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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(3): 401-409, mayo 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538160


Bovine mastitis is a disease wi th far - reaching consequences for the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that is especially resistant to antibiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils Lippia citriodora (Lam.), Thy mus vulgaris (L), and a mixture of the essential oils Lippia citriodora and Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v), against isolates of oxacillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=15) of positive cases of bovine mastitis. For the statistical analysis, the IBM SPSS s tatistical package was used. The mixture of essential oils ( Lippia citriodora and Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v)) obtained the most significant antimicrobial activity in relation to pure essential oils. It is therefore concluded that the mixture of these oils boosts their antimicrobial activity ( p <0.05). The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of this mixture for the total isolations was 12 µL/L and 25 µL/mL, respectively.

La mastitis bovina es una enfermedad de gran impacto para la industria lechera. El Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales patógenos, especialmente aquellos resistentes a los antibióticos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de Lippia citriodora (Lam.), Thymus vulgaris (L), y una mezcla de aceites esenciales de Lippia citriodora y Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v), frente a aislamientos clínicos de Staph ylococcus aureus oxacilino - resistentes (n=15) de mastitis bovina. Se utilizó p rograma estadístico IBM SPSS y se concluyó la diferencia significativa a un p <0.05. La mezcla de aceites esenciales ( Lippia citriodora y Thymus vulgaris (50/50 v/v)), obtuvo la m ayor actividad antimicrobiana en relación a los aceites esenciales puros, se concluye que la mezcla de estos aceites potencia su actividad antimicrobiana ( p <0.019). La concentración mínima inhibitoria y bactericida de esta mezcla fue del 12 µL/mL y 25 µL/m L, respectivamente, y puede ser una alternativa terapéutica.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Colombia
Actual. Sida Infectol. (En linea) ; 32(114): 26-35, 20240000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551947


La infección por Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) es considerada de alta prioridad en salud pública, por su capacidad para desarrollar resistencia a la mayoría de los antibióticos empleados para tratarla. La presentación anorrectal suele ser asintomática y frecuente en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). En Argentina, se recomienda terapia antibiótica dual (ceftriaxona+azitromicina/doxiciclina) como primera línea empírica. Este estudio observacional y retrospectivo se realizó para evaluar el porcentaje de positividad de NG anorrectal, el perfil de sensibilidad a penicilina, tetraciclina, ciprofloxacina, ceftriaxona, cefixima y azitromicina, así como los aspectos clínicos-epidemiológicos de los pacientes atendidos entre 20/10/2015 y 20/03/2020 en consultorios coloproctológicos de un hospital público. Se detectaron 55/436 hisopados rectales positivos para NG (13%). El 95% era HSH y 71%, VIH+. En 18/55 NG fue la única infección. Las co-infecciones más frecuentes: HPV (38%) y C. trachomatis (35%). La sensibilidad a cefalosporinas de espectro extendido (CEE) y a azitromicina fueron 100% y 98%, respectivamente. Se observó la emergencia local de los primeros cinco aislamientos de NG anorrectal con sensibilidad reducida (SR) a CEE, el primer aislamiento con categoría no-sensible a azitromicina y otro con SR a azitromicina concomitantemente con SR a CEE. Aunque el uso de terapia empírica dual sigue siendo adecuado para nuestra institución, se observó la emergencia de aislamientos con SR y NS a las drogas de primera línea, evidenciando la importancia de la vigilancia epidemiológica a nivel local para definir los tratamientos empíricos.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection is considered a high public health priority because of its ability to develop resistance to most of the antibiotics used to treat it.The anorectal presentation is generally asymptomatic and frequent in men who have sex with men (MSM). In Argentina, dual therapy (ceftriaxone+azithromycin/doxycycline) is recommended as first line empiric therapy.This observational and retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the percentage of anorectal NG positivity, the susceptibility profile to penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefixime and azithromycin, as well as the clinical-epidemiological aspects of patients attended between 20/10/2015 and 20/03/2020 in coloproctology of a public hospital.We detected 55/436 positive rectal swabs for NG (13%). 95% were MSM and 71% were PLHIV. In 18/55 NG was the only infection. The most frequent co-infections: HPV (38%) and C. trachomatis (35%).Susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and azithromycin was 100% and 98%, respectively. Local emergence of the first five anorectal NG isolates with decreased susceptibility (DS) to ESCs, the first isolate with nonsusceptible category to azithromycin and another with DS to azithromycin concomitantly with DS to ESCs were observed.Although the use of dual empirical therapy continues to be adequate for our institution, the emergence of isolates with DS and NS to first-line drugs was observed, evidencing the importance of epidemiological surveillance at the local level to define empirical treatments

Humans , Male , Female , Proctitis/pathology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Gonorrhea/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/therapy , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexual Behavior
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1553409


Introduction: Healthcare-associated infections pose a significant challenge, contributing to hospital morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe the behavior of Healthcare Associated Infections before and during the pandemic reported to a high-complexity health institution in Colombia. Material and Methods: In our retrospective observational study on Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), we analyzed data from all in-patients diagnosed with HAIs between 2018 and 2020. This included clinical, demographic, microbiological, and microbial susceptibility information collected from the Committee on Nosocomial Infections' prospective database. Data from 391 isolates were obtained using Whonet software for antimicrobial resistance surveillance. Results: We found 504 cases of HAIs (2018-2020) with an overall in-hospital infection rate of 2.55/1000 patient-days. The median age for pediatric patients was 5 years, and for adults, 56 years, with 57% male. The leading admission diagnoses were oncologic disease complications (31%). Bacteremia had a 30-day mortality rate of 13%, predominantly catheter-associated (37%). Gram-negative bacilli, notably Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, represented 58% cases of HAI. Discussion: The critical need for specific interventions and antimicrobial management to control HAIs, especially given the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, is highlighted. Conclusions: This is the first report on HAIs incidence at a tertiary hospital in Bucaramanga, Santander (Colombia). Bacteremia was predominant; 75% of HAIs patients had comorbidities. Gram-negative bacilli prevailed; a notable rise in ICU respiratory infections occurred during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems was prevalent.

Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection , COVID-19
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254513, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360222


Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a recently defined vaginal recurring infection, which is treated with antibiotics. However, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics disrupts healthy vaginal microflora and leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This situation has directed researchers to explore alternative antimicrobials. The current study describes in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial efficacy and pharmaceutical interactions between plant essential oils (EOs) and five lactic acid bacteria (LABs), isolated from the healthy vagina, against E. faecalis, one of the major etiological agents of AV. In vitro experiments confirm good antimicrobial activity of both plant EOs and cell free supernatant (CFS) from LABs. Based on high antimicrobial efficacy, Moringa essential oil (MO) was selected to determine its nature of interaction with CFS of five LAB strains. Synergism was recorded between MO and CFS of L. reuteri (MT180537). To validate in vitro findings, prophylactic responses of individual and synergistic application of MO and L. reuteri (MT180537) were evaluated in an E. faecalis (MW051601) induced AV murine model. The prophylactic efficacy was evidenced by a reduction in intensity of clinical symptoms, E. faecalis (MW051601) count per vaginal tissue along with a reduction in AV associated changes in histological markers of infection in animals receiving Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) alone or in combination. However, significant synergism between Moringa essential oil and L. reuteri (MT180537) could not be observed. Our data confirms the importance of in vivo experiments in deducing pharmacological interactions.

Vaginite aeróbica (VA) é uma infecção vaginal recorrente definida recentemente, que é tratada com antibióticos. No entanto, o uso excessivo e prolongado de antibióticos perturba a microflora vaginal saudável e leva ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos entre os patógenos. Esta situação levou os pesquisadores a explorar antimicrobianos alternativos. O presente estudo descreve a eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro e in vivo e as interações farmacêuticas entre óleos essenciais vegetais (OE) e cinco bactérias lácticas (BAL), isoladas de vagina sã, contra E. faecalis, um dos principais agentes etiológicos da AV. Os experimentos in vitro confirmam a boa atividade antimicrobiana de ambos os EOs de plantas e sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de LABs. Com base na alta eficácia antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial de Moringa (MO) foi selecionado para determinar sua natureza de interação com o sobrenadante livre de células (CFS) de cinco cepas de LAB. Sinergismo foi registrado entre MO e CFS de L. reuteri (MT180537). Para validar os resultados in vitro, as respostas profiláticas da aplicação individual e sinérgica de MO e L. reuteri (MT180537) foram avaliadas em um modelo murino AV induzido por E. faecalis (MW051601). A eficácia profilática foi evidenciada por uma redução na intensidade dos sintomas clínicos, contagem de E. faecalis (MW051601) por tecido vaginal, juntamente com uma redução nas alterações associadas a AV nos marcadores histológicos de infecção em animais que receberam óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537) sozinho ou em combinação. No entanto, não foi possível observar sinergismo significativo entre o óleo essencial de Moringa e L. reuteri (MT180537). Nossos dados confirmam a importância dos experimentos in vivo na dedução de interações farmacológicas.

Vaginitis/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Moringa , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257144, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364506


Pseudomonas fluorescens is one of the main causes of septicemic diseases among freshwater fish, causing severe economic losses and decreasing farm efficiency. Thus, this research was aimed to investigate the occurrence of P. fluorescens in Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus) fish in Egypt, gene sequencing of 16SrDNA gene, and antimicrobial susceptibility. P. fluorescens strains were detected in 32% (128/400) of apparently healthy (9%; 36/400) and diseased (23%; 92/400) Nile tilapia fish. The highest prevalence was observed in gills of fish, 31.3% followed by intestine 26.9%, liver 24.2%, and kidneys 17.6%. The PCR results for the 16SrDNA gene of P. fluorescens showed 16SrDNA gene in 30% of examined isolates. Moreover, Homogeny and a strong relationship between strains of P. fluorescens was confirmed using 16SrDNA sequences. Beside the responsibility of 16SrDNA gene on the virulence of P. fluorescens. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that all strains were resistant to piperacillin (100%), followed by ceftazidime (29.7%), and cefepime (25.8%). The strains of P. fluorescence were highly sensitive to cefotaxime (74.2%), followed by ceftriaxone and levofloxacin (70.3% each). Interestingly, 29.7% of strains of P. fluorescens were multiple antimicrobial-resistant (MAR).

Pseudomonas fluorescens é uma das principais causas de doenças septicêmicas em peixes de água doce, causando graves perdas econômicas e diminuindo a eficiência da fazenda. Assim, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de P. fluorescens em peixes de tilápia-do-nilo (O. niloticus) no Egito, sequenciamento do gene 16S rDNA e suscetibilidade antimicrobiana. Cepas de P. fluorescens foram detectadas em 32% (128/400) de peixes tilápia-do-nilo aparentemente saudáveis ​​(9%; 36/400) e doentes (23%; 92/400). A maior prevalência foi observada nas brânquias dos peixes, 31,3%, seguida pelo intestino 26,9%, fígado 24,2% e rins 17,6%. Os resultados da PCR para o gene 16SrDNA de P. fluorescens mostraram o gene 16SrDNA em 30% dos isolados examinados. Além disso, a homogeneidade e uma forte relação entre cepas de P. fluorescens foi confirmada usando sequências de 16SrDNA. Além da responsabilidade do gene 16SrDNA na virulência de P. fluorescens. Os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana revelaram que todas as cepas foram resistentes à piperacilina (100%), seguida pela ceftazidima (29,7%) e cefepima (25,8%). As cepas de P. fluorescens foram altamente sensíveis à cefotaxima (74,2%), seguida pela ceftriaxona e levofloxacina (70,3% cada). Curiosamente, 29,7% das cepas de P. fluorescens eram multirresistentes a antimicrobianos (MAR).

Animals , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Aquaculture , Fishes , Fresh Water
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529


The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.

O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.

Animals , Soil , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Water Samples , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
Braz. j. oral sci ; 23: e242836, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553439


Aim: To investigate the bacteriological profile of oral and maxillofacial infections and the pattern of sensitivity to a specific group of antibiotics in a reference emergency hospital in Brazil. Methods: This is a prospective cohort institutional study that studied patients affected by oral and/ or maxillofacial infections in a Brazilian emergency hospital, over a 12-month period, of different etiologies, through data collection, culture and antibiogram tests, and monitoring of the process of resolution of the infectious condition. The variables were analyzed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, using a significance level of 5%. Results: The sample consisted of 61 patients, 62.3% male. The mean age of participants was 34.3 years. Odontogenic infection was the most frequent etiology and the submandibular space was the most affected. The bacterial species Streptococcus viridans was isolated in 21.6% of cases. Levofloxacin, vancomycin and penicillin were the antibiotics with the highest frequency of bacterial sensitivity, while clindamycin and erythromycin showed the highest percentages of resistance. Conclusions: The results suggest that, among the most used antibiotics for the treatment of these infections, penicillin remains an excellent option of choice for empirical therapy

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Surgical Wound Infection , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Focal Infection, Dental , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(1): 86-94, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1532993


Background: The inappropriate use of antibiotics results in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and adverse clinical and economic outcomes in hospital in-patients. A lack of institutional and national antibiotic guidelines promotes inappropriate antibiotic use. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing, and the quality of antibiotic use in medical wards of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of patients admitted and placed on antibiotics in the medical wards of Lagos University Teaching Hospital between July 2013 and August 2014. The appropriateness of antibiotic therapy was determined by compliance with the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Results: A total of 350 hospitalized patients on antibiotic therapy during the period of the study were reviewed, including 197 (56.3%) males and 153 females (43.7%). The mean age of the patients was 48.7±17.6 years and a total of 539 initial antibiotics were empirically prescribed. Antibiotic therapy was considered inappropriate in 290 (82.9%) patients, of which 131 (37.4%) patients had no evidence of infection. Pneumonia (23.1%) was the most common indication for antibiotic use, out of which 59.3% had inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Overall, the most frequently prescribed initial empirical antibiotic classes were imidazole derivatives (32.4%) and cephalosporins (22.0%), while the most frequently prescribed inappropriate antibiotic classes were carbapenems (100.0%) and quinolones (89.3%). Conclusion: The study revealed a high rate of inappropriate antibiotic therapy. There is an imperative need to establish antimicrobial stewardship programmes to curb the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the hospital.

Male , Female , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Overdose , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(113): 25-33, 20230000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1527376


Estudio cuasi-experimental desarrollado para disminuir el impacto de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos a través de un programa de prevención de infecciones y optimización del uso de antimicrobianos construido "a medida" según las posibilidades de la institución. Se implementó: vigilan-cia de colonización e infección por enterobacterias pro-ductoras de carbapenemasas (EPC); vigilancia y medidas preventivas para infecciones urinarias asociadas a sonda vesical (ITU); vigilancia e intervenciones para mejorar la higiene de manos; guías locales de tratamiento de enfer-medades infecciosas con evaluación de adherencia a las mismas y consumo de antibióticos (ATB). Resultados: Comparando periodo pre y postintervención: tasa de EPC en muestras clínicas: 1,1 a 0/días paciente; razón de tasas de incidencia (IRR: 0.00, p: 0.033); tasa de colonización: 3,3 a 0,61/días paciente (IRR: 0.18, p: 0.5). Tasa de ITU 8,9 a 7,2/1000 días catéter urinario (IRR: 0.81, p 0.5). Adherencia a higiene de manos: 77,5% a 70,38% (p 0.0067). Consumo de ATB: 376,24 a 176,82 DDD, (disminu-ción 53%). Adherencia a guías en elección de ATB: 57,1% a 95,4% (p 0.00031); duración de ATB: 92,8% a 98,4% (p 0.16); adecuación según rescate microbiológico: 57,1% a 100% (p <0.01). Conclusión: Un programa con medidas simples, a medida, con supervisión externa, redujo en un tiempo relativamente corto las infecciones por EPC, el consumo y uso apropiado de ATB en un hospital público de medianos/bajos recursos

This quasi-experimental study was developed in a public hospital with the goal of reducing the impact of antimicrobial resistance through an infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship program. The following measures were implemented: surveillance of colonization and infection by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE); surveillance and preventive measures for urinary catheter-associated infections (UTIs); surveillance and interventions for hand hygiene; local guidelines for treatment of infectious diseases with compliance and antibiotic (ATB) consumption metrics.Results: comparing the pre-intervention and post-intervention period, CPE rate in clinical samples 1.1 to 0/patient days, incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.00, p: 0.033 and colonization of 3.3 to 0.61/days patient, IRR: 0.18, p-value: 0.5. UTI rate 8.9 to 7.2/1000 days urinary catheter IRR: 0.81, p 0.5. Hand Hygiene compliance: 77.5% to 70.38%, p 0.0067. ATB consumption: 376.24 to 176.82 DDD, 53% decrease. Compliance to guidelines in ATB selection: 57.1% to 95.4% p 0.00031, duration of ATB from 92.8% to 98.4% p 0.16, and adequacy to microbiological rescue of 57.1% at 100%, p <0.01. Conclusion: it is possible to reduce CPE infections, the consumption of antimicrobials and optimize their use in a public hospital in a country with medium/low resources through a program with basic and tailored measures

Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Infection Control , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Antimicrobial Stewardship
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(112): 53-76, 20230000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1451860


La creciente resistencia antimicrobiana asociada a la crisis en la producción de nuevos antibióticos y las consecuen-cias humanas y económicas de este fenómeno constituyen un complejo escenario que requiere el urgente desarrollo de estrategias antimicrobianas alternativas. Los bacterió-fagos son virus que infectan y lisan bacterias. Si bien se conocen desde hace más de un siglo, en las últimas dos décadas la administración de bacteriófagos ha ganado popularidad en todo el mundo. Existe un extenso cuerpo de evidencia preclínica y clínica que posiciona a la fago-terapia como una de las principales herramientas para el tratamiento de infecciones difíciles de tratar. Aunque esto es conceptualmente promisorio, su implementación está limitada por la escasez de datos clínicos de seguridad y efi-cacia, obtenidos acorde a los estándares científicos actua-les. Esta revisión describe los datos más relevantes acerca de la biología de los fagos, los aspectos farmacocinéticos y farmacodinámicos conocidos hasta la actualidad, los te-mas regulatorios y los resultados clínicos más relevantes

The rising antimicrobial resistance associated with the crisis in new antibiotics production and the human and economic consequences of this phenomenon constitute a complex scenario that requires the urgent development of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. They have been known for over a century but in the last two decades, phage administration has gained popularity worldwide. There is an extensive body of preclinical and clinical evidence that positions phage therapy as one of the main tools for the treatment of difficult-to-treat infections. Although this is conceptually promising, its implementation is limited by the paucity of clinical data on safety and efficacy, obtained according to current scientific standards. This review describes the most relevant data on phage biology, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects known to date, regulatory issues, and the most relevant clinical results

Humans , Male , Female , Bacteriophages , Drug Resistance, Microbial/immunology , Phage Therapy
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(112): 36-43, 20230000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1451840


Introducción: La incidencia de Enterobacterales resistentes a carbapenemes (ERC) se elevó en la última década, y en especial durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Objetivo: Conocer el perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana, así como la frecuencia y tipo de carbapenemasas presen-tes en los aislamientos de ERC en un hospital regional.Materiales y métodos: Estudio epidemiológico, observa-cional y retrospectivo. Incluyó ERC aislados en muestras clínicas durante 2021 en un hospital regional de Santa Fe, Argentina. El cálculo de la incidencia (aislamientos/pacien-tes-día) e intervalo de confianza 95% (IC 95%), y las pruebas estadísticas se realizaron con OpenEpi.Resultados: 348 ERC aislados (11,9 aislamientos/1000 pacientes-día; IC95% 10,7-13,2). La incidencia se correla-cionó con los casos de COVID-19 (rho=0,874, p<0,001) y fue a expensas de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (76,4%). El principal ERC aislado fue Klebsiella pneumoniae (71,4%, n=260). KPC fue el principal mecanismo de resistencia (61,2%). Se aislaron dos doble productores de carbapene-masas. La tasa global de resistencia a los antibióticos no betalactámicos evaluados fue superior en Klebsiella pneu-moniae que en el resto de los aislamientos resistentes a carbapenemes (60,6% vs. 38,5%, p<0,001). En KPC hubo mayor resistencia a colistin (44,6% vs. 23,9%, p=0,001) y menor a amikacina (23,9% vs. 72,6%, p<0,001).Conclusión: Frente a las escasas opciones terapéuticas en infecciones por ERC se destaca la importancia de conocer los mecanismos de resistencia implicados y la epidemiología local

Introduction: The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) rose in the last decade, and especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.Objective: To identify the antimicrobial resistance profile, as well as the frequency and type of carbapenems that were present in CRE isolations in a tertiary care hospital.Materials and methods: Epidemiological, observational and retrospective study. It included CRE isolated in clinical samples during 2021 in a tertiary care hospital in Argentina. Incidences (isolations/patients-day), confidence intervals of 95% (CI 95%) and statistical comparisons were made with OpenEpi.Results: 348 CRE were isolated (11.9 isolations/1,000 patients-day, IC95% 10.7-13.2). Incidence correlated to COVID-19 cases (rho=0.874, p<0.001). Most isolations were from the Intensive Care Unit (76.4%) and the from respiratory samples (27.6%, n=96) and blood cultures (24.4%, n=92). The main isolated CRE was Klebsiella pneumoniae (71.4%, n=260), with a general carbapenem resistance of 53.4%. KPC was the main resistance mechanism (61.2%). Two double carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales were isolated. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a higher overall resistance rate to non-betalactam antibiotics (60.6% vs 38.5%, p<0.001). Among CRE, a higher colistin resistance rate was found in KPC isolations (44.6% vs 23.9%, p=0.001) and lower resistance to amikacin (23.9% vs 72.6%, p<0.001).Conclusion: The difficulty in the selection of antibiotic regimens for CRE forces the treating physicians to put emphasis on the knowledge of resistance mechanisms to optimize them

Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Epidemiology , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Public
Salud mil ; 42(1): e401, 05/05/2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1531497


Introducción: la resistencia a los antimicrobianos ha sido una problemática creciente a nivel global, la problemática afecta no solo la salud de personas, animales y el ambiente en general, sino que ha generado impactos de índole productivo y comercial. Una de las estrategias para abordar esta problemática es el enfoque de una salud. Este enfoque destaca la participación multidisciplinaria para combatir la resistencia antimicrobiana; y es así que cada profesión o actividad laboral genera unas responsabilidades innatas para la profesión veterinaria. Los veterinarios tienen un rol fundamental para este propósito, ya que son ellos quienes integran la aplicabilidad de estrategias de promoción y prevención a nivel agropecuario, y de consolidación e interlocución entre los diferentes componentes del enfoque (animal, humano, ambiente) desde el ámbito de la salud pública veterinaria. Materiales y Método: se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura en diferentes bases de datos, con el objetivo de realizar una revisión actualizada sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana. Resultados: dentro de las principales estrategias se debería fomentar un uso adecuado y bajo prescripción de antimicrobianos en la producción animal. Promover buenas prácticas de higiene, bioseguridad y vacunación, facilitando un correcto diagnóstico de enfermedades infecciosas en animales. Discusión: la adopción de normas internacionales para el uso responsable de los antibióticos y las directrices establecidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura, a través del Codex Alimentarius y la Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal, son fundamentales para hacer frente al desafío que representa el problema de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos.

Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance has been a growing problem at a global level, affecting not only the health of people, animals and the environment in general, but it has also generated impacts of a productive and commercial nature. One of the strategies to address this problem is the one-health approach. This approach emphasizes multidisciplinary participation to combat antimicrobial resistance; and thus, each profession or work activity generates innate responsibilities for the veterinary profession. Veterinarians have a fundamental role for this purpose, since they are the ones who integrate the applicability of promotion and prevention strategies at the agricultural level, and of consolidation and interlocution between the different components of the approach (animal, human, environment) from the field of veterinary public health. Materials and Method: a literature search was carried out in different databases, with the aim of carrying out an updated review on antimicrobial resistance. Results: one of the main strategies should be to promote an adequate use and under prescription of antimicrobials in animal production. Promote good hygiene, biosecurity and vaccination practices, facilitating a correct diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals. Discussion: the adoption of international standards for the responsible use of antibiotics and the guidelines established by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, through Codex Alimentarius and the World Organization for Animal Health, are fundamental to face the challenge posed by the problem of antimicrobial resistance.

Introdução: A resistência antimicrobiana tem sido um problema crescente em todo o mundo, afetando não apenas a saúde dos seres humanos, dos animais e do meio ambiente em geral, mas também causando impactos na produção e no comércio. Uma das estratégias para lidar com esse problema é a abordagem One Health. Essa abordagem enfatiza o envolvimento multidisciplinar no combate à resistência antimicrobiana, com cada profissão ou atividade de trabalho gerando responsabilidades inatas à profissão veterinária. Os veterinários têm um papel fundamental nesse sentido, pois são eles que integram a aplicabilidade das estratégias de promoção e prevenção em nível agropecuário e de consolidação e interlocução entre os diferentes componentes da abordagem (animal, humano, ambiental) do campo da saúde pública veterinária. Materiais e Métodos: foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica em diferentes bases de dados, com o objetivo de realizar uma revisão atualizada sobre a resistência antimicrobiana. Resultados: uma das principais estratégias deve ser a promoção do uso adequado e com baixa prescrição de antimicrobianos na produção animal. Promover boas práticas de higiene, biossegurança e vacinação, facilitando o diagnóstico correto de doenças infecciosas em animais. Discussão: A adoção de padrões internacionais para o uso responsável de antibióticos e as diretrizes estabelecidas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e pela Organização das Nações Unidas para Agricultura e Alimentação, por meio do Codex Alimentarius e da Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal, são essenciais para enfrentar o desafio representado pelo problema da resistência antimicrobiana.

Humans , Animals , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(111): 37-42, 20230000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427136


Las peritonitis secundarias constituyen una causa frecuente de internación y de uso de antibioticoterapia dentro de las infecciones intraabdominales. Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y observacional de centro único desde enero a diciembre de 2021. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la epidemiología local y adecuar el tratamiento empírico de las peritonitis secundarias de la comunidad. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores a 16 años con peritonitis secundaria, intervención quirúrgica, envío de material a cultivo y desarrollo microbiano de bacterias aerobias a través de la revisión de historias clínicas. Se analizaron cultivos de 36 pacientes, 64% de sexo masculino con una media de edad de 48,8 años. El 22% requirió internación en unidad de cuidados intensivos. La principal causa fue apendicitis aguda en el 61%, seguido por perforación secundaria a tumores. Se aislaron 43 bacterias aerobias (1,2 bacterias por episodio) siendo E. coli el microorganismo más frecuente. En la institución se utiliza piperacilina-tazobactam como tratamiento empírico. De acuerdo a las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Infectología de 2018, en infecciones no complicadas podría utilizarse aminoglucósidos + metronidazol, optando por piperacilina-tazobactam en casos graves. No es recomendado como tratamiento empírico el uso de ampicilina-sulbactam y ciprofloxacina para infecciones graves o con difícil control del foco por la alta tasa de resistencia. En base a nuestro estudio podemos concluir que la epidemiología de los pacientes coincide con lo descrito en publicaciones nacionales, lo que nos lleva a reconsiderar el tratamiento empírico en casos leves, pudiendo optar por aminoglucósidos + metronidazol.

Secondary peritonitis is a frequent cause of hospital admission and an usual cause of use of antibiotic therapy in abdominal infections. We did a retrospective and observational study in one health center between January 2021 and December 2021. The aim of the study was to analyze the local epidemiology and adapt antibiotic empirical therapy of secondary community peritonitis. Patients aged 16 years and older with secondary peritonitis were included in this study. These patients needed surgical intervention and they had a positive culture with aerobic microorganism. We analyzed abdominal cultures from 36 patients, 64% men with a median age of 48.8 years. Twenty- two percent of these patients were admitted to intensive care unit. Acute appendicitis was the principal cause of secondary peritonitis in 61% of cases, followed by tumors. We found 43 aerobic bacterias (1.2 bacteria/episode), E.coli was the most frequent microorganism. In our hospital we use piperacillin- tazobactam for empirical treatment. According to the 2018 recommendations from the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases, aminoglycosides + metronidazole can be used for uncomplicated intra-abdominal infections, and piperacillin-tazobactam should be used only in severe cases. However, ampicillin-sulbactam or ciprofloxacin is not recommended for severe cases or complicated infections due to the high resistance rates. Based on the finding of the study, it could be said that the epidemiology of the patients coincides with what was described in other national medical journals. Therefore, we should reconsider the use of aminoglycosides + metronidazole as empirical treatment for mild cases.

Humans , Male , Female , Peritonitis/therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Intraabdominal Infections/therapy
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 75(1)abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550869


Introducción: La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) es una crisis de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) estableció una lista de bacterias resistentes priorizadas para orientar investigaciones y alternativas de mejora. Objetivo: Describir la producción científica del Perú sobre RAM de bacterias priorizadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, entre 2012 y 2021. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional de tipo bibliométrico en revistas indexadas en Scopus durante el período 2012-2021. La selección de los estudios y la extracción de datos se realizó manualmente por duplicado. Se clasificaron las bacterias resistentes estudiadas, según las prioridades (crítica, alta y media). Resultados: Se incluyeron 118 artículos. Durante el período 2014-2021 hubo un aumento de publicaciones. El 61,9 por ciento fueron artículos publicados en inglés, 98,3 por ciento con filiación en Perú y el 77,1 por ciento fueron realizados en Lima. Se publicaron más estudios sobre las bacterias de prioridad crítica que sobre las de alta o media. El 79,7 por ciento buscó determinar la prevalencia o caracterizar y el 26,1 por ciento mencionó algún financiamiento de instituciones del país. Conclusión: La producción científica peruana sobre RAM ha aumentado en los últimos años y se cuenta con más publicaciones de bacterias de prioridad crítica. Sin embargo, estos estudios se centran en Lima y solo la cuarta parte ha sido financiada por alguna entidad peruana(AU)

Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a worldwide public health crisis. The World Health Organization (WHO) established a priority list of resistant bacteria to guide research and alternatives for improvement. Objective: To describe the scientific production of Peru on AMR of bacteria prioritized by the World Health Organization, between 2012 and 2021. Methods: Observational descriptive study of bibliometric type in journals indexed in Scopus during the period 2012-2021. The selection of studies and data extraction were performed manually in duplicate. Resistant bacteria studied were classified based on priority (critical, high, and medium). Results: A total of 118 articles were included. During the period 2014-2021, the number of publications increased. The articles published in English accounted for 61.9 percent, 98.3 percent had their affiliation in Peru, and 77.1 percent were conducted in Lima. Most publications focused on bacteria of critical priority than high and medium priority. A total of 79.7 percent sought to determine prevalence or characterize and 26.1 percent referred to funding from Peruvian institutions. Conclusions: Peruvian scientific production on AMR has increased in recent years and there are more publications on critical priority bacteria. However, these studies are centered in Lima and only a quarter of them have been financed by a Peruvian entity(AU)

Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
Rev. ADM ; 80(2): 76-81, mar.-abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513112


La cirugía de terceros molares es uno de los procedimientos más realizados dentro de la práctica odontológica, generalmente conlleva la prescripción de fármacos, incluidos antibióticos indicados para prevenir la aparición de procesos infecciosos. La resistencia antimicrobiana es considerada como un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial, por lo que el uso de antibióticos debe ser cauteloso. La solución electrolizada de súperoxidación ha demostrado tener efectos bactericidas, virucidas y ha sido utilizada para la prevención y el tratamiento de procesos infecciosos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue demostrar la efectividad de dicha solución en la prevención de infecciones posteriores a la cirugía de terceros molares. Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado, ciego, prospectivo en 20 pacientes utilizando un diseño split mouth, en donde cada paciente fue sujeto control y experimental, en el grupo control se irrigó durante el procedimiento con solución de súperoxidación y no se prescribió antibiótico posterior, mientras que en el grupo control se irrigó con solución fisiológica y se prescribió antibiótico posterior. Se realizaron 40 cirugías en 20 pacientes utilizando en cada paciente ambas terapéuticas. Se analizó el dolor postoperatorio, inflamación y presencia de infección. El dolor y la inflamación fueron ligeramente superiores en el grupo experimental al tercer día; sin embargo, al séptimo día los resultados fueron similares. No se presentó ningún caso de infección postoperatoria. El uso de solución de súperoxidación transoperatoria puede ser una herramienta muy útil en la prevención de infecciones postoperatorias posterior a cirugía de terceros molares en pacientes sanos en cirugías con dificultad leve a moderada (AU)

Third molar surgery is one of the most performed procedures in dental practice, generally involving the prescription of drugs including antibiotics indicated to prevent the onset of infectious processes. Antimicrobial resistance is considered a public health problem worldwide, so the use of antibiotics should be cautious. The electrolyzed super oxidation solution has been shown to have bactericidal and virucidal effects and has been used for the prevention and treatment of infectious processes. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of said solution in the prevention of infections after third molar surgery. A randomized, blind, prospective study was conducted in 20 patients using a split mouth design where each patient was a control and experimental subject, in the control group they were irrigated during the procedure with super oxidation solution and no subsequent antibiotic was prescribed. while the control group was irrigated with physiological solution and a subsequent antibiotic was prescribed. Forty surgeries were performed on 20 patients using both therapies in each patient. Postoperative pain, inflammation and presence of infection were analyzed. Pain and inflammation were slightly higher in the experimental group on third day, however on seventh day the results were similar. There were no cases of postoperative infection. The use of trans operative super oxidation solution can be a very useful tool in the prevention of postoperative infections after third molar surgery in healthy patients undergoing surgeries with mild to moderate difficulty.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Oxidation , Molar, Third/surgery , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tooth Extraction/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Randomized Controlled Trial
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2023. 85 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1416795


Extratos de plantas têm demonstrado diversos efeitos positivos para a saúde, incluindo ação antimicrobiana, no entanto, o uso clínico da fitoterapia ainda é discreto, de modo que mais estudos sobre os efeitos benéficos do sinergismo farmacológico de extratos poderiam contribuir para sua aplicação terapêutica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos dos extratos glicólicos de gengibre (EG) e quilaia (EQ) isolados e em associação sobre 7 cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e uma cepa padrão em forma planctônica e biofilmes monotípicos. Para a análise antimicrobiana sobre cultura planctônica foram feitos testes para determinação de Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e Concentração Microbicida Mínima (CMM) (CLSI, M07-A9) dos extratos isolados, além do Índice de Concentração Inibitória Fracionada (ICIF) e do Índice de Concentração Microbicida Fracionada (ICMF) para os extratos combinados. A análise estatística foi feita com método ANOVA e teste de Tukey para dados com distribuição normal e Kruskall-Wallis com Teste de Comparação Múltipla de Dunn para dados sem distribuição normal (significância de 5%). Para cepa padrão foram determinadas CIM igual a 3,12 mg/mL e CMM igual a 6,25 mg/mL para ambos os extratos. Para cepas clínicas as CIM do EG foram 3,12 ou 6,25 mg/mL e de EQ 1,56 ou 3,12 mg/mL, enquanto os valores de CMM foram de 6,25 mg/mL para EG e de 1,56, 3,12 ou 6,25 mg/mL para EQ. Os resultados de ICIF indicaram 15 associações sinérgicas e 4 associações aditivas dos extratos contra a cepa padrão e, dentre cepas clínicas, foram obtidos 15 resultados aditivos. A partir dos resultados de ICMF foram identificadas 6 associações sinérgicas e 1 associação aditiva contra a cepa padrão, além de 8 associações com efeito aditivo contra cepas clínicas. A partir dos resultados de testes em culturas planctônicas foi avaliada a ação antibiofilme sobre as cepas em que foram observadas reduções de viabilidade de 36,7 e 34% para o EG (50 e 25 mg/mL) e 51,3 e 51,4% para EQ (25 e 12,5 mg/mL) contra cepa padrão. As reduções em cepas clínicas variaram de 43 a 73% com EG e de 36 a 79% para EQ. As associações dos extratos promoveram reduções de viabilidade de 8 a 35% contra 5 das 7 cepas clínicas. Conclui-se que os extratos glicólicos de gengibre e quilaia apresentam ação antimicrobiana de forma isolada e combinados com efeito aditivo sobre a forma planctônica de cepas clínicas resistentes de P. aeruginosa. De forma isolada, os extratos apresentaram importante ação preventiva na formação dos biofilmes dessas cepas, podendo ser considerados potenciais fitoterápicos com aplicações terapêuticas para o combate das infecções por P. aeruginosa. (AU)

Plant extracts have demonstrated several positive health effects, including antimicrobial action, however, the clinical use of phytotherapy is still discreet, so that more studies on the beneficial effects of pharmacological synergism of extracts could contribute to its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycolic extracts of ginger (EG) and quilaia (EQ) alone and in combination on 7 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a standard strain in planktonic form and monotypic biofilms. For the antimicrobial analysis on planktonic culture, tests were performed to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentration (MMC) (CLSI, M07-A9) of the isolated extracts, in addition to the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) and the Fractionated Microbicidal Concentration Index (FICM) for the combined extracts. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA method and Tukey's test for data with normal distribution and Kruskall-Wallis with Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test for data without normal distribution (5% significance). For the standard strain, MIC were determined equal to 3.12 mg/mL and MMC equal to 6.25 mg/mL for both extracts. For clinical strains the MIC of EG were 3.12 or 6.25 mg/mL and 1.56 or 3.12 mg/mL of EQ, while the MMC values were 6.25 mg/mL for EG and 1.56, 3.12 or 6.25 mg/ml for EQ. The FICI results indicated 15 synergistic and 4 additive associations of the extracts against the standard strain and, among clinical strains, 15 additive results were obtained. From the FICM results, 6 synergistic and 1 additive association against the standard strain were identified, in addition to 8 associations with additive effect against clinical strains. Based on the results of tests on planktonic cultures, the antibiofilm action were evaluated on the strains in which viability reductions of 36 and 34% were observed for EG (50 and 25 mg/mL) and 51% were observed for EQ (25 and 12, 5 mg/mL) against the standard strain. Reductions in clinical strains ranged from 43 to 73% with EG and from 36 to 79% for EQ. Associations of extracts promoted viability reductions of 8 to 35% against 5 out of 7 clinical strains. It is concluded that the glycolic extracts of ginger and quilaia have antimicrobial action in isolation and combined with additive effect on the planktonic form of resistant clinical strains of P. aeruginosa. Isolated, the extracts showed an important preventive action in the formation of biofilms of these strains and may be considered potential herbal medicines with therapeutic applications to combat P. aeruginosa infections. (AU)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms , Phytotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 974-981, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985622


Objective: To explore the changes in bacterial community structure, antibiotic resistance genome, and pathogen virulence genome in river water before and after the river flowing through Haikou City and their transmission and dispersal patterns and to reveal anthropogenic disturbance's effects on microorganisms and resistance genes in the aquatic environment. Methods: The Nandu River was divided into three study areas: the front, middle and rear sections from the upstream before it flowed through Haikou City to the estuary. Three sampling sites were selected in each area, and six copies of the sample were collected in parallel at each site and mixed for 3 L per sample. Microbial community structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements were analyzed through bioinformatic data obtained by metagenomic sequencing and full-length sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Variations in the distribution of bacterial communities between samples and correlation of transmission patterns were analyzed by principal co-ordinates analysis, procrustes analysis, and Mantel test. Results: As the river flowed through Haikou City, microbes' alpha diversity gradually decreased. Among them, Proteobacteria dominates in the bacterial community in the front, middle, and rear sections, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the middle and rear sections was higher than that in the front segment. The diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements were all at low levels in the front section and all increased significantly after flow through Haikou City. At the same time, horizontal transmission mediated by mobile genetic elements played a more significant role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes and virulence factors. Conclusions: Urbanization significantly impacts river bacteria and the resistance genes, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements they carry. The Nandu River in Haikou flows through the city, receiving antibiotic-resistant and pathogen-associated bacteria excreted by the population. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant genes and virulence factors are enriched in bacteria, which indicates a threat to environmental health and public health. Comparison of river microbiomes and antibiotic resistance genomes before and after flow through cities is a valuable early warning indicator for monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Humans , Rivers , Virulence Factors/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(11): 1-16, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1527449


Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major 21st Century global health challenge. The WHO African Region Member States committed to develop and implement multisectoral national action plans (NAPs) that address AMR, in line with the Global Action Plan (GAP). Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the progress of AMR response in the WHO African Region based on the annual Tracking AMR Country Self-Assessment Survey (TrACSS), with a focus on human health indicators. Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of responses from forty-one countries that participated in the 2021 TrACSS. Results: Of the 41 countries that responded to the 2021 TrACSS, 35(85%) have developed NAPs. 15 (37%) of countries have functional AMR multisector working groups. 55% (21/41) of countries are collating data nationally on AMR surveillance. Forty nine percent of countries conducted small-scale AMR awareness campaigns and 53% (21/41) covered AMR in some pre- and in-service training for huBackground: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major 21st Century global health challenge. The WHO African Region Member States committed to develop and implement multisectoral national action plans (NAPs) that address AMR, in line with the Global Action Plan (GAP). Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the progress of AMR response in the WHO African Region based on the annual Tracking AMR Country Self-Assessment Survey (TrACSS), with a focus on human health indicators. Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of responses from forty-one countries that participated in the 2021 TrACSS. Results: Of the 41 countries that responded to the 2021 TrACSS, 35(85%) have developed NAPs. 15 (37%) of countries have functional AMR multisector working groups. 55% (21/41) of countries are collating data nationally on AMR surveillance. Forty nine percent of countries conducted small-scale AMR awareness campaigns and 53% (21/41) covered AMR in some pre- and in-service training for Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major 21st Century global health challenge. The WHO African Region Member States committed to develop and implement multisectoral national action plans (NAPs) that address AMR, in line with the Global Action Plan (GAP). Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the progress of AMR response in the WHO African Region based on the annual Tracking AMR Country Self-Assessment Survey (TrACSS), with a focus on human health indicators. Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of responses from forty-one countries that participated in the 2021 TrACSS. Results: Of the 41 countries that responded to the 2021 TrACSS, 35(85%) have developed NAPs. 15 (37%) of countries have functional AMR multisector working groups. 55% (21/41) of countries are collating data nationally on AMR surveillance. Forty nine percent of countries conducted small-scale AMR awareness campaigns and 53% (21/41) covered AMR in some pre- and in-service training for human health workers. While 83% of countries reported having laws and regulations on the prescription and sale of antimicrobials, only 32% (13/41) have national systems for monitoring antimicrobial use. Twenty-three (58%, 23/41) reported having Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) programs at select health facilities. Conclusion: Countries have developed and are implementing AMR NAPs. Gaps still exist across key indicators monitored through TrACSS. Effective AMR response requires established functional multisectoral governance mechanism sin the One Health approach; political commitment, sustainable funding, and clear monitoring and reporting is critical. human health workers. While 83% of countries reported having laws and regulations on the prescription and sale of antimicrobials, only 32% (13/41) have national systems for monitoring antimicrobial use. Twenty-three (58%, 23/41) reported having Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) programs at select health facilities. Conclusion: Countries have developed and are implementing AMR NAPs. Gaps still exist across key indicators monitored through TrACSS. Effective AMR response requires established functional multisectoral governance mechanisms in the One Health approach; political commitment, sustainable funding, and clear monitoring and reporting is critical. man health workers. While 83% of countries reported having laws and regulations on the prescription and sale of antimicrobials, only 32% (13/41) have national systems for monitoring antimicrobial use. Twenty-three (58%, 23/41) reported having Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) programs at select health facilities. Conclusion: Countries have developed and are implementing AMR NAPs. Gaps still exist across key indicators monitored through TrACSS. Effective AMR response requires established functional multisectoral governance mechanisms in the One Health approach; political commitment, sustainable funding, and clear monitoring and reporting is critical.

Drug Resistance, Microbial , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Strategies
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(2): 1-5, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1418876


The global surge in Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria is an issue of great concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been implicated in several nosocomial infections, where it has caused grave complications in immunocompromised patients. This is the first study to report the prevalence of MDR P. aeruginosa isolated from residential sewage in Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. Pseudomonads count, isolation, biochemical characterization and antibiogram were carried out using standard microbiological procedures. This study examined sixty (60) samples from selected residential sewage in the study site collected at different intervals between July and September 2021. A total of 40 (66.7%) P. aeruginosa were isolated from the analyzed sewage samples. The highest (2.84x104) pseudomonad count was recorded from sewage samples collected from Kadangaru. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from this sample site showed the highest (100%) resistance to cephalosporins (cefuroxime) and nitrofurantoin. Similarly, isolates from Miami area also demonstrated the highest (95%) resistance to a cephalosporin (ceftazidime). All (100%) isolates used in this study showed MDR resistance to tested antibiotics. The occurrence of MDR P. aeruginosa from a residential sewage site that may contaminate drinking water sources in the study area is of public health threat to the inhabitants. Surveillance and molecular epidemiology of antibiotics resistant bacteria are urgently needed in the study area.

Pseudomonas , Therapeutics , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pseudomonas aeruginosa