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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255605, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Combining ability analysis provides useful information for the selection of parents, also information regarding the nature and magnitude of involved gene actions. Crops improvement involves strategies for enhancing yield potentiality and quality components. Targeting the improvement of respective characters in bitter gourd, combining ability and genetic parameters for 19 characters were estimated from a 6×6 full diallel analysis technique. The results revealed that the variances due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for most of the important characters. It indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions. GCA variances were higher in magnitude than SCA variances for all the characters studied indicating the predominance of the additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parent P2 (BG 009) appeared as the best general combiner for earliness; P1 (BG 006) for number of fruits, average single fruit weight and fruit yield; P4 (BG 027) for node number of first female flower and days to seed fruit maturity; P3 (BG 011) for fruit length and thickness of the fruit flesh; P5 (BG 033) for 100-seed weight; and P6 for number of nodes per main vine. The SCA effect as well as reciprocal effect was also significant for most of the important characters in different crosses.


Resumo A análise da capacidade de combinação fornece informações úteis para a seleção dos pais, também informações sobre a natureza e a magnitude das ações dos genes envolvidos. A melhoria das safras envolve estratégias para aumentar a potencialidade da produção e os componentes de qualidade. Visando ao aprimoramento dos respectivos caracteres em cabaça-amarga, capacidade de combinação e parâmetros genéticos para 19 caracteres, foram estimados a partir de uma técnica de análise dialélica completa 6 × 6. Os resultados revelaram que as variâncias, devido à capacidade geral de combinação (GCA) e capacidade específica de combinação (SCA), foram altamente significativas para a maioria dos caracteres importantes. Indicou a importância das ações gênicas aditivas e não aditivas. As variâncias GCA foram maiores em magnitude do que as variâncias SCA para todos os caracteres estudados, indicando a predominância dos efeitos do gene aditivo em sua herança. O pai P2 (BG 009) apareceu como o melhor combinador geral para o início; P1 (BG 006) para número de frutos, peso médio de um único fruto e produção de frutos; P4 (BG 027) para número de nó da primeira flor fêmea e dias para a maturidade do fruto da semente; P3 (BG 011) para comprimento do fruto e espessura da polpa do fruto; P5 (BG 033) para peso de 100 sementes; e P6 para o número de nós por videira principal. O efeito SCA, bem como o efeito recíproco, também foi significativo para a maioria dos personagens importantes em cruzamentos diferentes.


Subject(s)
Momordica charantia , Crops, Agricultural , Flowers , Quality Improvement , Fruit/genetics
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248931, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.


Subject(s)
Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flour/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Subject(s)
Lauraceae , Persea , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Powders , Thyroid Hormones , Blood Glucose , Fruit
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Citrus , Aedes , Insecticides/pharmacology , Fruit , Larva
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

ABSTRACT

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Subject(s)
Annonaceae , Annona/genetics , Seeds/genetics , Brazil , Plant Breeding , Fruit/genetics
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 84-92, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381411

ABSTRACT

Healthy eating habits are related to a lower prevalence of chronic diseases. Objective: Verify the relationship between eating behaviors and self-perceived health (SPH) in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 52166 Brazilian adults aged 18 years and over. The dependent variable was positive SPH, whereas the independent variable was the eating behavior (exchanging lunch for snacks; exchanging dinner for snacks; intake of beans, ultra-processed food the previous day, fruits, vegetables, and processed juices/soft drinks). Poisson regression with robust adjustment for variance was used in the data analysis. Results: The relationship between eating behaviors and SPH was similar between genders. However, a more evident relationship was observed among young adults, regarding the age group. The consumption of fruits and vegetables was most clearly associated with SPH among the investigated behaviors. Furthermore, the higher the number of positive eating behaviors, the higher the prevalence of positive SPH in both genders and all age groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study reinforce the importance of healthy eating behaviors for health and indicate a more direct relationship between these and positive SPH in young adults and as a habit of regularly consuming fruits and vegetables(AU)


Los hábitos alimentarios positivos se relacionan con una menor prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas. Objetivo: Verificar la relación entre las conductas alimentarias y la salud auto percibida (SA) en adultos jóvenes, de mediana edad y ancianos. Materiales y métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal con 52166 adultos de 18 años o más en Brasil. La variable dependiente fue la SA positiva, mientras que la variable independiente fue la conducta alimentaria (cambio de almuerzo por refrigerio; cambio de cena por un refrigerio, consumo de frijoles, comida ultra procesada, fruta, verdura y zumos/refrescos artificiales el día anterior a la entrevista). En el análisis de datos, se utilizó la regresión de Poisson con ajuste robusto para la varianza. Resultados: La relación entre las conductas alimentarias y la SA fue similar entre los géneros, pero en relación al grupo de edad, se observó una relación más evidente en adultos jóvenes. De los comportamientos investigados, el consumo de frutas y verduras fueron los que se asociaron más claramente con la SA. Cuanto mayor es el número de conductas alimentarias positivas, mayor es la prevalencia de SA positiva, en ambos sexos y en todos los grupos de edad. Conclusión: Los hallazgos de este estudio refuerzan la importancia de un comportamiento alimentario saludable para la mejorar y mantener la salud e indican que, aparentemente, existe una relación más explícita entre éste y la SA positiva en adultos jóvenes, al igual que con el hábito de consumir frutas y verduras con frecuencia(AU)


Subject(s)
Self Concept , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Vegetables , Diet, Healthy , Fruit
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929064

ABSTRACT

Pear is one of the main fruits with thousands of years of cultivation history in China. There are more than 2000 varieties of pear cultivars around the world, including more than 1200 varieties or cultivars in China (Legrand et al., 2016). Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is an important pear production region in China with 30 of varieties or cultivars. Pyrus sinkiangensis is the most popular variety, which is mainly distributed in Xinjiang (Zhou et al., 2018). Chlorogenic acid (CGA), p-coumaric acid, and arbutin are the main polyphenols in pear fruit, and their levels show great differences among different varieties (Li et al., 2014). CGA is a potential chemo-preventive agent, which possesses many important bioactivities including antioxidant, diabetes attenuating, and anti-obesity (Wang et al., 2021). Therefore, the specific CGA content of a variety is considered the embodiment of the functional nutritional value of pears.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Fruit , Gene Expression Profiling , Pyrus/genetics , Transcriptome
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928180

ABSTRACT

Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, the sun-dried mature fruit of Ligustrum lucidum, is cool, plain, sweet, and bitter, which can be used as both food and medicine, with the effects of improving vision, blacking hair, and tonifying liver and kidney. It takes effect slowly. However, little is known about the genetic information of the medicinal plant and it is still a challenge to distinguish Ligustrum species. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of L. lucidum was obtained by genome skimming and then compared with that of five other Ligustrum species, which had been reported. This study aims to evaluate the interspecific variation of chloroplast genome within the genus and develop molecular markers for species identification of the genus. The result showed that the chloroplast genome of L. lucidum was 162 162 bp with a circular quadripartite structure of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats. The Ligustrum chloroplast genomes were conserved with small interspecific difference. Comparative analysis of six Ligustrum chloroplast genomes revealed three variable regions(rbcL-accD, ycf1a, and ycf1b), and ycf1a and ycf1b can be used as the species-specific DNA barcode for Ligustrum. Phylogeny analysis provided the best resolution of Ligustrum and supported that L. lucidum was sister to L. gracile. This study clarified the genetic diversity of L. lucidum from provenance, which can serve as a reference for further analysis of pharmacological differences and breeding of excellent varieties with stable drug effects.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Genome, Chloroplast , Ligustrum/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928155

ABSTRACT

Illumina Xten was employed for shallow sequencing of Panax ginseng(ginseng) samples, MISA for screening of SSR loci, and Primer 3 for primer design. Polymorphic primers were screened from 180 primers. From the successfully amplified polymorphic primers, 15 primers which featured clear peak shape, good polymorphism, and ease of statistics were selected and used to evaluate the genetic diversity and germplasm resources of 36 ginseng accessions with different fruit colors from Jilin province. The results showed that red-fruit ginseng population had high genetic diversity with the average number of alleles(N_a) of 1.031 and haploid genetic diversity(h) of 0.172. The neighbor-joining cluster analysis demonstrated that the germplasms of red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng populations were obviously intermixed, and pick-fruit ginseng germplasms clustered into a single clade. The results of STRUCTURE analysis showed high proportion of single genotype in pick-fruit ginseng germplasm and abundant genotypes in red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng germplasms with obvious germplasm mixing. AMOVA revealed that genetic variation occurred mainly within populations(62.00%, P<0.001), and rarely among populations(39%, P<0.001), but homogenization was obvious among different populations. In summary, pink-fruit ginseng population may contain rare genotypes, which is the basis for breeding of high-quality high-yield, and multi-resistance varieties, genetic improvement of varieties, and sustainable development and utilization of ginseng germplasm resources.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Panax/genetics , Plant Breeding
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928118

ABSTRACT

With the rise of incidence, fatality rate, and number of young cases, diabetes mellitus has been one of the seven major diseases threatening human health. Although many antidiabetic drugs(oral or for injection) are available, the majority have serious side effects during the long-term use. Thus, it is of particularly vital to develop new drugs with low risk and definite effect. Psoraleae Fructus, a traditional medicinal widely used in the folk, has hypoglycemic, anti-osteoporosis, antitumor, estrogen-like, and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, it has great clinical application potential. Chinese medicine and the active ingredients, characterized by multiple targets, multiple pathways, and multiple effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, have distinct advantages in clinical application. However, the safety of Chinese medicine remains to be a challenge, and one of keys is to clarifying the mechanism of a single Chinese medicinal and its active ingredients. With the method of literature research, this study summarized and analyzed the hypoglycemic mechanisms of Psoraleae Fructus and its main active ingredients over the last decade: regulating glucose metabolism, improving insulin resistance, and directly acting on pancreatic β-cells. The result is expected to serve as a reference for further research on the effects of Psoraleae Fructus and its main chemical constituents in lowering blood glucose and preventing diabetes mellitus and the clinical application.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Psoralea/chemistry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927911

ABSTRACT

Forsythiae Fructus is the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa and the volatile compounds are its main bioactive components. According to the different harvest periods, F. suspensa can be divided into Qingqiao(mature F. suspensa) and Laoqiao(ripe F. suspensa). To investigate dynamic changes of volatile components in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples collected at different periods, the present study extracted and analyzed the total volatile oils in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples(four harvest periods for Qingqiao and two for Laoqiao) by steam distillation method. The results indicated that the content of volatile oils in F. suspensa samples at different harvest periods was significantly different. The content of volatile oils in Qingqiao samples(except those harvested in the first period) was higher than that of Laoqiao, and the content of volatile oils in both Qingqiao and Laoqiao increased with the harvest period. Furthermore, volatile compounds in F. suspensa were qualitatively analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and 28 volatile compounds were identified. Chemometrics analyses including principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were further applied to explore differential markers and dynamic changes of volatile components in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples at different harvest periods. Finally, four volatile compounds, including α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, and 4-terpenol were selected as potential differential markers. The relative content of α-pinene and 4-terpenol was consistent with that of total volatile oils in the changing trend.


Subject(s)
Chemometrics , Forsythia , Fruit , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1738-1752, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927815

ABSTRACT

Anthocyanins are widely distributed water-soluble pigments that not only give the fruit colorful appearances, but also are important sources of natural edible pigments. In recent years, the interest on anthocyanins of solanaceous vegetables is increasing. This paper summarized the structure of anthocyanins and its biosynthetic pathway, the structural genes and regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in solanaceous vegetables, as well as the environmental factors affecting the biosynthesis. This review may help clarify the synthesis and regulation mechanism of anthocyanins in solanaceous vegetables and make better use of anthocyanins for quality breeding of fruit colors.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins/metabolism , Fruit/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Breeding , Vegetables/genetics
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 275-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927711

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of the transcription factor MYB10, which is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, in different colors of Ribes L. fruitification. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to clone the MYB10 genes from Ribes nigrum L. (RnMYB10), Ribes rubrum L. (RrMYB10), and Ribes album L. (RaMYB10), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 were evolutionarily homologous. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the expression of MYB10 in the fruits of Ribes nigrum L. was higher than that of Ribes rubrum L. and much higher than that of Ribes album L. The expression of RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 increased at first and then decreased as the fruit diameter increased and the fruit color deepened (the maximum expression level was reached at 75% of the fruit color change), while the expression level of RaMYB10 was very low. Overexpression of RnMYB10 and RrMYB10 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in purple petioles and leaves, whereas overexpression of RaMYB10 resulted in no significant color changes. This indicates that MYB10 gene plays an important role in the coloration of Ribes L. fruit.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Cloning, Molecular , Fruit , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Ribes/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 264-274, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927710

ABSTRACT

The laccase (PpLAC) gene family members in peach fruit were identified and the relationship between their expression pattern and chilling induced browning were investigated. The study was performed using two varieties of peaches with different chilling tolerance, treated with or without exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during cold storage. Twenty-six genes were screened from the peach fruit genome. These genes were distributed on 6 chromosomes and each contained 5-7 exons. The PpLAC gene family members shared relatively similar gene structure and conserved motifs, and they were classified into 7 subgroups based on the cluster analysis. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that the expression levels of PpLAC7 and PpLAC9 exhibited an increasing pattern under low temperature storage, and displayed a similar trend with the browning index of peach fruit. Notably, GABA treatment reduced the degree of browning and inhibited the expression of PpLAC7 and PpLAC9. These results suggested that PpLAC7 and PpLAC9 might be involved in the browning of peach fruit during cold storage.


Subject(s)
Food Storage , Fruit/genetics , Laccase/genetics , Prunus persica/genetics
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e255816, 2022. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364490

ABSTRACT

A significant level of yield losses in the vegetable and fruit farms are attributed to the weed populations of the area. This study was conducted for eighteen months during 2019-2020 to assess the presence of various weed families, related species, and their densities in the vegetable (CROP A) and fruit (CROP B) farms of Taif, Saudi Arabia. During the study, fourteen and ten weed families were noted in the vegetable and fruit farms of the studied area, respectively. Poaceae family weeds (729) were significantly higher in numbers followed by the families Asteraceae (414), Chenopodiaceae (338), and Gisekiaceae (153). In the vegetable farms, two weed species of the family Poaceae including Setaria viridis (437) and Eleusine indica ssp (277) were present in the higher numbers followed by Chenopodium murale (166) of the Chenopodiaceae family. In the fruit farms, the weed species Cynodon dactylon of the family Poaceae represented the highest weed density (172) followed by Gisekia pharnaceoides L. species (153) of family Gisekiaceae and Portulaca oleracea (59) belonging to the family Portulacaceae. The vegetable and fruit farms of the Taif region face severe weed pressure that affects the cultivated crops. This study depicts a comprehensive picture of weed diversity and density in the vegetable and fruit farms of the area. The results of this study will be beneficial in developing effective weed management practices for better crop production.


Um nível significativo de perdas de rendimento nas fazendas de hortaliças e frutas é atribuído às populações de ervas daninhas da área. Este estudo foi conduzido por dezoito meses durante 2019-2020 para avaliar a presença de várias famílias de ervas daninhas, espécies relacionadas e suas densidades nas fazendas de vegetais (CROP A) e frutas (CROP B) de Taif, Arábia Saudita. Durante o estudo, catorze e dez famílias de plantas daninhas foram observadas nas fazendas de hortaliças e frutas da área estudada, respectivamente. As plantas daninhas da família Poaceae (729) foram significativamente maiores em número, seguidas pelas famílias Asteraceae (414), Chenopodiaceae (338) e Gisekiaceae (153). Nas hortas, duas espécies de plantas daninhas da família Poaceae, incluindo Setaria viridis (437) e Eleusine indica ssp (277), estavam presentes em maior número, seguidas por Chenopodium murale (166) da família Chenopodiaceae. Nas fruticulturas, a espécie de plantas daninhas Cynodon dactylon da família Poaceae representou a maior densidade de plantas daninhas (172) seguida das espécies Gisekia pharnaceoides L. (153) da família Gisekiaceae e Portulaca oleracea (59) pertencentes à família Portulacaceae. As fazendas de hortaliças e frutas da região de Taif enfrentam uma forte pressão de ervas daninhas que afeta as culturas cultivadas. Este estudo apresenta um quadro abrangente da diversidade e densidade de plantas daninhas nas fazendas de hortaliças e frutas da região. Os resultados deste estudo serão benéficos no desenvolvimento de práticas eficazes de manejo de plantas daninhas para uma melhor produção das culturas.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/growth & development , Plant Weeds/growth & development , Farms , Fruit/growth & development , Saudi Arabia
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236471, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249254

ABSTRACT

Abstract Date fruit is known to be the staple food in the Arab countries. It provides a lot of potential health benefits and can be the essential source of nutrients. The majority of Moroccan varieties are not characterized for their chemical, biochemical and quality properties. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition of 17 varieties of Moroccan date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and to determine their nutritive components. The analysis showed that the dates are rich in sugars (51.80-87.98%), they contain low concentration of proteins (1.09-2.80%) and lipids (0.16-0.39%). The predominant mineral is potassium (1055.26-1604.10 mg/100 g DW). Moreover, they contain high concentrations of malic acid (69.48-495.58 mg/100 g (DW)), oxalic acid (18.47-233.35 mg/100 g DW) and tartaric acid (115.70-484.168 mg/100 g DW). These results suggest that the date fruit are nutritious and can be an excellent source for human nutrition and health benefits.


Resumo A fruta da tâmara é conhecida por ser o alimento básico nos países árabes. Oferece muitos benefícios potenciais à saúde e pode ser a fonte essencial de nutrientes. A maioria das variedades marroquinas não se caracteriza por suas propriedades químicas, bioquímicas nem de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química de 17 variedades de frutos de tâmara marroquina (Phoenix dactylifera L.) e determinar seu valor nutritivo. A análise mostrou que as tâmaras são ricas em açúcares (51,80-87,98%) e contêm baixa concentração de proteínas (1,09-2,80%) e lipídios (0,16-0,39%). O mineral predominante é o potássio (1.055,26-1.604,10 mg/100 g DW). Além disso, contêm altas concentrações de ácido málico (69,48-495,58 mg/100 g DW), ácido oxálico (18,47-233,35 mg/100 g DW) e ácido tartárico (115,70-484,168 mg/100 g DW). Esses resultados sugerem que o fruto da tamareira é nutritivo e pode ser uma excelente fonte de nutrição humana e conferir benefícios à saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phoeniceae , Clone Cells/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
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