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1.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 83: 39267, 30 jan. 2024. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1552342

ABSTRACT

A incidência da dengue, doença viral transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti, vem crescendo em Porto Alegre ao longo dos anos, com recorde de casos registrados em 2022. Epidemias da doença parecem ocorrer de forma cíclica no município, com registros a cada três anos. Dada a influência de fatores climáticos no ciclo de vida do vetor, este trabalho buscou analisar a influência de determinantes meteorológicos na periodicidade de epidemias de dengue na capital gaúcha entre 2010 e 2022. Análises descritivas foram realizadas para averiguar o padrão dos indicadores climáticos e dos casos de dengue ao longo dos anos, ao passo que análises estatísticas foram feitas para avaliar a correlação entre os fatores climáticos e os casos autóctones registrados entre 2016 e 2022. Os resultados obtidos não apontaram padrões meteorológicos que se repetem a cada três anos e que poderiam explicar a ciclicidade observada. Ainda, não foram constatadas correlações entre temperatura, umidade e pluviosidade com casos autóctones de dengue no município, ao menos em nível quadrimestral. Para além destas análises, constatou-se expressivo aumento de casos em 2022, apesar dos esforços de controle desempenhados pelo poder público, o que aponta a necessidade de maior investimento em educação em saúde para a população. (AU)


The incidence of dengue, a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has been increasing in Porto Alegre over the years, with a record number of cases reported in 2022. Epidemics of the disease seem to occur cyclically in the city, with reports every three years. Given the influence of climatic factors on the vector's life cycle, this study aimed to analyze the influence of meteorological determinants on the periodicity of dengue epidemics in Porto Alegre between 2010 and 2022. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate the pattern of climatic indicators and dengue cases over the years, while statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between climatic factors and autochthonous cases registered between 2016 and 2022. The results did not point out meteorological patterns that repeat every three years and could explain the observed cyclicity. Furthermore, no correlations were found between temperature, humidity and rainfall and autochthonous dengue cases in the city, at least on a four-monthly basis. Beyond these analyses, a significant increase in dengue cases was observed in 2022, despite the efforts of the public authorities to control the disease, which highlights the need for greater investment in health education for the population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Climate , Aedes , Dengue , Meteorology , Epidemics
2.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(3): 31-38, sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553365

ABSTRACT

La viruela fue una de las enfermedades epidémicas más temidas desde la antigüedad debido a su alta mortalidad y a las secuelas que dejaba en aquellos que lograban sobrevivir. En el presente trabajo se abordará el ingreso de esta enfermedad en nuestro continente, así como su manifestación a través de epidemias, brotes y focos endémicos. Al mismo tiempo se verá qué reacciones provocó dentro del ámbito médico durante los años del Virreinato del Río de la Plata. Se analizarán los problemas que surgieron con el uso de la vacuna importada, así como el hallazgo de nuestra vacuna local, finalizando con los comienzos de la organización de los servicios de vacunación obligatoria. (AU)


Smallpox was one of the most feared epidemic diseases since ancient times due to its high mortality and the sequelae caused in those that managed to survive. In the present work, the introduction of this disease into our continent will be addressed as well as its manifestation through epidemics, outbreaks, and endemic foci. At the same time, the reactions this disease caused inside the medical field during the years of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata will be observed. The problems that arose from the usage of the imported vaccine and the discovery of our local vaccine will be analyzed, and it will finish with the beginnings of the organization of the mandatory vaccination services. (AU)


Subject(s)
History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , Smallpox/history , Smallpox/epidemiology , Smallpox Vaccine/history , Americas , Smallpox/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/history , Vaccination/history , Epidemics/history
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 17(2): 279-294, abr.-jun.,2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1438004

ABSTRACT

No presente artigo, tecemos reflexões e apresentamos conceitos que têm orientado uma pesquisa nos registros de arquivos sobre a febre amarela e a gripe espanhola, nos acervos da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, da Biblioteca Nacional e do Arquivo Nacional. A pesquisa é centrada na busca dos rastros e das ruínas desses eventos epidêmicos, mediante o método da montagem e com a perspectiva do limiar. Buscamos, por meio dessas materialidades, criar intervalos, experimentar e tecer brechas que prefiguram outros possíveis. Defendemos que, ao manejar, por meio da fabulação crítica, as formas como uma epidemia se faz aparecer, habilitamos a elaboração de uma imaginação política capaz de conferir ao futuro outras possibilidades e outros agenciamentos que não sejam a catástrofe e a melancolia


In this article we reflect on the presented concepts that have guided research in the archival records of Yellow Fever and Spanish Flu in the collections of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation), the Biblioteca Nacional (National Library), and the Arquivo Nacional (National Archive). The research is centered on the search for the traces and ruins of those epidemic events, through the method of montage and from the perspective of the threshold. We seek, by means of these materialities, to create intervals, to experiment, and to weave gaps that prefigure other possibilities. We argue that, by coping with, through critical fabulation, the ways in which an epidemic makes itself appear, we enable the elaboration of a political imagination capable of giving the future other possibilities and arrangements that are not the catastrophe and the melancholy


En el presente artículo hacemos reflexiones y presentamos conceptos que han guiado una investigación sobre los registros archivísticos de la fiebre amarilla y la gripe española en los acervos de la Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fundación Oswaldo Cruz), de la Biblioteca Nacional (Biblioteca Nacional y del Arquivo Nacional (Archivo Nacional). La investigación se centra en la búsqueda de los rastros y las ruinas de esos eventos epidémicos, mediante el método del montaje y la perspectiva del umbral. Buscamos, por medio de estas materialidades, crear intervalos, experimentar y tejer brechas que prefiguren otras posibilidades. Argumentamos que manejando, a través de la fabulación crítica, las formas en que se hace aparecer una epidemia, posibilitamos la elaboración de una imaginación política que dé al futuro otras posibilidades y disposiciones que no sean la catástrofe y la melancolía


Subject(s)
Humans , Archives , Yellow Fever , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Research , Documentation , Epidemics
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(1): 31-34, 20230000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427934

ABSTRACT

El cólera es una toxoinfección alimentaria ocasionada por la ingesta de agua y alimentos contaminados por el Vibrio cholerae. Es una de las enfermedades más antiguas de la humanidad y las primeras descripciones corresponden a Hipócrates. La primera epidemia documentada, sucedió en la India en 1817 y se extendió a Turquía y a los países árabes. En nuestro país, el primer brote ocurrió en 1856 en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, asociada a la llegada de navíos con enfermos y a las deficientes condiciones sanitarias de la ciudad. Los sucesivos brotes se acompañaron de una alta mortalidad, a tal punto que el Dr. José María Penna señaló que costó más vidas a la nación que la guerra con Paraguay. En el presente artículo se analizan los sucesivos brotes de cólera en nuestro país


Cholera is a food poisoning caused by the ingestion of food and water contaminated by Vibrio cholerae. It is one of the oldest diseases of humanity and the first descriptions correspond to Hippocrates. The first documented epidemic occurred in India in 1817 and spread to Turkey and the Arab countries. In our country, the first outbreak occurred in 1856 in the city of Bahía Blanca, associated with the arrival of ships with patients and poor sanitary conditions in the city. The successive outbreaks were accompanied by high mortality, to the point that Dr. José María Penna pointed out that it cost the nation more lives than the war with Paraguay. This article analyzes the successive outbreaks of cholera in our country


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cholera/history , Cholera/epidemiology , Epidemics/history
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 17(1): 225-230, jan.-marc. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419260

ABSTRACT

A resenha analisa o filme Os primeiros soldados, de Rodrigo de Oliveira (Brasil, 2021). A película apresenta a vida de três personagens, ao longo do ano de 1983, no Brasil, às voltas com a descoberta da aids em suas vidas. Mostram-se suas redes de relações, seus planos, e particularmente as estratégias de compreensão e enfrentamento da doença. Na tradição de produções cinematográficas que enfocam os modos pelos quais a população LGBTQIAP+ enfrentou a aids, o filme recorta três pessoas comuns, que não lideram movimentos sociais, mas fazem esforços para compreender o que é a doença e como podem com ela aprender. Ao narrar esse enfrentamento, o filme valoriza os afetos construídos, as estratégias de cuidado, as tentativas de obter conhecimento pela observação da trajetória da doença, e as novas percepções que os personagens têm em torno da precariedade da vida e de sua vulnerabilidade na sociedade


This review analyzes the film Os primeiros soldados, by Rodrigo de Oliveira (Brazil, 2021). The film presents the lives of three characters throughout 1983, in Brazil, dealing with the discovery of AIDS in their lives. Their networks of relationships, their plans, and particularly the strategies for understanding and coping skills with the disease are shown. In the tradition of cinematographic productions that focus on the ways in which the LGBTQIAP+ population faced AIDS, the film features three common people, who do not lead social movements, but make efforts to understand what the disease is and how they can learn from it. When narrating this confrontation, the film values the constructed affections, the care strategies, the attempts to gain knowledge by observing the trajectory of the disease, and the new perceptions that the characters have around the precariousness of life and their vulnerability in society.


La reseña analiza la película Os primeiros soldados, de Rodrigo de Oliveira (Brasil, 2021). La película pre-senta la vida de tres personajes a lo largo de 1983, en Brasil, lidiando con el descubrimiento del SIDA en sus vidas. Se muestran sus redes de relaciones, sus planes y, en particular, las estrategias de comprensión y afrontamiento de la enfermedad. En la tradición de las producciones cinematográficas que se enfocan en las formas en que la población LGBTQIAP+ enfrentó el SIDA, la película presenta a tres personas comunes, que no lideran movimientos sociales, pero se esfuerzan por comprender qué es la enfermedad y cómo pueden aprender de ella. Al narrar este enfrentamiento, la película valora los afectos construidos, las estrategias de cuidado, los intentos de conocimiento a través de la observación de la trayectoria de la enfermedad y las nuevas percepciones que tienen los personajes en torno a la precariedad de la vida y su vulnerabilidad en la sociedad


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Motion Pictures , Education , Epidemics
7.
Rev. ADM ; 80(1): 33-35, ene.-feb. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511268

ABSTRACT

Introducción: desde la aparición del COVID-19 a principios de diciembre del año 2019, en la ciudad China de Wuhan, esta enfermedad respiratoria empezó a avanzar a nivel mundial. El 30 de enero de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró a esta enfermedad con carácter epidémico y como una situación de emergencia a nivel mundial. El propósito de este estudio es presentar información de la variante ómicron BW.1 o Xibalbá. Conclusión: México está en un proceso de transición de pandemia hacia endemia, pero no quiere decir que no seguirán apareciendo nuevas variantes como ocurrió en la quinta ola (ómicron BA.5) o con subvariantes que emergieron como BW.1 «Xibalbá¼, BQ.1 «perro del infierno¼ y XBB «pesadilla¼. La población y los gobiernos deberán continuar con las medidas preventivas establecidas desde el inicio de la pandemia como son el uso de cubrebocas, el correcto lavado de manos y de ropa, los hábitos de higiene, limpieza, desinfección personal y de nuestro entorno, el aislamiento precoz ante alguna sintomatología y la vacunación (ya sea la primera o sus refuerzos subsecuentes).(AU)


Introduction: since the appearance of COVID-19 in early December 2019 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, this respiratory disease began to spread worldwide. On the thirtieth of January of the year two thousand and twenty, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared this disease to be epidemic and with a worldwide emergency situation. The purpose of the study is to present information on the Omicron BW.1 or Xibalba variant. Conclusion: Mexico is in a process of transition from pandemic to endemic but this does not mean that new variants will not continue to appear as they did in the fifth wave (omicron BA.5) or subvariants that emerged such as: BW.1 or «Xibalbá¼, BQ.1 «hellhound¼ and XBB «nightmare¼. The population and governments should continue with the preventive measures established since the beginning of the pandemic, such as: use of masks, proper hand and clothing washing, hygiene habits, personal and environmental cleaning and disinfection, early isolation in case of any symptomatology, and vaccination, either first or subsequent boosters.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Mexico/epidemiology , World Health Organization , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Epidemics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 240-254, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414827

ABSTRACT

Introdução: De acordo com a literatura científica, diagnósticos clínicos diferenciais de arboviroses representam uma dificuldade no que tange à dengue, na medida em que está no Brasil há muitos anos, o que acarreta em ser a arbovirose mais conhecida no país. As notificações de arboviroses se tornaram obrigatórias para inserção no SINAN, possibilitando a construção de perfis demográficos e o cálculo de incidências a partir de informações específicas para estas doenças. No que tange à dengue, a epidemia deste agravo ocorre no país desde 1986, evidenciando falhas na prevenção, relacionadas a aspectos socioeconômicos e ambientais. Objetivo: analisar perfis das notificações de dengue e febre de chikungunya dos casos notificados no município de Cabo Frio. Metodologia: Trata-se de estudo transversal e descritivo, com uso de dados secundários do SINAN referentes a casos de arboviroses no município de Cabo Frio/RJ. Foram observadas variáveis relacionadas ao sexo, escolaridade, raça/cor e critérios de confirmação, além do grau de completude. Resultados: Foram notificados 8.777 casos suspeitos de arboviroses, incluindo-se 1.367 notificações (15,57%) referentes à febre de chikungunya e 1.986 (22,63%), à dengue. Em relação ao desfecho, 1186 casos (51,45%) foram fechados como inconclusivos e 344 destes (14,92%) foram descartados como arboviroses. Dentre os inconclusivos, 943 (79,51%) eram referentes à notificação de dengue, idem para os 277 casos descartados (80,52%). Conclusão: Observou-se baixa taxa de completude nas fichas de notificação, explicada pelo baixo número de recursos humanos e pela insuficiente infraestrutura. Sugere-se a interação de diferentes profissionais e pesquisadores, facilitando a compreensão da complexa dinâmica das arboviroses em questão.


Introduction: According to the scientific literature, differential clinical diagnoses of arboviruses represent a difficulty with regard to dengue, as it has been present in Brazil for many years, which makes it the most well-known arbovirus in the country. Notifications of arboviruses became mandatory for inclusion in SINAN, enabling the construction of demographic profiles and the calculation of incidences based on specific information for these diseases. With regard to dengue, the epidemic of this disease has occurred in the country since 1986, showing failures in prevention, related to socioeconomic and environmental aspects. Objective: to analyze profiles of notifications of dengue and chikungunya fever of cases notified in the municipality of Cabo Frio. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive study, using secondary data from SINAN regarding cases of arboviruses in the municipality of Cabo Frio/RJ. Variables related to sex, education, race/color and confirmation criteria were observed, in addition to the degree of completeness. Results: 8,777 suspected cases of arboviruses were reported, including 1,367 reports (15.57%) referring to chikungunya fever and 1,986 (22.63%) to dengue fever. Regarding the outcome, 1186 cases (51.45%) were closed as inconclusive and 344 of these (14.92%) were discarded as arboviruses. Among the inconclusive ones, 943 (79.51%) were related to dengue notification, the same for the 277 discarded cases (80.52%). Conclusion: A low completeness rate was observed in the notification forms, explained by the low number of human resources and insufficient infrastructure. It is suggested the interaction of different professionals and researchers, facilitating the understanding of the complex dynamics of the arboviruses in question.


Introducción: Según la literatura científica, los diagnósticos clínicos diferenciales de los arbovirus representan una dificultad con respecto al dengue, ya que está presente en Brasil desde hace muchos años, lo que lo convierte en el arbovirus más conocido en el país. Las notificaciones de arbovirus pasaron a ser obligatorias para su inclusión en el SINAN, lo que permitió la construcción de perfiles demográficos y el cálculo de incidencias a partir de información específica de estas enfermedades. Con respecto al dengue, la epidemia de esta enfermedad se presenta en el país desde 1986, mostrando fallas en la prevención, relacionadas con aspectos socioeconómicos y ambientales. Objetivo: analizar perfiles de notificaciones de dengue y fiebre chikungunya de los casos notificados en el municipio de Cabo Frio. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, utilizando datos secundarios del SINAN sobre casos de arbovirus en el municipio de Cabo Frio/RJ. Se observaron variables relacionadas con el sexo, escolaridad, raza/color y criterios de confirmación, además del grado de completitud. Resultados: se notificaron 8.777 casos sospechosos de arbovirus, de los cuales 1.367 (15,57%) se referían a fiebre chikungunya y 1.986 (22,63%) a dengue. En cuanto al resultado, 1186 casos (51,45%) se cerraron como no concluyentes y 344 de estos (14,92%) se descartaron como arbovirus. Entre los inconclusos, 943 (79,51%) estaban relacionados con la notificación de dengue, lo mismo para los 277 casos descartados (80,52%). Conclusión: Se observó un bajo índice de completitud en los formularios de notificación, explicado por el bajo número de recursos humanos y la infraestructura insuficiente. Se sugiere la interacción de diferentes profesionales e investigadores, facilitando la comprensión de la compleja dinámica de los arbovirus en cuestión.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Profile , Dengue/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data
9.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(4): 1-20, 2023. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1433753

ABSTRACT

Background. The influx of people across the national borders of Ghana has been of interest and concern in the public health and national security community in recent times due to the low capacity for the prevention and management of epidemics and other public health risks. Although the International Health Regulations (IHR) stipulate core public health capacities for designated border facilities such as international airports, seaports, and ground crossings, contextual factors that influence the attainment of effective public health measures and response capabilities remain understudied. Objective. To assess the relationship between contextual factors and COVID-19 procurement to help strengthen infrastructure resources for points of entry (PoE) public health surveillance functions, thereby eliminating gaps in the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of pandemicrelated interventions in Ghana. Materials and Methods. This study employed a mixed-methods design, where quantitative variables were examined for relationships and effect size interactions using multiple linear regression techniques and the wild bootstrap technique. Country-level data was sourced from multiple publicly available sources using the social-ecological framework, logic model, and IHR capacity monitoring framework. The qualitative portion included triangulation with an expert panel to determine areas of convergence and divergence. Results. The most general findings were that laboratory capacity and KIA testing center positively predicted COVID-19 procurement, and public health response and airline boarding rule negatively predicted COVID-19 procurement. Conclusion. Contextual understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic and Ebola epidemic is vital for strengthening PoE mitigation measures and preventing disease importation.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , International Health Regulations , Epidemics , Public Health Surveillance , Disaster Mitigation , Public Health , Ebolavirus , COVID-19
10.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 45(NA): NA-NA, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1433882

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively analyzed spatial factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated community deaths i.e., brought-in-dead (BID) in Lusaka, Zambia, between March and July 2020. A total of 127 cases of BID with geocoordinate data of their houses were identified during the study period. Median interquartile range (IQR) of the age of these cases was 49 (34-70) years old, and 47 cases (37.0%) were elderly individuals over 60 years old. Seventy-five cases (75%) of BID were identified in July 2020, when the total number of cases and deaths was largest in Zambia. Among those whose information regarding their underlying medical condition was available, hypertension was most common (22.9%, 8/35). Among Lusaka's 94 townships, the numbers (median, IQR) of cases were significantly larger in those characterized as unplanned residential areas compared to planned areas (1.0, 0.0-4.0 vs 0.0, 0.0-1.0; p=0.030). The proportion of individuals who require more than 30 minutes to obtain water was correlated with a larger number of BID cases per 105 population in each township (rho=0.28, p=0.006). The number of BID cases was larger in unplanned residential areas, which highlighted the importance of targeted public health interventions specifically to those areas to reduce the total number of COVID-19 associated community deaths in Lusaka. Brought-in-dead surveillance might be beneficial in monitoring epidemic conditions of COVID-19 in such high-risk areas. Furthermore, inadequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) might be associated with such distinct geographical distributions of COVID-19 associated community deaths in Lusaka, Zambia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Environmental Monitoring , Public Health , Epidemics , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Death
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Disaster Planning , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 57: 57, 2023. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515539

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Department of Hygiene of the Faculty of Medicine of São Paulo (FMUSP), organized with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation, became the Institute of Hygiene, with the inaugural class taught by Samuel Darling in 1918. The history of Public Health Entomology is mixed with that of the Institute itself, which became the Faculty of Hygiene and Public Health in 1945. Still in the 1930s, Paulo César de Azevedo Antunes and John Lane organized Public Health Entomology within the Medical Parasitology area of the then Institute of Hygiene. During this period, the entomology laboratory came to be recognized for its research in the systematics of hematophagous insects, as well as in the ecology, biology and behavior of vectors. The Entomological Reference Collection (CER) originated naturally from the research of Paulo César Antunes and John Lane and is a national and international heritage covering primary and secondary types of insect species that are of interest to public health. Over the years, it has been consolidated with the efforts of Augusto Ayroza Galvão, Renato Corrêa, José Coutinho, Nelson Cerqueira, Ernesto Rabello, Oswaldo Forattini and others. In its over eighty years of activities, CER has enabled the training of several scientists able to act in programs of surveillance and control of endemic diseases associated with insect vectors throughout Latin America, in addition to training taxonomists focused on insects of interest in Public Health. Researchers from other Brazilian institutes and abroad joined the entomology laboratory because of its importance and the research developed in it. The growing scientific production made it possible for entomological studies developed at the Faculty of Public Health (FSP) to gain international visibility, contributing to the development of disease prevention and epidemic control actions in the country.


RESUMO O Departamento de Higiene da Faculdade de Medicina de São Paulo (FMUSP), organizado com o apoio da Fundação Rockefeller, tornou-se o Instituto de Higiene, tendo a aula inaugural ministrada por Samuel Darling em 1918. A história da Entomologia de Saúde Pública confunde-se com a do próprio Instituto, que passou a ser a Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública em 1945. Ainda na década de 1930, Paulo César de Azevedo Antunes e John Lane começam a organizar a Entomologia de Saúde Pública dentro da Parasitologia Médica, do então Instituto de Higiene. Durante esse período o laboratório de entomologia passou a ser reconhecido por suas pesquisas em sistemática de insetos hematófagos, bem como na ecologia, biologia e comportamento de vetores. A Coleção Entomológica de Referência (CER) originou-se naturalmente das pesquisas de Paulo César Antunes e John Lane e é um patrimônio nacional e internacional abrangendo tipos primários e secundários de espécies de insetos que apresentam interesse à saúde pública. No decorrer dos anos, consolidou-se com os esforços de Augusto Ayroza Galvão, Renato Corrêa, José Coutinho, Nelson Cerqueira, Ernesto Rabello, Oswaldo Forattini e outros. Em seus mais de oitenta anos de atividades, a CER possibilitou a formação de diversos cientistas aptos a atuar em programas de vigilância e controle de endemias associadas aos insetos vetores em toda a América Latina, além de formar taxonomistas voltados aos insetos de interesse em Saúde Pública. Pesquisadores de outros institutos brasileiros e do exterior juntaram-se ao laboratório de entomologia por conta de sua importância e das pesquisas nele desenvolvidas. A produção científica crescente possibilitou aos estudos entomológicos desenvolvidos na Faculdade de Saúde Pública (FSP) adquirirem uma visibilidade internacional, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento das ações de prevenções de doenças e controle de epidemias no país.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Entomology/history , Epidemics , Collections as Topic
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255912, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529214

ABSTRACT

Pouco se sabe sobre a atuação do psicólogo no Brasil junto a pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os psicólogos brasileiros que trabalham com essa população e suas ações. Foram convidados a responder a um questionário online psicólogos que atuam ou atuaram junto a pessoas com diabetes. Participaram 79 psicólogos, principalmente da região Sudeste (59,5%). Todos declararam que haviam cursado pósgraduação. Na amostra, predominou o gênero feminino (89,9%), com idade entre 26 e 40 anos (46,8%). A maioria dos que atuam com diabetes declarou-se autônoma ou voluntária, e quase metade trabalhava menos do que 10 horas semanais. Entre aqueles que deixaram de trabalhar com diabetes, apenas uma minoria tinha vínculo empregatício. Além do trabalho com pessoas com diabetes, a maior parte declarou exercer outras atividades profissionais, como atendimentos clínicos em consultórios particulares, sugerindo que esta não é a atividade principal. Majoritariamente, os respondentes declararam não ter conhecimentos suficientes para o atendimento específico às pessoas com diabetes. Discute-se a qualidade da formação profissional dos psicólogos no Brasil, a necessidade de aprimoramento em relação à atuação com pessoas com diabetes e as condições de trabalho.(AU)


Little is known about the practice of psychologists in Brazil caring for people with Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this research was to identify the Brazilian psychologists who work with this population and describe their actions. Psychologists who work or have worked with people diagnosed with diabetes were invited to answer an online questionnaire. The 79 participants lived mainly in the Southeast Region (59.5%). All of them declared to have a graduate degree, most were female (89.9%), aged 26 to 40 years (46.8%). Most of those working with diabetes declared to be autonomous or voluntary, and almost half had a workload of less than 10 hours a week. Among those who stopped working with diabetes, only a minority had a formal employment contract. In addition, most of them stated that they had other professional activities related to clinical care in private offices, suggesting that working with diabetes is not their main activity. Mostly, respondents stated that they did not have enough knowledge to care for people with diabetes. The quality of professional education of psychologists in Brazil, the need for specific improvement in labor relations and conditions were discussed.(AU)


Son escasas las informaciones del trabajo de los psicólogos en Brasil con las personas con Diabetes Mellitus. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los psicólogos brasileños que trabajan con esta población y describir sus acciones. Se invitó a psicólogos que trabajan o hayan trabajado con personas con diabetes a responder un cuestionario en línea. Participaron 79 psicólogos, principalmente de la región Sureste de Brasil (59,5%). Todos declararon tener posgrado. En la muestra hubo una mayor prevalencia del género femenino (89,9%), de edades de entre 26 y 40 años (46,8%). La mayoría de los que trabajan con personas con diabetes se declararon autónomos o voluntarios, y casi la mitad trabajaba menos de 10 horas a la semana. Entre los que dejaron de trabajar con las personas con diabetes, solo una minoría tenía una relación laboral. Además de trabajar con personas con diabetes, la mayoría afirmó tener otras actividades profesionales, como la atención clínica en consultorios privados, lo que sugiere que esta no es su actividad principal. La mayoría de los encuestados afirmaron que no tenían los conocimientos suficientes para atender específicamente a las personas con diabetes. Se discuten la calidad de la formación profesional de los psicólogos en Brasil, la necesidad de mejora en relación con el trabajo con personas con diabetes y las condiciones laborales.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychology , Acting Out , Diabetes Mellitus , Professional Training , Anxiety , Pain , Patient Care Team , Primary Health Care , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Research Personnel , Self Care , Self-Care Units , Self Concept , Social Sciences , Autoimmune Diseases , Specialization , Stress, Psychological , Therapeutics , Transplantation , Volunteers , Wound Healing , Behavior , Body Composition , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Exercise , Weight Loss , Family , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Blindness , Cholesterol , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Episode of Care , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Cost of Illness , Continuity of Patient Care , Counseling , Universal Access to Health Care Services , Crisis Intervention , Health Law , Death , Diabetes Complications , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Angiopathies , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Emergencies , Disease Prevention , Bariatric Surgery , Fear , Binge-Eating Disorder , Epidemics , Chronic Pain , Insulins , Cognitive Dysfunction , Problem Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Global Burden of Disease , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Burnout, Psychological , Self-Neglect , Sadness , Diabulimia , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Glycemic Control , Sociodemographic Factors , Psychological Well-Being , Food, Processed , Health Promotion , Health Services Accessibility , Amputation, Surgical , Hospitalization , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Life Style , Mental Disorders , Metabolism , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Obesity
14.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 86-93, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the global epidemic status of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) and assess the importation risk into China.@*METHODS@#Data from World Health Organization reports were used. We described the global epidemic status of EVD from 1976-2021, and assessed and ranked the importation risk of EVD from the disease-outbreaking countries into China using the risk matrix and Borda count methods, respectively.@*RESULTS@#From 1976-2021, EVD mainly occurred in western and central Africa, with the highest cumulative number of cases (14,124 cases) in Sierra Leone, and the highest cumulative fatality rate (85%) in the Congo. Outbreaks of EVD have occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Guinea since 2018. The importation risk into China varies across countries with outbreaks of disease. The Democratic Republic of the Congo had an extremely high risk (23 Borda points), followed by Guinea and Liberia. Countries with a moderate importation risk were Nigeria, Uganda, Congo, Sierra Leone, Mali, and Gabon, while countries with a low importation risk included Sudan, Senegal, and Co


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Epidemics , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Guinea/epidemiology , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 438-444, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969925

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility of moving epidemic method (MEM) in the assessment of seasonal influenza (influenza) activity intensity from the perspective of urban agglomeration, assess influenza activity intensity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2019 to 2021 and evaluate the reliability of surveillance data and the effectiveness of the MEM model application. Methods: The weekly reported incidence rate (IR) of influenza and the percentage of influenza-like illness (ILI%) from 2011-2021 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were collected to establish MEM models respectively. The model fitting effect and the reliability of the two data were evaluated for the purpose of establishing an optimal model to assess the influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2019-2021. A cross-validation procedure was used to evaluate the performance of the models by calculating the Youden's index, sensitivity and specificity. Results: The MEM model fitted with weekly ILI% had a higher Youden's index compared with the model fitted with weekly IR at both Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region level and provincial level. The MEM model based on ILI% showed that the epidemic threshold in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during 2019-2020 was 4.42%, the post-epidemic threshold was 4.66%, with medium, high and very high intensity thresholds as 5.38%, 7.22% and 7.84%, respectively. The influenza season during 2019-2020 had 10 weeks (week 50 of 2019 to week 7 of 2020). The influenza season started in week 50 of 2019, and the intensity fluctuated above and below medium epidemic level for six consecutive weeks. The high intensity was observed in week 4 of 2020, the threshold of very high intensity was excessed in week 5, and the intensity gradually declined and became lower than the threshold at the end of the influenza season in week 8. The epidemic threshold was 4.29% and the post-epidemic threshold was 4.35% during 2020-2021. Influenza activity level never excessed the epidemic threshold throughout the year, and no epidemic period emerged. Conclusions: The MEM model could be applied in the assessment of influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and the use of ILI% to assess influenza activity intensity in this region was more reliable than IR data. Influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was higher during 2019-2020 but significantly lower in 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Seasons , Reproducibility of Results , Epidemics , China/epidemiology
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 379-385, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969917

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the epidemiological characteristic of a COVID-19 outbreak caused by 2019-nCoV Omicron variant BF.7 and other provinces imported in Shenzhen and analyze transmission chains and characteristics. Methods: Field epidemiological survey was conducted to identify the transmission chain, analyze the generation relationship among the cases. The 2019-nCoV nucleic acid positive samples were used for gene sequencing. Results: From 8 to 23 October, 2022, a total of 196 cases of COVID-19 were reported in Shenzhen, all the cases had epidemiological links. In the cases, 100 were men and 96 were women, with a median of age, M (Q1, Q3) was 33(25, 46) years. The outbreak was caused by traverlers initial cases infected with 2019-nCoV who returned to Shenzhen after traveling outside of Guangdong Province.There were four transmission chains, including the transmission in place of residence and neighbourhood, affecting 8 persons, transmission in social activity in the evening on 7 October, affecting 65 persons, transmission in work place on 8 October, affecting 48 persons, and transmission in a building near the work place, affecting 74 persons. The median of the incubation period of the infection, M (Q1, Q3) was 1.44 (1.11, 2.17) days. The incubation period of indoor exposure less than that of the outdoor exposure, M (Q1, Q3) was 1.38 (1.06, 1.84) and 1.95 (1.22, 2.99) days, respcetively (Wald χ2=10.27, P=0.001). With the increase of case generation, the number and probability of gene mutation increased. In the same transmission chain, the proportion of having 1-3 mutation sites was high in the cases in the first generation. Conclusions: The transmission chains were clear in this epidemic. The incubation period of Omicron variant BF.7 infection was shorter, the transmission speed was faster, and the gene mutation rate was higher. It is necessary to conduct prompt response and strict disease control when epidemic occurs.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemics , China/epidemiology
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 600-605, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the differences in the clinical features of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in different age groups during the epidemic of Omicron variant.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 211 children with COVID-19 who were admitted to the Department of General Pediatrics, Zhongshan People's Hospital, from December 9, 2022 to January 8, 2023. According to their age, they were divided into 4 groups: 1 month-<1 year (n=84), 1-<3 years group (n=64), 3-<5 years (n=29), and ≥5 years (n=34). The above groups were compared in terms of general status, clinical features, ancillary examination results, treatment, and outcome.@*RESULTS@#The children aged <3 years accounted for 70.1% (148/211) of all hospitalized children with COVID-19, and the 3-<5 years group and the ≥5 years group had a significantly higher proportion of children with underlying diseases than the 1 month-<1 year group and the 1-<3 years group (P<0.05). Compared with the other three groups, the 1 month-<1 year group had significantly higher incidence rates of dyspnea, nasal congestion/nasal discharge, diarrhea and significantly lower incidence rates of convulsion and nervous system involvement (P<0.05). Moreover, compared with the other three groups, the 1 month-<1 year group had significantly higher incidence rates of increases in bile acid and creatine kinase isoenzyme and significantly lower incidence rates of decreased platelet count, increased neutrophil percentage, and decreased lymphocyte percentage (P<0.05). The 1 month-<1 year group had a significantly higher incidence rate of mild COVID-19 than the 1-<3 years group and a significantly lower incidence rate of severe/critical COVID-19 than the other three groups (P<0.05). Compared with the other three groups, the 1 month-<1 year group had a significantly higher proportion of children receiving oxygen inhalation therapy (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with COVID-19 in different age groups have different clinical features during the epidemic of Omicron variant, especially between the children aged 1 month to <1 year and those aged ≥1 year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Epidemics
18.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 595-599, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features of children with febrile seizures after Omicron variant infection.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of children with febrile seizures after Omicron variant infection who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics, from December 1 to 31, 2022 (during the epidemic of Omicron variant; Omicron group), and the children with febrile seizures (without Omicron variant infection) who were admitted from December 1 to 31, in 2021 were included as the non-Omicron group. Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#There were 381 children in the Omicron group (250 boys and 131 girls), with a mean age of (3.2±2.4) years. There were 112 children in the non-Omicron group (72 boys and 40 girls), with a mean age of (3.5±1.8) years. The number of children in the Omicron group was 3.4 times that in the non-Omicron group. The proportion of children in two age groups, aged 1 to <2 years and 6-10.83 years, in the Omicron group was higher than that in the non-Omicron group, while the proportion of children in two age groups, aged 4 to <5 years and 5 to <6 years, was lower in the Omicron group than that in the non-Omicron group (P<0.05).The Omicron group had a significantly higher proportion of children with cluster seizures and status convulsion than the non-Omicron group (P<0.05). Among the children with recurrence of febrile seizures, the proportion of children aged 6-10.83 years in the Omicron group was higher than that in the non-Omicron group, while the proportion of children aged 3 years, 4 years, and 5 years in the Omicron group was lower than that in the non-Omicron group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with febrile seizures after Omicron variant infection tend to have a wider age range, with an increase in the proportion of children with cluster seizures and status convulsion during the course of fever.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Seizures, Febrile/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Fever , Epidemics , Epilepsy, Generalized
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 333-338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981959

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2022, the World Health Organization reported an increase in group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections, such as scarlet fever, in multiple countries. The outbreak primarily affected children under 10 years old, and the number of deaths was higher than anticipated, causing international concern. This paper reviews the current state of the GAS disease outbreak, its causes, and response measures. The authors aim to draw attention from clinical workers in China and increase their awareness and vigilance regarding this epidemic. Healthcare workers should be aware of the potential epidemiological changes in infectious diseases that may arise after the optimization of control measures for coronavirus disease 2019 to ensure children's health.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Streptococcus pyogenes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Epidemics , Disease Outbreaks
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 43-47, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969841

ABSTRACT

This study collected epidemic data of COVID-19 in Zhengzhou from January 1 to January 20 in 2022. The epidemiological characteristics of the local epidemic in Zhengzhou High-tech Zone caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant were analyzed through epidemiological survey and big data analysis, which could provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of the Delta variant. In detail, a total of 276 close contacts and 599 secondary close contacts were found in this study. The attack rate of close contacts and secondary close contacts was 5.43% (15/276) and 0.17% (1/599), respectively. There were 10 confirmed cases associated with the chain of transmission. Among them, the attack rates in close contacts of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth generation cases were 20.00% (5/25), 17.86% (5/28), 0.72% (1/139) and 14.81% (4/27), 0 (0/57), respectively. The attack rates in close contacts after sharing rooms/beds, having meals, having neighbor contacts, sharing vehicles with the patients, having same space contacts, and having work contacts were 26.67%, 9.10%, 8.33%, 4.55%, 1.43%, and 0 respectively. Collectively, the local epidemic situation in Zhengzhou High-tech Zone has an obvious family cluster. Prevention and control work should focus on decreasing family clusters of cases and community transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Epidemics , Incidence
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