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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243629, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285611

ABSTRACT

Abstract As an important enzyme, xylanase is widely used in the food, pulp, and textile industry. Different applications of xylanase warrant specific conditions including temperature and pH. This study aimed to carry out sodium alginate beads as carrier to immobilize previous reported mutated xylanase from Neocallimastix patriciarum which expressed in E. coli, the activity of immobilization of mutated xylanase was elevated about 4% at pH 6 and 13% at 62 °C. Moreover, the immobilized mutated xylanase retained a greater proportion of its activity than the wide type in thermostability. These properties suggested that the immobilization of mutated xylanase has potential to apply in biobleaching industry.


Resumo Como importante enzima, a xilanase é amplamente utilizada na indústria alimentícia, de celulose e têxtil. Diferentes aplicações de xilanase garantem condições específicas, incluindo temperatura e pH. Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar grânulos de alginato de sódio como carreador para imobilizar xilanase mutada relatada anteriormente de Neocallimastix patriciarum que expressa em E. coli, a atividade de imobilização da xilanase mutada foi elevada em cerca de 4% em pH 6 e 13% a 62 °C. Além disso, a xilanase mutada imobilizada reteve uma proporção maior de sua atividade do que o tipo amplo em termoestabilidade. Essas propriedades sugerem que a imobilização da xilanase mutada tem potencial para aplicação na indústria de biobranqueamento.


Subject(s)
Neocallimastix , Temperature , Escherichia coli/genetics
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249280

ABSTRACT

Abstract L-Asparaginase catalysing the breakdown of L-Asparagine to L-Aspartate and ammonia is an enzyme of therapeutic importance in the treatment of cancer, especially the lymphomas and leukaemia. The present study describes the recombinant production, properties and anticancer potential of enzyme from a hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. There are two genes coding for asparaginase in the genome of this organism. A 918 bp gene encoding 305 amino acids was PCR amplified and cloned in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli using pET28a (+) plasmid. The production of recombinant enzyme was induced under 0.5mM IPTG, purified by selective heat denaturation and ion exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme was analyzed for kinetics, in silico structure and anticancer properties. The recombinant enzyme has shown a molecular weight of 33 kDa, specific activity of 1175 U/mg, KM value 2.05mM, optimum temperature and pH 80°C and 8 respectively. No detectable enzyme activity found when L-Glutamine was used as the substrate. In silico studies have shown that the enzyme exists as a homodimer having Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172, and Lys232 being the putative active site residues. The free energy change calculated by molecular docking studies of enzyme and substrate was found as ∆G - 4.5 kJ/mole indicating the affinity of enzyme with the substrate. IC50 values of 5U/mL to 7.5U/mL were determined for FB, caco2 cells and HepG2 cells. A calculated amount of enzyme (5U/mL) exhibited 78% to 55% growth inhibition of caco2 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme produced and characterized in the present study offers a good candidate for the treatment of cancer. The procedures adopted in the present study can be prolonged for in vivo studies.


Resumo A L-asparaginase, que catalisa a degradação da L-asparagina em L-aspartato e amônia, é uma enzima de importância terapêutica no tratamento do câncer, especialmente dos linfomas e da leucemia. O presente estudo descreve a produção recombinante, propriedades e potencial anticancerígeno da enzima de Pyrococcus abyssi, um archaeon hipertermofílico. Existem dois genes que codificam para a asparaginase no genoma desse organismo. Um gene de 918 bp, que codifica 305 aminoácidos, foi amplificado por PCR e clonado na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli usando o plasmídeo pET28a (+). A produção da enzima recombinante foi induzida sob 0,5mM de IPTG, purificada por desnaturação seletiva por calor e cromatografia de troca iônica. A enzima purificada foi analisada quanto à cinética, estrutura in silico e propriedades anticancerígenas. A enzima recombinante apresentou peso molecular de 33 kDa, atividade específica de 1.175 U / mg, valor de KM 2,05 mM, temperatura ótima de 80º C e pH 8. Nenhuma atividade enzimática detectável foi encontrada quando a L-glutamina foi usada como substrato. Estudos in silico mostraram que a enzima existe como um homodímero, com Arg11, Ala87, Thr110, His112, Gln142, Leu172 e Lys232 sendo os resíduos do local ativo putativo. A mudança de energia livre calculada por estudos de docking molecular da enzima e do substrato foi encontrada como ∆G - 4,5 kJ / mol, indicando a afinidade da enzima com o substrato. Valores de IC50 de 5U / mL a 7,5U / mL foram determinados para células FB, células caco2 e células HepG2. Uma quantidade de enzima (5U / mL) apresentou inibição de crescimento de 78% a 55% das células caco2 e HepG2, respectivamente. Em conclusão, a enzima recombinante produzida e caracterizada no presente estudo é uma boa possibilidade para o tratamento do câncer. Os procedimentos adotados na presente pesquisa podem ser aplicados para estudos in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asparaginase/biosynthesis , Asparaginase/pharmacology , Pyrococcus abyssi/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Escherichia coli/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239449, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249271

ABSTRACT

Abstract Alpha amylase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of starch is a ubiquitous enzyme with tremendous industrial applications. A 1698 bp gene coding for 565 amino acid amylase was PCR amplified from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465, cloned in pET21a (+) plasmid, expressed in BL21 (DE3) strain of E. coli and characterized. The recombinant enzyme exhibited molecular weight of 63 kDa, optimum pH 8, optimum temperature 70°C, and KM value of 157.7µM. On pilot scale, the purified enzyme efficiently removed up to 95% starch from the cotton fabric indicating its desizing ability at high temperature. 3D model of enzyme built by Raptor-X and validated by Ramachandran plot appeared as a monomer having 31% α-helices, 15% β-sheets, and 52% loops. Docking studies have shown the best binding affinity of enzyme with amylopectin (∆G -10.59). According to our results, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276, and Arg175 constitute the potential active site of enzyme.


Resumo A alfa-amilase, que catalisa a hidrólise do amido, é uma enzima ubíqua com imensas aplicações industriais. Um gene de 1698 pb que codifica a amilase de 565 aminoácidos foi amplificado por PCR, a partir de Geobacillus thermodenitrificans DSM-465, clonado no plasmídeo pET21a (+), expresso na cepa BL21 (DE3) de E. coli e caracterizado. A enzima recombinante exibiu peso molecular de 63 kDa, pH ótimo igual a 8, temperatura ótima de 70° C e valor KM de 157,7 µM. Em escala piloto, a enzima purificada removeu com eficiência até 95% de amido do tecido de algodão, indicando sua capacidade de desengomagem em alta temperatura. O modelo 3D da enzima construída por Raptor-X e validada por Ramachandran plot apareceu como um monômero com 31% de hélices alfa, 15% de folhas beta e 52% de loops. Os estudos de docking mostraram melhor afinidade de ligação da enzima com amilopectina (∆G: - 10,59). De acordo com nossos resultados, Asp 232, Glu274, Arg448, Glu385, Asp34, Asn276 e Arg175 constituem o sítio ativo potencial da enzima.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , alpha-Amylases/genetics , alpha-Amylases/metabolism , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Cloning, Molecular , Geobacillus , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235927, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS), encoded by glnA, catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and ammonium to L-glutamine. This ATP hydrolysis driven process is the main nitrogen assimilation pathway in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. The A. brasilense strain HM053 has poor GS activity and leaks ammonium into the medium under nitrogen fixing conditions. In this work, the glnA genes of the wild type and HM053 strains were cloned into pET28a, sequenced and overexpressed in E. coli. The GS enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized. The GS of HM053 strain carries a P347L substitution, which results in low enzyme activity and rendered the enzyme insensitive to adenylylation by the adenilyltransferase GlnE.


Resumo A glutamina sintetase (GS), codificada por glnA, catalisa a conversão de L-glutamato e amônio em L-glutamina. Este processo dependente da hidrólise de ATP é a principal via de assimilação de nitrogênio na bactéria fixadora de nitrogênio Azospirillum brasilense. A estirpe HM053 de A. brasilense possui baixa atividade GS e excreta amônio no meio sob condições de fixação de nitrogênio. Neste trabalho, os genes glnA das estirpes do tipo selvagem e HM053 foram clonados em pET28a, sequenciados e superexpressos em E. coli. A enzima GS foi purificada por cromatografia de afinidade e caracterizada. A GS da estirpe HM053 possui uma substituição P347L que resulta em baixa atividade enzimática e torna a enzima insensível à adenililação pela adenililtransferase GlnE.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Azospirillum brasilense/enzymology , Azospirillum brasilense/genetics , Ammonium Compounds , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 714-718, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli may invade the subcutaneous tissue of poultry and cause cellulitis, whilst the pathogen may also cause lesions in internal organs such as the liver. Current paper co-relates Escherichia coli and virulence genes characteristic of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in broilers´ cellulitis and liver lesions. One hundred carcasses were retrieved from the production chain in an avian abattoir in the state of Bahia, Brazil, between August 2013 and January 2014, due to detection of cellulitis lesions. Cellulitis and liver samples were retrieved aseptically to quantify E. coli by Petrifilm™ count fast method (3M Company) (AOAC 998.8). Virulent genes iss and iutA were removed from E. coli isolates by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Escherichia coli was isolated from 82.0% of broilers removed from the production chain and the bacterium was concomitantly detected in cellulitis and liver lesions in 40.0% of broilers. E. coli counts ranged between 1.00 and 4.73 log CFU/g in liver lesions and between 2.00 and 9.00 log UFC/g in cellulitis lesions. Virulent genes iutA and iss were detected in 97.56% and 89.02% of E. coli isolates, respectively. Genotype analysis demonstrated the concomitant amplification of genes iutA and iss in 60.0% (n=40) of samples of cellulitis and liver lesions in which the simultaneous isolation of E. coli occurred. There was a positive and significant co-relationship (r=0.22; p<0.05) between the variables occurrence of E. coli isolated from liver samples and the occurrence of E. coli isolated from cellulitis lesions. There were also positive and significant co-relationships between populations of E. coli from liver isolates and cellulitis lesions (r=0.46; p<0.05) when E. coli isolated in the liver and in cellulitis lesions was detected. Since results showed a relationship between E. coli in cellulitis and liver lesions and possible systemic infection, the occurrence of cellulitis lesions as a criterion for total discarding of carcass may be suggested.


Resumo Cepas patogênicas de Escherichia coli podem invadir o tecido subcutâneo das aves e provocar celulite aviária e este patógeno pode provocar lesões nos órgãos internos, como o fígado. Desta forma, objetivou-se correlacionar a presença de Escherichia coli e os genes de virulência característicos de Escherichia coli Patogênica para Aves (APEC) nas lesões de celulite e nos fígados dos frangos. Entre agosto de 2013 a janeiro de 2014, foram retiradas 100 carcaças da linha de produção por apresentarem lesões de celulite em um matadouro avícola da Bahia (Brasil). Foram coletadas amostras de celulite e fígados de frango assepticamente para quantificação de E. coli pelo método rápido de contagem Petrifilm™ (3M Company) (AOAC 998.8). Em seguida foi realizada a pesquisa dos genes de virulência iss e iutA nos isolados de E. coli utilizando a Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). Escherichia coli foi isolada em 82,00% das aves retiradas da linha de produção e a bactéria foi detectada concomitantemente nas lesões de celulite e fígado em 40,00% das aves. As contagens de E. coli variaram de 1,00 a 4,73 log UFC/g nos fígados e de 2,00 a 9,00 log UFC/g nas lesões de celulite. Os genes de virulência iutA e iss foram encontrados em 97,56% e 89,02% dos isolados de E. coli, respectivamente. A análise genotípica revelou a amplificação concomitante dos genes iutA e iss em 60,00% (n=40) das amostras de lesões de celulite e fígado nas quais houve o isolamento simultâneo de E. coli. Foi observada correlação positiva e significativa (r=0,22; p<0,05) entre as variáveis ocorrência de E. coli isolada das amostras dos fígados e ocorrência E. coli isolada das lesões de celulite e, nos casos em que foi detectada a ocorrência de E. coli isolada em fígado e lesões de celulite, correlações positivas e significativas também foram evidenciadas entre as populações de E. coli dos isolados dos fígados e das lesões de celulite, (r=0,46; p<0,05). Assim ficou evidenciada a relação entre E. coli presente nas lesões de celulite e no fígado e uma possível infecção sistêmica, desta forma, sugere-se que a presença de lesões de celulite seja utilizada como critério para o descarte total da carcaça.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Liver Neoplasms , Brazil , Cellulitis , Chickens , Escherichia coli/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921632

ABSTRACT

In this study, the gene encoding the key enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase(KAT) in the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway of Atractylodes lancea was cloned. Meanwhile, bioinformatics analysis, prokaryotic expression and gene expression analysis were carried out, which laid a foundation for the study of fatty acid β-oxidation mechanism of A. lancea. The full-length sequence of the gene was cloned by RT-PCR with the specific primers designed according to the sequence information of KAT gene in the transcriptomic data of A. lancea and designated as AIKAT(GenBank accession number MW665111). The results showed that the open reading frame(ORF) of AIKAT was 1 323 bp, encoding 440 amino acid. The deduced protein had a theoretical molecular weight of 46 344.36 and an isoelectric point of 8.92. AIKAT was predicted to be a stable alkaline protein without transmembrane segment. The secondary structure of AIKAT was predicted to be mainly composed of α-helix. The tertiary structure of AIKAT protein was predicted by homology modeling method. Homologous alignment revealed that AIKAT shared high sequence identity with the KAT proteins(AaKAT2, CcKAT2, RgKAT and AtKAT, respectively) of Artemisia annua, Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Arabidopsis thaliana. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AIKAT clustered with CcKAT2, confirming the homology of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase genes in Compositae. The prokaryotic expression vector pET-32 a-AIKAT was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for protein expression. The target protein was successfully expressed as a soluble protein of about 64 kDa. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed to profile the AIKAT expression in different tissues of A. lancea. The results demonstrated that the expression level of AIKAT was the highest in rhizome, followed by that in leaves and stems. In this study, the full-length cDNA of AIKAT was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), and qRT-PCR showed the differential expression of this gene in different tissues, which laid a foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of fatty acid β-oxidation in A. lancea.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Atractylodes/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Coenzyme A , Escherichia coli/genetics , Phylogeny
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4382-4394, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921514

ABSTRACT

Some enzymes belonging to the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family can degrade the hazardous biogenic amine (BA) present in food. However, the oxidation of MCO in the process of degrading BAs may reduce its activity and stability, resulting in decreased catalytic efficiency. In this work, an MCO from Lactobacillus fermentum (MCOF) was fused with a Bacillus subtilis catalase (CAT) using different strategies and the fusion enzymes were respectively expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The tolerance of eight fused MCOFs to H2O2 increased by 51%-68%, and the stability of CAT&MCOF increased by 17%, compared to the wild type MCOF. Using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, the substrate affinity (Km), the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) and the molar specific activity of CAT&MCOF increased by 1.0-fold, 1.7-fold and 1.2-fold than those of MCOF, respectively. The stability of CAT&MCOF under acidic conditions (pH 2.5-4.5) and moderate temperatures (35-55 °C) also improved. Moreover, the degradation rates of putrescine, cadaverine and histamine catalyzed by CAT&MCOF reached 31.7%, 36.0% and 57.8%, respectively, which increased by 132.5%, 45.7% and 38.9% compared to that of MCOF. The improvement on the stability and catalytic efficiency of MCOF by fusion expression with CAT provides a good example for improving the applicability of enzymes through molecular modifications.


Subject(s)
Biogenic Amines , Cadaverine , Catalase/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Hydrogen Peroxide
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4277-4292, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921505

ABSTRACT

The influence of different affinity tags on enzyme characteristics varies. The (S)-carbonyl reductase 2 (SCR2) from Candida parapsilosis can reduce 2-hydroxyacetophenone, which is a valuable prochiral ketones. Different affinity tags, i.e. his-tag, strep-tag and MBP-tag, were attached to the N terminus of SCR2. These tagged SCR2 enzymes, i.e. his6-SCR2, strep-SCR2 and MBP-SCR2, were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to study their characteristics towards 2-hydroxyacetophenone reduction. Affinity tags did affect the characteristics of the recombinant SCR2 enzymes. Specifically, affinity tags affect the stability of recombinant SCR2 enzymes: 1) At pH 6.0, the remaining enzyme activities of his6-SCR2 and strep-SCR2 were only 95.2% and 90.0% of the untagged SCR2, while that of MBP-SCR2 was 1.2 times of the untagged SCR2 after incubating for 13 h at 30 °C. 2) The half-life of MBP-SCR2 at 50 °C was 26.6%-48.8% longer than those of strep-SCR2, his6-SCR2 and untagged SCR2. 3) The kcat of MBP-SCR2 was about 1.25-1.45 times of that of small affinity-tagged and untagged SCR2 after storing at -80 °C for 60 d. Structural informatics indicated that the α-helices at the C terminus of MBP-SCR2 contributed to the stability of the N terminus of fusion protein of SCR2. Data from circular dichroism showed that the MBP-tag has some influence on the secondary structure of SCR2, while melting temperature analysis demonstrated that the Tm of the recombinant MBP-SCR2 was about 5 °C higher than that of the untagged SCR2. This study obtained an efficient and stable recombinant SCR2, i.e. the MBP-SCR2. Moreover, this study could serve as a reference for other researchers to evaluate and select appropriate affinity tags for their research.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Oxidoreductases , Escherichia coli/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4254-4265, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921503

ABSTRACT

Leucine dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key rate-limiting enzyme in the production of L-2-aminobutyric acid (L-2-ABA). In this study, we modified the C-terminal Loop region of this enzyme to improve the specific enzyme activity and stability for efficient synthesis of L-2-ABA. Using molecular dynamics simulation of LDH, we analyzed the change of root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), rationally designed the Loop region with greatly fluctuated RMSF, and obtained a mutant EsLDHD2 with a specific enzyme activity 23.2% higher than that of the wild type. Since the rate of the threonine deaminase-catalyzed reaction converting L-threonine into 2-ketobutyrate was so fast, the multi-enzyme cascade catalysis system became unbalanced. Therefore, the LDH and the formate dehydrogenase were double copied in a new construct E. coli BL21/pACYCDuet-RM. Compared with E. coli BL21/pACYCDuet-RO, the molar conversion rate of L-2-ABA increased by 74.6%. The whole cell biotransformation conditions were optimized and the optimal pH, temperature and substrate concentration were 7.5, 35 °C and 80 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, the molar conversion rate was higher than 99%. Finally, 80 g and 40 g L-threonine were consecutively fed into a 1 L reaction mixture under the optimal conversion conditions, producing 97.9 g L-2-ABA. Thus, this strategy provides a green and efficient synthesis of L-2-ABA, and has great industrial application potential.


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates , Escherichia coli/genetics , Leucine Dehydrogenase/genetics , Threonine Dehydratase
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4243-4253, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921502

ABSTRACT

Hydroxytyrosol is an important fine chemical and is widely used in food and medicine as a natural antioxidant. Production of hydroxytyrosol through synthetic biology is of important significance. Here we cloned and functionally characterized a hydroxylase encoding gene HpaBC from Escherichia coli BL21, and both subunits of this enzyme can be successfully expressed to convert the tyrosol into hydroxytyrosol. A HpaBC gene integration expression cassette under the tac promoter was constructed, and integrated into the genome of a tyrosol hyper-producing E. coli YMG5A*R using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Meanwhile, the pathway for production of acetic acid was deleted, resulting in a recombinant strain YMGRD1H1. Shake flask fermentation showed that strain YMGRD1H1 can directly use glucose to produce hydroxytyrosol, reaching a titer of 1.81 g/L, and nearly no by-products were detected. A titer of 2.95 g/L was achieved in a fed-batch fermentation conducted in a 5 L fermenter, which is the highest titer for the de novo synthesis of hydroxytyrosol from glucose reported to date. Production of hydroxytyrosol by engineered E. coli lays a foundation for further construction of hydroxytyrosol cell factories with industrial application potential, adding another example for microbial manufacturing of aromatic compounds.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , Fermentation , Glucose , Metabolic Engineering , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4231-4242, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921501

ABSTRACT

2-Hydroxybutyric acid (2-HBA) is an important intermediate for synthesizing biodegradable materials and various medicines. Chemically synthesized racemized 2-HBA requires deracemization to obtain optically pure enantiomers for industrial application. In this study, we designed a cascade biosynthesis system in Escherichia coli BL21 by coexpressing L-threonine deaminase (TD), NAD-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) for production of optically pure (S)-2-HBA from bulk chemical L-threonine (L-Thr). To coordinate the production rate and the consumption rate of the intermediate 2-oxobutyric acid in the multi-enzyme cascade catalytic reactions, we explored promoter engineering to regulate the expression levels of TD and FDH, and developed a recombinant strain P21285FDH-T7V7827 with a tunable system to achieve a coordinated multi-enzyme expression. The recombinant strain P21285FDH-T7V7827 was able to efficiently produce (S)-2-HBA with the highest titer of 143 g/L and a molar yield of 97% achieved within 16 hours. This titer was approximately 1.83 times than that of the highest yield reported to date, showing great potential for industrial application. Our results indicated that constructing a multi-enzyme-coordinated expression system in a single cell significantly contributed to the biosynthesis of hydroxyl acids.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , Formate Dehydrogenases , Hydroxybutyrates , Threonine Dehydratase
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3211-3220, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921418

ABSTRACT

To develop Senecavirus A (SVA) virus-like particles (VLPs), a recombinant prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a-SVA-VP031 was constructed to co-express SVA structural proteins VP0, VP3 and VP1, according to the genomic sequence of the field isolate CH-FJ-2017 after the recombinant proteins were expressed in E .coli system, and purified by Ni+ ion chromatographic method. The SVA VLPs self-assemble with a high yield in vitro buffer. A typical VLPs with an average diameter of 25-30 nm which is similar to native virions by using TEM detection. Animals immunized by SVA VLPs shown that the VLPs induced high titers neutralizing antibodies in Guinea pigs. This study indicated that the VLPs produced with co-expressing SVA structural proteins VP0, VP3 and VP1 in prokaryotic system is a promising candidate and laid an important foundation for the development of a novel SVA VLPs vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genomics , Guinea Pigs , Picornaviridae/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2915-2923, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887853

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial peptides are the most promising alternatives to antibiotics. However, the strategy of producing antimicrobial peptides by recombinant technology is complicated and expensive, which is not conducive to the large-scale production. Oxysterlin 1 is a novel type of cecropin antimicrobial peptide mainly targeting on Gram-negative bacteria and is of low cytotoxicity. In this study, a simple and cost-effective method was developed to produce Oxysterlin 1 in Escherichia coli. The Oxysterlin 1 gene was cloned into a plasmid containing elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and protein splicing elements (intein) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pET-ELP-I-Oxysterlin 1). The recombinant protein was mainly expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and then the target peptide can be purified with a simple salting out method followed by pH changing. The final yield of Oxysterlin 1 was about 1.2 mg/L, and the subsequent antimicrobial experiment showed the expected antimicrobial activity. This study holds promise for large-scale production of antimicrobial peptides and the in-depth study of its antimicrobial mechanism.


Subject(s)
Elastin , Escherichia coli/genetics , Inteins , Peptides/pharmacology , Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2813-2824, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887844

ABSTRACT

Squalene is widely used in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetics and other fields because of its strong antioxidative, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities. In order to produce squalene, a gene ispA encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase was overexpressed in a previously engineered Escherichia coli strain capable of efficiently producing terpenoids, resulting in a chassis strain that efficiently synthesizes triterpenoids. Through phylogenetic analysis, screening, cloning and expression of squalene synthase derived from different prokaryotes, engineered E. coli strains capable of efficiently producing squalene were obtained. Among them, squalene produced by strains harboring squalene synthase derived from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechococcus lividus reached (16.5±1.4) mg/g DCW ((167.1±14.3) mg/L broth) and (12.0±1.9) mg/g DCW ((121.8±19.5) mg/L broth), respectively. Compared with the first-generation strains harboring the human-derived squalene synthase, the squalene synthase derived from T. elongatus and S. lividus remarkably increased the squalene production by 3.3 times and 2.4 times, respectively, making progress toward the cost-effective heterologous production of squalene.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , Squalene , Synechococcus
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2453-2462, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887811

ABSTRACT

The ban on addition of antibiotics in animal feed in China has made the search for new antibiotics substitutes, e.g. bacteriocin, a hot topic in research. The present study successfully isolated an antibacterial substance producing strain of Bacillus sp. from alpaca feces by agar diffusion method, using Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus and Listeria monocytogenes as indicator bacteria. The isolated strain was named as B. licheniformis SXAU06 based on colony morphology, Gram staining and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The antibacterial substance was isolated and purified through a series of procedures including (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, chloroform extraction, molecular interception and SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioinformatics analysis of the LC-MS/MS data indicated that the antibacterial substance was a bacteriocin-like substance (BLIS) with an approximate molecular weight of 14 kDa, and it was designated as BLIS_SXAU06. BLIS_SXAU06 exhibited high resistance to treatment of proteinase K, high temperature, high acidity and alkalinity. BLIS_SXAU06 was heterologously expressed in E. coli and the recombinant BLIS_SXAU06 exhibited effective antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, M. luteus, and L. monocytogenes, showing potential to be investigated further.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus licheniformis , Bacteriocins/pharmacology , China , Chromatography, Liquid , Escherichia coli/genetics , Listeria monocytogenes , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Staphylococcus aureus , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2105-2115, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887784

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoids are a class of natural products of great commercial value that are widely used in pharmaceutical, health care and cosmetic industries. The biosynthesis of triterpenoids relies on the efficient synthesis of squalene epoxide, which is synthesized from the NADPH dependent oxidation of squalene catalyzed by squalene epoxidase. We screened squalene epoxidases derived from different species, and found the truncated squalene epoxidase from Rattus norvegicus (RnSETC) showed the highest activity in engineered Escherichia coli. Further examination of the effect of endogenous cytochrome P450 reductase like (CPRL) proteins showed that overexpression of NADH: quinone oxidoreductase (WrbA) under Lac promoter in a medium-copy number plasmid increased the production of squalene epoxide by nearly 2.5 folds. These results demonstrated that the constructed pathway led to the production of squalene epoxide, an important precursor for the biosynthesis of triterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli/genetics , NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase , Protein Engineering , Rats , Repressor Proteins , Squalene , Squalene Monooxygenase/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2077-2084, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887782

ABSTRACT

Curcumin is exclusively isolated from Zingiberaceae plants with a broad spectrum of bioactivities. In the present study, we used the diketide-CoA synthase (DCS) and curcumin synthase (CURS) genes to construct a non-natural fusion gene encoding diketide-CoA synthase::curcumin synthase (DCS::CURS). This fusion protein, together with the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and the 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL), were introduced into Escherichia coli for the production of curcumin from ferulic acid. The process is divided into two stages, the growth stage using LB medium and the fermentation stage using the modified M9 medium. The yield of curcumin reached 386.8 mg/L by optimizing the induction of protein expression in the growth stage, and optimizing the inoculum volume, medium composition and fermentation time in the fermentation stage, as well as the addition of macroporous resin AB-8 into the second medium to attenuate the toxicity of the end product. The exploitation of the non-natural fusion protein DCS::CURS for the production of curcumin provides a new alternative to further promoting the production of curcumin and the related analogues.


Subject(s)
Curcumin/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Fermentation
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1564-1577, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878655

ABSTRACT

As an important model industrial microorganism, Escherichia coli has been widely used in pharmaceutical, chemical industry and agriculture. In the past 30 years, a variety of new strategies and techniques, including artificial intelligence, gene editing, metabolic pathway assembly, and dynamic regulation have been used to design, construct, and optimize E. coli cell factories, which remarkably improved the efficiency for biotechnological production of chemicals. In this review, three key aspects for constructing E. coli cell factories, including pathway design, pathway assembly and regulation, and optimization of global cellular performance, are summarized. The technologies that have played important roles in metabolic engineering of E. coli, as well as their future applications, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1368-1375, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878638

ABSTRACT

Diphtheria toxin is an ADP-ribosyltransferase toxic to human cells. Mutation of the active site in its catalytic domain eliminates the toxicity, but retains its immunogenicity. A non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin known as CRM197 protein has become an ideal carrier protein for conjugate vaccines. CRM197 can further improve its immunogenicity by cross-linking with other antigens, so it has good potential to find broad applications. Unfortunately, inclusion bodies are easily formed during the expression of recombinant CRM197 protein in Escherichia coli, which greatly reduces its yield. In order to address this problem, pG-KJE8 vector carrying molecular chaperones and plasmid pET28a-CRM197, were co-expressed in Escherichia coli. The results showed that the recombinant CRM197 protein was successfully expressed and appeared largely in inclusion bodies. The molecular chaperones DnaK, DnaJ, GrpE, GroES and GroEL5 expressed can facilitate correct and rapid folding of CRM197. Furthermore, it can also improve the recovery rate of soluble CRM197 protein. The soluble expression of CRM197 was maximized upon addition of 1.0 mmol/L IPTG, 0.5 mg L-arabinose, 5.0 ng/mL tetracycline and induction at 20oC for 16 h. The soluble CRM197 protein shows good immunoreactivity, demonstrating the molecular chaperones expressed from pG-KJE8 facilitated the soluble expression of CRM197 protein in E. coli.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Diphtheria Toxin/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1334-1345, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878635

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a highly conserved and mutation-resistant coronaviral enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in viral replication, making it an ideal target for the development of novel broad-spectrum anti-coronaviral drugs. In this study, a codon-optimized Mpro gene was cloned into pET-21a and pET-28a expression vectors. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli Rosetta(DE3) competent cells and the expression conditions were optimized. The highly expressed recombinant proteins, Mpro and Mpro-28, were purified by HisTrapTM chelating column and its proteolytic activity was determined by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The FRET assay showed that Mpro exhibits a desirable proteolytic activity (25 000 U/mg), with Km and kcat values of 11.68 μmol/L and 0.037/s, respectively. The specific activity of Mpro is 25 times that of Mpro-28, a fusion protein carrying a polyhistidine tag at the N and C termini, indicating additional residues at the N terminus of Mpro, but not at the C terminus, are detrimental to its proteolytic activity. The preparation of active SARS-CoV-2 Mpro through codon-optimization strategy might facilitate the development of the rapid screening assays for the discovery of broad-spectrum anti-coronaviral drugs targeting Mpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Codon/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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