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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244127, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tiliroside is a glycosidic flavonoid present in many plants species including Helicteres velutina K. Schum (Malvaceae sensu lato), commonly known in Brazil as "pitó". This molecule has been shown to have many biological activities, however no study has been carried out to investigate the toxicity of this substance. The present work aimed to evaluate the possible cellular toxicity in silico, in vitro and ex-vivo of the kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6"-E-p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside), through chemical structure analysis, toxicity assessment and predictive bioactive properties, using human samples for in vitro and ex-vivo tests. The in silico analysis suggests that tiliroside exhibited great absorption index when penetrating biological membranes. In addition, it also displayed considerable potential for cellular protection against free radicals, and anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hemorrhagic and antithrombotic activities. The assessment of the hemolytic and genotoxic effects of tiliroside showed low hemolysis rates in red blood cells and absence of cellular toxicity in the oral mucosa cells. The data obtained indicate that this molecule could be a promising therapeutic approach as a possible new drug with biotechnological potential.


Resumo O tilirosídeo é um flavonóide glicosídico presente em muitas espécies de plantas, incluindo Helicteres velutina K. Schum (Malvaceae sensu lato), conhecida no Brasil como "pitó". Esta molécula mostrou ter muitas atividades biológicas, porém nenhum estudo foi realizado para investigar a toxicidade dessa substância. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a possível toxicidade celular in silico, in vitro e ex-vivo do kaempferol-3-O-β-D- (6 "-Ep-coumaroil) glucopiranosídeo (tilirosídeo), por meio de análises de estrutura química, toxicidade avaliação e propriedades bioativas preditivas, utilizando amostras humanas para testes in vitro e ex-vivo. A análise in silico sugere que o tilirosídeo exibe bom índice de absorção para penetrar nas membranas biológicas. Além disso, apresentou considerável potencial de proteção celular contra os radicais livres e com atividades anticarcinogênica, antioxidante, antineoplásica, antiinflamatória, anti-hemorrágica e antitrombótica. A avaliação dos efeitos hemolíticos e genotóxicos do tilirosídeo mostrou baixas taxas de hemólise nas hemácias e ausência de toxicidade em células da mucosa oral. Os dados obtidos indicam que esta molécula pode possuir uma abordagem terapêutica promissora como uma possível nova droga com potencial biotecnológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts , Kaempferols/toxicity , Flavonoids , Computer Simulation , Brazil
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 11-22, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368344

ABSTRACT

El arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) posee un alto contenido de compuestos fenólicos los cuales han sido estudiados principalmente por su actividad antioxidante, antiobesogénica, antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la digestión gastrointestinal in vitro sobre la bioaccesibilidad de compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante de una formulación nutracéutica de arándano (cápsula), comparado con arándano fresco y polvo. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron extractos metanólicos de muestras de arándano fresco y liofilizado y se determinó su contenido de fenoles, flavonoides y antocianinas totales, así como también actividad antioxidante. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo de simulación de digestión gastrointestinal para evaluar la bioaccesibilidad de los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las muestras. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron que la digestión gástrica de arándano en polvo y en cápsula promovió una mayor bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (42% y 40%), flavonoides (52% y 33%) y antocianinas (45% y 40%) comparado con digestos de arándano fresco. Posterior a la digestión intestinal, la bioaccesibilidad de fenoles (63%) y flavonoides (67%) fue mayor en la cápsula de arándano comparada con su contraparte arándano en polvo. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron negativamente la bioaccesibilidad de las antocianinas independientemente del tipo de muestra evaluada. Conclusión. Las condiciones de digestión gástrica promueven una mayor estabilidad de los compuestos fenólicos en arándano en polvo y en cápsula lo que pudiera ser relevante para el mantenimiento de un ambiente antioxidante a este nivel. Las condiciones de digestión intestinal afectaron de manera particular a los compuestos fenólicos de arándano fresco y polvo, pero no a la cápsula, lo que puede sugerir que el encapsulamiento protegió de las condiciones alcalinas a los fenoles presentes. Se sugieren estudios posteriores sobre absorción in vitro de los componentes remanentes en intestino y sus posibles efectos sobre biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en modelos in vivo(AU)


Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has a high content of phenolic compounds which have been studied mainly for their antioxidant, antiobesogenic, anti-inflammatory activity, among others. Objetive. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of a nutraceutical formulation of blueberry (capsule), compared to fresh and powder blueberry. Materials and methods. Methanolic extracts of fresh and lyophilized blueberry were obtained and determined its total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, as well as antioxidant activity. A gastrointestinal digestion simulation test also was carried out to assess the bioaccessibility of the phenolic compounds found in samples. Results. The results showed that gastric digestion of powder and capsule blueberry promoted greater bioaccessibility of phenols (42% and 40%), flavonoids (52% and 33%) and anthocyanins (45% and 40%), compared to fresh blueberry digests. After intestinal digestion, the bioaccessibility of phenols (63%) and flavonoids (67%) was higher in the blueberry capsule compared to its powdered blueberry counterpart. The intestinal digestion conditions negatively affected the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins regardless of the type of sample evaluated. Conclusion. Gastric digestion conditions promote greater stability of phenolic compounds in powdered and capsule blueberries, which could be relevant for the maintenance of an antioxidant environment at this level. The intestinal digestion conditions particularly affected the phenolic compounds of fresh and lyophilized blueberry, but not the capsule, which may suggest that encapsulation protected the phenols present from alkaline conditions. Further studies on in vitro absorption of the remaining components in the intestine and their possible effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in in vivo models are suggested(AU)


Subject(s)
Tannins , Flavonoids , Blueberry Plants , Phenolic Compounds , Gastrointestinal Absorption , In Vitro Techniques , Chronic Disease , Digestion , Freeze Drying
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 108-122, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372494

ABSTRACT

Cota tinctoria is a medicinal plant which has been used for management of cancer in folk medicine of various regions. The aim of present study is to investigate cytotoxic activity of different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of C. tinctoria flowers on gastric (AGS) and liver (Hep-G2) cancer cell lines as well as Human Natural GUM fibroblast (HUGU) cells. Cell mortality rates were examined after 24, 48 and 72 h incubations using the MTT assay. IC50of extract on AGS cells after 24, 48 and 72h was 1.46, 1.29 and 1.14 µg/mL respectively. The extract demonstrated IC50 of 5.15, 3.92 and 2.89 µg/mL on Hep-G2 cells after 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. No cytotoxic effect was detected on HUGU (Human Natural GUM fibroblast) cells. C. tinctoria seems to have a promising potential to be considered as a source for anticancer drug discovery. However, more experimental and clinical studies are required.


Cota tinctoria es una planta medicinal que se ha utilizado para el tratamiento del cáncer en la medicina popular de varias regiones. El objetivo del presente estudio es investigar la actividad citotóxica de diferentes concentraciones de extracto hidroalcohólico de flores de C. tinctoria en líneas celulares de cáncer gástrico (AGS) e hígado (Hep-G2), así como en células de fibroblasto GUM humano natural (HUGU). Se examinaron las tasas de mortalidad celular después de incubaciones de 24, 48 y 72 h utilizando el ensayo MTT. La CI50 del extracto en células AGS después de 24, 48 y 72 h fue de 1,46; 1,29 y 1,14 µg respectivamente. El extracto demostró una CI50 de 5,15, 3,92 y 2,89 µg/mL en células Hep-G2 después de 24, 48 y 72 h, respectivamente. No se detectó ningún efecto citotóxico en las células HUGU (fibroblasto GUM humano natural). C. tinctoria parece tener un potencial prometedor para ser considerada como una fuente de descubrimiento de fármacos contra el cáncer. Sin embargo, se requieren más estudios experimentales y clínicos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/administration & dosage , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Culture Techniques , Anthemis/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 139 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378713

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é uma doença complexa que está associada inflamação crônica de baixo grau que contribui para o desenvolvimento de diversos distúrbios metabólicos como a resistência à insulina e estudos recentes sugerem a influência da microbiota intestinal no desenvolvimento e manutenção da doença. Diversos estudos apontam para o benefício da ingestão de frutas e vegetais na prevenção e tratamento de doenças crônicas. O suco de laranja contém diversos compostos bioativos com ações anti-inflamatórias, antioxidantes com efeitos na composição da microbiota intestinal. Deste modo, o objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da ingestão do suco de laranja Pera e Moro sobre a composição da microbiota intestinal e de parâmetros inflamatórios em voluntários com obesidade e resistência à insulina. Foi realizado um ensaio clínico crossover com suplementação de suco de laranja (400ml/dia) por 15 dias com um período de washout de 40 dias. As análises de sangue, fezes, urina, composição corporal, consumo alimentar foram realizadas antes e após cada intervenção. A comparação entre os tratamentos foi realizada utilizando equações de estimativas generalizadas e adotou-se um nível de significância de 5%. Em relação à microbiota intestinal, em ambos os tratamentos, os dois filos mais abundantes foram Firmicutes e Actinobateria. Dos gêneros analisados, observou-se maior abundância de Bifidobacterium após a suplementação com o suco de laranja Moro. O suco de laranja Pera promoveu uma diminuição da zonulina e o suco de laranja Moro contribuiu para redução de citocinas inflamatórias, diminuição da pressão arterial e aumento nos níveis de acetato nas fezes. Após a separação dos voluntários por grau de obesidade, observamos que o suco de laranja Moro contribuiu para o aumento na abundância de Akkermansia, Alistipes, Bacteroides e Catenibacterium em indivíduos com obesidade grau 3. Além disso, em ambos os sucos encontramos redução da razão Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes e aumento da excreção de metabólitos de flavonoides após os tratamentos. Diante destes resultados, conclui-se que o suco de laranja Pera apresentou ações positivas sobre a permeabilidade intestinal e o suco de laranja Moro promoveu efeitos mais expressivos na modulação da inflamação associada à obesidade e da microbiota intestinal


Obesity is a complex disease that is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, and it contributes to the development of several metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, and recent studies suggest the influence of the intestinal microbiota in the development and maintenance of the disease. Several studies have suggested the benefit of fruits and vegetables consumption in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The orange juice contains some bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions with effects in the composition of the gut microbiota. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Pera and Moro orange juice consumption on the composition of the gut microbiota and inflammatory parameters in volunteers with obesity and insulin resistance. A crossover clinical trial was carried out with orange juice supplementation (400ml/day) for 15 days with a washout period of 40 days. Blood, feces, urine, body composition, food consumption were analyzed before and after each intervention. Comparison between treatments was performed using generalized estimating equations and a significance level of 5% was adopted. In relation to gut microbiota, in both treatments, the two most abundant phyla were Firmicutes and Actinobateria. In the analysis of bacterial genera, a greater abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed after supplementation with Moro orange juice. The Pera orange juice reduced zonulin and Moro orange juice contributed to a reduction on inflammatory cytokines, a decrease in blood pressure and an increase in acetate levels in the stool. After separating the volunteers by degree of obesity, we observed that Moro orange juice contributed to the increase in the abundance of Akkermansia, Alistipes, Bacteroides and Catenibacterium in individuals with grade 3 obesity. Furthermore, in both juices we found a reduction in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and increased excretion of flavonoid metabolites after treatments. Therefore, we concluded that Pera orange juice had positive actions on intestinal permeability and Moro orange juice promoted more expressive effects on the modulation of inflammation associated with obesity and on the intestinal microbiota


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Citrus sinensis/classification , Citrus sinensis/adverse effects , Eating , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/adverse effects , Fruit , Obesity/classification , Volunteers , Flavonoids/agonists , Body Composition , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Insulin Resistance , Chronic Disease , Eating , Arterial Pressure , Phytochemicals/adverse effects , Inflammation
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 62 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378655

ABSTRACT

As Células-Tronco Mesenquimais (CTMs), são células multipotentes, presentes em diversos tecidos, sendo bastante estudada devido sua capacidade imunorregulatória por meio da liberação de fatores solúveis. Fatores estes que atuam sobre as funções de células do sistema imunitário. Simultaneamente, estudos indicam que os compostos flavonoides, em destaque a Delfinidina, presente em alguns frutos e flores, possuem atuação anti-inflamatória e inibitória sobre células do sistema imunitário. Todavia, são escassos os estudos em relação entre a capacidade imunorregulatória da CTM e a influência da Delfinidina, sendo este o objetivo deste estudo. Inicialmente, a Delfinidina 3-O-ß-D-glicosídeo foi escolhido, devido a sua maior estabilidade e a dose de 50 µM foi selecionada após análise por citometria de fluxo que mostrou aumento da fase proliferativa do ciclo celular. Posteriormente ao realizar análise da produção de fatores solúveis pelas CTM, os resultados mostraram aumento da produção de IL-10, TGF-ß e Oxido nítrico pelas CTM tratadas com Delfinidina. Bem como, diminuição da expressão de p-NF-κB/NF-κB pelas CTMs tratadas com Delfinidina, quando avaliadas por Wersten Blot. Adicionalmente, para analisar a Delfinidina sobre os efeitos imunorregulatórios da CTM sob macrófagos (RAW 264.7), célula esta, importante no sistema imune inato. Foram realizadas culturas condicionadas, com posterior análise da produção de fatores solúveis, os resultados mostraram aumento da produção de IL-10, e diminuição da produção de TNF-α, IL-1α e IL-12 pelos macrófagos, nas culturas condicionadas. Assim como, diminuição da expressão do fator p-NF-κB/NF-κB pelos macrófagos nas culturas condicionadas, quando avaliadas por Wersten Blot. Ademais, ao analisar a atividade metabólica dos macrófagos por ensaio de MTT, os resultados mostraram que as culturas condicionadas e a Delfinidina per si foi capaz de diminuir a atividade metabólica, sem alterar os efeitos anti-inflamatórios sobre a célula. Em síntese, a Delfinidina mostrou acentuar a atuação imunorregulatória da CTM sobre a linhagem macrofágica, célula esta, de grande importância para o sistema imune inato


Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells present in various tissues, being widely studied due to their immunoregulatory capacity through the release of soluble factors. These factors act on the functions of cells of the immune system. Simultaneously, studies indicate that flavonoid compounds, especially Delphinidin, present in some fruits and flowers, have anti inflammatory and inhibitory effects on immune system cells. However, there are few studies on the relationship between the immunoregulatory capacity of MSC and the influence of Delphinidin, which is the objective of this study. Initially, Delphinidin 3-O-ß-D-glycoside was chosen due to its greater stability and the 50 µM dose was selected after analysis by flow cytometry which showed an increase in the proliferative phase of the cell cycle. Subsequently, when analyzing the production of soluble factors by MSCs, the results showed an increase in the production of IL-10, TGF-ß and nitric oxide by MSCs treated with Delphinidin. As well as decreased expression of p-NF-κB/NF-κB by MSCs treated with Delphinidin, when evaluated by Wersten Blot. Additionally, to analyze Delphinidin on the immunoregulatory effects of MSC on macrophages (RAW 264.7), this cell is important in the innate immune system. Conditioned cultures were performed, with subsequent analysis of the production of soluble factors, the results showed an increase in the production of IL-10, and a decrease in the production of TNF-α, IL-1α and IL-12 by macrophages, in the conditioned cultures. As well as decreased expression of p-NF-κB/NF-κB factor by macrophages in conditioned cultures, when evaluated by Wersten Blot. Furthermore, when analyzing the metabolic activity of macrophages by MTT assay, the results showed that conditioned cultures and Delphinidin itself was able to decrease the metabolic activity, without altering the anti-inflammatory effects on the cell. In summary, Delphinidin has shown to enhance the immunoregulatory action of MSC on the macrophage lineage, a cell that is of great importance for the innate immune system


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/analysis , Immune System , Transforming Growth Factors , Interleukin-1/adverse effects , Interleukin-10/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/classification , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239378, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249274

ABSTRACT

Abstract The genus Pouteria has been studied because it presents various activities, among which is its anti-inflammatory potential. The effects of Pouteria ramiflora Carbopol gel on the healing of skin wounds in diabetic rats were evaluated by microscopic imaging. Streptozotocin was administered intraperitoneally in animals that had fasted for 12 hours, a situation confirmed by the glycemic index (˃ 240 mg dL-1). An excision on the back of the animals was performed and three groups were formed: Control (Gel), Ethanolic extract (Ext) and Gel + extract 2% (Ext+gel); the histopathological evaluation occurred on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 30th days after the post-operative period. The results of the phytochemical prospecting of P. ramiflora extract demonstrated the major presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids; the assessment of the inflammatory infiltrate on the 7th day was higher on group Ext and Ext+gel when compared to group Control; on the 14th day control and Ext (p<0.05). The quantification of fibroblasts was higher on the 7th day among the three treatments, control and Ext (p<0.05), on the 21st day. Angiogenesis showed a higher number of vessels in Ext+gel group (p<0.05) on the 7th day; in Control, Ext and Ext+gel (p<0.05) on the 14th day; and Control and Ext (p<0.05)on the 21st day. The histopathological results showed that the formulation Ext+gel was efficient in tissue reparation and decrease in inflammatory cells on the diabetic's animals.


Resumo O gênero Pouteria apresenta várias aplicações terapêuticas e, dentre elas, grande potencial antiflamatório. Os efeitos do gel de Pouteria ramiflora sobre a cicatrização de feridas na pele de ratos diabéticos foram avaliados pela histomorfometria. A estreptozotocina foi administrada por via intraperitoneal em animais após jejum de 12 horas, a confirmação de indução da diabetes foi confirmada pelo índice glicêmico (˃ 240 mg dL-1). Foi realizada uma incisão no dorso do animal e foram criados 3 grupos de tratamento: controle (gel carbopol), extrato etanólico (Ext) e Gel + extrato etanólico à 2% (Ext+gel); a avaliação histopatológica foi realizada no 7º, 14º, 21º e 30º dias após o período pós operatório. Os resultados da prospecção fitoquímica dos extratos de P. ramiflora demonstraram majoritariamente a presença de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides; o infiltrado inflamatório avaliado no 7º dia foi maior para animais do grupo controle em relação aos grupos Ext (p<0.05) e Ext+gel 2% (p<0.05); no 14º dia o controle e Exp (p<0.05) apresentaram aumento significativo dos infiltrados inflamatórios. A presença de fibroblastos foi elevada no 7º dia em todos os tratamentos. O processo da angiogênese mostrou um maior número de vasos sanguíneos entre os grupos Ext e Ext+gel (p<0.05) no 7º dia; no 14º dia o grupo controle, Ext (p<0.05), Control e Ext+gel (p<0.05) apresentaram aumento de vascularização, e no 21º dia apenas os grupos controle e Ext (p<0.05). Os resultados histopatológicos mostraram que a formulação gel carbopol + extrato etanólico a 2% foi eficiente na reparação de tecidos e na diminuição de células inflamatórias nos animais diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pouteria , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Wound Healing , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928172

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix, a medicinal herb for invigorating Qi, has anti-aging, anti-tumor, immunoregulatory, blood sugar-and lipid-lowering, anti-fibrosis, anti-radiation and other pharmacological effects. This article reviewed the studies about the chemical components and pharmacological effects of Astragali Radix. According to the theory of quality markers(Q-markers) of Chinese medicinal materials, we predicted the Q-markers of Astragali Radix from traditional efficacy, chemical component validity, measurability, plant phylogeny, and pharmacokinetis. The results showed that total polysaccharides, flavonoids(e.g., calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, formononetin, calycosin, quercetin, and ononin), and saponins(e.g., astragalosides Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ) can be taken as the main Q-markers. This review lays a foundation for regulating the quality research and standard establishment of Astragali Radix, and benefits the control and quality supervision of the production process of Astragali Radix and its related products.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Plant Roots
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928158

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the main components of fenugreek(Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) leaf flavonoids(FLFs) and their antioxidant activity. FLFs were prepared and enriched by solvent extraction, and the flavonoids were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The protective effect of FLFs against H_2O_2-induced stress damage to L02 hepatocytes was also investigated. Firstly, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The oxidative stress injury model was induced by H_2O_2 in L02 cells. The release of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), the content of reduced glutathione(GSH) and malondialdehyde(MDA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) were measured by assay kits. Hoechst fluorescence staining was performed to observe the cell apoptosis. The expression levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2), nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), and their phosphorylated proteins were detected by Western blot. Based on the MS fragment ion information and data in databases, FLFs contained eight flavonoids with quercetin and kaempferol as the main aglycons. The cell viabi-lity assay revealed that as compared with the conditions in the H_2O_2 treatment group, 3.125-25 μg·mL~(-1) FLFs could increase the viability of L02 cells, reduce LDH release and MDA content in a dose-dependent manner, potentiate the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH, decrease the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK1/2 proteins, and up-regulate the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The results of fluorescence staining showed that the nucleus of the H_2O_2 treatment group showed concentrated and dense strong blue fluorescence, while the blue fluorescence intensity of the FLFs group decreased significantly. FLFs showed a protective effect against H_2O_2-induced oxidative damage in L02 cells, and the underlying mechanism is associated with the enhancement of cell capability in clearing oxygen free radicals and the inhibition of apoptosis by the activation of the MAPKs/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. The antioxidant effect of fenugreek leaf is related to its rich flavonoids.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Trigonella/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928157

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of icariin(ICA) on mitochondrial dynamics in a rat model of chronic renal failure(CRF) and to investigate the molecular mechanism of ICA against renal interstitial fibrosis(RIF). CRF was induced in male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats with 5/6(ablation and infarction, A/I) surgery(right kidney ablation and 2/3 infarction of the left kidney). Four weeks after surgery, the model rats were randomized into the following groups: 5/6(A/I) group, 5/6(A/I)+low-dose ICA group, and 5/6(A/I)+high-dose ICA group. Another 12 rats that received sham operation were randomly classified into 2 groups: sham group and sham+ICAH group. Eight weeks after treatment, the expression of collagen-Ⅰ(Col-Ⅰ), collagen-Ⅲ(Col-Ⅲ), mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins(p-Drp1 S616, p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2), and mitochondrial function-related proteins(TFAM, ATP6) in the remnant kidney tissues was detected by Western blot. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) was examined by immunohistochemical(IHC) staining. The NRK-52 E cells, a rat proximal renal tubular epithelial cell line, were cultured in vitro and treated with ICA of different concentration. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. In NRK-52 E cells stimulated with 20 ng·mL~(-1) TGF-β1 for 24 h, the effect of ICA on fibronectin(Fn), connective tissue growth factor(CTGF), p-Drp1 S616, p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 was detected by Western blot, and the ATP content and the mitochondrial morphology were determined. The 20 ng·mL~(-1) TGF-β1-stimulated NRK-52 E cells were treated with or without 5 μmol·L~(-1) ICA+10 μmol·L~(-1) mitochondrial fusion promoter M1(MFP-M1) for 24 h and the expression of fibrosis markers Fn and CTGF was detected by Western blot. Western blot result showed that the levels of Col-Ⅰ, Col-Ⅲ, and p-Drp1 S616 were increased and the levels of p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 were decreased in 5/6(A/I) group compared with those in the sham group. The levels of Col-Ⅰ, Col-Ⅲ, and p-Drp1 S616 were significantly lower and the levels of p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6 were significantly higher in ICA groups than that in 5/6(A/I) group. IHC staining demonstrated that for the expression of α-SMA in the renal interstitium was higher in the 5/6(A/I) group than in the sham group and that the expression in the ICA groups was significantly lower than that in the 5/6(A/I) group. Furthermore, the improvement in the fibrosis, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial function were particularly prominent in rats receiving the high dose of ICA. The in vitro experiment revealed that ICA dose-dependently inhibited the increase of Fn, CTGF, and p-Drp1 S616, increased p-Drp1 S637, Mfn1, Mfn2, TFAM, and ATP6, elevated ATP content, and improved mitochondrial morphology of NRK-52 E cells stimulated by TGF-β1. ICA combined with MFP-M1 further down-regulated the expression of Fn and CTGF in NRK-52 E cells stimulated by TGF-β1 compared with ICA alone. In conclusion, ICA attenuated RIF of CRF by improving mitochondrial dynamics.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Animals , Female , Fibrosis , Flavonoids , Humans , Infarction/pathology , Kidney , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928153

ABSTRACT

An UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was employed to characterize and classify the chemical components of the standard decoction of Yiguanjian, a classical famous recipe. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity HSS T3(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid water-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile using gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 40 ℃. Mass spectrometry was performed on electrospray ionization source(ESI) with positive and negative ion scanning modes. The potential compounds were identified by comparing the reference compounds, analyzing the mass spectrometry data and matching the published articles on Masslynx 4.1 software and SciFinder database. Finally, a total of 113 compounds, including 11 amino acids, 19 terpenoids, 13 phthalides, 11 steroidal saponins, 10 coumarins, 9 alkaloids, 7 flavonoids, 8 phenylethanoid glycosides, 8 organic acids and 17 other categories were identified. The established method systematically and accurately characterized the chemical components in Yiguanjian, which could provide experimental evidences for the subsequent studies on the pharmacodynamical material basis and quality control of Yiguanjian.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Formates , Glycosides/analysis , Prescriptions
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928117

ABSTRACT

Morus alba, a traditional economic crop, is also a significant medicinal plant. The branches(Mori Ramulus), leaves(Mori Folium), roots and barks(Mori Cortex), and fruits(Mori Fructus) of M. alba are rich in chemical components, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, benzofurans, phenolic acids, and polysaccharides, and possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, liver protective, immunoregulatory, and other pharmacological activities. This study analyzed the sources, classification, and functions of the main chemical components in M. alba and systematically summarized the latest research results of essential active components in M. alba and their pharmacological effects to provide references for in-depth research and further development as well as utilization of active components in M. alba.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Morus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928116

ABSTRACT

Dendrobii Caulis are commonly used tonic Chinese medicinal materials with a long history of application. As demonstrated by pharmacological results, the chemical constituents and the extracts of Dendrobii Caulis have anti-inflammatory, antibacte-rial, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects, and can also regulate immunity, lower blood pressure, and regulate blood sugar. The active ingredients contained are widely concerned by scholars. This paper comprehensively summarized the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Dendrobium plants reported so far. The chemical constituents isolated from Dendrobium plants are mainly alkaloids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, fluorenones, coumarins, bibenzyls, phenanthrenes, lignans, steroids, phenols, and polysaccharides. This paper is expected to provide a reference for further research, development, and utilization of Dendrobium plants.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dendrobium , Flavonoids , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928090

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)/interferon γ(IFN-γ)-induced inflammatory microglia based on the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2(TREM2)/Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB) pathway. Specifically, LPS and IFN-γ were used to induce inflammation in mouse microglia BV2 cells. Then the normal group, model group, low-dose(5 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, medium-dose(10 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, high-dose(20 μmol·L~(-1)) baicalin group, and minocycline(10 μmol·L~(-1)) group were designed. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay and cell morphology was observed under bright field. The expression of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-4(IL-4), inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and arginase-1(Arg-1) mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-1β, TREM2, TLR4, inhibitor kappaB-alpha(IκBα), p-IκBα, NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 by Western blot, and transfer of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus by cellular immunofluorescence. Compared with the normal group, most of the BV2 cells in the model group tended to demonstrate the pro-inflammatory M1 amoeba morphology, and the model group showed significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS, decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-10, and Arg-1(P<0.01), rise of the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4, p-IκBα, and p-NF-κB p65(P<0.01), reduction in TREM2 protein expression, and increase in the expression of NF-κB p65 in nucleus. Compared with the model group, baicalin groups and minocycline group showed the recovery of BV2 cell morphology, significant decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS, increase in the mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-10, and Arg-1(P<0.01), reduction in the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4, p-IκBα, and p-NF-κB p65(P<0.05), rise of TREM2 protein expression, and decrease in the expression of NF-κB p65 in nucleus. In summary, these results suggest that baicalin can regulate the imbalance between TREM2 and TLR4 of microglia and inhibit the activation of downstream NF-κB, thus promoting the polarization of microglia from pro-inflammatory phenotype to anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavonoids , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon-gamma , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928023

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the pharmacodynamic effect of baicalin on rat brain edema induced by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and discuss the mechanism from the perspective of inhibiting astrocyte swelling, which is expected to serve as a refe-rence for the treatment of cerebral ischemia with Chinese medicine. To be specific, middle cerebral artery occlusion(suture method) was used to induce cerebral ischemia in rats. Rats were randomized into normal group, model group, high-dose baicalin(20 mg·kg~(-1)) group, and low-dose baicalin(10 mg·kg~(-1)) group. The neurobehavior, brain index, brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of rats were measured 6 h and 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Brain slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE) for the observation of pathological morphology of cerebral cortex after baicalin treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to determine the content of total L-glutathione(GSH) and glutamic acid(Glu) in brain tissue, Western blot to measure the content of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP), aquaporin-4(AQP4), and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4(TRPV4), and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expression of GFAP. The low-dose baicalin was used for exploring the mechanism. The experimental results showed that the neurobehavioral scores(6 h and 24 h of cerebral ischemia), brain water content, and cerebral infarction area of the model group were increased, and both high-dose and low-dose baicalin can lower the above three indexes. The content of GSH dropped but the content of Glu raised in brain tissue of rats in the model group. Low-dose baicalin can elevate the content of GSH and lower the content of Glu. According to the immunohistochemical staining result, the model group demonstrated the increase in GFAP expression, and swelling and proliferation of astrocytes, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly improve this situation. The results of Western blot showed that the expression of GFAP, TRPV4, and AQP4 in the cerebral cortex of the model group increased, and the low-dose baicalin reduce their expression. The cerebral cortex of rats in the model group was severely damaged, and the low-dose baicalin can significantly alleviate the damage. The above results indicate that baicalin can effectively relieve the brain edema caused by cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, possibly by suppressing astrocyte swelling and TRPV4 and AQP4.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaporin 4/genetics , Astrocytes , Brain Edema/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Flavonoids , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , TRPV Cation Channels/therapeutic use
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928014

ABSTRACT

The present study detected the component content in Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum by HPLC fingerprint and the multi-component determination method. HPLC analysis was performed on the Agilent ZORBAX SB-C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm). Acetonitrile-0.5% phosphoric acid aqueous solution with gradient elution was employed as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was maintained at 30 ℃. The detection wavelength was 210 nm and the sample volume was 10 μL. The similarity of 18 batches of Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum was 0.343-0.779, indicating that there were great differences between different batches of Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum. Eighteen common peaks were identified, including eight flavonoids such as liquiritigenin and latifolin. The mass fractions of liquiritigenin, luteolin, naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin, dalbergin, latifolin, and pinocembrin were in the ranges of 0.134 1%-0.495 2%, 0.028 2%-0.167 0%, 0.016 3%-0.591 3%, 0.053 5%-0.188 0%, 0.142 4%-0.640 1%, 0.068 0%-0.590 7%, 0.003 2%-1.980 7%, and 0.009 6%-0.740 2%, respectively. Eighteen batches of Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum were divided into three categories by cluster analysis and eight differential components in Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum were marked by partial least-squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA). The cumulative variance contribution rate was 90.5%. The HPLC fingerprint combined with the multi-component determination method for Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum is easy in operation and accurate in results, with good repeatability and reliability. The quality of Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum can be evaluated and analyzed by the PLS-DA model. This study is expected to provide a reference for the quality control and clinical application of Dalbergiae Odoriferae Lignum.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928013

ABSTRACT

The present study established the spectrum-effect relationship model of flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium(CRP) from 15 batches of Liujunzi Decoction and statistically analyzed the correlation between chemical peaks and efficacy to identify the main effective components. HPLC fingerprints of flavonoids in CRP from 15 batches of Liujunzi Decoction were established. HPLC analysis was carried out on the Venusil XBP C_(18)(L) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) at 30 ℃ with acetonitrile-water(containing 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase for gradient elution, a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), and detection wavelength of 300 nm to obtain chemical fingerprints. Additionally, the effects of flavonoids from CRP in 15 batches of Liujunzi Decoction on the content of GAS, MTL, and VIP, TFF3 mRNA expression, and percentage of CD3~+ T-cells of model rats with spleen deficiency were determined. The spectrum-effect relationship model was established by gray correlation analysis. The results showed that the main characteristic peaks with great contribution to the regulation of gastrointestinal tract were peak 16(vicenin-2), peak 63(sinensetin), peak 64(isosinensetin), peak 65(nobiletin), peak 67(3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptemthoxyflavone), peak 68(tangeretin), and peak 69(5-desmethylnobiletin). Therefore, there was a linear correlation between flavonoids from CRP in Liujunzi Decoction and the efficacy, and the medicinal effect was achieved by multi-component action. This study is expected to provide a new idea for exploring the material basis of the effect, i.e., regulating qi prior to replenishing qi, of CRP in Liujunzi Decoction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Citrus/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Hormones , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rats , Spleen
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928004

ABSTRACT

Sarcandra glabra, a medicinal plant in family Chloranthaceae, has been taken as an important raw material for multiple Chinese patent drugs due to its diverse indications. Considering the diversified chemical constituents and rich biological activities of S. glabra, numerous phytochemical and pharmacodynamic investigations were conducted to explore the material basis for its medicinal use. It has been found that its main chemical constituents were sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpenoid polymers, phenolic acids, coumarins, and flavonoids. As revealed by pharmacological research, it possesses multiple biological activities like anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, and neuroprotection. Some unreported novel structures, including polymers of lindenane sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene trimers, and adducts of flavonoids and monoterpenes, have been identified from S. glabra in recent years. Moreover, biological studies relating to its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities have been deepened. This paper reviewed the chemical constituents and bioactivities of S. glabra explored over the past ten years, so as to provide a scientific basis for further development and utilization of this plant.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Seeds
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1565-1575, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927801

ABSTRACT

8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a potent estrogen with high medicinal values. It also serves as an important precursor for many prenylated flavonoids. Microbial synthesis of 8-PN is mainly hindered by the low catalytic activity of prenyltransferases (PTS) and insufficient supply of precursors. In this work, a SfN8DT-1 from Sophora flavescens was used to improve the efficiency of (2S)-naringenin prenylation. The predicted structure of SfN8DT-1 showed that its main body is comprised of 9 α-helices and 8 loops, along with a long side chain formed by nearly 120 amino acids. SfN8DT-1 mutants with different side-chain truncated were tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A mutant expressing the truncated enzyme at K62 site, designated as SfND8T-1-t62, produced the highest 8-PN titer. Molecular docking of SfN8DT-1-t62 with (2S)-naringenin and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) showed that K185 was a potentially crucial residue. Alanine scanning within a range of 0.5 nm around these two substrates showed that the mutant K185A may decrease its affinity to substrates, which also indicated K185 was a potentially critical residue. Besides, the mutant K185W enhanced the affinity to ligands implied by the simulated saturation mutation, while the saturated mutation of K185 showed a great decrease in 8-PN production, indicating K185 is vital for the activity of SfN8DT-1. Subsequently, overexpressing the key genes of Mevalonate (MVA) pathway further improved the titer of 8-PN to 31.31 mg/L, which indicated that DMAPP supply is also a limiting factor for 8-PN synthesis. Finally, 44.92 mg/L of 8-PN was produced in a 5 L bioreactor after 120 h, which is the highest 8-PN titer reported to date.


Subject(s)
Dimethylallyltranstransferase/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Prenylation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Sophora/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242112, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plants possess a renewable source of metabolites with enormous chemical structural diversity, which may have potential therapeutic relevance. Furthermore, this chemical diversity favors the possibility of finding new and different chemical constituents with antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-tumor activities. This work analyzed preliminary phytochemical profiles and evaluated the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of hexane extracts of leaves of ten species of the family Melastomataceae. Phytochemical screening was performed using staining methods while total phenols and flavonoids were quantified by spectrophotometry. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method. Toxicity was recorded using the lethality test with Artemia salina Leach (1819). Cytotoxic activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro with acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). Phytochemical analysis detected the presence of tannins, terpenes, steroids, polyphenols and flavonoids and the absence of alkaloids. Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don had the greatest amount of polyphenols (205.95 mg/g ± 4.14) while Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don had the highest content of total flavonoids (143.99 mg/g ± 4.18). The hexane extracts did not show antimicrobial activity nor toxicity against Artemia salina. The extract of Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. was the most active in sequestering the DPPH radical. The extracts showed cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells with the appearance of apoptotic bodies and cell death. The extracts of Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea and Clidemia capitellata are non-toxic against Artemia salina and induce the formation of apoptotic bodies and cell death of the THP-1 lineage.


Resumo Os vegetais apresentam uma fonte renovável de metabólitos com enorme diversidade química estrutural, os quais podem apresentar potencial relevante na terapêutica, aumentando as possibilidades de encontrar novos e diferentes constituintes químicos com atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante e antitumoral. Este trabalho analisou o perfil fitoquímico preliminar e as atividades antimicrobiana, antioxidante, citotóxica dos extratos em hexano das folhas de dez espécies da família Melastomataceae. A triagem fitoquímica foi executada utilizando métodos de coloração e quantificação de fenóis e flavonoides totais por espectrofotometria. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pelo método de difusão em disco. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada pelo método 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila (DPPH). A toxicidade foi registrada utilizando o ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina Leach (1819). A atividade citotóxica dos extratos foi realizada in vitro com células leucêmicas monocítica aguda (THP-1). A análise fitoquímica detectou a presença de taninos, terpenos, esteroides, polifenóis, flavonoides e ausência de alcaloides. A maior quantificação de polifenóis foi da Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don (205,95 mg/g ± 4,14) e o extrato de Clidemia hirta (L.) D. Don apresentou maior teor de flavonoides totais (143,99 mg/g ± 4,18). Os extratos hexânicos não demostraram atividade antimicrobiana e nem toxicidade frente à Artemia salina. O extrato de Tibouchina francavillana Cogn. foi o mais ativo no sequestro do radical DPPH. Os extratos apresentaram citotoxicidade em células THP-1, com visualização de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular. Os extratos de Miconia amoena, Clidemia sericea e Clidemia capitellata são atóxicos contra Artemia salina e induzem a formação de corpos apoptóticos e morte celular da linhagem THP-1.


Subject(s)
Melastomataceae , Flavonoids , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 660-671, nov. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369981

ABSTRACT

Search for safe antioxidants and novel nutraceuticals urged to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholine esterase and anti-lipoxygenase activity of various leaf extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius. Extraction was optimized from freeze dried plant extracts quenched with liquid nitrogen using water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform. Maximum extract yield, total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were obtained in case of ethanolic extraction. The highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylradical scavenging in terms of IC50 value of 55.26 µg/mL was observed for ethanolic leaf extract. The acetylcholine esterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities (IC50) were also observed for ethanolic extract. These findings for ethanolic extract were statistically significant when compared with other extracts (ρ<0.05). The haemolytic % values indicated that all extracts were associated with very low or negligible toxicity. The epicatechin, isorhamnetin, rutin, scopoleptin, skimmianine, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-ß-glucoside, cornoside, creatinine, choline, pyruvic acid, α-hydroxybutyric acid, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified as major functional metabolites in ethanolic leaf extract of C. lancifoliusby 1H-NMR. The identified metabolites were probably responsible for the pharmacological properties of C.lancifolius. The findings may be utilized as pharmacological leads for drug development and food fortification.


Se insta a la búsqueda de antioxidantes seguros y nuevos nutracéuticos para evaluar la actividad antioxidante, anti-acetilcolina esterasa y anti-lipoxigenasa de varios extractos de hojas de Conocarpus lancifolius. La extracción se optimizó a partir de extractos de plantas liofilizados enfriados con nitrógeno líquido usando agua, etanol, metanol, hexano, acetato de etilo y cloroformo. En el caso de extracción etanólica se obtuvo el rendimiento máximo de extracto, el contenido de fenoles totales y el contenido de flavonoides totales. La mayor eliminación de radicales 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo en términos de valor de CI50 de 55,26 µg/mL se observó para el extracto de hoja etanólico. También se observaron las actividades inhibidoras de la acetilcolina esterasa y lipoxigenasa (CI50) para el extracto etanólico. Estos hallazgos para el extracto etanólico fueron estadísticamente significativos en comparación con otros extractos (ρ<0.05). Los valores del % hemolítico indicaron que todos los extractos estaban asociados con una toxicidad muy baja o insignificante. Se identificaron la epicatequina, isorhamnetina, rutina, escopoleptina, skimmianina, quercetina-3-O-α-ramnosido, quercetina-3-O-ß-glucósido, cornosido, creatinina, colina, ácido pirúvico, ácido α-hidroxibutírico, filantrina e hipofillantina. como metabolitos funcionales principales en el extracto etanólico de hojas de C. lancifoliuspor 1H-NMR. Los metabolitos identificados probablemente fueron responsables de las propiedades farmacológicas de C. lancifolius. Los hallazgos pueden utilizarse como pistas farmacológicas para el desarrollo de fármacos y la fortificación de alimentos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Combretaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry , Ethanol , Antioxidants/chemistry
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