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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1897-1909, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980976


Endometriosis, a heterogeneous, inflammatory, and estrogen-dependent gynecological disease defined by the presence and growth of endometrial tissues outside the lining of the uterus, affects approximately 5-10% of reproductive-age women, causing chronic pelvic pain and reduced fertility. Although the etiology of endometriosis is still elusive, emerging evidence supports the idea that immune dysregulation can promote the survival and growth of retrograde endometrial debris. Peritoneal macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells exhibit deficient cytotoxicity in the endometriotic microenvironment, leading to inefficient eradication of refluxed endometrial fragments. In addition, the imbalance of T-cell subtypes results in aberrant cytokine production and chronic inflammation, which contribute to endometriosis development. Although it remains uncertain whether immune dysregulation represents an initial cause or merely a secondary enhancer of endometriosis, therapies targeting altered immune pathways exhibit satisfactory effects in preventing disease onset and progression. Here, we summarize the phenotypic and functional alterations of immune cells in the endometriotic microenvironment, focusing on their interactions with microbiota and endocrine and nervous systems, and how these interactions contribute to the etiology and symptomology of endometriosis.

Female , Humans , Endometriosis/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Estrogens , Endometrium/metabolism
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 86-92, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936288


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression of CCN5 in endometriotic tissues and its impact on proliferation, migration and invasion of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs).@*METHODS@#We collected ovarian endometriosis samples from 20 women receiving laparoscopic surgery and eutopic endometrium samples from 15 women undergoing IVF-ET for comparison of CCN5 expression. Cultured HESCs were transfected with a recombinant adenovirus Ad-CCN5 for CCN5 overexpression or with a CCN5-specific siRNA for knocking down CCN5 expression, and the changes of cell proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated using CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell chamber assay. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to examine the expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin in HESCs with CCN5 overexpression or knockdown.@*RESULTS@#CCN5 expression was significantly decreased in ovarian endometriosis tissues as compared with eutopic endometrium samples (P < 0.01). CCN5 overexpression obviously inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs, significantly increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expressions of N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin (P < 0.01). CCN5 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs and produced opposite effects on the expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail-1 and vimentin (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#CCN5 can regulate the proliferation, migration and invasion of HESCs and thus plays an important role in EMT of HESCs, suggesting the potential of CCN5 as a therapeutic target for endometriosis.

Female , Humans , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Stromal Cells
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(11): 705-712, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977792


Abstract Objective To characterize the patterns of cell differentiation, proliferation, and tissue invasion in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of rabbits with induced endometriotic lesions via a well- known experimental model, 4 and 8 weeks after the endometrial implantation procedure. Methods Twenty-nine female New Zealand rabbits underwent laparotomy for endometriosis induction through the resection of one uterine horn, isolation of the endometrium, and fixation of tissue segment to the pelvic peritoneum. Two groups of animals (one with 14 animals, and the other with15) were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after endometriosis induction. The lesion was excised along with the opposite uterine horn for endometrial gland and stroma determination. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues for analysis of the following markers: metalloprotease (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease (TIMP-2), which are involved in the invasive capacity of the endometrial tissue; and metallothionein (MT) and p63, which are involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. Results The intensity of the immunostaining for MMP9, TIMP-2, MT, and p63 was higher in ectopic endometria than in eutopic endometria. However, when the ectopic lesions were compared at 4 and 8 weeks, no significant difference was observed, with the exception of the marker p63, which was more evident after 8 weeks of evolution of the ectopic endometrial tissue. Conclusion Ectopic endometrial lesions seem to express greater power for cell differentiation and tissue invasion, compared with eutopic endometria, demonstrating a potentially invasive, progressive, and heterogeneous presentation of endometriosis.

Resumo Objetivo Caracterizar o padrão de diferenciação celular, proliferação e invasão tecidual em endométrio eutópico e ectópico de coelhas com lesões de endometriose induzidas por um modelo experimental 4 e 8 semanas após o procedimento de implantação endometrial. Métodos Vinte e nove coelhas fêmeas Nova Zelândia foram submetidas a laparotomia para indução de endometriose através da ressecção de um dos cornos uterinos, isolamento do endométrio e fixação do tecido no peritônio pélvico. Dois grupos de animais (14 animais em um grupo e 15 animais no outro) foram sacrificados 4 e 8 semanas após a indução da endometriose. A lesão foi excisada junto com o corno uterino contralateral para determinação da presença de glândulas e de estroma endometrial. Reações de imunohistoquímica foram realizadas no tecido endometrial eutópico e ectópico para análise dos seguintes marcadores: metaloprotease (MMP9) e inibidor tecidual da metaloprotease 2 (TIMP-2), os quais estão envolvidos na capacidade de invasão do tecido endometrial; e metalotioneina (MT) e p63, os quais estão envolvidos na diferenciação e proliferação celular. Resultados A intensidade da imunomarcação para MMP9, TIMP-2, MT e p63 foi mais alta nos endométrios ectópicos do que nos endométrios eutópicos. Contudo, quando as lesões foram comparadas entre 4 e 8 semanas, nenhuma diferença foi observada, com exceção do marcador p63, o qual foi mais evidente depois de 8 semanas de evolução do tecido endometrial ectópico. Conclusão Lesões endometriais ectópicas parecem expressar maior poder de diferenciação celular e de invasão tecidual comparadas com endométrios eutópicos, demonstrando o potencial de invasão, de progressão e de apresentação heterogênea da endometriose.

Animals , Female , Choristoma/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/biosynthesis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/biosynthesis , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/biosynthesis , Metallothionein/biosynthesis , Rabbits , Cell Differentiation , Choristoma/pathology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Endometrium/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Metallothionein/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e5782, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951699


Endometriosis is a benign, estrogen-dependent disease with symptoms such as pelvic pain and infertility, and it is characterized by the ectopic distribution of endometrial tissue. The expression of the ID2, PRELP and SMOC2 genes was compared between the endometrium of women without endometriosis in the proliferative phase of their menstrual cycle and the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis in the proliferative phase. Paired tissue samples from 20 women were analyzed: 10 from endometrial and peritoneal endometriotic lesions and 10 from endometrial and ovarian endometriotic lesions. As controls, 16 endometrium samples were collected from women without endometriosis in the proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was no significant difference between gene expression in the endometrium of women with and without endometriosis. The ID2 gene expression was increased in the most advanced stage of endometriosis and in ovarian endometriomas, the PRELP was more expressed in peritoneal lesions, and the SMOC2 was highly expressed in both peritoneal and endometrioma lesions. Considering that the genes studied participate either directly or indirectly in cellular processes that can lead to cell migration, angiogenesis, and inappropriate invasion, it is possible that the deregulation of these genes caused the development and maintenance of ectopic tissue.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Peritoneal Diseases/genetics , Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteonectin/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Endometriosis/genetics , Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Gene Expression Regulation , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Endometriosis/metabolism , Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Menstrual Cycle
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(1): 72-77, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777437


SUMMARY Even though the physiological role of estrogen in the female reproductive cycle and endometrial proliferative phase is well established, the signaling pathways by which estrogen exerts its action in the endometrial tissue are still little known. In this regard, advancements in cell culture techniques and maintenance of endometrial cells in cultures enabled the discovery of new signaling mechanisms activated by estrogen in the normal endometrium and in endometriosis. This review aims to present the recent findings in the genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling pathways in the proliferative human endometrium specifically associated with the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis.

RESUMO Embora esteja bem estabelecido o papel fisiológico do estrogênio no ciclo reprodutivo feminino e na fase proliferativa do endométrio, as vias de sinalização por meio das quais a ação do estrogênio é exercida no tecido endometrial são ainda pouco conhecidas. Nesse sentido, o avanço nas técnicas de cultura celular e a manutenção de células endometriais em cultivo possibilitaram a descoberta de novos mecanismos sinalizadores ativados pelo estrogênio no endométrio normal e na endometriose. Esta revisão tem o objetivo de apresentar as descobertas recentes envolvendo as vias de sinalização genômica e não genômica do estrogênio no endométrio proliferativo humano, especificamente associadas à patogênese e ao desenvolvimento da endometriose.

Humans , Female , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Endometriosis/physiopathology , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/physiopathology , Endometrium/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Endometriosis/genetics , Estrogens/genetics
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 26(2): 193-205, mayo.-ago. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-749595


Introducción: La infertilidad es un problema de salud mundial en aumento. Sus factores causales relacionados con el sexo femenino son mayoritarios. Recientemente se ha planteado una fuerte asociación entre los trastornos de la fertilidad y las alteraciones funcionales del sistema inmune, que contribuyen al origen y mantenimiento de la infertilidad.Objetivo: identificar en la literatura científica actualizada la contribución de los mecanismos inmunológicos en el desarrollo de la infertilidad femenina.Desarrollo: los mismos componentes inmunitarios que garantizan el éxito de la reproducción, pueden generar un entorno inflamatorio perpetuado, ante un estímulo antigénico, que produce lesión tisular. La inflamación desregulada repercute en reacciones autoinmunes contra las estructuras del aparato reproductor, y afectan su funcionalidad. La presencia de autoanticuerpos y citocinas proinflamatorias, como marcadores biológicos de estos fenómenos, ha sido reportada en entidades como la endometriosis y el síndrome de ovario poliquístico.Conclusiones: aunque se ha señalado que el sistema inmune desempeña un importante rol en el desarrollo de la reproducción femenina normal y patológica, el conocimiento obtenido en esta área sigue siendo exiguo. La subestimación de los factores inmunitarios en el escenario clínico muchas veces omite posibles alternativas diagnósticas y terapéuticas, que pudieran contribuir a incrementar la calidad del enfoque asistencial a las mujeres infértiles. La complejidad de los sistemas inmune y endocrino, y el corto alcance de las herramientas diagnósticas disponibles, son factores que contribuyen a esta insuficiência(AU)

Introduction: Infertility is a growing worldwide health problem whose causal factors are mostly associated to the female sex. A close relationship has recently been suggested between fertility disorders and functional alterations of the immune system contributing to and maintaining infertility.Objective: review updated scientific literature about the subject to identify the role of immune mechanisms in the development of female infertility.Development: the very immune components ensuring the success of reproduction may create a perpetuated inflammatory environment in the presence of an antigenic stimulus, resulting in the development of a tissular lesion. Dysregulated inflammation triggers autoimmune reactions against reproductive structures, affecting their operation. The presence of autoantibodies and proinflammatory cytokines as biological markers of these phenomena has been reported for conditions such as endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome.Conclusions: the immune system is known to play an important role in both normal and pathological female reproduction. However, information about the subject continues to be scant. Underestimation of the immune factors present in the clinical environment often blocks the way for diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives which could otherwise improve the quality of the care of infertile women. The complexity of the immune and endocrine systems, as well as the limited reach of the available diagnostic tools, are factors contributing to such insufficiency(AU)

Humans , Female , Immune System/metabolism , Infertility, Female/etiology , Endometriosis/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 33(1): 337-341, Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-743807


Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease in reproductive age women. Adiponectin and Nitric oxide (NO) have an important role in physiologic functions especially in human reproductive system. Levels of NO increased in the endometriosis patients but serum adiponectin levels decreased in woman with endometriosis. The aim of this study was to determine adiponectin effect on nitric oxide secretion by cultured normal and endometriotic human endometrial stromal cells. In this experimental study, normal (n= 10) and endometriotic endometrial biopsies (n= 10) were taken in sterile condition. Stromal cells isolated and cultured in in DMEM/ F12 medium and treated with adiponectin concentrations (0, 10, 100, and 200 ng/ml) for 24 and 48 hours. NO assay was done on their supernatants by Greiss method. Data was analyzed by one way ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered significant. There was significant difference between endometriosis groups in NO secretion in all dose of adiponectin and time (p<0.05). In normal groups there was significant difference in 48 hours (p<0.05) but no significant change in 24 hours (p>0.05). Adiponectin effects nitric oxide secretion of cultured human endometriotic stromal cells.

La endometriosis es una enfermedad dependiente de estrógenos que se presenta en mujeres en edad reproductiva. La adiponectina y el óxido nítrico (ON) tienen un papel importante en las funciones fisiológicas, especialmente en el sistema reproductivo humano. Los niveles de ON aumentan en los pacientes con endometriosis, pero los niveles de adiponectina en suero disminuyen. El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la adiponectina sobre la secreción de ON por las células estromales de endometrio humano, tanto normales como con endometriosis, en medio de cultivo. En este estudio experimental, las células estromales de endometrio normales (n= 10) y las biopsias de endometrio con endometriosis (n= 10) se tomaron en condiciones de esterilidad. Las células estromales fueron aisladas y cultivadas en un medio DMEM/F12, y se sometieron a distintas concentraciones de adiponectina (0, 10, 100, y 200 ng/ml) durante 24 y 48 horas. El ensayo con ON se realizó a los sobrenadantes obtenidos por el método de Greiss. Los datos recolectados fueron analizados por ANOVA de una vía y un valor p<0,05 se consideró significativo. Entre los grupos con endometriosis, en referencia a la secreción de ON, no hubo diferencia significativa en todas las dosis de adiponectina y los tiempos estipulados (p<0,05). En los grupos normales, hubo diferencia significativa a las 48 horas (p<0,05), pero ningún cambio significativo a las 24 horas (p>0,05). La adiponectina tiene efectos sobre la secreción de óxido nítrico por las células estromales endometriales humanas en cultivo.

Humans , Female , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometriosis/pathology , Adiponectin/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Stromal Cells/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Endometrium/pathology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950820


BACKGROUND: Endometriosis, pro-inflammatory and invasive benign disease estrogen dependent, abnormally express in endometria the enzyme P450Arom, positively regulated by steroid factor-1 (SF-1). Our objective was to study the nuclear protein contents of upstream stimulating factor 2 (USF2a and USF2b), a positive regulator of SF-1, throughout the menstrual cycle in eutopic endometria from women with and without (control) endometriosis and the involvement of nuclear estrogen receptors (ER) and G-coupled protein estrogen receptor (GPER)-1. RESULTS: Upstream stimulating factor 2 protein contents were higher in mid (USF2b) and late (USF2a and USF2b) secretory phase in eutopic endometria from endometriosis than control (p < 0.05). In isolated control epithelial cells incubated with E2 and PGE2, to resemble the endometriosis condition, the data showed: (a) significant increase of USF2a and USF2b nuclear protein contents when treated with E2, PPT (specific agonist for ERa) or G1 (specific agonist for GPER1); (b) no increase in USF2 binding to SF-1 E-Box/DNA consensus sequence in E2-treated cells; (c) USF2 variants protein contents were not modified by PGE2; (d) SF-1 nuclear protein content was significantly higher than basal when treated with PGE2, E2 or G1, stimulation unaffected by ICI (nuclear ER antagonist); and (e) increased (p < 0.05) cytosolic protein contents of P450Arom when treated with PGE2, E2, PPT or G1 compared to basal, effect that was additive with E2 + PGE2 together. Nevertheless, in endometriosis cells, the high USF2, SF-1 and P450Arom protein contents in basal condition were unmodified. CONCLUSION: These data strongly suggest that USF2 variants and P450Arom are regulated by E2 through ERa and GPER1, whereas SF-1 through GPER1, visualized by the response of the cells obtained from control endometria, being unaffected the endogenously stimulated cells from endometriosis origin. The lack of E2 stimulation on USF2/SF-1 E-Box/DNA-sequence binding and the absence of PGE2 effect on USF2 variants opposite to the strong induction that they exert on SF1 and P450 proteins suggest different mechanisms and indirect regulations. The sustained USF2 variants protein expression during the secretory phase in eutopic endometria from women with endometriosis may participate in the pathophysiology of this disease strongly associated with infertility and its characteristic endometrial invasion to ectopic sites in the pelvic cavity.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aromatase/metabolism , Gene Expression/genetics , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Estradiol/metabolism , Biopsy , Immunoblotting , Statistics, Nonparametric , Endometriosis/physiopathology , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Menstrual Cycle/metabolism
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2013; 14 (2): 50-55
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130125


Apelin is a mitogenic peptide; it has functions in vessel formation and cell proliferation. In this study we aimed to evaluate the serum and tissue levels and local expression pattern of apelin in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with and without endometriosis and to compare the proliferative and secretory phase differences. Thirty women with endometriosis and 15 women without endometriosis undergoing surgery for benign indications as control group were included in the study. Serum and tissue concentrations and proliferative and secretory phase expression patterns of apelin were evaluated in the ectopic and eutopic endometrium using immunoassay and immunohistochemistry methods. The results were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The p-values smaller than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Apelin expression was detected in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and endometrium of control group. Intense immunoreactivity of apelin was observed in glandular cells of eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues of women with endometriosis and endometrium of control group during secretory phase [p<0.01]. In both groups, tissue concentrations of apelin were higher than of the serum [p=0.03] but, there were no significant differences between the two groups for tissue and serum concentrations of apelin. Apelin expression showed cyclic changes in eutopic and ectopic endometrium. Its expression may be related to menstrual changes of angiogenesis in endometrium of women

Humans , Female , Male , Endometriosis/metabolism , Immunoassay , Immunohistochemistry , Endometriosis/pathology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 34(12): 568-574, dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-660899


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a expressão de mediadores neurotróficos (NGF, NPY E VIP) e pró-inflamatórios (TNF-α) em fragmentos de reto e sigmoide comprometidos por endometriose. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 24 pacientes submetidas ao tratamento cirúrgico de endometriose de reto e sigmoide com técnica de ressecção segmentar, seguido de anastomose mecânica término-terminal, com grampeador circular, no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2007. Neste estudo incluímos mulheres no menacme que se submeteram a tratamento cirúrgico por endometriose profunda infiltrativa com acometimento do reto e sigmoide, atingindo o nível da camada muscular, submucosa ou mucosa. Para o grupo de estudo foram utilizados 24 fragmentos de reto e sigmoide com endometriose confirmada histologicamente, sendo um fragmento de cada uma das 24 pacientes selecionadas. Para o grupo controle, utilizou-se um fragmento da margem distal da ressecção, denominado anel de anastomose, de cada uma das 24 pacientes selecionadas e incluídas no estudo. As amostras foram agrupadas em blocos de Tissue Micro Array (TMA) e submetidas à reação imunoistoquímica para avaliar a expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α), do fator de crescimento neural (NGF), do neuropeptídeo Y (NPY) e do peptídeo intestinal vasoativo P (VIP), e posterior análise semiquantitativa da imunomarcação por meio da leitura da densidade ótica relativa (DO). RESULTADOS: Observou-se maior densidade ótica relativa da imunomarcação para TNF-α e NGF no grupo de estudo (amostras com endometriose intestinal), DO= 0,01, respectivamente, para as duas proteínas (p<0,05), em relação aos controles sem endometriose. Não houve diferença estatística na densidade ótica da imunomarcação do NPY e VIP. CONCLUSÃO: Identificou-se o aumento da imunomarcação dos anticorpos TNF-α e NGF em fragmentos de reto e sigmoide comprometidos por endometriose em relação aos controles livres da doença. Não identificamos diferença estatística na imunomarcação das proteínas NPY e VIP.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of neurotrophic (NGF, NPY and VIP) and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α) mediators in the rectum and sigmoid fragments compromised by endometriosis. METHODS: Twenty-four patients were selected to undergo surgical treatment of endometriosis of the rectum and sigmoid colon with a segmental resection technique, followed by end-to-end anastomosis with a circular stapler from January 2005 to December 2007. The study included premenopausal women who underwent surgical treatment for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum with involvement of the rectum and sigmoid, reaching the level of the muscle layer, submucosa or mucosa. Twenty-four rectum and sigmoid fragments with histologically confirmed endometriosis, one from each of the 24 selected patients, were used for the study group. For the control group, we used a fragment of the distal resection margin called anastomosis ring from each of the 24 patients enrolled in the study. Samples were grouped into Tissue Micro Array (TMA) blocks and subjected to immunohistochemistry to evaluate the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nerve growth factor (NGF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and P vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), followed by semiquantitative analysis of immunostaining by reading the relative optical density (OD). RESULTS: There was higher optical density relative to TNF-α immunostaining and NGF in the study group (samples with intestinal endometriosis), DO=0.01, for the two proteins, respectively (p<0.05), compared to controls without endometriosis. There was no statistically significant difference in the optical density of immunostaining of NPY and VIP. CONCLUSION: We identified increased immunostaining of TNF-α antibodies and fragments of NGF in the rectum and sigmoid compromised by endometriosis compared to disease-free controls. We did not identify any statistical difference in immunostaining of NPY and VIP proteins.

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Endometriosis/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/biosynthesis , Neuropeptide Y/biosynthesis , Rectal Diseases/metabolism , Sigmoid Diseases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/biosynthesis , Cross-Sectional Studies
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 171-177, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174787


Equine endometriosis is a multifactorial disease considered to be a major cause of equine infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of histomorphological grading for biopsy-like samples compared to entire uterine wall samples, to examine the association between the degree of endometriosis with animal age, and to investigate the role of inflammation in endometriosis and the expression of different matrix metalloproteinases in equine endometrium. Histomorphological lesions in 35 uterine samples were examined while comparing biopsy-like samples and entire-wall samples. Seventeen uterine samples were stained with antibodies against MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and TIMP-2. The morphologic evaluation results of the biopsy-like tissue and entire-wall samples were significantly correlated. Endometriosis in older mares (>12 years of age) was more severe than in young mares (2~4 years of age), confirming the positive correlation between animal age and disease severity, while inflammation was poorly related to the degree of endometriosis. MMP-2 and MMP-14 were detected in stromal cells, while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were both found in stromal and glandular epithelial cells. There were no significant differences in MMPs expression between the two groups (young vs. old mares). Additional studies on the activity of MMPs could further define the role of these enzymes in equine endometriosis.

Animals , Female , Endometriosis/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology , Horse Diseases/metabolism , Horses , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Inflammation/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/genetics , Uterus/metabolism
Femina ; 39(7): 351-356, jul. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-613323


A endometriose é uma condição ginecológica, que atinge mulheres em idade reprodutiva e pode ser causa de dor e infertilidade. A patogênese da doença é multifatorial e envolve a perda da capacidade de diferenciação das células endometrióticas, moléculas de adesão celular para adesão do endométrio ao peritônio, neoangiogênese, características do fluido peritoneal e alterações do sistema imune. A superfamília do fator transformador de crescimento β (TGF-β) parece exercer papéis importantes na implantação e manutenção do tecido ectópico na endometriose. Ativinas, inibinas, folistatina, hormônio anti-mülleriano e as proteínas morfogenéticas ósseas são membros da superfamília do TGF-β. Estas moléculas são expressas no endométrio humano e apresentam ações importantes na proliferação celular, diferenciação celular, função imune, regulação da apoptose e remodelamento dos tecidos, apresentando, por conseguinte, um importante papel no ciclo menstrual, decidualização do endométrio e no início da gestação. Este artigo objetiva rever os achados sobre tais proteínas no endométrio e seus possíveis papéis na gênese e fisiopatologia da endometriose

Endometriosis is a gynecological pathological entity typical of women in reproductive age, associated with pelvic pain and infertility. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial and it involves loss of the endometriotic cell differentiation, cell adhesion, neo-angiogenesis, peritoneal fluid characteristics, and changes in the immune system. The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily seems to play important roles in the implementation and maintenance of ectopic tissue in endometriosis. Activin, inhibin, follistatin, anti-Mullerian hormone, and bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the superfamily of TGF-β. The TGF-β and family members are expressed by human endometrium and act on cell proliferation, differentiation, immune function, apoptosis and tissue remodeling, playing a role in menstrual cycle, decidualization, and early pregnancy. The aim of this study is to review the findings about these molecules in the endometrium and their possible roles in the genesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis

Humans , Female , Activins/pharmacology , Activins/genetics , Endometrium/metabolism , Endometriosis/physiopathology , Endometriosis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/physiology , Inhibins/pharmacology , Inhibins/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Menstrual Cycle/metabolism , Infertility, Female/etiology , Cell Proliferation
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 32(6): 279-285, jun. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560719


OBJETIVO: comparar marcadores séricos de estresse oxidativo entre pacientes inférteis com e sem endometriose e avaliar a associação destes marcadores com o estadiamento da doença. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo envolvendo a inclusão consecutiva de 112 pacientes inférteis, não-obesas, com idade inferior a 39 anos, divididas em dois grupos: Endometriose (n=48, sendo 26 com endometriose mínima e leve - Estádio I/II e 22 com endometriose moderada e grave - Estádio III/IV) e Controle (n=64, com fator tubário e/ou masculino de infertilidade). Durante a fase folicular precoce do ciclo menstrual, foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas para análise dos níveis séricos de malondialdeído, glutationa e níveis totais de hidroperóxidos, por espectrofotometria e vitamina E, por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados da seguinte forma: os grupos endometriose versus controle; endometriose estádio I/II e controle, endometriose estádio III/IV e controle e entre os dois subgrupos de endometriose. Em todas as análises, foi considerado o nível de significância de 5 por cento (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: os níveis de vitamina E e glutationa foram mais baixos no soro de mulheres inférteis com endometriose moderada/grave (21,7±6,0 µMol/L e 159,6±77,2 nMol/g proteína, respectivamente) quando comparadas a mulheres com endometriose mínima e leve (28,3±14,4 µMol/L e 199,6±56,1 nMol/g proteína, respectivamente). Os níveis totais de hidroperóxidos foram significativamente mais elevados no grupo endometriose (8,9±1,8 µMol/g proteína) em relação ao Grupo Controle (8,0±2 µMol/g proteína) e nas portadoras de doença III/IV (9,7±2,3 µMol/g proteína) em relação à I/II (8,2±1,0 µMol/g proteína). Não se observou diferença significativa nos níveis séricos de malondialdeído entre os diversos grupos. CONCLUSÕES: foi evidenciada uma associação positiva entre infertilidade relacionada à endometriose, avanço do estadiamento da doença e aumento dos níveis séricos de hidroperóxidos, sugerindo aumento da produção de espécies reativas em portadoras de endometriose. Esses dados, associados à redução dos níveis séricos de vitamina E e glutationa, sugerem a ocorrência de estresse oxidativo sistêmico em portadoras de infertilidade associada à endometriose.

PURPOSE: to compare serum markers of oxidative stress between infertile patients with and without endometriosis and to assess the association of these markers with disease staging. METHODS: this was a prospective study conducted on 112 consecutive infertile, non-obese patients younger than 39 years, divided into two groups: Endometriosis (n=48, 26 with minimal and mild endometriosis - Stage I/II, and 22 with moderate and severe endometriosis - Stage III/IV) and Control (n=64, with tubal and/or male factor infertility). Blood samples were collected during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle for the analysis of serum malondialdehyde, glutathione and total hydroxyperoxide levels by spectrophotometry and of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography. The results were compared between the endometriosis and control groups, stage I/II endometriosis and control, stage III/IV endometriosis and control, and between the two endometriosis subgroups. The level of significance was set at 5 percent (p<0.05) in all analyses. RESULTS: vitamin E and glutathione levels were lower in the serum of infertile women with moderate/severe endometriosis (21.7±6.0 mMol/L and 159.6±77.2 nMol/g protein, respectively) compared to women with minimal and mild endometriosis (28.3±14.4 mMol/L and 199.6±56.1 nMol/g protein, respectively). Total hydroxyperoxide levels were significantly higher in the endometriosis group (8.9±1.8 µMol/g protein) than in the Control Group (8.0±2 µMol/g protein) and among patients with stage III/IV disease (9.7±2.3 µMol/g protein) compared to patients with stage I/II disease (8.2±1.0 µMol/g protein). No significant differences in serum malondialdehyde levels were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: we demonstrated a positive association between infertility related to endometriosis, advanced disease stage and increased serum hydroxyperoxide levels, suggesting an increased production of reactive species in women with endometriosis. These data, taken together with the reduction of serum vitamin E and glutathione levels, suggest the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress in women with infertility associated with endometriosis. The reproductive and metabolic implications of oxidative stress should be assessed in future studies.

Adult , Female , Humans , Endometriosis/metabolism , Infertility, Female/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Biomarkers/blood , Endometriosis/blood , Endometriosis/complications , Infertility, Female/blood , Infertility, Female/complications , Prospective Studies
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(11): 1039-1043, Nov. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529104


Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. Endometriosis is strongly associated with sub-fertility, and affects about 15 percent of women of reproductive age. IL-18 may favor the progression of endometriosis. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of IL-18 in the serum and peritoneal fluid of infertile women with endometriosis. Forty infertile and 25 fertile women were screened in a teaching hospital. Thirty-four infertile patients with minimal or mild endometriosis and 22 fertile controls were enrolled in the study. The primary outcome was the estimate of IL-18 levels and the secondary outcome was the correlation between serum and peritoneal levels of IL-18. There were no differences between the two groups regarding age, body mass index and levels of peritoneal fluid IL-18 (mean ± SD): 290.85 ± 173.02 pg/mL for infertile women vs 374.21 ± 330.15 pg/mL for controls; or serum IL-18: 391.07 ± 119.71 pg/mL for infertile women vs 373.42 ± 129.11 pg/mL for controls. However, a positive association was found between serum and peritoneal IL-18 levels in patients with endometriosis: r = 0.794, P = 0.0001. All measurements were carried out at the same time by the Human IL-18 Immuno Assay ELISA kit (MBL Co. Ltd., Japan). The present study did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that IL-18 levels are associated with infertility in women with minimal and mild endometriosis, although a positive correlation was detected in these women between peritoneal and serum levels of IL-18.

Adult , Female , Humans , Ascitic Fluid/chemistry , Endometriosis/metabolism , Infertility, Female/metabolism , /analysis , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endometriosis/complications , Infertility, Female/etiology , /blood , Severity of Illness Index
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 802-807, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37039


Angiogenin, a potent inducer of angiogenesis, is expressed in human endometrium. This study was performed to compare the expression of angiogenin mRNA level in the eutopic endometrium from women with and without endometriosis. Thirty-two women with advanced stage endometriosis and 29 control women were recruited. Following isolation of total RNA from endometrial tissue and reverse transcription, cDNA samples were amplified by real time polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression of angiogenin genes. In selected patients, immunohistochemical staining was utilized to localize the area of angiogenin expression. Angiogenin mRNA level was significantly lower in the endometriosis group than in the control group during the secretory phase, especially the mid-secretory phase, and the decline was observed mainly in the women who presented with infertility. Within the endometriosis group, angiogenin mRNA levels did not differ between the proliferative and secretory phases, but, in the control group, the level in the secretory phase was higher than that during the proliferative phase. Immunohistochemistry showed that the glandular epithelial cell layer was decorated positively in both groups. These findings suggest that the relative deficiency of angiogenin expression in the secretory endometrium could impair implantation in women with advanced stage endometriosis.

Adult , Female , Humans , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Fertility , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Menstrual Cycle , Models, Biological , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ribonuclease, Pancreatic/biosynthesis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(8): 1121-1127, Aug. 2006. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-433164


Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997). Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis). Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL) than in healthy controls (13.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL). Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL) than in controls (10.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL). Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

Adult , Female , Humans , Ascitic Fluid/chemistry , Endometriosis/metabolism , Follicular Fluid/chemistry , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Prolactin/analysis , Stress, Physiological , Biomarkers/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Endometriosis/complications , Infertility, Female/etiology , Luminescent Measurements , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Physiological
Rev. méd. Chile ; 132(12): 1475-1482, dez. 2004. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-394445


Background: Endometriosis, a common gynecologic disorder characterized by endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is diagnosed by direct visualization of peritoneal and ovarian implants during laparoscopy. Aim: To study the estrogenic microenvironment in eutopic endometria of women with and without endometriosis. Patients and methods: Eutopic endometria, obtained during laparoscopy from 23 women with endometriosis and 20 fertile cyclic women undergoing tubal sterilization, was studied. P450Arom mRNA expression (RT-PCR) was measured. Also, P450Arom activity was assessed measuring testosterone conversion to estradiol and the concentration of this last hormone in cultured endometrial explants. Results: Age and body mass index was similar in both groups studied. Seventy nine percent of endometria from women with endometriosis and in 29.4 percent from control group expressed P450Arom mRNA (p <0.01). The intensity of the band was higher in secretory endometria from women with endometriosis when compared to controls (p <0.01), but it was similar during the proliferative phase. Estradiol secretion to the culture media by proliferative endometria explants from women with endometriosis was 3-fold higher than secretory endometria (p <0.01) and endometria from control women in both phases. P450Arom activity, in the presence of testosterone, was 7-fold higher in endometrial cultures from women with endometriosis, when compare with the basal culture (p <0.01). However, in endometrial explant cultures from control women, this activity was not statistical different. Conclusions: These results indicate that in women with endometriosis, the microenvironment in the endometria is estrogenic as a consequence of an increased expression and activity of the P450 Arom.

Female , Humans , Aromatase/metabolism , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Biopsy , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Endometriosis/enzymology , Endometriosis/pathology , Endometrium/enzymology , Endometrium/pathology , Estradiol/metabolism , Fertility/physiology , Laparoscopy , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 470-2, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-634176


In order to investigate the mechanism of elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis, macrophages were recovered from peritoneal fluids obtained at the time of diagnostic laparoscopy from infertile women with endometriosis (EMT group, n=20) and without endometriosis (control group, n=20). Macrophages were cultured in vitro. The VEGF levels of peritoneal fluid and the supernatant of macrophages culture were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Meanwhile, the eutopic (n=20) and ectopic endometrium (n=20) from endometriosis patients, and normal edometrium (n=20) from non-endometriosis patients were obtained for the analysis of VEGF expression by labeled Streptavidin Biotin (LSAB). It was found that VEGF levels in peritoneal fluid and macrophages culture supernatant were significantly higher in EMT group than in control group (P<0.01). In normal endometrium, VEGF showed a cyclic changes and similar in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis. There was no difference in the intensity of VEGF in endometrium between two groups within each menstrual phase. It is suggested that altered VEGF production by peritoneal macrophages and ectopic endometrium secretion may contribute to the elevated VEGF levels in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis.

Ascitic Fluid/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Endometriosis/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/biosynthesis
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 317-322, 2001.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228345


The expression patterns of CD44s and CD44v6 were immunohistochemically compared with those of normal, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium. In normal endometria (n=37), endometrioses (n=46) and adenomyoses (n=20), the surface and glandular epithelial cells were negative for CD44s and CD44v6 in a proliferative pattern and positive in a secretory pattern, whereas the stroma was only positive for CD44s in both proliferative and secretory patterns. The endometrial hyperplasia (4 simple and 9 complex) had the identical patterns with normal proliferative phase of endometrium. Only one case showing complex hyperplasia with atypia was focally positive for CD44s and CD44v6 in glandular epithelia. CD44s and CD44v6 were positive in all endometrial adenocarcinomas (13), except one CD44s-negative case. In summary, the expressions of CD44s and CD44v6 in endometriosis and adenomyosis recapitulated those of normal cyclic endometrium. The expression patterns in endometrial hyperplasia were similar to those in normal proliferative endometrium, whereas the endometrial adenocarcinoma showed abnormal expressions for CD44s and CD44v6. Thus it was considered that the ectopic endometrium in endometriosis and adenomyosis was not aberrant as in endometrial carcinoma on the aspects of immunohistochemical expressions of CD44s and CD44v6.

Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Hyaluronan Receptors/metabolism , Comparative Study , Endometrial Hyperplasia/metabolism , Endometrial Neoplasms/metabolism , Endometriosis/metabolism , Endometrium/metabolism , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunohistochemistry , Ovarian Diseases/metabolism , Staining and Labeling/methods
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 60(1): 34-7, 1995. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-164873


Danazol es un esteroide sintético derivado de la 17-alfa ethiniltestosterona y es utilizado principalmente en el tratamiento de la endometriosis. Su efectividad es debida a que induce un estado transitorio de hipoestrogenismo e hiperandrogenismo que conduce a la atrofia del tejido endometrial ectópico. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en 14 mujeres en edad fértil con diagnóstico laparoscópico de endometriosis pelviana con el objeto de precisar las alteraciones producidas en el metabolismo óseo y lipídico luego de seis meses de tratamiento con danazol. La evaluación de laboratorio incluyó: densidad ósea mineral, relaciones urinarias de hydroxiprolina/creatinina y calcio/creatinina, perfil lipídico, fracción ósea de las fosfatasas alcalinas y estradiol plasmático. Se observó una disminución significativa en el nivel de estradiol plasmático (p<0.001). Una disminución de los niveles de HDL colesterol y un aumento del LDL colesterol fue estadísticamente significativo luego de 3 y 6 meses de tratamiento (p<0.001), pero las lipoproteínas retornaron a su nivel basal luego de 3 meses de suspendida la droga. La fracción ósea de las fosfatasas alcalinas mostró un aumento progresivo (p<0.001) y no encontró variación significativa de las relaciones urinarias de hydroxiprolina/creatinina y calcio/creatinina. La osteodensitometría no evidenció cambios luego de 6 meses de tratamiento. Concluímos que pese a que danazol produce hipoestrogenismo e hiperandrogenismo, los marcadores bioquímicos de pérdida ósea no se alteraron, no hubo efecto negativo en la densidad ósea mineral y el deterioro del perfil lipídico es reversible al descontinuar la droga

Humans , Female , Adult , Basal Metabolism/drug effects , Danazol/pharmacokinetics , Endometriosis/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Bone Density , Densitometry , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Prospective Studies