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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255605, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Combining ability analysis provides useful information for the selection of parents, also information regarding the nature and magnitude of involved gene actions. Crops improvement involves strategies for enhancing yield potentiality and quality components. Targeting the improvement of respective characters in bitter gourd, combining ability and genetic parameters for 19 characters were estimated from a 6×6 full diallel analysis technique. The results revealed that the variances due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for most of the important characters. It indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions. GCA variances were higher in magnitude than SCA variances for all the characters studied indicating the predominance of the additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parent P2 (BG 009) appeared as the best general combiner for earliness; P1 (BG 006) for number of fruits, average single fruit weight and fruit yield; P4 (BG 027) for node number of first female flower and days to seed fruit maturity; P3 (BG 011) for fruit length and thickness of the fruit flesh; P5 (BG 033) for 100-seed weight; and P6 for number of nodes per main vine. The SCA effect as well as reciprocal effect was also significant for most of the important characters in different crosses.


Resumo A análise da capacidade de combinação fornece informações úteis para a seleção dos pais, também informações sobre a natureza e a magnitude das ações dos genes envolvidos. A melhoria das safras envolve estratégias para aumentar a potencialidade da produção e os componentes de qualidade. Visando ao aprimoramento dos respectivos caracteres em cabaça-amarga, capacidade de combinação e parâmetros genéticos para 19 caracteres, foram estimados a partir de uma técnica de análise dialélica completa 6 × 6. Os resultados revelaram que as variâncias, devido à capacidade geral de combinação (GCA) e capacidade específica de combinação (SCA), foram altamente significativas para a maioria dos caracteres importantes. Indicou a importância das ações gênicas aditivas e não aditivas. As variâncias GCA foram maiores em magnitude do que as variâncias SCA para todos os caracteres estudados, indicando a predominância dos efeitos do gene aditivo em sua herança. O pai P2 (BG 009) apareceu como o melhor combinador geral para o início; P1 (BG 006) para número de frutos, peso médio de um único fruto e produção de frutos; P4 (BG 027) para número de nó da primeira flor fêmea e dias para a maturidade do fruto da semente; P3 (BG 011) para comprimento do fruto e espessura da polpa do fruto; P5 (BG 033) para peso de 100 sementes; e P6 para o número de nós por videira principal. O efeito SCA, bem como o efeito recíproco, também foi significativo para a maioria dos personagens importantes em cruzamentos diferentes.


Subject(s)
Momordica charantia , Crops, Agricultural , Flowers , Quality Improvement , Fruit/genetics
3.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023229, 14 fev. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518544

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported that buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f.) is a typical fruit from the Brazilian cerrado ecosystem and an important food source for low-income populations. Its composition is rich in carotenoid polyphenols, monounsaturated fatty acids, and ascorbic acid. However, studies on the biological effects resulting from the consumption of this fruit are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a diet supplemented with buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f.) on kidney and liver functions in growing rats. METHODS: Determination of centesimal composition, carotenoids, and fatty acids content for buriti pulp, standard chow, and butiti-supplemented chow were performed. Then, Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a standard diet or supplemented with buriti pulp. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment to determine biochemical parameters. The unpaired t-test was applied, and differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: A diet enriched with buriti pulp did not interfere with kidney function and most markers of liver function in animals. Alkaline phosphatase showed significantly higher plasma concentration in female rats, and albumin and uric acid showed lower concentrations in male rats in both experimental groups. CONCLUSION: The changes observed in biochemical markers did not provide evidence of adverse effects of buriti pulp supplementation on liver function. Thus, the intake of buriti pulp can be encouraged as it is a low-cost food source for the general population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Rodentia , Diet , Fruit/metabolism , Kidney , Liver , Brazil
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 131 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437606

ABSTRACT

myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Primulaceae) conhecida popularmente como capororoquinha ou capororoca, é amplamente distribuída nas regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil. As espécies desse gênero apresentam um potencial antioxidante e anti-inflamatório, que pode ser acessado na busca de novos ativos para o tratamento de desordens pigmentares da pele. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial antitirosinase e antioxidante de extratos e frações de M. coriacea e identificar os possíveis compostos responsáveis por essas atividades. Foram realizados ensaios para avaliar o potencial antioxidante das amostras através do método do DPPH, enquanto a capacidade hipopigmentante das amostras foi avaliado pela inibição da enzima tirosinase. Como complemento, foram determinados os teores de compostos fenólicos totais e flavonoides através dos métodos colorimétricos empregando o reagente Folin-Ciocalteau e AlCl3. Adicionalmente, os extratos de M. coriacea tiveram avaliados seus potenciais citotóxicos utilizando diferentes linhagens tumorais humanas. O perfil fitoquímico de M. coriacea foi analisado por cromatografia a gás acoplada com espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD) com padrões. Nessas análises foram identificados 34 compostos, sendo o ácido palmítico e o palmitato de etila os compostos majoritários nas amostras de M. coriacea. O extrato bruto das folhas apresentou o maior teor de fenólicos totais, enquanto a fração de acetato de etila das folhas teve o maior teor de flavonoides. Contudo, o extrato bruto dos frutos apresentou a melhor atividade antioxidante de todas as amostras analisadas, apresentando também a melhor atividade antitirosinase. Dentre os compostos anotados, mandenol, ácido -linoleico e o linolenato de etila foram os compostos considerados como possíveis inibidores da tirosinase, com boa interação molecular com a enzima nas análises de ancoragem molecular in silico. Das amostras analisadas com relação a inibição de crescimento frente as células tumorais, a amostra da fração de clorofórmio das folhas foi a que apresentou potencial antitumoral frente as células de adenocarcinoma de cólon (HCT116)


myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Primulaceae) popularly known as capororoquinha or capororoca, is widely distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Myrsine species have an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, which can be accessed in the search for new actives for the treatment of skin pigmentation disorders. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the antityrosinase and antioxidant potential from extracts and fractions of M. coriacea and to identify the probable compounds responsible for these activities. Assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the samples using the DPPH method, while the hypopigmentation capacity of the samples was evaluated by the tyrosinase inhibition. As a complement, the amounts of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined through colorimetric methods using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and AlCl3. Additionally, M. coriacea extracts had their cytotoxic potential evaluated using different human tumor cell lines. M. coriacea phytochemical profile was obtained by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) with standards. In these analyses, 34 compounds were identified, with palmitic acid and ethyl palmitate as the major compounds in M. coriacea samples. The leaf crude extract presented the highest total phenolics contents, while the leaf ethyl acetate fraction had the highest flavonoid amounts. However, the fruit crude extract showed the best antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of all analyzed samples. Among the annotated compounds, mandenol, -linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were the compounds considered as putative tyrosinase inhibitors, presenting good molecular interaction with the enzyme active site in the in silico molecular docking analysis. The leaf chloroform fraction was the only sample that showed an antitumor potential against colon adenocarcinoma cells (HCT116)


Subject(s)
Monophenol Monooxygenase/analysis , Primulaceae/metabolism , Myrsine/classification , Fruit/classification , Antioxidants/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Skin Pigmentation/immunology , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Hypopigmentation/pathology
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22381, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439529

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth) are native species from the Amazon Forest that in folk medicine are used to treat several diseases due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This review brings together findings from different studies on the potential neuroprotective effects of acai and guarana, highlighting the importance of the conservation and sustainable exploitation of the Amazon Forest. A bibliographic survey in the PubMed database retrieved indexed articles written in English that focused on the effects of acai and guarana in in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases. In general, treatment with either acai or guarana decreased neuroinflammation, increased antioxidant responses, ameliorated depression, and protected cells from neurotoxicity mediated by aggregated proteins. The results from these studies suggest that flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids found in both acai and guarana have therapeutic potential not only for neurodegenerative diseases, but also for depressive disorders. In addition, acai and guarana show beneficial effects in slowing down the physiological aging process. However, toxicity and efficacy studies are still needed to guide the formulation of herbal medicines from acai and guarana.


Subject(s)
Amazonian Ecosystem , Paullinia/adverse effects , Euterpe/adverse effects , Fruit/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Neuroprotective Agents/classification , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21088, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed at conducting phytochemical analysis and evaluating the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of J. oxycedrus L. Hydro-distillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fruits of Juniper oxycedrus. The essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was determined in vitro using varying concentrations of the essential oil and vitamin C as a standard antioxidant compound. A disc diffusion test was employed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oil against two test fungal strains, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus niger. The results revealed that 49 constituents were identified in fruit oil, representing 91.56% of the total oil and the yield was 1.58%. Juniper fruit oil was characterized by having high contents of ß-pinene (42.04%), followed by limonene (15.45%), sabinene (9.52%), α-pinene (5.21%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.77%), ρ-cymene (1.56%), caryophyllene oxide (2.02%), and myrcene (1.02%). The radical scavenging activity (% inhibition) of the essential oil was highest (81.87± 2.83%) at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. The essential oil of J. oxycedrus exhibited antifungal activity against A. niger and P. citrinum with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) ranging from 2.89 to 85.01 µl/mL. The findings of the study reveal that the antioxidant and antifungal properties of J. oxycedrus essential oil and their chemical composition are significantly correlated


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Juniperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Daily fruit and vegetable consumption is a critical factor in health, especially aging. This study aimed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors and daily fruit and vegetable consumption in men and women aged ≥ 50 years. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used 2015-2016 data from the Brazilian longitudinal study of aging (ELSI-Brazil), which included 8665 individuals aged ≥ 50 years. Daily fruit and vegetable consumption was the dependent variable, and income, education, sex, age, and race were the independent variables. Associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and the independent variables were determined using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Individuals who had completed higher education (OR 2.40; 95% CI 2.07-2.78), whose income was > 3 times the minimum wage (OR 2.42; 95% CI 2.18-2.68), and those aged > 80 years (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.27-1.63) were more likely to consume fruits and vegetables. However, men (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.58-0.67), Blacks (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.84), and people of mixed race (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.63-0.73), were less likely to consume fruits and vegetables. CONCLUSIONS: The results show inequality in fruit and vegetable consumption among people aged ≥ 50 years, which was lower among men, people of Black or mixed race, people with low income and education, and those with younger age. Interventions are needed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, and thus healthy aging, among these groups


OBJETIVO: O consumo diário de frutas, legumes e verduras (FLV) é um fator primordial à saúde, especialmente no envelhecimento. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a associação entre fatores socioeconômicos e o consumo diário de FLV em pessoas com idade de ≥ 50 anos, de ambos os sexos. METODOLOGIA: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com dados do ELSI-Brasil 2015 - 2016, realizado com 8.665 indivíduos com idade acima de 50 anos. O consumo diário de FLV foi a variável dependente e renda, escolaridade, sexo, idade e cor de pele foram as variáveis independentes. A regressão de Poisson foi usada para verificar a associação entre o consumo de FVL e as variáveis independentes. RESULTADOS: Indivíduos que possuíam ensino superior (odds ratio ­ OR 2,40; intervalo de confiança ­ IC95% 2,07 - 2,78), que recebiam mais que três salários-mínimos (OR 2,42; IC95% 2,18 - 2,68) e com idade superior a 80 anos (OR 1,44; IC95% 1,27 - 1,63) tinham maior probabilidade de consumir FLV. Por outro lado, homens (OR 0,63; IC95% 0,58 - 0,67) de cor de pele parda (OR 0,68; IC95% 0,63 - 0,73) e preta (OR 0,74; IC95% 0,65 - 0,84) tiveram menor chance de consumo de FVL. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados revelam desigualdades no consumo de FLV entre pessoas com idade acima de 50 anos, com maior magnitude entre os com baixa renda, baixa escolaridade, menor idade, sexo masculino e cor de pele parda e preta, demonstrando, assim, a necessidade de estratégias de intervenção para aumentar o consumo desses alimentos, buscando a promoção do envelhecimento saudável


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vegetables , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

ABSTRACT

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Subject(s)
Annonaceae , Annona/genetics , Seeds/genetics , Brazil , Plant Breeding , Fruit/genetics
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Citrus , Aedes , Insecticides/pharmacology , Fruit , Larva
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Subject(s)
Lauraceae , Persea , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248931, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.


Subject(s)
Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flour/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value
13.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007069, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, UNISALUD, LILACS | ID: biblio-1526537

ABSTRACT

A partir del caso de una paciente con síndrome de intestino irritable a predominio de estreñimiento cuyos síntomas mejoraron con el consumo regular de kiwi, el médico de familia se planteó la pregunta de si el kiwi podría mejorar los síntomas asociados a constipación crónica en comparación con el tratamiento habitual. Tras realizar una búsqueda de estudios que analizaran los efectos del consumo de kiwi sobre el hábito intestinal, fueron seleccionados tres artículos que permiten concluir que el consumo de esta fruta tiene una eficacia superior al placebo y comparable al psyllium y las pasas de ciruela para mejorar los síntomas de personas con estreñimiento crónico. (AU)


Based on the case of a patient with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome whose symptoms improved with regular consumption of kiwi, the family doctor wondered if kiwi could improve symptoms associated with chronic constipation compared to usual treatment. After conducting a search for studies that analyzed the effects of kiwi consumption on intestinal habit, three articles were selected that allow us to conclude that the consumption of this fruit has an efficacy superior to placebo and comparable to psyllium and plum raisins to improve the symptoms of people with chronic constipation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Constipation/diet therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diet therapy , Fruit , Psyllium/therapeutic use , Abdominal Pain/diet therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Constipation/diagnosis , Actinidia , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Feces , Systematic Reviews as Topic
15.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220238, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aims to determine the effect of fruit consumption time on blood glucose regulation in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Methods The study was carried out with 64 volunteer participants diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Participants who were directed to the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics were divided into two groups according to the order of application; Group 1 was included in the nutrition treatment program for a week, consuming fruit for the main meal and Group 2 for the snack. During this process, the participants were applied a personalized nutrition plan that was adjusted equally for macronutrients of all meals containing isocaloric 3 main and 4 snacks. In this process, blood glucose values were measured six times a day by the participants and the blood glucose results of both groups before starting the nutrition therapy and on the seventh day after starting the medical nutrition therapy were compared. Results The mean age of the women participating in the study was 33.50±4.95 years and 32.28±5.18 years for the 1st and 2nd groups, respectively, and the groups were similar in terms of anthropometric measurements. The post-diet average of postprandial blood glucose levels in the morning within each group dropped from 180mg/d to 115mg/dL (p<0,001) for Group 1 and from 185mg/dL to 110mg/dL (p<0,001) for Group 2. There was a decrease in the fasting plasma glucose and postprandial blood glucose levels measured in the morning, noon and evening before and after the medical nutrition therapy of the groups, but no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p>0.05). All participants on the gestational diabetes diet had normal blood sugar levels without the need for insulin. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the postprandial blood glucose-fasting plasma glucose difference levels of the pregnant women in the group that consumed fruit for snacks (Group 2) on the seventh day of the study (p<0,001). There was no significant difference in the pre-diet and post-diet morning fasting plasma glucose values of both groups (p>0,05). Conclusion This study found that medical nutrition therapy in pregnant women with gestational diabetes led to a decrease in blood glucose levels, but consuming fruits as a snack or at the main meal did not make a significant difference on fasting plasma glucose and postprandial blood glucose. It was concluded that the type and amount of carbohydrates consumed daily in gestational diabetes are determinative on blood glucose level.


RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é determinar o efeito do tempo de consumo de fruta na regulação da glucose no sangue em mulheres grávidas com diabetes gestacional. Métodos Este estudo foi realizado com 64 participantes voluntários diagnosticados com diabetes gestacional. Os participantes que foram encaminhados para o Departamento de Nutrição e Dietética foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a ordem da sua aplicação. O grupo 1 foi incluído no programa de tratamento médico nutricional durante uma semana, consumindo fruta para a refeição principal e o grupo 2 para os lanches. Neste processo, foi aplicado aos participantes um plano de nutrição personalizado, com isocalórico, 3 refeições principais e 4 lanches, os macronutrientes de todas as refeições foram ajustados igualmente. Neste processo, os valores de glicemia foram medidos seis vezes por dia pelos participantes, e foram comparados os resultados da glicemia de ambos os grupos antes de se iniciar a terapia nutricional médica e no sétimo dia após o início da terapia nutricional médica. Resultados A idade média das mulheres que participaram no estudo foi de 33,50±4,95 e 32,28±5,18 anos para o 1º e 2º grupos, respetivamente, e não houve diferença entre os grupos em termos de medidas antropométricas. A glicemia média pós-prandial de manhã após terapia nutricional médica dentro dos grupos variou entre 180mg/d a 115mg/dL (p<0,001) para o Grupo 1, e de 185mg/dL a 110mg/dL para o Grupo 2 (p<0,001). Houve uma diminuição nos níveis de glicemia em jejum e glicemia média pós-prandial medidos de manhã, meio-dia e noite antes e depois da terapia nutricional médica dos grupos, mas não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (p>0,05). Os níveis de açúcar no sangue de todos os participantes na dieta diabetes gestacional baixaram para níveis normais sem necessidade de terapia com insulina. Uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa foi observada no sétimo dia do estudo nos níveis de diferença do glicemia média pós-prandial-glicemia em jejum das mulheres grávidas do grupo que consumiram fruta como aperitivo (Grupo 2). (p<0.001). Não houve diferença significativa nos valores de glicemia em jejum matinal de ambos os grupos antes e depois da dieta (p>0,05). Conclusão Como resultado deste estudo, verificou-se que a terapia nutricional levou a uma diminuição do açúcar no sangue em mulheres grávidas com diabetes gestacional, mas o consumo de fruta como lanche ou refeição principal não fez uma diferença significativa no jejum e na glucose do sangue pós-prandial. Concluiu-se que o tipo e a quantidade de hidratos de carbono consumidos diariamente na diabetes gestacional são determinantes para o nível de glicose no sangue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Fruit , Pregnancy , Dietary Carbohydrates/blood , Pregnant Women , Nutrition Therapy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971472

ABSTRACT

Carotenoids are secondary metabolite responsible for colored pigments in plants and microbes (Li et al., 2022). They are a class of C40 tetraterpenoids consisting of eight isoprenoid units, and can be classified into carotenes and xanthophylls on the basis of their functional groups (Saini et al., 2015). Carotenes can be linear (phytoene, phytofluene, and ζ‍-carotene) or branched (β‍-carotene and α‍-carotene). Xanthophylls comprise β,β‍-xanthophylls (β‍-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthins, and neoxanthin) and β,ε‍-xanthophylls (α-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and lutein). Citrus fruits are complex sources of carotenoids, which are the principal pigments responsible for the typical orange color of most types (Chen, 2020). The difference in total carotenoid content and the diversity of carotenoid isomer proportion also accounts for other colors of citrus fruits, such as yellow, red, and pink (Chen, 2020).


Subject(s)
Citrus/metabolism , Carotenoids , Xanthophylls , Lutein/metabolism , Zeaxanthins/metabolism , Fruit
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970626

ABSTRACT

Ten alkaloids(1-10) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Lycium chinense var. potaninii by silica gel, ODS, and preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and identified by NMR and MS as methyl(2S)-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(phenyl)propanoate(1), methyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(phenyl)propanoate(2), 3-hydroxy-4-ethyl ketone pyridine(3), indolyl-3-carbaldehyde(4),(R)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde(5),(R)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-car-baldehyde(6), methyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate(7), dimethyl(2R)-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanedioate(8), 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate(9), 4-[2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid(10). All the compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time. Among them, compounds 1-3 were new compounds. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in vitro with the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. At 10 μmol·L~(-1), compounds 4, 6, 7, and 9 can promote the glucose consumption of HepG2 cells with insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Lycium/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Propionates , Alkaloids/pharmacology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970568

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair by network pharmacology and Box-Behnken method. Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to screen out and verify the potential active components of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus, and the process evaluation indexes were determined in light of the components of the content determination under Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). The analytic hierarchy process(AHP) was used to determine the weight coefficient of each component, and the comprehensive score was calculated as the process evaluation index. The ethanol extraction process of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus was optimized by the Box-Behnken method. The core components of the Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus drug pair were screened out as spinosin, jujuboside A, jujuboside B, schisandrin, schisandrol, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B. The optimal extraction conditions obtained by using the Box-Behnken method were listed below: extraction time of 90 min, ethanol volume fraction of 85%, and two times of extraction. Through network pharmacology and molecular docking, the process evaluation indexes were determined, and the optimized process was stable, which could provide an experimental basis for the production of preparations containing Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Ziziphus/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Schisandra/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970561

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of market classification of Cnidii Fructus, this paper revealed the scientific connotation of evaluating the quality grade of Cnidii Fructus by its appearance traits. Thirty batches of Cnidii Fructus in different grades were selected as the research objects. The canonical correlation analysis and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to explore the measurement values of 15 appearance traits and intrinsic content indexes. The results of correlation analysis showed that except the aspect ratio, the 5 appearance trait indexes(length, width, 1 000-grain weight, broken grain weight proportion, and chroma) and 9 internal content indexes(the content of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, osthole, imperatorin, 5-methoxy psoralen, isopimpinellin, xanthotoxin, and xanthotol) showed significant correlation to varying degrees. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the first typical variable U_1 composed of appearance traits and the first typical variable V_1 composed of internal content indexes(CR_1=0.963, P<0.01). The results of PCA showed that the classification results of appearance traits for 30 batches of Cnidii Fructus were consistent with the actual information of the samples. Under the same analysis conditions, 30 batches of Cnidii Fructus were reclassified by 9 groups of internal content indexes, and the analysis results were consistent. From the classification standard of the appearance traits of the system study, the statistical results of 6 appearance traits of Cnidii Fructus showed a correlation with grades. There was a good correlation between the appearance and the internal content of Cnidii Fructus, and the appearance quality effectively predicted the level of the internal content. There is a certain scientific basis for the quality classification of Cnidii Fructus by main appearance traits. Appearance classification can replace quality grading to realize the "quality evaluation through morphological identification" of Cnidii Fructus.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Phenotype , Principal Component Analysis , Population Groups
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970522

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the consistency of the content proportions of active components of Aurantii Fructus and analyzed the influencing factors based on three-dimensional multi-component analysis. A total of 839 Aurantii Fructus samples in 65 research articles were analyzed using the three-dimensional multi-component analysis mode. The content data of flavonoid components(naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, narirutin, and nobiletin), coumarin components(meranzin and gluconolactone), and alkaloid(synephrine) in 386 samples which met the criteria of 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia were extracted and adjusted to percentages, and the content ratios between components were calculated. The influencing factors of Aurantii Fructus quality were analyzed. The results showed content ratios of components as follows: neohesperidin∶naringin in the range of 0.4-1.2; narirutin∶naringin in the range of 0.02-0.16; hesperidin∶naringin in the range of 0.01-0.3; nobiletin∶naringin in the range of 0.000 588 3-0.069 68; synephrine∶naringin in the range of 0.02-0.042; gluconolactone∶naringin in the range of 0.001-0.01; meranzin∶naringin in the range of 0.000 4-0.035. The quality of Aurantii Fructus was closely related to the origin, variety, harvesting time, and processing method of medicinal materials. Harvesting time had a greater impact on the quality of Aurantii Fructus, and the origin and variety had a certain impact on the quality of Aurantii Fructus. The findings of this study indicated that the ratios between flavonoid components, flavonoids and coumarin components, and flavonoids and alkaloids fluctuated. The production base should optimize the varieties, harvesting period, and processing methods of Aurantii Fructus to provide a scientific basis for the production of high-quality Aurantii Fructus.


Subject(s)
Citrus , Flavonoids/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit/chemistry , Coumarins/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
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