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Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 105-113, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397776


Antiplatelet therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention are two of the most important interventions in the management of coronary artery disease. In the last 20 years there has been groundbreaking advances in the pharmacotherapy and stent technology. Bleeding is the most feared complication of antiplatelet therapy, mainly due to the increase in major adverse cardiovascular events besides the bleeding itself. Different clinical decision tools have developed with the aim to define which patients have a high ischemic or bleeding risk, thus individualizing treatment.

Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Stents , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Ischemia , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 7-16, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363203


Las infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPPB) en niños son una de las principales causas de prescripción de antimicrobianos. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características clínicas y microbiológicas de las IPPB ambulatorias de niños asistidos en dos hospitales zonales. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo entre el 1/11/2017 y el 1/11/2018. Se incluyeron pacientes entre 1 mes y 15 años internados en dos hospitales. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, localidad, factores predisponentes, tipo de IPPB, muestras biológicas realizadas, aislamiento microbiológico, tratamiento empírico indicado y evolución del cuadro. Se realizó antibiograma y determinación genética. Se calculó chi2, IC95, OR; α=5%. N= 94. 58,7% masculinos. 12 pacientes <1 año, 85 >1 año (promedio de edad 4 años, 1-15). El 36% de Tandil y 63,8% de Florencio Varela. El 59,6% corresponden a IPPB purulentas. Se aislaron microorganismos en un 59,6%. Los aislamientos principales: SAMR (40,4%), SAMS (7,4%), S. agalactiae (2,1%) y S. pyogenes (2,1%). El 100% de SAMR son portadores de gen mecA y SCCmec tipo IV, sin multirresistencia. No hubo diferencia estadística entre los factores de riesgo evaluados para el desarrollo de IPPB por SAMR. El 52,1% de los niños recibió tratamiento antibiótico combinado, siendo la más indicada TMS-SMX + CLI en 36 eventos. (38,3%). La evolución fue favorable: no hubo diferencia significativa entre el subgrupo que se aisló SAMR y el que no se aisló SAMR; 91,9% (34/37) y 92,6% (50/54) correspondientemente (chi2: 0,01; p= 0,97 IC95: 0,26-3,88). El principal agente etiológico fue SAMRco, debiendo adecuar los tratamientos a este microorganismo.

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSIs) in children are one of the main causes of antimicrobial prescription. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of outpatient SSIs in children attended in two hospitals. A prospective study was conducted between 11/1/2017 and 11/1/2018. Patients between 1 month and 15 years old, hospitalized were included. We evaluated: age, sex, locality, predisposing factors, type of IPPB, biological samples taken, microbiological isolation, empirical treatment indicated and evolution of the condition. An antibiogram and genetic determination were performed. Chi2, CI95, OR; α=5% were calculated. N= 94. 58.7% male. 12 patients <1 year, 85 >1 year (mean age 4 years, 1-15). 36% were from Tandil and 63.8% from Florencio Varela. 59.6% corresponded to purulent SSIs. The diagnostic yield was 59.6%. Main isolates: MRSA (40.4%), MSSA (7.4%), S. agalactiae (2.1%) and S. pyogenes (2.1%). 100% of MRSA carried the mecA gene and SCCmec type IV, with no multidrug resistance. There was no statistical difference between the risk factors evaluated. 52.1% of children received combined antibiotic treatment, the most indicated being TMS-SMX + CLI in 36 events. (38,3%). Evolution was favorable: there was no significant difference between the subgroup that isolated MRSA and the subgroup that did not isolate MRSA; 91.9% (34/37) and 92.6% (50/54) respectively (chi2: 0.01; p= 0.97 CI95: 0.26-3.88). The main etiological agent was MRSA, and treatments should be adapted to this microorganism

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Skin Diseases, Infectious/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology , Skin Diseases, Infectious/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Logistic Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 256-260, feb. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389633


ABSTRACT Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds is a relapsing, chronic and rare neutrophilic dermatosis, characterized by papulopustular, eczematous and aseptic lesions on skin folds. This disorder usually occurs predominantly in females (30 years of age average) with a history of an autoimmune disorder, especially systemic lupus erythematosus. There is no standard therapy, but systemic corticosteroids, alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, are usually the first-line therapy. We report two females aged 37 and 20 years with the disease but without associated autoimmune diseases. They were successfully treated with non-steroidal treatments.

La pustulosis amicrobiana de los pliegues es una dermatosis neutrofílica crónica, recurrente y poco común. Se caracteriza por lesiones pápulo-pustulosas, eczematosas y asépticas de los pliegues cutáneos. Este cuadro se presenta predominantemente en mujeres de alrededor de 30 años con enfermedades autoinmunes, especialmente lupus eritematoso sistémico. No existe un tratamiento estándar pero los corticoides solos o con inmunosupresores se usan de primera línea. Informamos dos mujeres de 27 y 20 años sin patología autoinmune, con la enfermedad. Ellas fueron tratadas exitosamente sin usar esteroides.

Humans , Female , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
Research Journal of Heath Sciences ; 10(2): 112-120, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1370670


Background: Nigeria adopted the Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy (ACT) as the mainstay of treating uncomplicated malaria in February 2005. However, the individual preferences for the use of these medicines by health care professionals (HCP) as distinct from their observed prescribing practices is largely unknown. This study determined the preferences, tolerability and cost of the ACTs among HCP in Benin-City. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Nigeria. Consenting HCPs were recruited consecutively for the study. Semi structured questionnaires were administered to doctors, nurses and pharmacists in the hospital. Information obtained included demographics, treatment of malaria in the previous year, antimalarial medication preferences and tolerability as well as cost of ACT. Results: A total of 556 HCPs, 295 doctors (54.1%), nurses 200 (36.0%), pharmacists 61(11.0%) completed the questionnaire. In the previous year, 224 (75.9%) doctors, 153 (79.1%) nurses, and 48 (70.5%) pharmacists had treatment for malaria and self-medication was highest among doctors (228,77.3%). Artemether-Lumenfantrine was the most preferred antimalarial used, 294 (52.8%); however, 1.6% used chloroquine sulphate and ACTs were perceived to be ineffective by 25.4%. Adverse effects were experienced by 167 (29.1%) resulting in 50 (9.0%) discontinuing their medication. Between 500 and 1500 Naira (~US$1-4) was expended on ACT by 66.3% of the staff, while 21.4% were concerned about the high cost of medications. Conclusion: This study highlights the use and preferences, self-medication practices, perceived lack of effectiveness and high cost of ACTs from a HCP perspective. There is an urgent need to address these concerns in view of adverse consequences as well as the likely possibility of its the impact on prescribing practices.

Therapeutics , Health Personnel , Artemisinins , Drug Therapy, Combination , Artemether, Lumefantrine Drug Combination , Malaria , Self Medication , Antimalarials
Babcock Univ. Med. J ; 5(2): 1-10, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400507


Objective:The antimalarial preferences, tolerability, and cost of the Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) among adult patients and caregivers are largely understudied despite being the recommendedtreatment for Plasmodium falciparum.We, therefore, evaluated antimalarial preferences, tolerability, and cost of the ACTs among adult patients attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted among adult patients and their caregivers atthe University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria,using a semi-structured questionnaire. Their preferred antimalarial medication, previous use of antimalarial monotherapies, current ACT use; cost considerations, and adverse effects profile were sought.Result:Six hundred respondents were recruited with a mean age of 41.4±16.3years and M/F ratio of 1.4. The majority (88.0%), reported that they had between 1-5 episodes of malaria fever in a year. Only 28.2% received doctors' prescriptions while 85.8% purchased their antimalarial medications from a pharmacy. Sixty percent of the respondents used at least one ACT; mainly Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL) 312(52.0%). Only 9.3% reported previous adverse effects with the ACTs with 4.0% of respondents discontinuing their medications. The mean (SD) cost of purchasing ACTs was 1,516.47±760.3 (3.65 USD) Naira.Conclusion: This study showed adult patients' preference for the ACTs, especially Artemether-Lumefantrine despite some inclination towards antimalarial monotherapies and parenteral route. There was also a high rate of use of malaria presumptive treatment, but only a few reported adverse effects. There is a need to make ACTs affordable because the cost is still presently high for most Nigerians.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Artemisinins , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Malaria , Antimalarials , Therapeutics , Hospitals, Teaching
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0030, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376783


RESUMO O hemangioma de coroide é um tumor vascular benigno, de coloração vermelho-alaranjada, bem delimitado, caracterizado por uma placa elevada. É um tumor raro, com prevalência de um caso a cada 40 tumores de coroide. O diagnóstico pode ser feito por meio da clínica associada à avaliação biomicroscópica e a exames complementares para diferenciação de outros tumores. O tratamento pode ser expectante nos casos assintomáticos. Para os casos sintomáticos ou com presença de fluido sub-retiniano, existem diversas terapias. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de hemangioma circunscrito de coroide submetido a tratamento combinado de terapia fotodinâmica com verteporfina e injeção intravítrea de antiangiogênico (bevacizumabe). A decisão de tratar um hemangioma de coroide deve ser individualizada com base nos sintomas, na perda visual e em qualquer potencial de sua recuperação. O exame oftalmológico completo é necessário, mesmo em casos assintomáticos, para rastreamento precoce de doenças oculares.

ABSTRACT Choroid hemangioma is a benign, well-delimited orange-red, vascular tumor characterized by an elevated plaque. It is a rare tumor with a prevalence of one case in every 40 choroidal tumors. It can be diagnosed by the clinic associated with biomicroscopic evaluation and complementary tests to differentiate from other tumors. Treatment can be expectant in asymptomatic cases. For symptomatic cases or those with the presence of subretinal fluid, there are several therapies. The objective of this study was to report a case of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma submitted to combined treatment of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and intravitreal injection of an antiangiogenic agent (bevacizumab). The decision to treat choroidal hemangioma must be individualized based on symptoms, visual loss, and any potential for recovery. A complete eye examination is necessary, even in asymptomatic cases, for early screening for eye diseases.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Photochemotherapy/methods , Choroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Choroid Neoplasms/therapy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Verteporfin/therapeutic use , Hemangioma/diagnosis , Hemangioma/therapy , Fluorescein Angiography , Choroid Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasonography , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hemangioma/pathology
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 395-401, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935957


Objective: To evaluate the real-world efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) tablets in the treatment of Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection. Methods: An open-label, single-center, prospective clinical study was conducted in a county in northern China. A total of 299 cases were enrolled. Of these, 161 cases with chronic hepatitis C and 73 cases with compensated cirrhosis received SOF/VEL for 12 weeks. 65 cases with decompensated cirrhosis received SOF/VEL combined with ribavirin for 12 weeks (22 cases) or SOF/VEL for 24 weeks (43 cases). Virological indicators, liver and renal function indexes, and liver stiffness measurement were detected at baseline, the fourth week of treatment, the end of treatment, and the 12-weeks of follow-up. Adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities were observed during the course of treatment . The primary endpoint was undetectable rate of HCV RNA (SVR12) at 12 weeks of follow-up with the use of modified intention-to-treat (mITT) approach. Measurement data between two groups were compared using t-test. One Way ANOVA was used for comparison between multiple groups. Enumeration data were analyzed by chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: 291 cases had completed treatment. HCV RNA was undetectable after 12 weeks of follow-up, and the SVR12 rate was 97.3% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-99.3%). Among them, 97.4% of genotype 1b, 96.4% of genotype 2a, and 100% of those with undetected genotype achieved SVR12. The SVR12 rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C, compensated and decompensated liver cirrhosis were 98.1%, 98.6% and 93.8%, respectively. An improvement in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and other liver biochemical indicators accompanied with virological clearance and reduced liver stiffness measurement was observed in patients with compensated cirrhosis, with statistically significant difference. There was no significant abnormality in renal function before and after treatment. The most common adverse reactions were fatigue, headache, epigastric discomfort and mild diarrhea. The overall adverse reactions were mild. One patient died of decompensated liver cirrhosis combined with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which was unrelated to antiviral treatment. Four patients discontinued treatment prematurely due to adverse events. Relapse was occurred in four cases, and drug-resistance related mutations were detected in three cases. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir tablets in Chinese HCV-infected patients with different genotypes, different clinical stages or previously treated with pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin resulted in higher SVR12, indicating that the treatment safety profile is good.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carbamates , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Prospective Studies , RNA , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/adverse effects , Sustained Virologic Response , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 466-470, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935171


Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety between indobufen and aspirin in the prevention of restenosis of bridge vessels at 1 year after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. We selected 152 patients who received coronary artery bypass grafting in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from December 2016 to December 2018. Patients were divided into the indobufen group and the aspirin group. Patients in the aspirin group were treated with aspirin and clopidogrel, and patients in the indobufen group were treated with indobufen and clopidogrel. During the 1-year follow-up, the rate of restenosis of saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge, the rate of adverse cardiac events and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. The levels of fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), thrombomodulin (TM) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were compared before and after antiplatelet therapy. Results: There were 76 cases in the indobufen group, including 57 males (75.0%), aged (60.3±6.6) years. There were 76 cases in the aspirin group, including 62 males (81.6%), aged (59.7±7.2) years. Baseline data were comparable between the two groups (P>0.05). During the follow-up, 3 cases were lost to follow up. Follow-up was completed in 74 patients in the indobufen group and 75 in the aspirin group. A total of 268 bridging vessels were grafted in the indobufen group and 272 in the aspirin group. One year after surgery, the patency rates of great saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge were 94.5% (189/200) and 97.1% (66/68) in the indobuphen group, and 91.3% (189/207) and 96.9% (63/65) in the aspirin group, respectively. There was no significant difference in patency rate of great saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge between the two groups (χ²=0.282, 0.345, P>0.05). The total incidence of adverse cardiac events was 5.4% (4/74) in the indobufen group and 6.7% (5/75) in the aspirin group (χ²=0.126, P>0.05). The overall incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions was significantly lower in the indobufen group than in the aspirin group (4.1% (3/74) vs. 13.3% (10/75), χ²=4.547, P<0.05). The levels of FIB, D-D, TM and TAFI in the two groups were lower than those before surgery (P<0.05), and there was no statistical significance between the two groups at baseline and post-operation (P>0.05). Conclusion: The efficacy of indobufen combined with clopidogrel in the prevention of 1-year restenosis after coronary artery bypass graft is similar to that of aspirin combined with clopidogrel, but the incidence of adverse reactions is lower, and the safety is higher in patients treated with indobufen combined with clopidogrel compared to aspirin combined with clopidogrel strategy.

Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Isoindoles , Male , Phenylbutyrates , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 458-465, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935170


Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT>1 year) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) in a large and contemporary PCI registry. Methods: A total of 1 661 eligible patients were selected from the Fuwai PCI Registry, of which 1 193 received DAPT>1 year and 468 received DAPT ≤1 year. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding, MACCE was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke. Multivariate Cox regression analysis and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) Cox regression analysis were performed. Results: After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, patients who received DAPT>1 year were associated with lower risks of MACCE (1.4% vs. 3.2%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.412, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.205-0.827) compared with DAPT ≤1 year, which was primarily caused by the lower all-cause mortality (0.1% vs. 2.6%; HR 0.031, 95%CI 0.004-0.236). Risks of cardiac death (0.1% vs. 1.5%; HR 0.051, 95%CI 0.006-0.416) and definite/probable ST (0.3% vs. 1.1%; HR 0.218, 95%CI 0.052-0.917) were also lower in patients received DAPT>1 year than those received DAPT ≤ 1 year. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (5.3% vs. 4.1%; HR 1.088, 95%CI 0.650-1.821). Conclusions: In patients with stable CAD and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after PCI with DES, prolonged DAPT (>1 year) provides a substantial reduction in ischemic cardiovascular events, including MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and definite/probable ST, without increasing the clinically relevant bleeding risk compared with ≤ 1-year DAPT. Further well-designed, large-scale randomized trials are needed to verify the beneficial effect of prolonged DAPT in this population.

Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Eluting Stents , Hemorrhage , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 450-457, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935169


Objective: To explore and compare the effect of standard or prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on the long-term prognosis of elderly patients with coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Methods: Consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus, ≥65 years old, underwent DES implantation, and had no adverse events within 1 year after operation underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from January to December 2013 in Fuwai Hospital were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. These patients were divided into three groups according to DAPT duration: standard DAPT duration group (11 ≤ DAPT duration≤ 13 months) and prolonged DAPT duration group (13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months; DAPT duration>24 months). All the patients were followed up at 1, 6 months, 1, 2 and 5 years in order to collect the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and type 2 to 5 bleeding events defined by the Federation of Bleeding Academic Research (BARC). MACCE were consisted of all cause death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization or stroke. The incidence of clinical adverse events were compared among 3 different DAPT duration groups, and Cox regression model were used to analyze the effect of different DAPT duration on 5-year long-term prognosis. Results: A total of 1 562 patients were enrolled, aged (70.8±4.5) years, with 398 female (25.5%). There were 467 cases in standard DAPT duration group, 684 cases in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group and 411 cases in DAPT duration>24 months group. The patients in standard DAPT duration group and the prolonged DAPT duration groups accounted for 29.9% (467/1 562) and 70.1% (1 095/1 562), respectively. The 5-year follow-up results showed that the incidence of all-cause death in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group (4.8%(33/684) vs. 8.6%(40/467),P=0.011) and DAPT duration>24 month group(4.1%(17/411) vs. 8.6%(40/467),P=0.008) were significantly lower than in standard DAPT group. The incidence of myocardial infarction in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group was lower than in standard DAPT duration group (1.9%(13/684) vs. 5.1%(24/467),P=0.002). The incidence of MACCE in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group was the lowest (standard DAPT duration group, 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group and DAPT duration>24 month group were 19.3% (90/467), 12.3% (84/684), 20.2% (83/411), respectively, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke and bleeding events among the three groups (all P>0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that compared with the standard DAPT group, prolonged DAPT to 13-24 months was negatively correlated with MACCE (HR=0.601, 95%CI 0.446-0.811, P=0.001), all-cause death (HR=0.568, 95%CI 0.357-0.903, P=0.017) and myocardial infarction (HR=0.353, 95%CI 0.179-0.695, P=0.003). DAPT>24 months was negatively correlated with all-cause death (HR=0.687, 95%CI 0.516-0.913, P=0.010) and positively correlated with revascularization (HR=1.404, 95%CI 1.116-1.765, P=0.004). There was no correlation between prolonged DAPT and bleeding events. Conclusions: For elderly patients with coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus underwent DES implantation, and had no MACCE and bleeding events within 1 year after operation, appropriately prolonging of the DAPT duration is related to the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Patients may benefit the most from the DAPT between 13 to 24 months. In addition, prolonging DAPT duration does not increase the incidence of bleeding events in this patient cohort.

Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939815


In this study, we reported a young male patient with acute chest pain who was diagnosed as myocardial infarction. The regular medication was performed following coronary intervention. Under such condition, this patient had 3 times myocardial infarction within a half month. The laboratory results showed that there might be a state of hypercoagulability. Aspirin combined with clopidogrel and other treatment were administrated. Meanwhile, the examination demonstrated that there was aspirin-resistant in the patient. The antiplatelet drug and extended anticoagulation therapy were carried out. There was no further myocardial infarction, and no coronary arteries stenosis was found in the re-examination angiography. Aspirin resistance and hypercoagulability should be considered when patients occurred the repeated myocardial infarction after regular medication and coronary intervention. Replacement of the antiplatelet treatment or combination with anticoagulant therapy is necessary in similar patient to avoid the sever consequence.

Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Cuerpo Méd. Hosp. Nac. Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo ; 14(4): 510-522, Dic. 29, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-1367689


La Artritis Reumatoide (AR) tiene adversas consecuencias en la salud su diagnóstico temprano y manejo óptimo requiere recomendaciones basadas en evidencia de alta calidad adaptadas a cada sistema de salud. Objetivo: Proveer recomendaciones clínicas basadas en evidencia para el diagnóstico y manejo inicial de la AR. Material y Métodos: Se conformó un grupo elaborador de la guía (GEG) que incluyó médicos especialistas y metodólogos. El GEG formuló 10 preguntas clínicas a ser respondidas por la presente GPC. Se realizaron búsquedas sistemáticas de la evidencia publicada en PubMed y CENTRAL entre diciembre 2017 a julio 2019 (revisiones sistemáticas y ­cuando fue considerado pertinente­ estudios primarios). Se seleccionó la evidencia de mayor calidad para responder cada una de las preguntas clínicas planteadas. La certeza de la evidencia fue evaluada usando la metodología Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) y en reuniones de trabajo periódicas, el GEG usó dicha metodología para revisar la evidencia y formular las recomendaciones, los puntos de buena práctica clínica y los flujogramas. Finalmente, la GPC fue aprobada con Resolución N° 132 ­ IETSI ­ ESSALUD ­ 2019. Resultados: La presente GPC abordó 10 preguntas clínicas, divididas en dos temas: diagnóstico y manejo. En base a dichas preguntas se formularon 16 recomendaciones (5 fuertes y 11 condicionales), 45 puntos de buena práctica clínica, y 3 flujogramas. Conclusión: El presente artículo resume la metodología y las conclusiones basadas en evidencias de la GPC para el diagnóstico y manejo inicial de la AR en EsSalud.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has adverse health consequences its early diagnosis and optimal management requires high quality evidence-based recommendations tailored to each health system. Objective: To provide evidence-based clinical recommendations for the diagnosis and initial management of RA. Material and Methods: A guideline development group (GDG) was formed that included medical specialists and methodologists. The GEG formulated 10 clinical questions to be answered by this CPG. Systematic searches of the evidence published in PubMed and CENTRAL were performed between December 2017 and July 2019 (systematic reviews and -when considered relevant- primary studies). The highest quality evidence was selected to answer each of the clinical questions posed. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and in periodic working meetings, the GEG used this methodology to review the evidence and formulate the recommendations, good clinical practice points, and flowcharts. Finally, the CPG was approved by Resolution No. 132 - IETSI - ESSALUD - 2019. Results: This CPG addressed 10 clinical questions, divided into two topics: diagnosis and management. Based on these questions, 16 recommendations (5 strong and 11 conditional), 45 points of good clinical practice, and 3 flowcharts were formulated. Conclusion: This article summarizes the methodology and evidence-based conclusions of the CPG for the diagnosis and initial management of RA in EsSalud.

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Peru , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(2): 37-49, 20211010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379618


A hanseníase é uma doença infecciosa crônica causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae, considerada um grave problema de saúde pública. A adesão à terapia farmacológica contribui para a qualidade de vida do paciente e para a interrupção da cadeia de transmissão da doença. Este trabalho objetivou analisar a adesão à poliquimioterapia em pacientes com hanseníase acompanhados em um serviço de atendimento especializado do município de Rondonópolis (MT). Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa. Participaram da pesquisa 63 pacientes com diagnóstico de hanseníase, acompanhados no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado do Município de Rondonópolis. Para analisar a adesão, utilizou-se o teste de Morisky-Green. Foram classificados como aderentes ao tratamento 31 pacientes (49,2%) no total. As menores frequências de adesão foram observadas em mulheres, na faixa etária de 51 a 59 anos, de cor autodeclarada branca, renda familiar superior ou igual a dois salários mínimos, com até oito anos de estudo, sem companheiros e que possuíam rede de esgoto em suas residências. Observou-se diferença estatística para as variáveis sexo (p = 0,036), modo de detecção (p = 0,008) e forma clínica (p = 0,028). Os resultados indicaram baixa adesão à poliquimioterapia. Mulheres, pacientes com modo de detecção do tipo encaminhamento ou exames de coletividade, com forma clínica indeterminada, tuberculoide ou virchowiana são menos aderentes à poliquimioterapia. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de adoção de medidas que busquem promover melhor aceitação à terapia farmacológica entre os pacientes com hanseníase.

Hansen's disease, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is considered a major public health issue. Adherence to pharmacological therapy contributes to the patient's quality of life and to interrupting the disease transmission chain. Hence, this study analyzes adherence to multidrug therapy in patients with Hansen's disease treated at a specialized care service in Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil. A quantitative, descriptive research was carried out with 63 patients diagnosed with Hansen's disease and treated at the Specialized Care Service of the municipality of Rondonópolis. Adherence was analyzed using the Morisky-Green test. A total of 31 (49.2%) patients were classified as adherent to treatment. The lowest frequency of adherence was observed in women, aged 51 to 59 years, white, family income ≥ 2 minimum wages, with up to eight years of schooling, without partners, and with a sewage system in their homes. Statistical difference was observed for the variables gender (p=0.036), detection mode (p=0.008), and clinical form (p=0.028). Results showed low adherence to multidrug therapy. Women, patients with referral detection or collective exams, with undetermined clinical form, tuberculoid or Lepromatous leprosy, are less adherent to polychemotherapy. The findings indicate the need to adopt measures that seek to promote better adherence to pharmacological therapy among patients with Hansen's disease.

La lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa crónica causada por Mycobacterium leprae y considerada un grave problema de salud pública. La adherencia a la terapia farmacológica contribuye a la calidad de vida del paciente y a la interrupción de la cadena de transmisión de la enfermedad. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la adherencia a la poliquimioterapia en pacientes con lepra seguidos en un servicio de atención especializado en la ciudad de Rondonópolis, en Mato Grosso (Brasil). Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, de tipo cuantitativo. Participaron en la investigación 63 pacientes diagnosticados de lepra, seguidos en el Servicio de Atención Especializado del Municipio de Rondonópolis. Para analizar la adherencia se utilizó la prueba de Morisky-Green. Un total de 31 (49,2%) pacientes fueron clasificados como adherentes al tratamiento. La menor frecuencia de adherencia se observó en mujeres, en el grupo de edad de entre 51 y 59 años, de color autodeclarado blanco, renta familiar mayor o igual a 2 salarios mínimos, con nivel de educación hasta ocho años, sin pareja y que tenían red de alcantarillado en sus hogares. Hubo diferencia estadística para la variable sexo (p = 0,036), modo de detección (p = 0,008) y forma clínica (p = 0,028). Los resultados indicaron una baja adherencia a la poliquimioterapia. Las mujeres, los pacientes con modo de detección por derivación o exámenes colectivos, con forma clínica indeterminada, tuberculoide o virchowiana fueron los menos adherentes a la poliquimioterapia. Los resultados indican la necesidad de adoptar medidas que busquen promover una mejor aceptación de la terapia farmacológica entre los pacientes con lepra.

Humans , Answering Services , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Leprosy , Mycobacterium leprae
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e2043, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347517


Introducción: Los tratamientos oncológicos aplicados en el cáncer de pulmón, en especial la poliquimioterapia, promueven en su mecanismo de acción citotoxicidad y liberación de ciertas especies reactivas del oxígeno. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con cáncer de pulmón según los marcadores de estrés oxidativo y de defensa antioxidante en el momento del diagnóstico y después de concluido el tratamiento con poliquimioterapia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico, prospectivo, en 86 casos divididos en dos grupos: casos diagnosticados con cáncer de pulmón (n= 52) y sanos (n= 34) en Hospital Neumológico Benéfico Jurídico en el período comprendido desde mayo de 2016 a mayo de 2018. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (63,5 por ciento) y el 55,8 por ciento con más de 60 años. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el adenocarcinoma (57,7 por ciento) y el 61,5 por ciento emplearon la modalidad de quimioterapia cisplatino y etopósido. Los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón mostraron un mayor daño oxidativo endógeno a lípidos y a proteínas (40,4 por ciento y 28,8 por ciento) respectivamente, mientras que el 63,5 por ciento mantienen la normalidad de concentraciones plasmáticas de peróxidos totales. En el 40,4 por ciento de los pacientes se incrementaron las actividades de defensa enzimáticas de la superóxido dismutasa, la catalasa y glutation peroxidasa, las cuales tuvieron una tendencia a la normalidad (63,5 por ciento y 48,0 por ciento) respectivamente. El 76,9 por ciento alcanzó niveles normales de glutation s-transferasa concluido el tratamiento oncoespecífico. Conclusiones: La quimioterapia se relaciona con una exacerbación del estrés oxidativo y una disminución del sistema de defensa antioxidante(AU)

Introduction: Oncological treatments used in lung cancer, particularly polychemotherapy, promote cytotoxicity and the release of certain reactive oxygen species in their mechanism of action. Objective: To describe patients with lung cancer according to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers at the time of diagnosis and after the end of treatment with polychemotherapy. Methods: An analytical, prospective study was carried out in 86 cases. They were distributed into two groups: subjects diagnosed with lung cancer (n= 52) and healthy subjects (n= 34) at the Pneumological Hospital from May 2016 to May 2018. Results: The male subjects predominated (63.5 percent) and 55.8 percent were over 60 years old. The most frequent histological type was adenocarcinoma (57.7 percent) and 61.5 percent used the cisplatin and etoposide chemotherapy modality. Lung cancer patients showed higher endogenous oxidative damage to lipids and proteins (40.4 percent and 28.8 percent) respectively, while 63.5 percent kept normal plasma concentrations of total peroxides. In 40.4 percent of the patients, the enzymatic defense activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased, which tended to normal (63.5 percent and 48.0 percent respectively. 76.9 percent reached normal levels of glutathione s-transferase after oncospecific treatment. Conclusions: Chemotherapy is related to exacerbation of oxidative stress and a decrease in the antioxidant defense system(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Prospective Studies
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 716-723, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339224


ABSTRACT Background: Peripheral neural surgical decompression (PNSD) is used as a complementary therapy to the clinical treatment of neuritis to preserve neural function. Objective: To evaluate the long-term (≥ 1 year) clinical and functional results for PNSD in leprosy neuritis. Methods: This cross-sectional study included leprosy patients who were in late postoperative period (LPO) of surgical decompression of ulnar, median, tibial, and fibular nerves. Socioeconomic, epidemiological, and clinical data were collected. The following instruments were used in this evaluation: visual analogue pain scale (VAS), Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4), SALSA scale, and simplified neurological assessment protocol. The preoperative (PrO) and 180-day postoperative (PO180) results were compared. Results: We evaluated 246 nerves from 90 patients: 56.6% were on multidrug therapy (MDT) and 43.3% discharged from MDT. Motor scores and pain intensity showed statistically significant improvement (p<0.01). There was an increase in sensory scores only for bilateral ulnar nerves (p<0.05). Of the operated cases, 26.0% of patients were referred for surgery of ulnar neuritis and 23.6% of tibial neuritis. Neuropathic pain was reported in 41% of cases. Daily dose of prednisone reduced from 39.6 mg (±3.0) in PrO, 16.3 mg (±5.2) in PO180, to 1.7 mg (±0.8) in LPO. The SALSA scale results showed mild activity limitation in 51% and moderate in 34% of patients. Eighty percent of individuals reported that the results reached their expectations. Conclusions: PNSD in leprosy was effective in the long term to decrease the prevalence and intensity of pain, improve motor function, and reduce the dose of corticosteroids, which is reflected in the patients' satisfaction.

RESUMO Antecedentes: A descompressão cirúrgica neural periférica (DCNP) é usada como uma terapia complementar ao tratamento clínico da neurite hansênica para preservar a função neural. Objetivo: Avaliar a longo prazo (≥ 1 ano) os resultados clínicos e funcionais da DCNP na neurite hansênica. Métodos: Este estudo transversal incluiu pacientes que estavam no pós-operatório tardio (POT) de cirurgia de descompressão dos nervos ulnares, medianos, tibiais e fibulares. Foram coletados dados socioeconômicos, epidemiológicos e clínicos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: escala visual analógica de dor (EVA), questionário de dor neuropática 4 (DN4), escala SALSA e protocolo de avaliação neurológica simplificada. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os do pré-operatório (PrO) e pós-operatório de 180 dias (PO180). Resultados: Foram avaliados 246 nervos de 90 pacientes: 56,6% estavam em poliquimioterapia (PQT) e 43,3% em alta da PQT. Escores motores e intensidade da dor apresentaram melhora significante (p<0,01). Houve aumento nos escores sensitivos nos nervos ulnares bilaterais (p<0,05). Neurite ulnar foi indicação cirúrgica em 26,0% dos casos operados, seguida pela neurite tibial (23,6%). Dor neuropática foi relatada em 41% dos casos. Dose diária de prednisona reduziu de 39,6 mg (±3,0) na PrO, 16,3 mg (±5,2) na PO180, para 1,7 mg (±0,8) na POT. Escala SALSA mostrou limitação leve da atividade em 51% e moderada em 34% dos pacientes. 80% dos indivíduos relataram que os resultados atingiram suas expectativas. Conclusão: DCNP na hanseníase foi eficaz a longo prazo na redução da prevalência e intensidade da dor, na melhora da função motora e redução da dose de corticosteroides, refletindo na satisfação do paciente.

Humans , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/complications , Leprosy/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Decompression , Drug Therapy, Combination
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 979-984, July 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346946


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continuing to spread all over the world, although there is no specific treatment until now, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have been reported to be effective in recent studies. Although long-term use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin has been reported to cause QT prolongation and malign arrhythmia, there is not enough data about the effect of short-term use on arrhythmia. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effect of hydroxychloroquine alone and hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin on corrected QT (QTc). METHODS: A baseline electrocardiogram and on-treatment baseline electrocardiogram were retrospectively collected in COVID-19 patients who received hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin. The QTc interval was calculated, and the baseline and peak QTc intervals were compared. In addition, the peak QTc intervals of monotherapy and combination therapy were compared. RESULTS: Of the 155 patients included, 102 (65.8%) patients were using hydroxychloroquine, and 53 (34.2%) patients were using hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin combination. The use of both hydroxychloroquine alone and hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin combined therapy significantly prolonged the QTc, and the QTc interval was significantly longer in patients receiving combination therapy. QTc prolongation caused early termination in both groups, 5 (4.9%) patients in the monotherapy group and 6 (11.3%) patients in the combination therapy group. CONCLUSION: In this study, patients who received hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 were at high risk of QTc prolongation, and concurrent treatment with azithromycin was associated with greater changes in QTc.

Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electrocardiography , SARS-CoV-2
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e203, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248717


El vino tinto variedad Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat en los últimos años ha tomado relevancia por su alta concentración de polifenoles, esto le podría significar un rol protector sobre el genoma disminuyendo la formación de lesiones oxidativas. Los efectos a nivel celular de las radiaciones ionizantes en blancos como el ADN, componentes de cascadas de transducción de señales, resultan en lesiones letales, mutagénicas y recombinogénicas y en retardos en el ciclo celular. Se utilizó como modelo eucariota poblaciones de Saccharomyces cerevisiae en fase exponencial expuestas a radiación gamma (200 Gy) en presencia, o ausencia, de vino Tannat (10 % v/v) o de ácido tánico (60 µg/mL). Se estimaron las probabilidades de sobrevida y frecuencia mutagénica en distintas condiciones. Las muestras celulares expuestas a radiación ionizante presentaron una fracción de sobrevida de 0.21 ± 0.02 mientras que en las muestras irradiadas en presencia de vino Tannat o de ácido tánico la fracción de sobrevida fue de 0.33 ± 0.03 y 0.30 ± 0.03 respectivamente. Se observó en las poblaciones irradiadas un aumento significativo de la probabilidad de mutagénesis. En el caso de los tratamientos combinados se observó que la frecuencia mutagénica fue significativamente menor (gamma Tannat: 33%, gamma ácido tánico: 45% ). Estos resultados preliminares podrían indicar radioprotección moderada por parte de los compuestos estudiados, efecto que podría explicarse por las interacciones redox del ácido tánico y polifenoles contenidos en el vino con los radicales libres formados por las radiaciones ionizantes, además de la activación de vías de reparación genómica.

The red wine variety Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat in recent years has gained relevance due to its high concentration of polyphenols, this could mean a protective role on the genome, reducing the formation of oxidative lesions. The effects at the cellular level of ionizing radiation on targets such as DNA, components of signal transduction cascades, result in lethal, mutagenic and recombinogenic lesions and delays in the cell cycle. Exponential phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to gamma radiation (200 Gy) in the presence or absence of Tannat wine (10% v / v) or tannic acid (60 µg / ml) were used as a eukaryotic model. The probabilities of survival and mutagenic frequency in different conditions were estimated. Cellular samples exposed to ionizing radiation presented a survival fraction of 0.21 ± 0.02, while in samples irradiated in the presence of Tannat wine or tannic acid, the survival fraction was 0.33 ± 0.03 and 0.30 ± 0.03 respectively. A significant increase in the probability of mutagenesis was observed in irradiated populations. In the case of the combined treatments, it was observed that the mutagenic frequency was significantly lower (Tannat gamma: 33%, Tannic acid gamma: 45%). These preliminary results could indicate moderate radioprotection by the compounds studied, an effect that could be explained by the redox interactions of tannic acid and polyphenols contained in wine with the free radicals formed by ionizing radiation, in addition to the activation of genomic repair pathways.

A variedade de vinho tinto Vitis vinifera L. cv Tannat nos últimos anos tem ganhado relevância devido à sua alta concentração de polifenóis, o que pode significar um papel protetor do genoma, reduzindo a formação de lesões oxidativas. Os efeitos no nível celular da radiação ionizante em alvos como o DNA, componentes de cascatas de transdução de sinal, resultam em lesões letais, mutagênicas e recombinogênicas e atrasos no ciclo celular. Populações de fase exponencial de Saccharomyces cerevisiae expostas à radiação gama (200 Gy) na presença ou ausência de vinho Tannat (10% v / v) ou ácido tânico (60 µg / ml) foram utilizadas como modelo eucariótico. Foram estimadas as probabilidades de sobrevivência e frequência mutagênica em diferentes condições. As amostras celulares expostas à radiação ionizante apresentaram uma fração de sobrevivência de 0,21 ± 0,02, enquanto nas amostras irradiadas na presença de vinho Tannat ou ácido tânico, a fração de sobrevivência foi de 0,33 ± 0,03 e 0,30 ± 0,03, respectivamente. Um aumento significativo na probabilidade de mutagênese foi observado nas populações irradiadas. No caso dos tratamentos combinados, observou-se que a frequência mutagênica foi significativamente menor (Tannat gama: 33%, ácido tânico gama: 45%). Esses resultados preliminares podem indicar radioproteção moderada pelos compostos estudados, efeito que pode ser explicado pelas interações redox do ácido tânico e polifenóis contidos no vinho com os radicais livres formados pela radiação ionizante, além da ativação de vias de reparo genômico.

Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Tannins/pharmacology , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Survival Rate , Drug Therapy, Combination , Mutation Rate
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 290-298, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278385


ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy affects about 50 million people worldwide and around 30% of these patients have refractory epilepsy, with potential consequences regarding quality of life, morbidity and premature mortality. Objective: The aim of treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs) is to allow patients to remain without seizures, with good tolerability. Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum ASM with a unique mechanism of action that differs it from other ASMs. It has been shown to be effective and safe for treating adults and children with epilepsy. Methods: This was a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam in children and adults (4-65 years) as an adjuvant treatment for focal-onset seizures. It was conducted among 114 patients undergoing treatment with up to three ASMs. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the proportion of patients who achieved a reduction of ≥ 50% in the mean number of focal seizures per week, over a 16-week treatment period. The patients were randomized to receive placebo or levetiracetam, titrated every two weeks from 20 mg/kg/day or 1,000 mg/day up to 60 mg/kg/day or 3,000 mg/day. Results: Levetiracetam was significantly superior to placebo (p = 0.0031); 38.7% of the participants in the levetiracetam group and 14.3% in the control group shows reductions in focal seizures. Levetiracetam was seen to have a favorable safety profile and an adverse event rate similar to that of placebo. Conclusion: Corroborating the results in the literature, levetiracetam was shown to be effective and safe for children and adults with refractory focal-onset epilepsy.

RESUMO Introdução: A epilepsia afeta cerca de 50 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e aproximadamente 30% desses pacientes apresentam epilepsia refratária, com possíveis consequências na qualidade de vida, morbidade e mortalidade prematura. Objetivo: O objetivo do tratamento com fármacos antiepilépticos (FAEs) é permitir que os pacientes permaneçam sem crises epilépticas com boa tolerabilidade. O levetiracetam (LEV) é um FAE de amplo espectro, com mecanismo de ação único, diferente dos demais e que demonstra ser eficaz e seguro no tratamento de adultos e crianças. Métodos: Estudo de fase III, multicêntrico, randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado por placebo avalia a eficácia e a segurança do LEV em crianças e adultos (4-65 anos) como tratamento adjuvante para crises de início focal em 114 pacientes já tratados com até três FAEs. A análise de eficácia primária foi baseada na proporção de pacientes que apresentaram redução ≥50% no número médio de crises epilépticas focais semanais, durante 16 semanas. Os pacientes foram randomizados para receber placebo ou LEV, titulado a cada duas semanas de 20 mg/kg/dia ou 1.000 mg/dia até 60 mg/kg/dia ou 3.000 mg/dia. Resultados: LEV foi significativamente superior ao placebo (p=0,0031), com 38,7% dos participantes no grupo LEV e 14,3% no grupo controle que apresentaram redução das crises focais. LEV apresenta bom perfil de segurança com eventos adversos semelhantes ao placebo. Conclusão: Corroborando com os resultados da literatura, o levetiracetam mostra-se eficaz e seguro para crianças e adultos com epilepsia focal refratária.

Humans , Child , Adult , Epilepsies, Partial , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Quality of Life , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use