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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 557-561, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385667

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Tissue clearing techniques are frequently used in the observation and description of anatomical structures and pathways without altering the three-dimensional layout of the anatomical specimen. Tissue optical clearing promotes preservation of three-dimensional structures, which allows the study of the internal anatomy in its original position and original spatial interaction. Among these techniques, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) maceration clearing is one of the most widely used. However, the histological changes of tissue after KOH maceration have yet to be fully understood. Our aim is to describe the microscopical differences between macerated and normal tissue. To better understand said changes, two human fetuses with a gestation period of 16 to 28 weeks were cleared and processed for histological analysis. Microtome slides of the fetuses' lower limbs were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), and Masson's trichrome with the purpose of observing the histological and macromolecule composition changes in cleared tissue. Remarkable differences at a histological level regarding the composition of the cellular structures, since diaphanized tissues showed a predominance of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers with the absence of most of the nucleated cellular tissue. Phospholipid's saponification, nucleic acids degradation and a change on proteins structural properties are the main factors inducing clearing. At the same time, molecular stability of collagen in alkaline conditions allows the specimen to maintain its shape after the process.


RESUMEN: Las técnicas de limpieza de tejido se utilizan con frecuencia en la observación y descripción de estructuras y vías anatómicas sin alterar el diseño tridimensional de la muestra anatómica. El aclaramiento óptico de tejidos promueve la preservación de estructuras tridimensionales, lo que permite el estudio de la anatomía interna en su posición original y la interacción espacial original. Entre estas técnicas, el aclarado por maceración con Hidróxido de Potasio (KOH) es una de las más utilizadas. Sin embargo, los cambios histológicos del tejido después de la maceración con KOH aún no se han entendido por completo. Nuestro objetivo es describir las diferencias microscópicas entre el tejido macerado y el normal. Para entender mejor dichos cambios, dos fetos humanos con un período de gestación de 16 a 28 semanas fueron aclarados y procesados para análisis histológicos. Se obtuvieron microtomos de las extremidades inferiores de los fetos y se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina, ácido peryódico de Schiff (PAS) y tricrómico de Masson con el fin de observar los cambios histológicos y de composición de macromoléculas en el tejido aclarado. Diferencias notables a nivel histológico en cuanto a la composición de las estructuras celulares, ya que los tejidos diafanizados mostraban un predominio de matriz extracelular compuesta por fibras de colágeno con ausencia de la mayor parte del tejido celular nucleado. La saponificación de los fosfolípidos, la degradación de los ácidos nucleicos y un cambio en las propiedades estructurales de las proteínas son los principales factores que inducen la depuración. Al mismo tiempo, la estabilidad molecular del colágeno en condiciones alcalinas permite que la muestra mantenga su forma después del proceso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissues/anatomy & histology , Histological Techniques/methods , Tissues/ultrastructure , Transillumination , Muscle, Skeletal , Fetus , Microscopy
2.
Más Vita ; 4(1): 194-210, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1372269

ABSTRACT

La preeclampsia es una patología que surge de forma desconocida comprometiendo el estado de salud del binomio materno ­ neonatal, provocando daño multiorgánico. La característica principal es la relación con múltiples factores de riesgo tales como la hipertensión en familiares de primer grado, obesidad, alimentación, falta de controles obstétricos durante la gestación, entre otros; Objetivo: Validar el cuestionario diseñado para evaluar los factores que influyen en preclamsia, Determinar los factores de riesgo que influyen en su incidencia. Materiales y métodos: Se aplico una metodología cuanti cualitativa, corte transversal, exploratorio; la validación se efectuó a través del juicio de expertos, utilizando dos tipos de instrumentos uno para cada tipo de investigación, se valoran por separado, en el plan piloto se utiliza parte de la muestra seleccionada para la investigación macro. En el caso de la cualitativa se utiliza una técnica de entrevista a saturación, con una investigación de tipo fenomenológica, organizada por categorías. Resultados: El instrumento cuantitativo obtiene un puntaje 93% de confiabilidad, con un alfa de crombach de 0,7, el instrumento cualitativo 95%, dentro de los factores de riesgo se distingue los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo, se asocia con un espectro de gravedad que va desde la hipertensión leve inducida por el embarazo hasta la eclampsia. Conclusión: Durante el estudio piloto se obtiene los datos con rapidez y efectividad, no existen conflictos en su comprensión, su confiabilidad garantiza el trabajo científico, la validación de instrumentos justifica el proceso, de inicio resultó conflictivo por la ausencia de instrumentos para medir los factores que influyen en esta patología, se encuentran los valores causales y en especial en las vivencias de cada uno de los actores e involucrados, La preeclampsia es un fenómeno frecuente cuya patología conlleva graves complicaciones para la madre y el feto con este tipos de estudio se aporta a su control y erradicación(AU)


Preeclampsia is a pathology that arises in an unknown way, compromising the health status of the maternal-neonatal binomial, causing multi-organ damage. The main characteristic is the relationship with multiple risk factors such as hypertension in first degree relatives, obesity, diet, lack of obstetric controls during pregnancy, among others; Objective: to validate the questionnaire designed to evaluate the factors that influence preeclampsia, to determine the risk factors that influence its incidence. Materials and methods: A quantitative, qualitative, cross-sectional, exploratory methodology was applied; The validation was carried out through the judgment of experts, using two types of instruments, one for each type of research, they are valued separately, in the pilot plan part of the selected sample is used for the macro research. In the case of qualitative, a saturation interview technique is used, with a phenomenological type investigation, organized by categories. Results: The quantitative instrument obtains a 93% reliability score, with a crombach alpha of 0.7, the qualitative instrument 95%, within the risk factors distinguishes hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, it is associated with a spectrum of severity ranging from mild pregnancy-induced hypertension to eclampsia. Conclusion: During the pilot study the data is obtained quickly and effectively, there are no conflicts in its understanding, its reliability guarantees scientific work, the validation of instruments justifies the process, initially it was conflictive due to the absence of instruments to measure the factors that influence this pathology, are the causal values ​​and especially in the experiences of each of the actors and involved, Preeclampsia is a frequent phenomenon whose pathology entails serious complications for the mother and the fetus with this type of study is provided to its control and eradication(AU)


Subject(s)
Pre-Eclampsia/pathology , Risk Factors , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Eclampsia/pathology , Health Services Programming , Research , Pilot Projects , Incidence , Data Collection , Fetus
3.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 190-193, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391653

ABSTRACT

Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare congenital anomaly in which a malformed fetus is incorporated within the body of its twin. It was first described in the late 18th century and has an incidence of 1:500,000 live births. In most cases, the diagnosis is made in infants or young adults. To date, the oldest patient reported in the literature was 47 years old. We describe the case of a 65-year-old patient with FIF, now the oldest reported in the literature. Our patient meets all the diagnostic criteria for FIF, including the presence of a limb in advanced formation inside the lesion. The treatment was surgical excision. FIF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses, typically recognized in infancy. Symptoms arise from mass effects. Surgical resection should be performed due to the potential for malignant transformation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Twins, Conjoined/pathology , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Fetus/abnormalities
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 431-436, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935558

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinicopathological factors related to perinatal fetal death and to evaluate importance of fetal autopsy and placental pathology. Methods: The clinicopathological data of 105 perinatal fetal deaths in Beijing Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from November 2012 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Relevant literature was also reviewed. Results: The maternal age of the deceased fetuses ranged from 22 to 43 years with the average (31.35±4.04 years), and the gestational weeks were 28-40+6 weeks. Among them, 101 were singleton cases and 4 twin cases. 103 fetuses died in uterus and 2 died during delivery. Relevant factors analysis of the 105 perinatal fetal deaths showed that 86 cases (81.9%, 86/105) were related to umbilical cord/placental abnormality, 10 cases (9.5%, 10/105) uterine infection, 6 cases (5.7%, 6/105) fetal factors, 1 case was fetal maternal blood transfusion syndrome, 1 case twin blood transfusion syndrome, and 1 case died of complete uterine rupture. Among the 86 cases related to umbilical cord/placental abnormality, the diagnosis was most often based on the gross examination of placenta. The most common cause of death was umbilical cord torsion with thin root, followed by placental abruption, tight umbilical cord winding, vascular rupture and umbilical cord true knot. The morphology of placenta revealed mainly functional changes. Among the 10 cases related to intrauterine infections, the placenta generally showed lobular placental edema. The morphological characteristics of ascending infection were mainly acute chorioamnionitis, and the morphological characteristics of blood-borne infection were mainly acute or chronic villitis, as well as villous interstitial inflammation. Identification of viral inclusions suggested viral etiology, while the final diagnosis was relied on laboratory testing. Among the 6 cases related to fetal abnormality, the diagnostic value of placenta was limited and the diagnosis could be made with fetal autopsy. Conclusion: The causes of perinatal fetal death are complex, diverse, and often the synergistic result of multiple factors. Fetal autopsy and placental pathology are the key technical means to identify the cause of death and deserve more attention and utilization.


Subject(s)
Adult , Autopsy , Child , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Fetus/pathology , Gestational Age , Humans , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with structural brain abnormalities.@*METHODS@#The karyotypes of the fetus and its parents were analyzed by conventional G-banding. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) was carried out to detect chromosomal microdeletion and microduplication.@*RESULTS@#No kartotypic abnormality was detected in the fetus and its parents. CMA has identified a 194 kb microduplication at Xq25 in the fetus, which encompassed exons 4-35 of the STAG2 gene and was derived from its mother.@*CONCLUSION@#The Xq25 duplication encompassing part of the STAG2 gene probably underlay the brain malformation in the fetus.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Banding , Female , Fetus , Genetic Testing , Humans , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus with dysgenesis of corpus callosum and other brain malformations.@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the fetus and its parents. Suspected pathogenic variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#A novel de novo missense variant c.758T>A (p.L253Q) of the TUBB2B gene was identified, which was unreported previously. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics, the c.758T>A variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the leucine at position 253 was highly conserved among various species, and the c.758T>A variant may impact the formation of hydrogen bonds between Leu253 and Asp249 and Met257 residues, which in turn may affect the combination of GTP/GDP and function of the TUBB2B protein.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.758T>A variant of the TUBB2B gene probably underlay the fetal malformations in this Chinese family. Above discovery has enriched the spectrum of TUBB2B gene variants and provided a basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Brain , Female , Fetus/abnormalities , Humans , Malformations of Cortical Development/genetics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Tubulin/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the application value of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on cell-free fetal DNA.@*METHODS@#The results of 2777 cases of basic and extended NIPT were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical data and outcome of pregnancy were analyzed, in addition with the diagnosis rate and testing efficiency.@*RESULTS@#Among the 2777 pregnant women, 1192 (42.9%) had accepted basic NIPT and 1585 (57.1%) accepted extended NIPT. With a failure rate of 0.1%, 8 and 6 cases were reported respectively as high-risk pregnancies for trisomy 21 and sex chromosomal abnormalities. Other genetic abnormalities were detected in 32 cases. The positive predictive value for trisomy 21 was 85.7%, and one case of 47,XXX was diagnosed among 3 women with high risks for sex chromosomal abnormalities. For those with a high risk for other genetic abnormalities, pregnant diagnosis rates of basic and extended NIPT were 71.4% (5/7) and 68.2% (15/22), respectively. Seven copy number variations (CNVs) were confirmed, including one pathogenic CNV, one likely pathogenic CNV and 5 variants of unknown significance. Among 6 cases with high-risk of maternal CNVs, 5 fetuses and the mothers were confirmed to be carriers. No CNV was detected in the remainder fetus by chromosomal microarray analysis, while its mother was a carrier of the corresponding CNV.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT has shown a relatively high positive predictive value for the screening of trisomy 21 and maternal CNVs but with a limited efficiency for the discovery of fetal CNVs. For other genetic abnormalities signaled by NIPT, informed choice by the pregnant women during pre-testing consultation is recommended. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be considered in the combination of NIPT reports and fetal ultrasound, while the residual risks should be fully informed.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , DNA/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Fetus , Humans , Noninvasive Prenatal Testing , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the intrauterine phenotype and genotype of eight fetuses carrying a 16p11.2 microdeletion.@*METHODS@#5100 fetuses undergoing routine prenatal diagnosis were subjected to single nucleotide polymorphism-based microarray (SNP-array) analysis. Fetuses harboring a 16p11.2 microdeletion were analyzed for their ultrasonographic characteristics.@*RESULTS@#Eight fetuses were found to harbor a microdeletion in the 16p11.2 region. Among these, six had a typical 500-600 kb deletion, while the remaining two had an atypical 220 kb deletion at the distal part of 16p11.2. Four fetuses showed vertebral malformations, two had mild left ventriculomegaly, one had hydrocephalus, and one had pulmonary valve stenosis with regurgitation. The parents of five fetuses have accepted pedigree verification, and the results confirmed that the 16p11.2 microdeletions carried by fetuses all had a de novo origin.@*CONCLUSION@#The intrauterine phenotypes of fetuses carrying a 16p11.2 microdeletion may be variable, and the deletion can be effectively detected with the SNP-array assay.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Deletion , Female , Fetus , Genetic Testing , Humans , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a fetus featuring infantile polycystic kidney disease (IPKD).@*METHODS@#Following elective abortion, fetal tissue and peripheral blood samples of its parents were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Whole exome sequencing was carried out to detect potential variants correlated with the phenotype.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to harbor a heterozygous c.1370C>T (p.P457L) variant of the HNF1B gene, which was unreported previously. The same variant was not detected in either parent.@*CONCLUSION@#The heterozygous c.1370C>T (p.P457L) variant of the HNF1B gene probably underlay the IPKD in this fetus. Above finding has enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the family.


Subject(s)
Female , Fetus , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Phenotype , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Whole Exome Sequencing
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of re-sampling for patients who had failed non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to low cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fraction.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 20 387 patients undergoing NIPT test was reviewed. The patients were re-sampled when initial blood test did not yield a result due to cffDNA fraction. The results were analyzed, and the outcome of pregnancy was followed up.@*RESULTS@#Among all samples, 17 (0.08%) had failed to yield a result due to low cffDNA fraction, all of which accepted re-sampling. A result was attained in 16 cases, with a success rate of 94.12%. Only one sample had failed the re-test.@*CONCLUSION@#For patients who had failed the initial NIPT due to low cffDNA fraction, re-sampling should be considered with gestational week and ultrasound results taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , DNA/genetics , Female , Fetus , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To report on a case of mosaicism 13q inversion duplication, analyze its mechanism, and discuss the correlation between its genotype and phenotype.@*METHODS@#Amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood were collected at 23 and 32 weeks of gestation, respectively. Combined with G-banding chromosome karyotyping analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to confirm the result.@*RESULTS@#The karyotype of the fetus was determined as 47,XY,+inv dup(13)(q14.3q34)/46,XY. After careful counseling, the couple decided to continue with the pregnancy, and had given birth to a boy at 40 weeks' gestation. Except for a red plaque (hemangioma) on the nose bridge, no obvious abnormality (intelligence to be evaluated) was discovered.@*CONCLUSION@#To provide reference for clinical genetic counseling and risk assessment, the location and proportion of new centromere formation should be fully considered in the case of mosaicism 13q inversion duplication.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Chromosome Inversion/genetics , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Female , Fetus , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Male , Mosaicism , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1183-1196, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927773

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have broad application potentials in regenerative medicine and translational medicine. Obtaining large quantities of primary-cultured MSCs and select the most suitable cell origin for targeted diseases are critical to research. To select the most suitable seed cells of MSCs from different origins for clinical treatment and research, biological characteristics of MSCs from human umbilical cord and placenta were compared. These include cell morphology, surface marker expression, differentiation and karyotype. Transcriptome sequencing of four MSCs from fetus were performed and the results were analyzed from the perspective of proliferation and cytokine secretion. The results revealed that MSCs from umbilical cord (UC), amniotic membrane (AM), chorionic membrane (CM), chorionic villi (CV) and deciduae (DC) met the minimum standards of the International Society of Cell Therapy (ISCT) in 2006 and had the general characteristics of stem cells. Karyotype analysis showed that MSCs derived from UC, AM, CM and CV were all from fetus except that the DC-MSCs were from mother. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that hMSCs from umbilical cord and placenta had similar gene expression patterns, while different expression patterns were observed in specific genes involved in cell cycle, cell division, cell death, cell growth and development. These genes play important roles in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosome stability, which were momentous components of cellular or subcellular fraction movement, cell communication, cell tissue protrusions, cytokine secretion and hormone metabolism. Transcriptome sequencing analysis explained the differences in biological characteristics among MSCs from different sources, while verification experiments based on the transcriptome sequencing results showed that the proliferation and cytokine secretion capabilities of MSCs from different sources were significantly different. In all, UC-MSCs and CV-MSCs with stronger proliferation and higher levels of paracrine factors secretion may show their respective advantages in treating diseases.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Female , Fetus , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Placenta , Pregnancy , Umbilical Cord
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021347, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355724

ABSTRACT

Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare entity in which a malformed vertebrate fetus is incorporated within its twin. This entity should be differentiated from a teratoma, which has more malignant potential. We describe a neonate with a heterogeneous calcified suprarenal mass. The aspiration cytology revealed a heterogeneous cell population with spindle cells and small round blue cells. Operative and histopathologic examination showed features consistent with a fetus in fetu. This case report describes a rare entity and discusses its clinical presentation, cytological features on fine-needle aspiration, and the difficulties posed in its differentiation from a teratoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Teratoma/complications , Adrenal Glands , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Fetus/abnormalities , Congenital Abnormalities/pathology
15.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 72(3): 298-306, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351954

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: reportar el caso de una gestante con síndrome en espejo asociada a miocardiopatía no compactada (MNC), tanto en la madre como el feto, en los que el tratamiento médico antenatal en la madre llevó a un resultado materno perinatal favorable. Presentación del caso: se describe el caso de una primigestante de 16 años, con 33 semanas de embarazo, remitida desde una institución de primer nivel de atención a una institución privada de cuarto nivel en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, por presentar feto con hidropesía en ultrasonido obstétrico de control. Durante la hospitalización, la paciente presentó signos clínicos y ecocardiográficos de falla cardiaca (disnea, edema e hipoxemia), a la vez que se confirmó el diagnóstico de Hydrops fetalis (síndrome en espejo). Se instauró tratamiento diurético con furosemida en la madre, logrando mejoría del cuadro materno y del edema fetal. En el puerperio mediato hospitalario se confirmaron la presencia de miocardiopatía no compactada en la resonancia magnética nuclear cardiaca, tanto de la madre como del recién nacido. Ambos egresaron en adecuadas condiciones y fueron vinculados al programa de seguimiento cardiovascular: falla cardiaca y de cardiopatía congénitas, respectivamente. Conclusión: se presenta un caso de síndrome en espejo asociado a miocardiopatía no compactada materna y fetal. Es limitado el número de reportes de síndrome en espejo por anomalías cardiacas (maternas y fetales) y pobre la descripción de los tratamientos realizados que surgen como temas a investigar. Sería importante considerar el diagnóstico de MNC en fetos con hidropesía no asociados a isoinmunización y con disfunción cardiaca, así como su atención por equipos multidisciplinarios.


ABSTRACT Objective: To report the case of a pregnant woman with mirror syndrome associated with noncompaction cardiomyopathy in the mother and the fetus, in which antenatal medical treatment provided to the mother resulted in a favorable perinatal maternal outcome. Case presentation: A 16-year old primigravida with 33 weeks of gestation referred from a Level I institution to a private Level IV center in Medellín, Colombia, because of a finding of fetal hydrops on obstetric ultrasound. During hospitalization, the patient showed clinical and ultrasonographic signs of heart failure (dyspnea, edema and hypoxemia), with the diagnosis of hydrops fetalis (mirror syndrome) also confirmed. Diuretic treatment with furosemide was initiated in the mother, with subsequent improvement of the maternal condition as well as of the fetal edema. During the subacute postpartum period in the hospital, the presence of non-compaction cardiomyopathy was confirmed on cardiac nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in both the mother and the newborn. After discharge in adequated condition, they were included in the cardiovascular follow-up program for heart failure and congenital heart disease, respectively. Conclusion: A case of mirror syndrome associated with maternal and fetal non-compaction cardiomyopathy is presented. There is a limited number of reports on mirror syndrome due to cardiac anomalies (maternal and fetal), with weak treatment descriptions, pointing to the need for research in this area. It would be important to consider the diagnosis of non-compaction cardiomyopathy in fetuses with hydrops unrelated to isoimmunization or cardiac dysfunction and approach these cases from a multidisciplinary perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adolescent , Placenta Diseases , Hydrops Fetalis , Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium , Cardiomyopathies , Syndrome , Edema , Fetus
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 560-569, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complication associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The disease presents with recent onset hypertension (after 20 weeks of gestation) and proteinuria, and can progress to multiple organ dysfunction, with worse outcomes among early onset preeclampsia (EOP) cases (<34 weeks). The placenta is considered the root cause of PE; it represents the interface between the mother and the fetus, and acts as a macromembrane between the two circulations, due to its villous and vascular structures. Therefore, in pathological conditions, macroscopic and microscopic evaluation can provide clinically useful information that can confirm diagnosis and enlighten about outcomes and future therapeutic benefit. Objective To perform an integrative review of the literature on pathological placental findings associated to preeclampsia (comparing EOP and late onset preeclampsia [LOP]) and its impacts on clinical manifestations. Results: Cases of EOP presented worse maternal and perinatal outcomes, and pathophysiological and anatomopathological findings were different between EOP and LOP placentas, with less placental perfusion, greater placental pathological changes with less villous volume (villous hypoplasia), greater amount of trophoblastic debris, syncytial nodules, microcalcification, villous infarcts, decidual arteriolopathy in EOP placentas when compared with LOP placentas. Clinically, the use of low doses of aspirin has been shown to be effective in preventing PE, as well asmagnesium sulfate in preventing seizures in cases of severe features. Conclusion The anatomopathological characteristics between EOP and LOP are significantly different, with large morphological changes in cases of EOP, such as


Resumo Introdução A pré-eclâmpsia (PE) é uma complicação da gravidez associada ao aumento da morbidade e mortalidade materna e perinatal. A doença se apresenta com hipertensão de início recente (após 20 semanas de gestação) e proteinúria, que pode progredir para disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, com resultados piores entre os casos de início precoce (<34 semanas). A placenta é considerada a principal causa da PE, representando a interface entre a mãe e o feto, e atuando como uma macromembrana entre as duas circulações, devido às suas estruturas vilosas e vasculares, demodo que, em condições patológicas, avaliações macroscópicas e microscópicas podem fornecer informações clinicamente úteis, que podem fornecer diagnóstico, prognóstico e benefício terapêutico. Objetivo Realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura para compreender e descrever os achados placentários patológicos associados à pré-eclâmpsia e seus impactos nas manifestações clínicas. Resultados Os casos de início precoce apresentaram piores desfechos maternos e perinatais, e os achados fisiopatológicos e anatomopatológicos foram diferentes entre as placentas de início precoce e início tardio, commenor perfusão placentária, maiores alterações patológicas placentárias commenor volume viloso (hipoplasia vilosa), maior quantidade de debris trofoblásticos, nódulos sinciciais, microcalcificação, infartos vilosos, arteriolopatia decidual em placentas de início precoce quando comparadas com placentas de início tardio. Clinicamente, o uso de baixas doses de aspirina tem se mostrado significativo na prevenção da PE, assim como o sulfato de magnésio na prevenção de convulsões na doença com manifestações de gravidade. Conclusão As características anatomopatológicas entre a pré-eclâmpsia precoce e tardia são significativamente diferentes, com grandes alterações morfológicas nos casos de início precoce, como hipóxia, infartos vilosos e hipoplasia, entre outros, na tentativa de estabilizar o fluxo sanguíneo para o feto. Portanto, um entendimento comum do exame macroscópico básico e dos padrões histológicos da lesão é importante para maximizar o benefício diagnóstico, prognóstico e terapêutico do exame da placenta e, consequentemente, reduzir os riscos para a mãe e o feto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications , Hypertension , Placenta , Fetus
17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 545-559, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347249

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurswhen the fetus does not reach its intrauterine potential for growth and development as a result of compromise in placental function. It is a condition that affects 5 to 10% of pregnancies and is the second most common cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Children born with FGR are at risk of impaired neurological and cognitive development and cardiovascular or endocrine diseases in adulthood. The purpose of the present revision is to perform a literature search for evidence on the detection and assessment by ultrasound of brain injury linked to FGR during fetal life. Using a systematic approach and quantitative evaluation as study methodology, we reviewed ultrasound studies of the fetal brain structure of growth-restricted fetuses with objective quality measures. A total of eight studies were identified. High quality studies were identified for measurement of brain volumes; corpus callosum; brain fissure depth measurements, and cavum septi pellucidi width measurement. A low-quality study was available for transverse cerebellar diameter measurement in FGR. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to understand the changes that occur in the brain of fetuseswith restricted growth, as well as their correlation with the changes in cognitive development observed.


Resumo A restrição do crescimento fetal (RCF) ocorre quando umfeto não consegue atingir seu potencial de crescimento intrauterino, na maioria das vezes por compromisso da função placentária. É uma condição que afeta de 5 a 10% das gravidezes e é a segunda causa mais comum de morbidade e mortalidade perinatal. Crianças nascidas com RCF incorrem em maior risco de atraso no desenvolvimento neurológico e cognitivo, bem como de doenças cardiovasculares e/ou endócrinas, na idade adulta. O objetivo desta revisão foi o de pesquisar na literatura evidência sobre o diagnóstico pré-natal por ecografia de lesões cerebrais relacionadas com a RCF. Utilizando uma abordagem sistemática, avaliamos de forma quantitativa a metodologia dos oito estudos que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e foram, assim, incluídos nesta revisão. Foram identificados estudos de alta qualidade para a medição dos volumes cerebrais;medição do corpo caloso; medição da profundidade das incisuras cerebrais emedição do cavum do septo pelúcido. Os autores identificaram um estudo de qualidade inferior sobre a medição transversal do diâmetro transcerebelar em fetos com RCF. Mais estudos prospectivos randomizados são necessários para perceber quais as alterações que ocorrem no cerébro dos fetos com restrição do seu crescimento, bem como, a sua correlação com as alterações do desenvolvimento cognitivo observadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adult , Placenta , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Biometry , Gestational Age , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Fetus
18.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 18(1): 49-49, ene.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1395568
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): e215-e228, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1223321

ABSTRACT

A partir del estudio seminal Management of Myelomeningocele Study en el año 2011, el cual demostró que la reparación prenatal del defecto del mielomeningocele antes de la semana 26 mejoraba los resultados neurológicos, la cirugía fetal fue incorporada dentro de las opciones de estándar de cuidado. Así, el diagnóstico prenatal del mielomeningocele dentro de la ventana terapéutica se convirtió en un objetivo obligatorio y, por ello, se intensificó la investigación de estrategias de tamizaje, sobre todo, en el primer trimestre. Además, se desarrollaron distintas técnicas de cirugía fetal para mejorar los resultados neurológicos y disminuir los riesgos maternos. El objetivo de la siguiente revisión es actualizar los avances en tamizaje y diagnóstico prenatal en el primer y segundo trimestre, y en cirugía fetal abierta y fetoscópica del mielomeningocel


A seminal study titled Management of Myelomeningocele Study, from 2011, demonstrated that prenatal myelomeningocele defect repaired before 26 weeks of gestation improved neurological outcomes; based on this study, fetal surgery was introduced as a standard of care alternative. Thus, prenatal myelomeningocele diagnosis within the therapeutic window became a mandatory goal; therefore, research efforts on screening strategies were intensified, especially in the first trimester. In addition, different fetal surgery techniques were developed to improve neurological outcomes and reduce maternal risks. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the advances in prenatal screening and diagnosis during the first and second trimesters, and in open and fetoscopic fetal surgery for myelomeningocele


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Meningomyelocele/surgery , Fetus/surgery , Prenatal Care , Prenatal Diagnosis , Spinal Dysraphism , Meningomyelocele/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Therapies , Fetoscopy
20.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(2): 631-637, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340663

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fetal tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) during the third trimester of low-risk pregnancies and to assess its clinical significance on neonates. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study including 330 singleton fetuses referred for routine fetal echocardiography during 3rd trimester in a fetal medicine center in Recife, Brazil. The presence and degree of tricuspid regurgitation were analyzed. Whenever TR was identified on fetal echocardiography, postnatal data, including the results of postnatal echocardiography were reviewed. Results: the prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation was 10.0% (n=33) in the study population. Regarding regurgitation degree, 90.9% (n=30) presented mild regurgitation and none presented important TR. Postnatal data was obtained from 21 neonates. Twenty of them were discharged without any complications, and one presented respiratory distress due to prematurity. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 66.7% (n=14) of the neonates and it was normal in 92.9% (n=13) of them. One neonate, 7.1%, persisted with tricuspid regurgitation, but had no other findings. Conclusions: tricuspid regurgitation in fetuses with normal cardiac anatomy during the 3rd trimester is a common condition in low-risk pregnancies, and is not associated with cardiac abnormalities or need for neonatal intervention.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a prevalência da regurgitação tricúspide (RT) em fetos no terceiro trimestre de gestações de baixo risco e investigar sua repercussão clínica nos recémnascidos. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal incluindo 330 fetos encaminhados para realização de ecocardiograma fetal de rotina no terceiro trimestre da gestação num centro de medicina fetal em Recife, Brasil. A presença e o grau de insuficiência tricúspide foram estudados. Quando RT estava presente ao ecocardiograma fetal dados pós-natais, incluindo ecocardiograma, também foram analisados. Resultados: a prevalência de RT foi de 10,0% na população estudada, sendo que 90,9% (n=30) dos casos foram classificados como RT leve, e nenhum caso de RT importante foi identificado. Foram obtidos dados pós-natais de 21 recém-nascidos. Destes, 20 receberam alta hospitalar sem nenhuma complicação, enquanto 1 apresentou desconforto respiratório associado à prematuridade. Ecocardiograma transtorácico foi realizado em 66.7% (n=14) dos recém-nascidos avaliados, e foi normal em 92.9% (n=13) deles. Apenas 1 recém-nascido, 7.1%, persistiu com RT mas sem outros achados significativos. Conclusões: a RT em fetos com anatomia cardíaca normal é comum no terceiro trimestre de gestações de baixo risco e não parece associar-se a anomalias cardíacas ou necessidade de intervenção no período neonatal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/epidemiology , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Fetus/abnormalities , Fetus/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital , Postnatal Care , Prenatal Diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Infant, Premature , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cardiovascular Abnormalities
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