seizures are two of the most frequent extracutaneous symptoms and they are caused by the growth of the lesion towards underlying structures. An early diagnosis is important to stop cranial progression and try to avoid secondary complications, mainly neurological. The diagnosis is relied on compatible clinical signs and a pathological study that allows a definitive confirmation. The treatment of choice is combination therapy with oral corticosteroids and methotrexate. Despite an adequate pharmacological treatment, this pathology can present a recurrent course and cause long-term sequelae. We present the case of a girl who was diagnosed quickly, despite a not very noticeable symptoms. She has been treated with oral methotrexate with a good response, without side effect


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Scleroderma, Localized/complications , Scleroderma, Localized/diagnosis , Scleroderma, Localized/drug therapy , Methotrexate , Disease Progression , Headache
2.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022204, 06 abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the renal replacement therapy (RRT) of choice for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, not every KT is successful and some patients persist on RRT. OBJECTIVE: To model a logistic regression with pre- and post-KT risk covariates capable of predicting secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching stage V of CKD until the first six months post-KT. METHODS: Cohort with KT recipients from Northeastern Brazil. Medical records of KT performed between 2011-2018 were analyzed. KT-recipients with insufficient data or who abandoned follow-up were excluded. The covariables analyzed were: demographic; infectious; pre- and post-KT comorbidities; panel reactive-antibodies; number of HLA mismatches; acute rejection episodes mediated by T-cell (ACR) or antibodies (AAR) six months after KT; and laboratory tests six months after KT. RESULTS: Covariates with higher risk for the analyzed outcomes six months after KT were: elderly KT recipients (OR:1.41; CI95%:1.01-1.99), time between onset of RRT and KT (ΔT-RRT&KT)>10years (OR:3.54; CI95%:1.27-9.87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pre-KT (OR:3.35; CI95%:1.51-7.46), pyelonephritis (OR:2.45; CI95%:1.24-4.84), polyomavirus nephropathy (OR:4.99; CI95%:1.87-13.3), AAS (OR:4.82; CI95%:1.35-17.2), 24h-proteinuria ≥300mg/24h (OR:5.05; CI95%:2.00-12.7) and serum calcium (Ca) <8.5mg/dL (OR:4.72; CI95%:2.00-11.1). The multivariate model presented an accuracy of 88.1% and the mean variance inflation factor is 1.81. CONCLUSION: Elderly-recipients, ΔT-RRT&KT>10 years, pre-KT DM, and post-KT aggressions until six months (pyelonephritis, polyomavirus nephropathy, ABMR, 24h-proteinuria≥300mg/24h, and Ca<8.5mg/dL) are associated with high predictive power for secondary allograft dysfunction in need of RRT or reaching CKD stage V until the first six months post-KT.


INTRODUÇÃO: Transplante renal (TR) é a terapia renal substitutiva (TRS) de escolha para pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Entretanto, nem todo TR é bem-sucedido e alguns pacientes persistem em TRS. OBJETIVO: Modelar uma regressão logística com covariáveis de risco pré e pós-TR preditora da disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR. MÉTODOS: Coorte com receptores transplantados realizado em hospital no Nordeste brasileiro. Analisou-se registros médicos dos TR realizados entre 2011-2018. Receptores com dados insuficientes ou que abandonaram seguimento foram excluídos. Foram analisadas covariáveis: demográficas; infecciosas; comorbidades pré e pós-TR; painel de reatividade; incompatibilidades de HLA; episódios de rejeições agudas mediadas por células-T ou por anticorpos; exames laboratoriais seis meses pós-TR. RESULTADOS: Receptores idosos (OR:1,41; IC95%:1,01-1,99), tempo entre início da TRS e TR (∆T-TRS&TR)>10 anos (OR:3,54; IC95%:1,27-9,87), diabetes mellitus (DM) pré-TR (OR:3,35; IC95%:1,51-7,46), pielonefrite (OR:2,45; IC95%:1,24-4,84), nefropatia por poliomavírus (OR:4,99; IC95%:1,87-13,3), RAMA (OR:4,82; IC95%:1,35-17,2), proteinúria de 24h (Pt24h) ≥300mg/24h (OR:5,05; IC95%:2,00-12,7) e cálcio sérico (Ca)<8,5mg/dL (OR:4,72; IC95%:2,00-11,1) foram identificadas como covariáveis de maior risco para os desfechos analisados até seis meses pós-TR. O modelo multivariado apresentou acurácia de 88,1% e fator de inflação da variância médio de 1,81. CONCLUSÃO: Receptores idosos, ∆T-TRS&TR>10anos, DM pré-TR e agressões até seis meses pós-TR (pielonefrite, nefropatia por poliomavírus, RAMA, Pt24h≥300mg/24h e Ca<8,5mg/dL), apresentam alto poder preditivo para disfunção secundária do aloenxerto com necessidade de TRS ou alcance ao estágio V da DRC até os primeiros seis meses pós-TR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Allografts , Proteinuria , Pyelonephritis , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Immunosuppression Therapy , BK Virus , Disease Progression , Hypocalcemia
3.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(6): 791-808, Fevereiro 7, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358263

ABSTRACT

Estudo de caracterização da força e da função muscular nas disferlinopatias para estabelecer biomarcadores de habilidades motoras com amostra de 40 pacientes, tendo sido avaliados força muscular (Medical Research Council - MRC), percentual de MRC, tempo de execução para deambular e escores nas Escalas de Vignos, Egen Klassifikation, Avaliação Funcional para Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne (FES-DMD) e North Star Ambulatory Assessment adaptada. Prevalência da disferlinopatia de 25,5% na amostra total de distrofias (1340), idade média de 36,5 anos, 52,5% do sexo masculino e 75% deambuladores. Músculos mais fracos: abdominal, glúteos, íliopsoas, isquiotibial, quadríceps femoral, tibial anterior e deltoide médio. Correlação forte entre MRC e tempo para deambular (r = 0,77) e, muito forte da MRC distal de membros inferiores com aNSAA (r = 0,90). Interação da MRC dos membros superiores e inferiores nos segmentos proximal e distal (p < 0,001), sendo mais evidente em membros superiores que inferiores. Taxa variável de progressão da doença com 60% dos pacientes moderadamente ou gravemente afetados, com mais de 12 anos de doença. Estudo mostra que padrão de fraqueza muscular dos brasileiros com disferlinopatia é proximal e distal dos MMII, com comprometimento associado da região proximal dos MMSS, além de elucidar as habilidades motoras em relação ao processo de locomoção e disfunções cardiorrespiratórias. (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Disease Progression , Muscle Weakness , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Motor Skills , Dysferlin
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 78-87, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389621

ABSTRACT

Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is a devastating complication, with great impact on neurological status and high morbidity and mortality. Intracranial hypertension (ICH) has multiple etiologies. The natural history of this condition can lead to brain death. The successful management of patients with elevated ICP (> 20-25 mmHg) requires fast and timely recognition, judicious use of invasive monitoring and therapies aimed to reversing its underlying cause. Therefore, it must be managed as a neurological emergency. The objective of this review is to present in a friendly way the diagnostic approach and the management of ICH, focused on general practitioners.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Intracranial Hypertension/physiopathology , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Brain Death , Intracranial Pressure , Disease Progression , General Practice
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 207-214, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935997

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the values of serum 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in predicting disease progression and prognosis of patients with sepsis. Methods: The prospective observational research methods were used. A total of 124 patients with sepsis who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to the Department of Emergency of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from April 2015 to July 2016, including 79 males and 45 females, aged (62±15) years. The sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores of all patients on admission and on the second day of admission and their difference (ΔSOFA) were calculated. The patients were divided into non-progression group with ΔSOFA score <2 (n=101) and progression group with ΔSOFA score ≥2 (n=23), and according to the survival during hospitalization, the patients were divided into survival group (n=85) and death group (n=39). Data of patients between non-progression group and progression group, survival group and death group were compared, including the gender, age, days in emergency intensive care unit (ICU), smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serum white blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein, and serum procalcitonin on admission, and serum 8-OHdG within 24 h of admission. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to screen the independent risk factors of disease progression and death during hospitalization in 124 patients with sepsis, the receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn according to the independent risk factors, and the area under the curve (AUC), the best threshold, and the sensitivity and specificity under the best threshold were calculated. The patients were divided into high 8-OHdG group (n=35) and low 8-OHdG group (n=89) according to the best threshold in ROC curve of death during hospitalization. The data including the gender, age, SOFA score on admission, SOFA score on the second day of admission, and ΔSOFA score of patients in the two groups were compared. The survival rates of patients within 90 d of admission in the two groups were compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Log-rank test. Results: The gender, age, days in emergency ICU, smoking, complicated with hypertension, complicated with diabetes mellitus, serum white blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein, and serum procalcitonin on admission of patients in non-progression group and progression group were similar (P>0.05). The serum 8-OHdG within 24 h of admission of patients in progression group was significantly higher than that in non-progression group (Z=-2.31, P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the serum 8-OHdG within 24 h of admission was the independent risk factor for disease progression of 124 patients with sepsis (odds ratio=1.06, with 95% confidence interval of 1.01-1.11, P<0.05). The AUC under the ROC curve of serum 8-OHdG within 24 h of admission to predict disease progression of 124 patients with sepsis was 0.65 (with 95% confidence interval of 0.52-0.79, P<0.05), the optimal threshold was 32.88 ng/mL, and the sensitivity and specificity under the optimal threshold was 52.2% and 79.2%, respectively. The gender, age, days in emergency ICU, smoking, complicated with hypertension, complicated with diabetes mellitus, and serum white blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein, and serum procalcitonin on admission of patients in survival group and death group were similar (P>0.05). The serum 8-OHdG within 24 h of admission of patients in death group was significantly higher than that in survival group (Z=-2.37, P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the serum 8-OHdG within 24 h of admission was the independent risk factor for death of 124 patients with sepsis (odd ratio=1.04, with 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.09, P<0.05). The AUC under the ROC curve of serum 8-OHdG within 24 h of admission to predict death of patients during hospitalization was 0.63 (with 95% confidence interval of 0.52-0.75, P<0.05), the optimal threshold was 32.43 ng/mL, the sensitivity and specificity under the optimal threshold was 51.3% and 84.7%, respectively. The gender and age of patients in high 8-OHdG group and low 8-OHdG group were similar (P>0.05). The SOFA score on admission, SOFA score on the second day of admission, and ΔSOFA score of patients in high 8-OHdG group were significantly higher than those in low 8-OHdG group (with Z values of -2.49, -3.01, and -2.64, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The survival rate within 90 d of admission of patients in low 8-OHdG group was significantly higher than that in high 8-OHdG group (χ2=14.57, P<0.01). Conclusions: Serum 8-OHdG level is an independent risk factor for disease progression and death in sepsis patients with limited ability for predicting disease progression and prognosis of sepsis of patients. The patients with higher serum 8-OHdG level have higher death risk within 90 d of admission.


Subject(s)
8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine , Aged , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 309-315, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935943

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical value of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and VITRO score (vWF:Ag/platelet count) in assessing disease progression in patients with HBV infection. Methods: Randomly collect relevant clinical data of 308 patients with HBV infection (including 154 cases of chronic hepatitis B, 66 cases of hepatitis B cirrhosis in compensatory period, 88 cases of hepatitis B cirrhosis in decompensated period) from December 1, 2018 to January 5, 2021 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. The vWF values are measured by a uniform optical method, and all data are included using a uniform standard. Analyze the difference and significance of plasma vWF level and VITRO score in chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B cirrhosis in the compensatory phase and decompensated phase. Results: The plasma vWF level and VITRO score of the chronic hepatitis B group were (139.47±76.44) and (0.86±0.8), respectively, and the hepatitis B cirrhosis compensated group was (164.95±67.12 and 1.44±1.14), respectively. Hepatitis cirrhosis decompensated group were (317.48±103.32 and 6.81±4.98), respectively; plasma vWF level and VITRO score increased with the progression of HBV infection, and the difference was statistically significant (F=133.669,P=0.000F=137.598,P=0.000).The plasma vWF level and VITRO score in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis were (185.65±85.07 and 2.3±2.37) in the Child-Pugh A group, (304.74±105.81 and 6.37±5.19) in the B grade group, and (369.48±73.238.28±5.38) in the C grade group; plasma vWF level and VITRO score in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis increased with the increase of Child-Pugh grade, and the difference was statistically significant (F=60.236, P=0.000F=32.854, P=0.000). The area under the curve (AUC) of plasma vWF level and VITRO score for diagnosing the decompensated stage of hepatitis B cirrhosis were 0.897 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.855-0.940, P<0.01], 0.949 [95% CI: 0.916-0.982, P<0.01). When the vWF level and VITRO score were taken as cut-off values of 238.5% and 1.65, respectively, the sensitivity of diagnosing the decompensated stage of hepatitis B cirrhosis was 79.5% and 94.3%, the specificity was 92.3% and 87.7%, and the positive predictive value was 80.5% and 94.3%, the negative predictive value was 91.9% and 97.5%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 88.6% and 89.3%. Among the patients with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis, the level of vWF in the group with gastrointestinal bleeding (367.24±68.29)% was significantly higher than that in the group without gastrointestinal bleeding (286.15±109.69)%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001) The VITRO score of the group with gastrointestinal bleeding (9.12±5.4) was significantly higher than that of the group without gastrointestinal bleeding (5.36±4.13), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The vWF level in the spontaneous peritonitis group was (341.73±87.92)% higher than that in the non-spontaneous peritonitis group (296.32±111.74)%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in VITRO score between the two groups. significance. Conclusion: Plasma vWF level and VITRO score can evaluate the progression of liver disease and the degree of decompensation of liver cirrhosis in patients with HBV infection, and have a predictive effect on various complications after decompensation of liver cirrhosis, and have certain guiding significance for early intervention measures.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Peritonitis/complications , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939611

ABSTRACT

Accurate segmentation of ground glass nodule (GGN) is important in clinical. But it is a tough work to segment the GGN, as the GGN in the computed tomography images show blur boundary, irregular shape, and uneven intensity. This paper aims to segment GGN by proposing a fully convolutional residual network, i.e., residual network based on atrous spatial pyramid pooling structure and attention mechanism (ResAANet). The network uses atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) structure to expand the feature map receptive field and extract more sufficient features, and utilizes attention mechanism, residual connection, long skip connection to fully retain sensitive features, which is extracted by the convolutional layer. First, we employ 565 GGN provided by Shanghai Chest Hospital to train and validate ResAANet, so as to obtain a stable model. Then, two groups of data selected from clinical examinations (84 GGN) and lung image database consortium (LIDC) dataset (145 GGN) were employed to validate and evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Finally, we apply the best threshold method to remove false positive regions and obtain optimized results. The average dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of the proposed algorithm on the clinical dataset and LIDC dataset reached 83.46%, 83.26% respectively, the average Jaccard index (IoU) reached 72.39%, 71.56% respectively, and the speed of segmentation reached 0.1 seconds per image. Comparing with other reported methods, our new method could segment GGN accurately, quickly and robustly. It could provide doctors with important information such as nodule size or density, which assist doctors in subsequent diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , China , Disease Progression , Humans , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules , Neural Networks, Computer , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 147-158, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928461

ABSTRACT

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome with significantly increased mortality when the patients are complicated with infections. For patients with ESLD, infections can induce or aggravate the liver decompensation. In turn, infections are among the most common complication with the disease progression. Experts from Society of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Medical Association firstly formulated "Expert Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of End-Stage Liver Disease Complicated with Infection" in July 2018, which is extensively revised based on clinical evidence of recent three years. This consensus summarizes the up-to-date knowledge and experiences across Chinese colleagues, intending to provide principles and wording procedures for clinicians to diagnose and treat ESLD patient complicated with infections.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Disease Progression , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Humans
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 757-766, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927566

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), characterized by acute renal dysfunction, is an increasingly common clinical problem and an important risk factor in the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Regardless of the initial insults, the progression of CKD after AKI involves multiple types of cells, including renal resident cells and immune cells such as macrophages. Recently, the involvements of macrophages in AKI-to-CKD transition have garnered significant attention. Furthermore, substantial progress has also been made in elucidating the pathophysiological functions of macrophages from the acute kidney to repair or fibrosis. In this review, we highlight current knowledge regarding the roles and mechanisms of macrophage activation and phenotypic polarization, and transdifferentiation in the development of AKI-to-CKD transition. In addition, the potential of macrophage-based therapy for preventing AKI-to-CKD transition is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Kidney , Macrophages , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
10.
Singapore medical journal ; : 209-213, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927275

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Usage of metformin is associated with improved survival in lung, breast and prostate cancer, and metformin has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth and proliferation in in vitro studies. Given the lack of clinical data on metformin use in patients with bladder cancer, we aimed to evaluate the role of metformin in their oncological outcomes.@*METHODS@#Medication use data from a prospectively maintained database of 122 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), who were recruited under a randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, was collected and analysed. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS).@*RESULTS@#At a median follow-up duration of 102 (range 3-357) months, 53 (43.4%) patients experienced disease recurrence and 21 (17.2%) experienced disease progression. There was no significant difference in mortality between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. There was significant difference in OS between patients without diabetes mellitus, patients with diabetes mellitus on metformin and patients with diabetes mellitus but not on metformin (p = 0.033); patients with diabetes mellitus on metformin had the best prognosis. Metformin use was associated with significantly lower DSS (p = 0.042). Other oral hypoglycaemic agents, insulin or statins were not associated with disease recurrence or progression.@*CONCLUSION@#Metformin use was associated with improved oncological outcomes in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with intravesical BCG. Prospective studies with larger patient populations are needed to validate the role of metformin as potential therapy for bladder cancer.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravesical , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 358-362, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928818

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic Pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, fibrotic interstitial lung disease with unknown cause, which is closely related to lung cancer. A serious complication called Acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) is prone to occur after lung resection. It progresses rapidly without effective treatment and has a poor prognosis. A typical case of AE-IPF after lung cancer surgery was reported, and its clinical characteristics, imaging features, diagnosis and treatment were summarized.
.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
12.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 41(2): NA-NA, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1369052

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 triggered a range of border controls to curb the spread of the disease. Containment measures and restrictions were put in place to mitigate cross border transmission while maintaining the flow of essential goods and services in the East and Horn of Africa Region. The first cases of COVID-19 detection among truck drivers, triggered and strengthened cross-border collaboration for detecting and responding to COVID-19 pandemic. Infection was significantly common among truck drivers in the region. As at 13 January 2021, there were 3,457 reported cumulative cases among truck drivers in the EHoA region. About 2,879 (83.3%) of the cases were reported in Uganda, 374 (10.8%) cases reported in Kenya, 190 (5.5%) cases reported in Rwanda and 14 (0.4%) cases reported in South Sudan. The reduction in the number of documented new COVID-19 cases among truck drivers declined with collaborative, timely and cooperative border point screening, and so preventing COVID-19 spread in the region. With most East African countries setting the stage for reopening borders and air spaces, sustained comprehensive surveillance is crucial for maintaining the gains from the collaborative response.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Disease Progression , COVID-19 , Motor Vehicles
13.
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 21(2): 93-99, 28 Jul 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390799

ABSTRACT

It is helpful to divide the global HIV response into three phases: The first, from about 1980 to 2000, represents "Calamity". The second, from roughly 2000 to 2015 represents "Hope." The third, from 2015, is unfolding and may be termed "Choices" ­ and these choices may be severely constrained by COVID, so "Constrained Choices in an era of COVID" may prove more apt. As we take stock of HIV at 40, there are positive lessons for the wider health response ­ and challenging reflections for the wider impact of the global HIV response. The positive lessons include: (1) the importance of activism; (2) the role of scientific progress and innovation; (3) the impact of evidence in concentrating resources on proven approaches; (4) the importance of surveillance to understanding transmission dynamics; (5) the use of epidemic intelligence to guide precision implementation; (6) the focus on implementation cascades (diagnosis, linkage, adherence, disease suppression); and finally (7) an overarching execution and results focus. Given this remarkable legacy, it seems churlish to ask whether the HIV response could have achieved more. yet, consider these approximate figures. Development assistance for HIV totals about 100 billion dollars, 70 billion from the USA matched by roughly 100 billion in domestic resources. For 200 billion dollars, should we not have achieved more than 23 million people initiating treatment (very crudely, 10 000 dollars per person on treatment)? Much of the hundred billion dollars of development assistance (roughly half) focused on about a dozen priority countries in eastern and southern African. The larger PEPFAR recipients, with populations of roughly 50 million, each received 5 billion dollars or more cumulatively. And there are further Global Fund contributions of an additional billion dollars in many of these countries. For 6 billion dollars per country, should we have expected more? The World Bank Human Capital Project posits that to maximize human capital formation, countries must ensure that their children survive, are well nourished and stimulated, learn skills and live long, productive lives. Using the Human Capital Index (a composite index based on these factors), South Africa ­ the largest HIV financing recipient ­ ranks 126th of 157 countries, below Haiti, Ghana, the Congo Republic, Senegal and Benin. Consider how many recipients of major HIV development finance fall into the bottom fifth: Namibia, Botswana, Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda, Lesotho, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Cote D'Ivoire and Nigeria. Of course, causality is unresolved and there are several possible explanations: (1) low human capital formation may increase HIV transmission; (2) the HIV epidemic may have intergenerational impacts; (3) the all-consuming focus on HIV may have displaced other health, education and development priorities. yet, it remains hard to see these data and to argue that successful HIV responses among the largest HIV financing recipients strengthened their wider health sector and human development outcomes. A plausible principle emerges. Narrowly targeted disease-specific emergency responses may lead to disease-specific gains but do not improve governance or national systems capacity or wider disease or development outcomes. This is not to undermine the emergency origins of the HIV response; 2021 is not 2000 and it is unlikely that we would have 23 million people initiating treatment without an emergency response. yet, there are reasons (intensified by COVID), to suggest that we must pivot towards long-term, integrated, developmental, nationally owned and financed, systems-orientated responses ­ particularly when both development assistance and national budgets are likely to be constrained in an era of COVID.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Inventions , HIV Testing , COVID-19 , Therapeutic Approaches , SEER Program , Political Activism
14.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 15(4): 1-8, 2022. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1398398

ABSTRACT

Contexte et objectif. Le pancréas étant un organe profond, son exploration clinique est parfois limitée et peu performante. Le diagnostic de ces pathologies repose principalement sur le dosage des enzymes pancréatiques (la lipasémie notamment) et l'imagerie médicale. L'objectif de la présente étude était de décrire le profil scanographique des tumeurs pancréatiques. Méthodes. Il s'agissait d'une série des cas documentaires menée dans 3 Services de radiologie à Kinshasa de janvier 2016 à juin 2021, ayant retenu 86 comptes rendus de tomodensitométrie (TDM) abdominale des patients avec pathologie pancréatique. Toutes les images archivées ont été relues par spécialistes en imagerie. Résultats. 66 cas de tumeurs pancréatiques ont été colligés. Le sexe masculin était prépondérant (sex-ratio H/F=1,6) avec un âge moyen de 55,7 ± 14,7 ans (16 à 92 ans). Le syndrome de cholestase (50 %) et la douleur abdominale (épigastrique) étaient les indications les plus retrouvées. Les contours étaient lobulés dans plus de la moitié des cas (56,1 %). Le canal de Wirsung était dilaté dans la plupart des tumeurs. Les tumeurs étaient résécables dans 26 % des cas. Conclusion. La TDM abdominale contribue au diagnostic des pathologies pancréatiques. Elles affectent le plus souvent des sujets âgés du sexe masculin et sont dominées par les tumeurs qui sont généralement diagnostiquées au stade non-résécable


Context and objective. The pancreas being a deep organ, its clinical exploration is sometimes limited and inefficient. The diagnosis of pancreatic pathologies is mainly based on the dosage of pancreatic enzymes (lipasemia in particular) and medical imaging. The objective of the present study was to describe the scanographic profile of pancreatic tumors in 3 radiology departments in Kinshasa. Methods. It was a retrospective serial case study conducted in 3 radiology departments in Kinshasa from January 2016 to June 2021, having retained 86 reports of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan of patients with pancreatic pathology. Results. 66 cases of pancreatic tumors were involved. Male patients were predominant (sex-ratio M/F=1.6) and the mean age of 55.7 ± 14.7 years (range: 16 to 92 years). Cholestasis syndrome (50 %) and abdominal (epigastric) pain were the most common indications. In tumors, the contours were lobulated (56.1 %). The Wirsung duct was dilated in most tumors. The tumors were resectable in 26 % of cases. Conclusion. The abdominal CT-scan contributes to the diagnosis of pancreatic pathologies. These pathologies mostly affect male elderly subjects, are predominantly tumoral and generally diagnosed in late unresectable stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Disease Progression , Diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis
15.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(1): 16-20, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391177

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A dermatite atópica é uma doença crônica e recidivante, influenciada por fatores ambientais, que necessita prescrições médicas frequentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se crianças e adolescentes com dermatite atópica atendidos em um serviço público tiveram agravamento das lesões ou dificuldades no autocuidado durante a pandemia COVID-19.Métodos: Estudo longitudinal retrospectivo. Os dados foram coletados do prontuário de pacientes com dermatite atópica menores de 18 anos atendidos em um ambulatório público de referência do Rio Grande do Sul. A percepção sobre o agravamento das lesões foi avaliada pelos testes Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher e regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para estimar o risco de agravamento das lesões conforme o medo da COVID-19.Resultados: Foram avaliados 33 pacientes, sendo 70% do sexo feminino e 57,6% residentes na capital. A média de idade foi de 9,6 ± 3,9 anos e o tempo médio de acompanhamento pelo serviço 4,6 ± 2,9 anos. A percepção de agravamento das lesões durante o período de suspensão dos atendimentos esteve presente em 81,8% das crianças/adolescentes. As crianças relataram com frequência o aumento de coceira (78,3%) e descamação (60,9%), enquanto os adolescentes referiram maior aumento da vermelhidão (60%). O medo de contrair o vírus foi associado a um risco oito vezes maior de apresentar agravamento das lesões.Conclusões: O alto percentual de crianças/adolescentes com agravamento das lesões e a associação da piora da doença com o medo relacionado à pandemia reforçam a importância do acompanhamento destes por equipe multidisciplinar que observe fatores fisiopatológicos e psicossociais.


Introduction: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent condition, influenced by environmental factors, that requires frequent medical prescriptions. The aim of this study was to investigate if children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis treated at a public clinic reported exacerbation of the disease or self-care problems during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study. Data were collected from the medical records of patients aged < 18 years with atopic dermatitis treated at a public outpatient clinic in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The perception of disease exacerbation in children and adolescents was evaluated using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Poisson regression was used to estimate the risk of worsening of skin lesions according to the fear of COVID-19. Results: The study sample included 33 patients, of whom 70% were female and 57.6% lived in the state's capital city. Mean patient age was 9.6 ± 3.9 years, and mean time of clinic follow-up was 4.6 ± 2.9 years. The perception of disease exacerbation during the pandemic was reported by 81.8% of children/adolescents. Children reported increased itching (78.3%) and desquamation (60.9%), whereas adolescents reported increased redness (60%). The fear of contracting COVID-19 was associated with an eight-fold increased risk of worsening of skin lesions.Conclusion: The high percentage of children/adolescents with worsening of skin lesions and the association between disease exacerbation and the fear of COVID-19 reinforce the importance of a multidisciplinary approach that focuses on pathophysiological and psychosocial factors in patients with atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Disease Progression
16.
Actual. osteol ; 18(1): 10-21, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1395661

ABSTRACT

La periodontitis es una patología inflamatoria que aumenta la resorción de hueso alveolar (HA), pérdida de la inserción dentaria y posible exfoliación. Evaluamos el efecto de la administración intermitente de bajas dosis de parathormona (PTH) 1-34 sobre la recuperación de la masa ósea pérdida en un modelo experimental de periodontitis inducida por una ligadura periodontal (LP) con hilo de algodón alrededor de la pieza dentaria. Las ratas fueron divididas luego de 5 días en instaurada la periodontitis en: CT LP sin trata-miento y PTH LP tratados con 0,2 µg/kg PTH 1-34 subcutánea local, tres veces por semana por 17 días. El control absoluto fue un tercer grupo sin LP (CT). Se estudiaron parámetros antropométricos, bioquímicos e histomosfométricos en tibias y hemimandibulas. La calcemia, fosfatemia, CTX sérico, PTHi y vo-lumen óseo (BV/TV%) de tibias fueron similares en los tres grupos. El BV/TV% del HA fue significativamente menor en PTH LP respecto de CT pero mayor que CT LP (p<0.05). La pérdida ósea de HA porcentual fue significativamente mayor en CT LP (p<0.05). La altura del ligamento periodontal fue significativamente menor en PTH LP que en CT (p<0.05) y mayor respecto de CT LP, sin alcanzar diferencias significativas. Los resultados del presente estudio piloto sugieren que la administración intermitente de PTH en bajas dosis y durante un periodo de tiempo corto disminuye la progresión de la enfermedad periodontal sin generar efectos sistémicos. Como no se logró regenerar totalmente el tejido periodontal se requieren estudios adicionales. (AU)


Periodontitis is an inflammatory chronic disease with high prevalence in adults that induces a progressive alveolar bone (AB) loss leading to tooth loss. Experimental periodontitis can be induced in rats by cotton ligature placement (LP) in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. The biofilm accumulation and disruption of the gingival epithelium lead to bone resorption. We investigated whether intermittent administration of a low dose of PTH 1-34 may recover the alveolar bone loss in the experimental periodontitis induced in female Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided in two groups which were subcutaneously injected with: saline solution (CT LP) or 0,2 µg/kg PTH 1-34 (PTH LP) three times per week during 17 days. Unligated rats were taken as healthy controls (CT). Anthropometric, biochemical and histologic analysis of tibia and hemimandible were done. No differences in serum calcium, phosphorus, CTX, PTHi or subchondral tibia bone volume (BV/TV%) were observed between the three groups. AB BV/TV% was significantly lower in PTH LP than in CT but higher than in CT LP (p<0.05). The highest percentage of AB loss was observed in CT LP. The height of periodontal ligament was lower in PTH LP than in CT (p<0.05) but not significantly higher than CT LP.The increase in AB loss by experimental periodontitis appears to be corrected by the intermittent administration of low doses of PTH without systemic effect. As the recovery of periodontal tissue was only partial, additional studies should be done.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , Teriparatide/administration & dosage , Tibia/anatomy & histology , Tibia/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Disease Progression , Models, Animal , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/chemistry
17.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 113-118, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352964

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad desmielinizante crónica que produce discapacidad progresiva, por lo que el tratamiento se centra en retrasar la progresión, prevenir recaídas y disminuir los síntomas de manera efectiva. Realizamos un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal, de un solo centro, con los pacientes admitidos en la unidad de enfermedades desmielinizantes, desde diciembre 2017 hasta febrero 2020. Del total de pacientes, 62.5% recibieron tratamiento con ocrelizumab y completaron seguimiento por 12 meses, sin progresión de la enfermedad. Con este estudio, resaltamos la importancia y la efectividad de los tratamientos modificadores de la enfermedad.


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease that causes progressive disability, so treatment focuses on slowing progression, preventing relapses, and effectively reducing symptoms. We conducted an observational, descriptive, longitudinal, single-center study with patients admitted to the demyelinating diseases unit from December 2017 to February 2020. Of the total number of patients, 62.5% received treatment with ocrelizumab and completed 12-month follow-up, without disease progression. With this study, we highlight the importance and effectiveness of disease-modifying treatments


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Patients , Effectiveness , Demyelinating Diseases , Aftercare , Disease Progression
18.
Infectio ; 25(4): 270-275, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286721

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comparar la expresión de mRNA y proteínas de SFRP1, PTPRN, CDO1, EDNRB, CDX2, EPB41L3 y HAND1 en pacientes con lesión intra-epitelial cervical de bajo y alto grado, con posterior progresión o regresión. Material y Método: Se realizó análisis de expresión de genes mediante RT-PCR y análisis de expresión de proteínas por inmunohistoquímica. El análisis estadís tico fue realizado con las pruebas: Wilcoxon, coeficiente de correlación de Spearman e índice de concordancia. Las muestras fueron pareadas en momento 1 y momento 2. Resultados: SFRP1 mostró tendencia de mayor expresión de mRNA en lesión intra-epitelial de bajo grado (momento 2) Vs. alto grado (momento 1). La expresión de proteínas por inmunohistoquímica de SFRP1 en casos de progresión (83,3 %) mostró disminución en su graduación (p = 0,0313*); los demás genes en estudio no tuvieron cambios estadísticamente significativos. Discusión: SFRP1 mostró comportamiento ajustado a resultados de estudios previos donde se encontró hipermetilado en lesiones intra-epiteliales de alto grado; su subexpresión por hipermetilación se reportó en otros canceres, proceso que colabora con su silenciamiento y transición epitelial-mesenquimatosa del cáncer de cuello uterino. Conclusiones. SFRP1 es potencial biomarcador en lesiones preneoplásicas del cuello uterino asociadas al virus de papiloma humano.


Abstract Objective. The aim of this work was to compare the expression of mRNA and proteins of SFRP1, PTPRN, CDO1, EDNRB, CDX2, EPB41L3 and HAND1 in patients with low and high grade cervical intraepithelial lesion, with subsequent progression or regression. Material and Methods: Gene expression analysis was conducted through RT-PCR and protein expression analysis was performed by immunohistochemistry. The statistics analysis were Wilcoxon test, Spearman's correlation coefficient and concordance index. The samples were paired during moment 1 (initial patient diag nosis) and moment 2 (follow-up histological diagnosis). Results: SFRP1 showed a trend of higher mRNA expression in low-grade intra-epithelial lesions (moment 2) Vs. high-grade (moment 1). The expression of proteins by immunohistochemistry of SFRP1 in progression cases (83.3%) showed a decrease in its graduation (p = 0.0313*); the other genes under study had no statistically significant. Discussion: SFRP1 showed a biological behavior adjusted to the results of previous studies where hypermethylation was found in high-grade intra-epithelial lesions; its subexpression by hypermethylation has been reported in other cancers, a process that collaborates with its silencing and epithelial-mesenchymal tran sition of cervical. Conclusions. SFRP1 is a potential biomarker in preneoplastic lesions of the cervix associated with human papillomavirus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Papilloma , DNA Probes, HPV , Viruses , Proteins , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Disease Progression , Alphapapillomavirus
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353156

ABSTRACT

2021.174934ABSTRACTIntroduction: The mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) have been studied, and it was suggested that inflammatory cytokines during HCV infection would change the thy-roperoxidase (TPO) signaling cascade and thyroglobulin (Tg) determining autoimmune thyroid disease.Objective: To show the signaling pathway, of TPO and Tg, and their potential targets mediated HCV in individuals with hepatitis C.Methods: The mapping of the signaling pathway was based on a review study approach and performed using the automatic annotation server of the Kyoto and Genome Encyclopedia (KEGG). PathVisio is free software for analysis and design of open source routes, and was used for the graphic representation of the signaling pathway.Results: The contigs were extracted from the KEGG database and their mapped transcription represents the signa-ling pathway of the main biomolecules that triggers the AIT. The action of HCV, or its treatment can trigger AIT that is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against TPO and Tg. In AIT, autoreactive CD4 + T lymphocytes recruit B cells and CD8 + T cells in the thyroid. The progression of the disease leads to the death of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism. Conclusion: HCV or its treatment activates several signaling pathways with thyroid cells damage resulting in AIT and secondary hypothyroidism to cellular apoptosis. (AU)


RESUMOIntrodução: Os mecanismos pelos quais a infecção com o vírus da hepatite C (HCV) induz à tireoidite autoimune (TAI) têm sido alvo de estudos. Tem sido sugerido que citocinas inflamatórias, como a elevação das interleucinas na inflamação causadas pelo HCV, alterariam a cascata de sinalização da tireoperoxidase (TPO) e tireoglobulina (Tg) determinando um quadro de doença autoimune da tireóide.Objetivo: Demonstrar a via de sinalização da TPO e da Tg e seus potenciais alvos para a TAI mediados pelo HCV em indivíduos com hepatite C.Método: O mapeamento da via de sinalização foi realizado usando o servidor de anotação automática da Enciclopé-dia Quioto de Genes e Genomas (KEGG). O PathVisio, um software gratuito de análise e desenho de vias de código aberto, foi utilizado para a representação gráfica da via de sinalização.Resultado: As sequências foram retiradas do banco de dados KEGG e sua transcrição mapeada representa a via de . sinalização das principais biomoléculas que desencadeia a TAI. A ação do HCV, ou seu tratamento pode desen-cadear a TAI que é caracterizada pela presença de autoanticorpos contra a TPO e Tg. Na TAI os linfócitos T CD4+ auto-reativos recrutam células B e células T CD8+ na tireóide. A progressão da doença leva à morte de células da tireóide e hipotireoidismo.Conclusão: O HCV ou o seu tratamento ativa várias vias de sinalização com dano na célula tireoidiana, tendo como resultado TAI e hipotireoidismo secundário a apoptose celular. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune , CD4 Antigens , CD8 Antigens , Hepacivirus , Disease Progression , Hypothyroidism
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(4): 412-415, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290238

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Heart failure in Brazil is a major public health problem and, even with advances in treatment, it still presents high morbidity and mortality. As a treatment option, mechanical circulatory assist devices (MCADs) have greatly increased in importance over the last decade. CASE REPORT: This report concerns a case of refractory cardiogenic shock due to acute myocarditis in a 35-year-old puerperal female patient who presented with retrosternal pain, fatigue and dyspnea. At the hospital, she was diagnosed with myocarditis. There was no improvement in perfusion even after receiving dobutamine, intra-aortic balloon passage (IAB) and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). Therefore, it was decided to implant a MCAD (CentriMag). During hospitalization, recovery from the bi-ventricular dysfunction was achieved. The CentriMag device was removed 10 days after it had been implanted, and the patient was discharged after another 8 days. The myocarditis was proven to be due to the Coxsackie virus. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to implant a MCAD should be individualized, as patient profiles do not always match the indications in the guidelines and protocols. In this study, clinical discussion of the case among the medical and multi-professional teams was essential in order to be able to successfully reverse the patient's severe clinical condition without sequelae, through using a CentriMag implant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart-Assist Devices , Heart Failure/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Disease Progression
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