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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 58-69, mar. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555099

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las bases de datos y las tablas de composición de alimentos (BDCA y TCA, respectivamente) contienen información sobre la composición química-nutricional de los alimentos. Objetivo: Definir las fuentes de los datos de composición de alimentos que se usan en Costa Rica y que impacto tienen a nivel de políticas públicas. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron las TCA y BDCA disponibles en Costa Rica desde 1960 hasta el 2020. Se encuestaron usuarios de datos de composición de alimentos. Se analizaron los usos de estos datos y algunos alcances a nivel de política pública. Resultados: Se identifica la utilización predominante de datos de la BDCA de Estados Unidos, los datos nacionales son desactualizados en su mayoría y hay pocos datos de análisis directo (químico) de alimentos. Se evidencia la importancia de contar con datos propios, actualizados y representativos de composición de alimentos para la toma de decisiones en salud pública. Conclusiones: Se deben vincular las instituciones generadoras y compiladoras para maximizar los recursos para fortalecer la disponibilidad de datos de composición de alimentos en el país. Se evidencia la necesidad de generar un Sistema Nacional de Datos de Composición de Alimentos que se ajuste a las necesidades identificadas en cuanto a la calidad y presentación de la información(AU)


Introduction: Databases and food composition tables (FCDB and FCT, respectively) provide information about the chemical-nutritional composition of foods. Objective: of this work was to define the sources of food composition data used in Costa Rica and their impact on public policies. Materials and methods: It was analyzed which TCA and FCDB have been available in Costa Rica from 1960 to 2020. Users were surveyed about food composition data. It was analyzed the uses of these data and some of their impacts on public policy. Results: The predominant use of data from the U.S. FCDB is identified, the national data are mostly outdated, and there is little data from direct (chemical) analysis of food. The importance of having our own, up- to-date, and representative data on food composition for public health decision-making is evident. Conclusions: Generating and compiling institutions should be linked to maximize resources to strengthen the availability of food composition data in the country. The need to generate a National Food Composition Data System that meets the identified needs in terms of quality and presentation of information is evident(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Eating , Food Composition , Table of Food Composition , Nutrients , Database , Overweight
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 51-57, mar. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555095

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The confinement due to COVID-19 significantly affected people's food consumption, especially university students who had to adapt to virtual education. Objective: To determine the perception and food consumption frequency due to the COVID-19 pandemic among Peruvian students from a private university in Trujillo City, Peru. Materials and method: The research design was non-experimental, descriptive, and cross- sectional. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 169 students and the instrument used was a virtual survey (Cronbach's alpha = 0.846). Results: It is shown that there is a higher frequency of young people (n = 116) and adolescents (n = 45) who participated in the study, and that the average age was 22.15 ± 3.77 years. Likewise, the Frequency of Consumption dimension, it showed a higher frequency in the "Sometimes" scale, where it is related to whether it exceeded the number of meals per day (34.9%), eating out of control (38.5%), desires to eat unhealthy food (32.0%) and whether it influenced eating (30.8%). Similarly, it was shown that the majority of respondents consumed fruits (68.6%) and vegetables (58.0%) and considered water consumption essential (98.3%). On the other hand, there was a higher frequency regarding the consumption of ultra-processed foods (n = 95, 56.2%). Conclusion: The population of a private university made up mostly of young people and adolescents perceives that there was a change in their diet during the COVID-19 pandemic(AU)


Introducción: El confinamiento por COVID-19 afectó notablemente el consumo de alimentos de las personas, sobre todo de los universitarios quienes tuvieron que adaptarse a una educación virtual. Objetivo: Determinar la percepción y la frecuencia del consumo de alimentos a causa de la pandemia por COVID-19 en estudiantes de una universidad privada de la ciudad de Trujillo (Perú). Materiales y métodos: El diseño de la investigación fue no experimental de tipo descriptivo, y de corte transversal. La muestra no probabilística estuvo conformada por 169 estudiantes y el instrumento utilizado fue una encuesta virtual (Alfa de Cronbach = 0,846). Resultados: Se muestra que hay una mayor frecuencia de jóvenes (n = 116) y adolescentes (n = 45) que participaron en el estudio, y que la edad promedio fue de 22,15 ± 3,77 años. Así mismo, en la dimensión Frecuencia de Consumo, tuvo una mayor frecuencia en la escala "A veces", donde se relaciona a si excedió el número de comidas al día (34,9%), comer fuera de control (38,5%), deseos de comer comida poco saludable (32,0%) y si influenció en la alimentación (30,8%). De la misma manera, se mostró que la mayoría de encuestados consumió frutas (68,6%) y verduras (58,0) y consideró imprescindible el consumo de agua (98,3%), por otro lado, hubo una mayor frecuencia respecto al consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados (n = 95, 56,2%). Conclusiones: La población de una universidad privada conformada mayoritariamente por jóvenes y adolescentes percibe que si hubo un cambio en su alimentación durante la pandemia del COVID-19(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Quality of Life , Students , Nutrients , Eating , Feeding Behavior , COVID-19 , Universities , Vegetables , Quarantine , Fruit , Food, Processed
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 42-50, mar. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555090

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Teaching work, which is characterized by being exhausting, with a significant workload, with synchronous and/or asynchronous remote classes. Objective: To describe associations between the working conditions of school teachers at home and their food consumption during the suspension of face-to-face classes. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study using a self-administered online questionnaire with 15,372 working teachers from Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variables analyzed were the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Independent variables included sociodemographic factors, remote work conditions, understanding of online technologies, computer access, and quality of Internet connection. The Poisson model with robust variance was used to determine the association between working conditions and food consumption. Results: In the analysis of the adjusted multivariate model, there was a significant association between eating habits and the following variables: gender, age, working hours (per week), feelings regarding teachers' work during the pandemic, working hours during the pandemic and quality work internet connection. Our data shows that teachers' remote working conditions are associated with worse food consumption. They also showed that working hours equal to or greater than 40 hours per week, feelings of dissatisfaction with working conditions during the pandemic, increased working hours during the pandemic and poor quality of internet connection were variables correlated with the consumption of unhealthy foods. Conclusions: Remote working conditions during the pandemic influenced primary school teachers' food choices. More studies are needed to delve deeper into issues related to teachers' working conditions and the implications for food choices(AU)


Introducción: La labor docente se caracteriza por ser agotadora, con una importante carga horaria, con clases remotas síncronas y/o asíncronas. Objetivo: Describir la asociación existente entre las condiciones del trabajo remoto de los docentes de la educación básica y el consumo de sus alimentos durante el período de suspensión de las clases presenciales. Métodos: Es un estudio transversal mediante cuestionario en línea autoadministrado con 15.372 docentes activos en Minas Gerais, Brasil. Las variables dependientes analizadas fueron el consumo de los alimentos saludables y de los no saludables. Las variables independientes incluyeron los factores sociodemográficos, las condiciones del trabajo remoto, la comprensión de las tecnologías en línea, el acceso a las computadoras así como la calidad de la conexión a la Internet. Se utilizó el modelo de Poisson con variación robusta para determinar la asociación entre las condiciones del trabajo y el consumo de los alimentos. Resultados: En el análisis del modelo multivariado ajustado hubo una asociación significativa entre los hábitos alimentarios y las siguientes variables: el género, la edad, la jornada laboral semanal, el sentimiento sobre el trabajo durante la pandemia, la jornada laboral durante la pandemia y la calidad de la conexión a la internet. Nuestros datos demuestran que las condiciones del trabajo remoto de los docentes están asociadas con un empeoramiento en el consumo de los alimentos. También mostraron que la jornada laboral igual o superior a unas 40 horas semanales, los sentimientos de insatisfacción con las condiciones laborales, el aumento de la jornada laboral y la mala calidad de la conexión a la Internet durante la pandemia fueron variables correlacionadas con el consumo de alimentos no saludables. Conclusiones: Las condiciones del trabajo remoto durante la pandemia influyeron en las elecciones alimentarias de los docentes de la educación básica. Se necesitan más estudios para profundizar en los aspectos relacionados con las condiciones laborales de los docentes y sus implicaciones en la elección de sus alimentos(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Education, Distance , Eating , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Internet Access , Food, Processed
4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 22-32, mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555082

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad aumentan la morbimortalidad de la población latinoamericana. La deficiencia de micronutrientes como el calcio y la vitamina D se han relacionado con un aumento del riesgo de obesidad. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la ingesta de vitamina D y de calcio con los factores de riesgo para obesidad en la población urbana costarricense incluidas en el Estudio ELANS. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 798 participantes costarricenses del Estudio ELANS. Se determinó la distribución del consumo de calcio y vitamina D según las características socioeconómicas, la actividad física y los datos antropométricos. Se compararon los grupos con las pruebas U de Mann ­ Whitney y Kruskal-Wallis. Se realizaron modelos de regresión lineal y logística. Resultados: El consumo de calcio y vitamina D fue inadecuado en más del 98% de los participantes. Las mujeres, las personas con menor nivel socioeconómico, baja actividad física, de menor edad, con exceso de peso y obesidad abdominal presentaron un consumo menor de calcio y de vitamina D. El consumo de calcio y vitamina D es mayor en los grupos que tienen un menor IMC (p= 0,023 para calcio y p= 0,252 para vitamina D). Las personas con menor circunferencia de la cintura tuvieron más consumo de calcio y vitamina D (p= 0,002 para calcio y p= 0,008 para vitamina D). No hubo asociación del consumo en los modelos de regresión. Conclusiones: El consumo de calcio y vitamina D es deficiente en la población urbana costarricense y, presentó una relación inversa con el IMC(AU)


ntroduction: The presence of overweight and obesity increase the morbimortality of people in Latin America. Micronutrient deficiencies, such as calcium and vitamin D, are associated with an increased risk of obesity. Objective: To determine the relationship between vitamin D and calcium intake with risk factors for obesity in the Costa Rican urban population included in the ELANS Study. Materials and methods: For this analysis we used the 798 Costa Rican participants of the study (ELANS). The distribution of calcium and vitamin D intake was determined according to socioeconomic status, physical activity, and anthropometric measures. The Mann ­ Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis U tests were used, as well as linear and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Calcium and vitamin D intake was inadequate in more than 98% of the participants. Women, individuals with a lower socioeconomic level, low physical activity, younger age and those with excess weight and abdominal obesity presented lower consumptionofcalciumandvitamin D. Theconsumption of calcium and vitamin D was greater in the groups that have a lower BMI (p= 0.023 for calcium and p= 0.252 for vitamin D). The smaller the waist circumference, the greater the consumption of calcium and vitamin D (p= 0.002 for calcium and p= 0.008 for vitamin D). No association of the consumption of calcium and vitamin D was found in the regression models. Conclusions: Consumption of calcium and vitamin D is deficient in the Costa Rican urban population, and more prevalent among those with higher BMI. Arch Latinoam Nutr 2024(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Vitamin D , Calcium , Risk Factors , Overweight , Feeding Behavior , Obesity , Social Class , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Eating , Noncommunicable Diseases
5.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the evolution of the dietary patterns of adolescents in the northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Secondary analysis of data from the Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF - Household Budget Surveys), collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in the years 2008-2009 and 2017-2018. A total of 3,095 adolescents were evaluated in 2008-2009 and 3,015 in 2017-2018. Food consumption was assessed using two dietary records in 2008-2009 and two 24-hour recalls in 2017-2018, applied on non-consecutive days. Based on these data, principal components factor analysis (PCFA) was performed, followed by orthogonal rotation of the varimax type, to derive dietary patterns, stratified by sex. The results were described as means or percentage frequencies, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Three main dietary patterns were identified among adolescents from the northeast region of Brazil. Among boys, in 2008-2009, the patterns were called snacks, traditional Brazilian, and coffee; and in 2017-2018, traditional Brazilian, snacks, and mixed, in this order of representativeness of the group's eating habits. Among female adolescents, in 2008-2009, the patterns were snacks, traditional Brazilian, and coffee; and in 2017-2018, traditional Brazilian, snacks, and processed meats. CONCLUSION The dietary patterns identified in 2008-2009 and 2017-2018 were similar in both genders; however, the snacks pattern, which explained most of the data variability in 2008-2009, was replaced by the traditional Brazilian.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Eating , Feeding Behavior
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 143 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537991

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Ainda que fundamental para acompanhamento e diagnóstico da situação alimentar e nutricional da população brasileira, o Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (Sisvan) tem sido subutilizado, principalmente com relação aos registros de consumo alimentar. Objetivo: Investigar a tendência temporal da cobertura e estratégias para utilização de marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional, entre 2015 e 2019, na Atenção Primária à Saúde do Sistema Único de Saúde. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa de caráter misto. Primeiramente, foi realizado estudo ecológico de séries temporais, para estimar a cobertura populacional e Taxa de Incremento Anual (TIA) do registro de marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sisvan nacionalmente, entre 2015 e 2019, segundo entrada de dados via Estratégia e-SUS APS e Sisvan Web. A TIA da cobertura foi calculada utilizando regressão de Prais-Winsten e sua correlação com IDH, PIB per capita e cobertura da APS foi avaliada. Sequencialmente, para explorar barreiras e facilitadores para utilização dos marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sisvan, elaborou-se um roteiro para grupos focais a partir da análise descritiva de respostas de profissionais da APS a um questionário eletrônico com perguntas objetivas e subjetivas sobre a temática. Conduziram-se 10 grupos focais em plataforma online envolvendo 34 profissionais em cargos de assistência à saúde e de gestão do Sisvan, de todas as macrorregiões brasileiras, cujas transcrições passaram por análise de conteúdo temática de caráter indutiva. O livro de códigos foi aplicado no corpus por dois pesquisadores e discordâncias foram discutidas, com concordância satisfatória (Kappa=0,87). Resultados: Houve aumento significante do registro de marcadores do consumo alimentar no país desde 2015 (TIA: +45,63%), mas a cobertura populacional ainda é incipiente (0,92% da população residente total em 2019), com diferenças relevantes entre grupos etários. As tendências foram consistentemente crescentes para a entrada de dados via e-SUS APS, em detrimento do Sisvan Web. A TIA da cobertura via e-SUS APS esteve positivamente correlacionada com IDH e PIB per capita em alguns recortes etários. A partir dos grupos focais, fatores como estrutura dos formulários, manuseio das plataformas digitais e infraestrutura dos serviços de saúde emergiram como barreiras ou facilitadores potenciais para uso dos marcadores. Dificuldades na interação com usuários, falta de sensibilização dos profissionais e insegurança alimentar e nutricional constituíram barreiras adicionais. Por outro lado, constatou-se que a utilização por qualquer profissional de saúde e as condicionalidades com políticas públicas facilitam a utilização dos marcadores. Os grupos focais mostraram-se espaço de troca de experiências entre profissionais e compartilhamento de estratégias para ampliação do uso dos formulários, incluindo matriciamento, técnicas para condução dos marcadores nos serviços de saúde, apoio profissional para digitação de formulários e ampliação da divulgação dos dados. Conclusões: A cobertura populacional do registro de marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sisvan ainda é baixa, mas o e-SUS APS parece ser uma via relevante para sua expansão. A abordagem de estratégias pode estimular o trabalho de equipes da APS, destacando-se a pertinência do compartilhamento de experiências entre contextos distintos para fortalecer o monitoramento do consumo alimentar no SUS.


Introduction: Although essential for monitoring and diagnosing the food and nutrition situation of the Brazilian population, the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (Sisvan) has been underutilized, especially with regard to food consumption records. Objective: To investigate the temporal trend of coverage and strategies for the use of food intake markers from the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System, between 2015 and 2019, in Primary Health Care (PHC) of the Unified Health System (SUS). Methods: This is a mixed-methods study. Firstly, an ecological time series study was conducted in order to estimate the population coverage and Annual Percentage Change (APC) of the Sisvan food intake markers registry nationally, between 2015 and 2019, according to data entry via the e-SUS PHC Strategy and Sisvan Web. The APC of coverage was calculated using Prais-Winsten regression and its correlation with HDI, GDP per capita and PHC coverage was evaluated. Sequentially, to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of Sisvan food intake markers, a script was drawn up for focus groups based on the descriptive analysis of responses from PHC professionals to an electronic questionnaire with objective and subjective questions on the subject. Ten focus groups were held on an online platform involving 34 professionals in health care and Sisvan management positions from all Brazilian macro-regions, the transcripts of which were subjected to inductive thematic content analysis. The codebook was applied to the corpus by two researchers and disagreements were discussed, with satisfactory agreement (Kappa=0.87). Results: There has been a significant increase in the recording of food intake markers in the country since 2015 (APC: +45.63%), however population coverage is still incipient (0.92% of the total resident population in 2019), with relevant differences between age groups. The trends were consistently increasing for data entry via e-SUS PHC, to the detriment of Sisvan Web. The APC of coverage via e-SUS PHC was positively correlated with HDI and GDP per capita in some age groups. From the focus groups, factors such as the structure of the forms, handling of the digital platforms and the infrastructure of the health services emerged as potential barriers or facilitators to the use of the markers. Difficulties in interacting with users, lack of sensitivity among professionals and food and nutritional insecurity were additional barriers. On the other hand, it was found that use by any health professional and conditionalities with public policies facilitate the use of the markers. The focus groups proved to be a space for professionals for exchanging experiences and sharing strategies for expanding the use of the forms, including matrix support, techniques for using the markers in health services, professional support for typing up the forms and expanding the dissemination of data. Conclusions: Population coverage of the Sisvan food intake marker registry is still low, but e-SUS PHC seems to be a relevant way of expanding it. The approach of strategies can stimulate the work of PHC teams, highlighting the relevance of sharing experiences between different contexts to strengthen the monitoring of food consumption in the SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Focus Groups , Health Information Systems , Time Factors , Brazil , Eating
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 106 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1537993

ABSTRACT

Introdução - O desenvolvimento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) em idosos está relacionado, dentre outros fatores, à desregulação da expressão de microRNAs (miRNAs), a qual pode ser modulada por fatores ambientais, incluindo o padrão alimentar. Objetivo - Avaliar o perfil de expressão plasmática de miRNAs e suas relações com biomarcadores cardiometabólicos e dieta em idosos do estudo de base populacional ISA Capital. Métodos - Estudo transversal, com subamostra de 200 indivíduos idosos participantes do ISA Nutrição. Foi avaliado o perfil de expressão de 21 miRNAs plasmáticos. Os indivíduos foram avaliados quanto às medidas antropométricas e à pressão arterial sistêmica; biomarcadores glicêmicos, do perfil lipídico e inflamatórios; e ao consumo alimentar. Calculou-se o escore de inflamação crônica e de baixo grau (SIS) a partir das concentrações de 10 biomarcadores inflamatórios. A expressão plasmática dos miRNAs circulantes foi analisada a partir do método Fluidigm. Os indivíduos avaliados foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a presença ou não de síndrome metabólica (SM), e o teste ajustado de Wald foi utilizado para comparar a expressão dos miRNAs entre os grupos. A partir do coeficiente tau-a de Kendall estimou-se as correlações entre a expressão dos miRNAs e variáveis de interesse. O teste de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para determinar as diferenças no SIS em indivíduos de acordo com o sexo e a presença de SM. O teste de correlação de Spearman estimou as correlações entre o SIS, concentrações de leptina, miRNAs e demais variáveis de interesse. Além disso, utilizou-se modelos lineares generalizados (MLGs) para aprofundar as associações encontradas. As análises foram realizadas nos softwares Stata/SE (versão 17.0) e R (versão 4.2.3), considerando nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados - A amostra final deste estudo consistiu em 193 indivíduos (69,1 (0,5) anos), sendo 50,4% do sexo feminino, e 64,7% com SM. A expressão plasmática dos miR-30a e miR-122 foi maior em indivíduos com SM do que naqueles sem SM, e sua expressão se correlacionou à glicemia e insulinemia em jejum, HOMA1-IR, HDL-c, VLDL-c, LDL-c, colesterol não-HDL e triacilgliceróis. Além disso, associações negativas entre cinco miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363, miR-532), concentração de leptina e/ou SIS foram observadas. Ainda, o consumo de diversos grupos alimentares influenciou a expressão plasmática dos miRNAs. O consumo diário de 100 g de frutas se relacionou à redução na expressão dos miR-16, miR-30a, miR-126, miR-130b, miR-363, miR-375, miR-486 e miR-532. Contudo, o consumo de carne vermelha se associou ao aumento na expressão plasmática de quatro miRNAs (miR-126, miR-150, miR-223 e miR-376a). Ainda, observou-se que o consumo diário de 100 g de hortaliças se associou a uma chance 7 vezes maior de os indivíduos avaliados não apresentarem SM. Conclusões - O aumento da expressão plasmática dos miR-21, miR-30a e miR-122 sugere maior risco cardiometabólico, ao passo que a redução na expressão dos miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363 e miR-532 sugere menor risco cardiometabólico em idosos. Ainda, os resultados encontrados enfatizam a importância da adoção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis na regulação da expressão dos miRNAs e, consequentemente, na redução do risco de desenvolvimento de DCNT.


Introduction: The development of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in older adults is related, among other factors, to the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression, which can be modulated by environmental factors, including dietary patterns. Objectives: To assess the plasma expression profile of miRNAs and its relationships with cardiometabolic biomarkers and diet of older adults participating in the ISA Capital population-based study. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with a sub-sample of 200 older adults participating in ISA Nutrition. The expression profile of 21 plasma miRNAs was evaluated. Subjects were evaluated for anthropometric measurements and systemic blood pressure; glycemic, lipid and inflammatory biomarkers; and food consumption. Furthermore, the chronic and low-grade inflammation score (SIS) was calculated based on the concentrations of 10 inflammatory biomarkers. The plasma expression of circulating miRNAs was analyzed using the Fluidigm method. The evaluated individuals were distributed into two groups according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the adjusted Wald test was used to compare the expression of miRNAs between the groups. Using Kendall's tau-a coefficient, correlations between miRNAs expression and variables of interest were estimated. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to determine differences in SIS based on the distribution of individuals according to sex and the presence of MetS. The Spearman correlation test estimated correlations between SIS, leptin concentrations, miRNAs and other variables of interest. Furthermore, generalized linear models were used to deepen the associations found. All analyzes were performed using Stata/SE (version 17.0) and R (version 4.2.3) software, considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: The final sample of this study consisted of 193 individuals, (69.1 (0.5) years), 50.4% of whom were female, and 64.7% with MetS. Plasma expression of miR-30a and miR-122 was higher in individuals with MetS than in those without MetS, and their expression correlated with fasting glycemia and insulinemia, HOMA1-IR, HDL-c, VLDL-c, LDL-c, non-HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols. Furthermore, negative associations between five miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363, miR-532), leptin concentration and/or SIS were observed. In addition, the consumption of different food groups influenced the plasma expression of miRNAs. Daily consumption of 100 g of fruits was related to a reduction in the expression of miR-16, miR-30a, miR-126, miR-130b, miR-363, miR-375, miR-486, miR-532. On the other hand, red meat consumption was associated with an increase in the plasma expression of four miRNAs (miR-126, miR-150, miR-223 and miR-376a). Furthermore, it was observed that the daily consumption of 100 g of vegetables was associated with a 7 times greater chance of the individuals evaluated not having MetS. Conclusions: The increase in the plasma expression of miR-21, miR-30a and miR-122 suggests a greater cardiometabolic risk, while the reduction in the expression of miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363 and miR-532 suggests lower cardiometabolic risk in the elderly. Furthermore, the results found emphasize the importance of adopting healthy eating habits in regulating the expression of miRNAs and, consequently, in reducing the risk of developing NCD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Aging , Metabolic Syndrome , Eating , Noncommunicable Diseases , Circulating MicroRNA , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 1038-1046, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425178

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of acute cases of Chagas disease notified in the State of Amazonas between the period from 2010 to 2020. Data were obtained from the portal of the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação- SINAN, considering the number of cases per municipality of notification. 140 cases of Acute Chagas Disease were notified, distributed in 23 of the 62 municipalities of the State of Amazonas, 82 (59%) were male individuals, with a greater predominance in the age group of 20-39 years old, having 45 (32.1%) cases. As for the race/color variable, the highest number was among brown people with 101 (72.1%) notifications. The oral route prevailed as the main form of disease transmission with 93 (66.4%) records. Infection by the oral route of T. cruzi is the most important route of transmission of CD in the State of Amazonas, the occurrence of transmission is associated in most cases with the consumption of foods such as açaí juice and has been reported frequently over the years between municipalities.


este estudo se propôs a investigar a epidemiologia dos casos agudos de Doença de Chagas notificados no Estado do Amazonas no período de 2010 a 2020. Os dados foram obtidos no portal do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN, considerando o número de casos por município de notificação. Foram notificados 140 casos de Doença de Chagas Aguda, distribuídos em 23 dos 62 municípios do Estado do Amazonas, 82 (59%) eram indivíduos do sexo masculino, com maior predominância na faixa etária de 20-39 anos de idade com 45 (32,1%) casos. Quanto a variável raça/cor, a maior registro foi entre pardos com 101(72,1%) notificações. A via oral, prevaleceu como a principal forma de transmissão da patologia com 93 (66,4%) registros. A infecção pela via oral do T. cruzi, é a mais importante via de transmissão de DC no Estado do Amazonas, a ocorrência da transmissão está associada na maioria das vezes ao consumo de alimentos como o suco de açaí, e tem sido reportada com frequência ao longo dos anos entre os municípios.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la epidemiología de los casos agudos de la enfermedad de Chagas notificados en el Estado de Amazonas en el período de 2010 a 2020. Los datos fueron obtenidos del portal del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación - SINAN, considerando el número de casos por municipio de notificación. Se notificaron 140 casos de Enfermedad de Chagas Aguda, distribuidos en 23 de los 62 municipios del Estado de Amazonas, 82 (59%) fueron individuos del sexo masculino, con mayor predominio en el grupo etario de 20 a 39 años con 45 (32,1%) casos. En cuanto a la variable raza/color, el mayor número fue entre los morenos con 101 (72,1%) notificaciones. La vía oral predominó como principal vía de transmisión de la enfermedad con 93 (66,4%) registros. La infección por vía oral de T. cruzi es la vía de transmisión más importante de la EC en el Estado de Amazonas, la ocurrencia de la transmisión está mayoritariamente asociada al consumo de alimentos como el jugo de açaí, y ha sido reportada con frecuencia a lo largo de los años entre municipios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chagas Disease/transmission , Euterpe/poisoning , Notification/statistics & numerical data , Eating/radiation effects , Health Information Systems/organization & administration , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data
9.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(4): 197-99, out-dez/2023. fig. 1
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1532351

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) é um método clínico de detecção de disfagia, entendida como dificuldade na deglutição. Em pesquisa realizada no Brasil, foi observado que 9,5% de indivíduos saudáveis assintomáticos têm resultados do teste compatível com disfagia. Objetivo: Avaliar os possíveis fatores que influenciam o resultado anormal do teste em indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Estudo transversal realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP-USP) em 358 voluntários sem doenças e sem sintomas, nos quais foi aplicado o teste EAT-10. Resultados: Em 316 o resultado nos 10 itens do teste foi zero, e em 42 os resultados da somatória dos 10 itens foi igual ou superior a 3, considerado indicativo de disfagia. O resultado ≥ 3 ocorreu em 10 homens entre 144 (7%) e 32 mulheres entre 214 (15%), (P = 0,01). A mediana (limites) de idades daqueles com resultado zero foi de 39 (20-84) anos, e com resultado ≥ 3 foi de 32 (20-83) anos (P = 0,04). O índice de massa corporal (IMC) não apresentou diferença entre pessoas com e sem indicação de disfagia. O máximo escore possível para o item 5 (dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos) foi o que obteve o maior percentual (43,9%) de máximo escore possível, sendo o fator mais importante para o resultado anormal. Discussão: Em indivíduos saudáveis, a dificuldade em ingerir medicamentos foi o fator que mais influenciou a ocorrência de resultado do teste EAT-10 indicativo de disfagia. Conclusão: Dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos sólidos deve ser considerada quando da interpretação do teste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Eating , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Critical Pathways , Drug Utilization
11.
Medisan ; 27(5)oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1528998

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una nutrición adecuada es clave para desarrollar inmunidad, protección contra las enfermedades e infecciones, y apoyar la recuperación. Objetivo: Identificar las características del consumo de alimentos y la cultura alimentaria en convalecientes de COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, desde mayo hasta diciembre del 2020, de 67 pacientes mayores de 20 años de edad convalecientes de la COVID-19, con resultados negativos en la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa durante un mes, quienes pertenecían a un área de salud de La Habana. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, dietéticas y de estado nutricional. Resultados: La enfermedad se presentó con mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino (59,7 %) y el grupo etario de 20 a 39 años (47,8 %). Se identificó un alto porcentaje de sobrepeso global (59,7) y los alimentos de mayor consumo y preferencia fueron los energéticos en el horario de la tarde-noche (89,6 %), así como aquellos productos fritos y la piel de aves (38,8 %). La ingestión de vegetales y frutas resultó escasa (29,9 y 40,3 %, respectivamente) y la alimentación, poco variada (86,4 %), pues no consumían diariamente alimentos de los 7 grupos básicos, aunque la mayoría (70,0 %) realizaba las 3 comidas principales del día. Conclusiones: Los sujetos estudiados poseían una cultura alimentaria deficiente expresada por conocimientos escasos o errados, lo que advierte sobre la necesidad de disponer de un instrumento educativo para la adopción de actitudes y prácticas alimentarias saludables que conduzcan a la restauración de la inmunidad.


Introduction: An appropriate nutrition is the key to develop immunity, protection against diseases and infections, and support the recovery. Objective: To identify the characteristics of foods consumption and alimentary culture in COVID-19 convalescent persons. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out, from May to December 2020, of 67 patients over 20 years convalescent from COVID-19, with negative results in the polymerase chain reaction test for a month, who belonged to a health area of Havana city. Some sociodemographic, dietary and nutritional state variables were analyzed. Results: The disease was presented more frequently in male sex (59.7%) and the 20 to 39 age group (47-8%). A high percentage of general overweight was identified (59.7), and the most consumed and preferred foods were the energy-giving in the afternoon-night time (89.6%), as well as those fried products and poultry skin (38.8%). The consumption of vegetables and fruits was low (29.9 and 40.3%, respectively) and there was a poor variety in the diet (86.4%), since they didn't consume foods from the 7 basic groups daily, although most of them (70.0%) had 3 meals a day. Conclusions: The studied individuals possessed a poor alimentary culture expressed by limited or wrong knowledge, what is a warning about the necessity of having an educational instrument for the adoption of attitudes and healthy alimentary habits leading to the restoration of immunity.


Subject(s)
Eating , Feeding Behavior
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 35-46, sept. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532828

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The intake of energy-dense unhealthy food at school could influence the overall energy intake of children. Objective: To characterize the patterns of buying a snack at school and to analyze the association of these patterns with the source of the school snack (brought from home or bought at school) and screen time. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 until May 2019 among school children (9 to 12-year-olds) from Cuenca-Ecuador. Intake of energy-dense unhealthy food groups, the source of the school snack, and screen time were assessed using questionnaires. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify intake patterns of unhealthy food groups, and logistic regression to assess the association between intake of energy-dense unhealthy food groups (FG) with the school snack source. Results: Among 1,028 children recruited 63%, 42%, 30% and 22% of the children reported consuming sweets/confiture, savory snacks, fast food, and pastry products, respectively, at least two days per week. Around 39% of the children were classified as "Frequent consumers of energy-dense unhealthy FG". Buying the snack at school was associated with a more frequent intake of sweets/confiture (OR=1.56, CI 95% =1.05-2.32) and fast food (OR=2.01, CI 95% =1.15-3.50) during the week, as well as with being classified in the "frequent consumer of energy-dense unhealthy FG" (OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.40-2.82). Conclusions: Ecuadorian children still consume prohibited unhealthy foods at school. These results reinforce the importance of evaluating, monitoring, and adapting strategies to promote a balanced diet(AU)


Introducción. La ingesta de alimentos poco saludables con alto contenido energético en la escuela podría influir en la ingesta energética total de los niños. Objetivo: Caracterizar los patrones de compra de snacks en el colegio y analizar la asociación de estos patrones con la procedencia del snack escolar (de la casa o comprada en el colegio) y el tiempo de pantalla. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal (octubre 2018-mayo 2019) en escolares (9-12 años) Cuenca- Ecuador. La ingesta de grupos de alimentos (FG) no saludables altos en energía, la fuente del snack escolar y el tiempo de pantalla se evaluaron mediante cuestionarios. Se utilizó análisis de correspondencias múltiples para identificar patrones de ingesta de FG poco saludables y la regresión logística para evaluar asociación entre la ingesta FG no saludables con la fuente del snack escolar. Resultados: En 1.028 niños 63%, 42%, 30% y 22% declararon consumir dulces/golosinas, aperitivos salados, comida rápida y productos de pastelería, respectivamente, al menos dos/días/ semana. Un 39% fueron clasificados como "Consumidores frecuentes de FG poco saludables de alta densidad energética". La compra de los snacks en el colegio se asoció con una ingesta más frecuente de dulces/golosinas (OR=1,56; IC95%=1,05-2,32) y comida rápida (OR=2,01; IC95%=1,15-3,50) durante la semana y con la clasificación en el grupo" consumidores frecuentes de FG poco saludables de alta densidad energética" (OR=1,99; IC95%=1,40- 2,82). Conclusiones: Los niños ecuatorianos aún consumen alimentos no saludables prohibidos en la escuela. Estos resultados refuerzan la importancia de evaluar, monitorear y adaptar estrategias para promover una dieta balanceada(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Eating , Candy
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 47-57, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532857

ABSTRACT

Introduction. There is growing consensus globally that the consumption of ultra- processed food (UPF) can negatively affect the nutritional status of children. Objective. The present study aims to evaluate associations between the consumption of UPF and the nutritional status in a sample of Uruguayan and Brazilian preschoolers belonging to two studies: the ENDIS Study and the Pelotas 2015 Birth Cohort. Materials and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis. The main outcome measure was obesity defined as BMI for age and sex ≥ +3 z-scores. The score of UPF consumption was the main exposure measured. Each positive answer of habitual intake was added up to create a UPF score ranging from zero to six or more UPF. Crude and adjusted logistic regressions were performed for the associations between UPF consumption and nutritional status in preschoolers. Results. The final sample consisted of 8,687 preschool children, 50.8% belonging to the Uruguayan study, while the remaining 49.2% belonged to the Brazilian study. Nearly 5% of the sample of young children were obese. We didn't observe a relationship between the score of UPF consumption and obesity, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.04 (95% CI, 1.00­1.09). Adjustments resulted in modest attenuation of the relationship and a lack of statistical significance. However, in children under 48 months, the score of UPF consumption was directly associated with childhood obesity. Conclusions. Results suggest that higher consumption of UPF is associated with obesity in Uruguayan and Brazilian preschool children under 4 years of age. These findings suggest that actions to reduce ultra- processed food consumption could lead to diminish obesity patterns and bring important public health benefits(AU)


Introducción. Existe creciente consenso a nivel mundial de que el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados puede afectar negativamente el estado nutricional de los niños. Objetivo. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar asociaciones entre el consumo de ultraprocesados y el estado nutricional en una muestra de preescolares uruguayos y brasileños pertenecientes a dos estudios: el Estudio ENDIS y la Cohorte de Nacimiento de Pelotas 2015. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un análisis transversal. La principal medida de resultado fue la obesidad definida como el IMC/edad y sexo ≥ +3 puntuaciones z. La puntuación del consumo de ultraprocesados fue la principal exposición. Cada respuesta positiva de la ingesta habitual se sumó para crear una puntuación de ultraprocesados que oscilaba entre cero y seis o más. Se realizaron regresiones logísticas crudas y ajustadas. Resultados. La muestra final estuvo constituida por 8.687 niños, de los cuales el 50,8% pertenecía al estudio uruguayo, mientras que el 49,2% restante pertenecía al estudio brasileño. Casi el 5% de la muestra de niños pequeños eran obesos. No observamos relación entre la puntuación del consumo de ultraprocesados y la obesidad, el odds ratio (OR) fue de 1,04 (IC 95%, 1,00-1,09). Los ajustes dieron lugar a modesta atenuación de la relación y falta de significación estadística. Sin embargo, en menores de 48 meses la puntuación de consumo de ultraprocesados se asoció directamente con la obesidad infantil. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren que un mayor consumo de ultraprocesados se asocia con obesidad en prescolares uruguayos y brasileños menores de 4 años. Estos hallazgos sugieren que las acciones para reducir el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados podrían conducir a una disminución de los patrones de obesidad y traer importantes beneficios para la salud pública(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Nutritional Status , Eating , Food, Processed , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Consensus , Child Nutrition , Obesity
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 173-179, sept 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1512072

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El confinamiento debido a COVID-19 influenció el estilo de vida de la población mundial. En México, se ha reportado que esta influencia fue mayoritariamente negativa. Sin embargo, existen muy pocos estudios que reporten el impacto en poblaciones de alta marginación como el estado de Oaxaca, donde ya antes de la pandemia presentaban altas tasas de malnutrición. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos del aislamiento por COVID-19 sobre el consumo alimentario de la población del sur de México. Materiales y métodos. Estudio longitudinal, con una muestra (autoseleccionada) de adultos reclutados mediante un link a una página en LimeSurvey. El primer requisito fue el consentimiento informado. Se preguntaron datos sociodemográficos y se aplicó un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (raciones/día) recomendables (carnes, cereales, leguminosas, verduras, frutas) y no recomendables (gaseosas, superfluos, azúcares y bebidas alcohólicas). Los participantes respondieron la encuesta al comienzo de la reclusión (marzo'2019) y en enero de 2021. Los datos se analizaron con SPSS'23. Resultados. Se observó un descenso significativo en el consumo de raciones/día (p<0.001) de carnes, cereales, leguminosas y verduras y por otro lado, el consumo de todos los alimentos no recomendables analizados (gaseosas, superfluos, azúcares y bebidas alcohólicas) aumentó significativamente (p<0.001). Conclusiones. Durante el aislamiento por COVID-19 la población oaxaqueña aumentó el consumo de alimentos no saludables y disminuyó el de saludables. Considerando que la situación de salud previa a la pandemia ya no era la esperada, estos resultados aportan un panorama alarmante que requiere intervención(AU)


Introduction. The isolation due to COVID-19 influenced the lifestyle of the world population. In Mexico, it was reported that this influence was mostly negative. However, there are few studies that report this impact in highly marginalized populations such as Oaxaca, which before the pandemic already had high malnutrition figures. Objective. To analyze the effects of isolation by COVID-19 on the food consumption of the population of southern Mexico. Materials and methods. Longitudinal study, with a (self-selected) sample of adults recruited through a link to a page in LimeSurvey. The first requirement was informed consent. Sociodemographic data were recolected and a quantitative questionnaire was applied on the frequency of consumption of recommended (meat, cereals, legumes, vegetables, fruits) and non-recommended (soda, miscellaneous group, sugar, and alcoholic beverages) foods (servings/ day). The participants answered the survey at the beginning of the isolation (March'2019) and in January 2021. The data was analyzed with SPSS'23. Results. A significant decrease was observed in the consumption of servings/day (p<0.001) of meat, cereals, legumes and vegetables and on the other hand, the consumption of all non-recommended foods analyzed (soda, miscellaneous group, sugar and alcoholic beverages) increased exponentially (p<0.001). Conclusions. During the isolation due to COVID-19, the Oaxacan population increased the consumption of unhealthy foods and decreased that of healthy ones. Considering that the health situation prior to the pandemic was no longer as expected, these results provide an alarming panorama that requires intervention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Eating , COVID-19 , Life Style , Social Isolation , Diet , Red Meat , Diet, Healthy
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 233-250, sept 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1518901

ABSTRACT

La región latinoamericana ha sido pionera en la implementación del etiquetado frontal de advertencia nutricional (EFAN), mismo que ha demostrado su eficacia y efectividad para identificar correctamente cuando un producto contiene cantidades excesivas de nutrientes asociados a Enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT). Sin embargo, ningún país del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SICA); que incluye a Belice, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá y República Dominicana, lo ha adoptado. Por esta razón, el Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panamá, convocó a un grupo de expertos de la academia y la sociedad civil con el objetivo de establecer una postura técnica, basada en la mejor evidencia científica, en relación al etiquetado frontal para los nutrientes críticos de alimentos y bebidas pre- envasados en la región centroamericana. Se presenta evidencia específica de la región del SICA que demuestran la superioridad del EFAN frente a otros etiquetados como las Guías Diarias de Alimentación (GDA), el semáforo y el Nutriscore para seleccionar opciones más saludables. Dentro del marco de los derechos de la niñez y de los consumidores, se brindan argumentos y se hace un llamado a los gobiernos para la pronta adopción del EFAN como una política costo-efectiva para la prevención de ENT. Además, se proveen recomendaciones para su monitoreo y evaluación, así como recomendaciones de otras políticas costo-efectivas como la regulación de la publicidad de alimentos no saludables dirigido a la niñez y adolescencia, entre otros, para la prevención de las ENT y la creación de ambientes y sistemas alimentarios más saludables y sostenibles(AU)


The Latin American region has been a pioneer in the implementation of a front- of-pack warning labeling system (FOPWL), which has demonstrated its efficacy and effectiveness in correctly identifying when a product contains excessive amounts of nutrients associated with Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). However, countries of the Central American Integration System (SICA); which includes Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the Dominican Republic, have no adopted it. For this reason, the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama convened a group of experts from academia and civil society with the aim of establishing an evidence-based technical position, in relation to front-of-pack labelling for critical nutrients of pre-packaged foods and beverages in the Central American region. Specific evidence from the SICA region demonstrating the superiority of FOPWL over other labels such as the Guideline Daily Amount (GDA), the traffic light and Nutriscore to select healthier choices is presented. Within the framework of children's and consumer rights, arguments are provided, and a call is made to governments for the prompt adoption of FOPWL as a cost-effective policy for the prevention of NCDs. In addition, recommendations for its monitoring and evaluation are provided, as well as recommendations for other cost-effective policies such as the regulation of unhealthy food advertising aimed at children and adolescents, among others, for the prevention of NCDs and the creation ofhealthier and more sustainable environments and food systems(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Eating , Food Labeling , Noncommunicable Diseases , Food, Processed , Cardiovascular Diseases , Overnutrition , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Obesity
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 73-83, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532926

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La circunferencia de cintura (CC) es indicador de obesidad abdominal y riesgo cardiovascular en adultos. En Perú, la obesidad ha aumentado a diferente magnitud por área de residencia y poco se sabe de la influencia del consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados (AUP) sobre este fenómeno en población adulta. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación entre ingesta de AUP y circunferencia de cintura en adultos peruanos por área de residencia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal de datos secundarios de 745 adultos con información de ingesta dietaria (un recordatorio de 24 horas) de la Encuesta Nacional Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional por Etapas de Vida 2017-2018. Los AUP fueron caracterizados según la clasificación NOVA. La ingesta AUP como el porcentaje relativo de la ingesta energética total (%), dividida en terciles. La CC medida como punto medio entre última costilla y cresta iliaca. Se usó regresión lineal múltiple ponderada y análisis estratificado según área de residencia. Resultados. La edad promedio fue 37,2 años. La ingesta de AUP promedio fue 14,7% (IC95%: 14,2 ­ 15,3). Comparado con adultos en el menor tercil de ingesta de AUP, aquellos en tercil medio tuvieron mayor CC ( 0,73; IC95%: 0,22 ­ 1,24; valor p= 0,007). Al estratificar por área de residencia, adultos rurales del tercil medio tuvieron mayor CC en comparación con primer tercil ( : 1,85; IC95%: 1,17 ­ 2,53, valor p < 0,001). Conclusiones. En adultos peruanos, la ingesta de AUP se asoció a CC en áreas rurales, aunque no de forma lineal. Más estudios son necesarios para entender la naturaleza de esta asociación(AU)


Introduction. Waist circumference (WC) is an abdominal obesity and cardiovascular risk indicator among adults. In Peru, obesity prevalence has been increasing unequally between residence areas, and the influence of ultra- processed food (UPF) consumption on WC in Peruvian adults remains unclear. Objective. Evaluate the association between UPF consumption and waist circumference by residence setting among Peruvian adults. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of dietary intake data (single 24-hour recall) from 745 adults aged 18 and 59 years old from the "Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional por Etapas de Vida 2017-2018" National Surveys was performed. The NOVA system was used to characterize the UPFs, and the exposure was the percentage of total energy consumed from UPF per day (%), in quantiles. WC (cm) was assessed at the middle point between the last rib and the iliac crest. Weighted linear regression analysis stratified by residence areas were conducted. Results. The mean age was 37.2 years. The mean percent of total energy consumed from UPF was 14.7% (95%CI: 14.2 ­ 15.3). Those in the middle tertile of UPF consumption, had higher WC ( 0.73; 95%CI: 0.22 ­ 1.24; p-value = 0.007) compared with those in the lower tertile. In the stratified analysis, those in the second tertile in rural areas have more WC compared with the first tertile ( 1.85; 95%CI: 1.17 ­ 2.53, p-value< 0.001). Conclusions. In rural areas, UPF consumption was associated with waist circumference, but it does not follow a linear association. Further studies are needed to understand the rationale behind these results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Waist Circumference , Obesity, Abdominal , Food, Processed , Rural Population , Cardiovascular Diseases , Nutrition Surveys , Eating
17.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 84-91, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537117

ABSTRACT

Introdução. A COVID-19 impactou a garantia de uma alimentação adequada e saudável, inclusive entre universitários, que parecem constituir um grupo suscetível à Insegurança Alimentar (IA). Objetivo. Verificar a associação entre IA e marcadores de consumo alimentar em universitários durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Materiais e métodos. Estudo transversal com 5407 estudantes de instituições de ensino superior de todas as regiões do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados entre agosto/2020 e fevereiro/2021. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por marcadores de alimentação saudável utilizados num inquérito nacional de saúde (VIGITEL). Os níveis de IA foram classificados pela Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar em Segurança Alimentar (SA) e IA leve, moderada e grave. A associação entre IA e marcadores de consumo foi avaliada por meio de regressão logística, considerando frequência semanal de consumo < 3 dias e ≥ 3 dias. Resultados. 37% dos universitários estavam em algum grau de IA. Verificou-se maior chance de baixa frequência de consumo de feijão (OR 1,81), verduras e legumes (OR 4,76), frutas (OR 3,99), lácteos (OR 3,98) e carnes (OR 3,41), e maiores chances de maior consumo de frango (OR 1,14) e ovos (OR 2,04) entre aqueles em IA (p<0,05). Em sua maioria, os valores foram mais expressivos quanto maior o grau de IA. Conclusões. Maiores níveis de IA mostraram-se associados a uma menor chance de consumo alimentar saudável por universitários. Instituições de ensino superior podem executar papéis importantes no combate e assistência à IA nessa população(AU)


Introduction. COVID-19 has impacted access to an adequate and healthy diet, including university students, who seem to constitute a group susceptible to Food Insecurity (FI). Objective. To verify the association between FI and food consumption markers in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods. We conducted a cross- sectional study with 5407 students from higher education institutions from all regions of Brazil. Data were collected between August/2020 and February/2021. We evaluated food consumption using the healthy eating markers from a Brazilian national health survey (VIGITEL). We classified the FI levels according to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale into Food Security (FS) and mild, moderate, and severe FI. We evaluated the association between FI and consumption markers using logistic regression, considering the weekly frequency of consumption of < 3 days and ≥ 3 days. Results. 37% of the university students had in some degree of FI. We found a greater chance of lower frequency of consumption of beans (OR 1.81), vegetables (OR 4.76), fruits (OR 3.99), dairy products (OR 3.98), and meat (OR 3. 41), and greater chances of increased consumption of chicken (OR 1.14) and eggs (OR 2.04) among those in FI (p<0.05). Overall, the values were more expressive the higher the degree of FI. Conclusions. Higher FI levels were associated with a lower chance of healthy food consumption in university students. Higher education institutions can play a relevant role in addressing and administering the FI in this population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Eating , Food Insecurity
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 140-150, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537269

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las máquinas expendedoras de bebidas y alimentos (MEBA) ganan presencialidad en universidades, lo que potencia aumento de peso en adultos jóvenes. Objetivo. reconocer la configuración de las MEBA para la construcción del ambiente alimentario saludable en una universidad de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Diseño descriptivo multimodos, con aproximación empírica de: entrevista a tomadores de decisión (n=6) de la institución educativa; análisis de ventas durante un año (n=12.955) en las MEBA (n=12); caracterización por densidad nutricional de la oferta (n=152) y rastreo a comunicaciones circulantes asociadas con alimentación. El análisis consideró cuatro momentos: I-Relaciones; II-Canal MEBA; III-Nutrición y IV-Interacción. Los I y II se enfocaron en los componentes político, sociocultural, físico y económico. El III estudió el aporte nutricional de bebidas y alimentos para integrar resultados en el IV. Resultados. La ausencia de política sobre alimentación institucional como la visibilización comunicativa parecen potenciar condiciones sociales que refuerzan lógicas de: "mal necesario", "perfil de consumo ya existente", "ausencia de ejercicios académicos" y "experiencias negativas con alimentación saludable". Cimientos para ofertar con mayor demanda bebidas como refrescos y agua y, en alimentos, chocolate en diferentes formulaciones. En la clasificación por densidad nutricional se encontró que las bebidas fueron clasificadas como "no saludable" (51,6%); "algo saludable" (28,1%) y "saludable" (20,3%). Los alimentos "algo saludable" (44,9%); "no saludable" (32,2%) y "saludable" (22,9%). Conclusiones. la universidad, espacio de formación, requiere realizar esfuerzos de comprensión sociocultural, gerencia alineada a normativas de promoción de salud para incidir en la calidad nutricional ofertada a la comunidad universitaria(AU)


Introduction. Food and beverage vending machines (MEBA) are gaining presence in universities, which promotes weight gain in young adults. Objective. to recognize the configuration of the MEBA for the construction of a healthy food environment in a university in Colombia. Materials and methods. multimodal descriptive design, with an empirical approach of: interview with decision makers of the educational institution (n=6); analysis of sales during one year (n=12,955) in the MEBAs (n=12); characterization by nutritional density of the offer (n=152) and tracking of circulating communications associated with food. The analysis considered four moments: I-Relationships; II-MEBA Channel; III-Nutrition and IV-Interaction. I and II focused on the political, sociocultural, physical and economic components. The III studied the nutritional contribution of drinks and foods to integrate results in the IV. Results. the absence of a policy on institutional food such as communicative visibility seems to enhance social conditions that reinforce logics of: "necessary evil", "already existing consumption profile", "absence of academic exercises" and "negative experiences with healthy eating". Foundations to offer with greater demand drinks such as soft drinks and water and, in food, chocolate in different formulations. In the classification by nutritional density, it was found that the drinks were classified as "unhealthy" (51.6%); "something healthy" (28.1%) and "healthy" (20.3%). "Somewhat healthy" foods (44.9%); "unhealthy" (32.2%) and "healthy" (22.9%). Conclusions. the university, a training space, requires efforts at sociocultural understanding, management aligned with health promotion regulations to influence the nutritional quality offered to the university community(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Quality , Eating , Food Dispensers, Automatic
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 112-122, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537254

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 y las restricciones sanitarias afectaron la disponibilidad, acceso y consumo de alimentos, impactando la alimentación y el estado nutricional. Objetivo. Determinar el efecto de la pandemia SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 sobre el cumplimiento de las Guías Alimentarias Basadas en Alimentos de Chile, en una comunidad universitaria, antes y durante la pandemia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva con 427 participantes. Se aplicó una encuesta online con preguntas basadas en los mensajes de las GABA. La encuesta se validó por juicio de expertos y análisis psicométrico, evaluando la concordancia con el estadístico de Kappa (K=89,95) y la confiabilidad con el coeficiente Alfa de Cronbach (=0,97). Se fijó como período antes de la pandemia al tiempo anterior a marzo del año 2020, y durante la pandemia, entre marzo del 2020 y octubre del 2021. Para medir los cambios antes y durante la pandemia se aplicó el test de simetría considerando un p <0,05 con un intervalo de confianza del 95%, mediante el software estadístico STATA versión 16. Resultados. Se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos antes y durante la pandemia en los mensajes relacionados con el estado nutricional (p=0,000), consumo semanal de: productos de pastelería (p=0,0040), cecinas y embutidos (p=0,0034), frituras (p=0,0070), legumbres (p=0,0000), aguas (p=0,0000) y lectura e información nutricional de los productos (p=0,0000). Conclusiones. La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 generó cambios en la alimentación y estado nutricional respecto a los mensajes de las guías. Se precisan políticas alimentarias y estrategias educativas en alimentación y en nutrición para emergencias sanitarias(AU)


Introduction. The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, as well as health restrictions, impacted food availability, access and consumption, affecting dietary habits and nutritional status. Objective. To determine the effect of the SARS-CoV-2/ COVID-19 pandemic on the adherence to Chilean Food-Based Dietary Guidelines, within a university community, both before and during the pandemic. Materials and methods. A retrospective cohort study involving 427 participants was conducted. An online survey was administered, with questions based on the FBDGs' messages. The survey was validated through expert judgment and psychometric analysis, and agreement was assessed using the Kappa statistic (K = 89.95) while reliability was determined using the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient ( = 0.97). The period before the pandemic was defined as the time prior to March 2020, and the pandemic period was set between March 2020 and October 2021. Changes before and during the pandemic were measured using the symmetry test, considering a p value of <0.05 and a 95% confidence level, using the STATA 16 statistical software. Results. Statistically significant changes were observed before and during the pandemic in messages related to nutritional status (p = 0.000), weekly consumption of bakery products (p = 0.0040), cold meats (p = 0.0034), fried foods (p = 0.0070), legumes (p = 0.0000), water (p = 0.0000), and messages related to reading and nutrition information of products (p = 0.0000). Conclusions. The pandemic led to dietary changes in relation to FBDGs messages. Food policies and food and nutrition education strategies are required to address health emergency contexts(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Food Guide , COVID-19 , Eating
20.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(2): 58068, 02/08/2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452388

ABSTRACT

O envelhecimento acarreta mudanças em todos os aspectos da vida, sendo caracterizado por uma modificação nas funções sociais, mentais e corporais. No Sistema Estomatoglossognático, é possível observar alterações significativas, começando pela fase preparatória da deglutição e da função de mastigação, decorrente da perda dos dentes, a qual é responsável pela trituração do alimento, formação do bolo alimentar e perda do tônus dos músculos que são responsáveis pelos movimentos mastigatórios. Esta pesquisa observou como as alterações dentárias em idosos podem repercutir na sua alimentação. Foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal, com amostra de 33 idosos frequentadores da Igreja Evangélica Assembleia de Deus em Alagoas, no município de Coqueiro Seco. Foi feita aplicação de um instrumento de coleta, o qual possuía perguntas baseadas no MBGR e na escala EAT-10. Os resultados mostraram que há um grande número de idosos que fazem uso de prótese dentária, refletindo na execução da função mastigatória, escolha da consistência alimentar e aspectos socioemocionais. As próteses dentárias, quando bem adaptadas, podem gerar um ganho significativo ao paciente, permitindo uma alimentação que não interfere na sua postura social, nem em suas questões emocionais. (AU)


Aging causes changes in all aspects of life, being characterized by a change in social, mental and bodily functions. In the Stomatoglossognathic System, it is possible to observe significant changes, starting with the preparatory phase of swallowing and the chewing function, resulting from the loss of teeth; which is responsible for crushing food, formation of food bolus and loss of muscle tone that are responsible for masticatory movements. This research observed how dental changes in the elderly can affect their diet. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out, with a sample of 33 elderly people attending the Evangelical Assembly of God Church in Alagoas, in the municipality of Coqueiro Seco. A collection instrument was applied, which had questions based on the MBGR and the EAT-10 scale. The results showed that there is a large number of elderly people who use dental prosthesis, reflecting on the performance of masticatory function, choice of food consistency and socio-emotional aspects. Dental prostheses, when well adapted, can generate a significant gain for the patient, allowing a diet that does not interfere with their social posture, nor with their emotional issues. (AU)


El envejecimiento provoca cambios en todos los aspectos de la vida, caracterizándose por un cambio en las funciones sociales, mentales y corporales. En el Sistema Estomatoglosognático, es posible observar cambios significativos, a partir de la fase preparatoria de la deglución y de la función masticatoria, resultantes de la pérdida de dientes; que se encarga de triturar los alimentos, formación de bolos alimenticios y pérdida de tono muscular que son responsables de los movimientos masticatorios. Esta investigación observó cómo las alteraciones dentales en los adultos mayores pueden afectar su alimentación. Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal, con una muestra de 33 ancianos asistentes a la Iglesia Evangélica Asamblea de Dios de Alagoas, en el municipio de Coqueiro Seco. Se aplicó un instrumento de recolección, el cual contó con preguntas basadas en el MBGR y la escala EAT-10. Los resultados mostraron que existe un gran número de ancianos que utilizan prótesis dental, reflexionando sobre el desempeño de la función masticatoria, elección de la consistencia de los alimentos y aspectos socioemocionales. Las prótesis dentales, bien adaptadas, pueden generar una ganancia importante para el paciente, permitiendo una alimentación que no interfiere con su postura social, ni con sus problemas emocionales. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Dentition , Feeding Behavior , Social Isolation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Restoration Failure , Eating/psychology
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