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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 72(supl.1): e58993, Mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1559336

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Sea urchin diseases have been documented in several locations worldwide, with reported occurrences of bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and algal infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate pathogen agents in populations of Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus along the coast of Gran Canaria Island (Central-East Atlantic, Spain). Methods: Sampling was conducted at San Cristobal beach, on the Northeast side of the island, where sea urchins were manually collected from depths of 1-3 m during June, July, and October 2022. Swab samples were taken from the external and internal areas of the lesions and cultured on various media plates. Results: Eight different pathogen agents, including bacteria and fungi, were identified, with Vibrio alginolyticus being the most frequently observed bacteria in all diseased sea urchin samples. Additionally, ciliated protozoans were found within the tests, potentially acting as opportunistic parasites. Conclusions: This research provides a unique perspective on bald sea urchin disease by identifying a significant number of associated pathogens, including Candida, previously unreported in diseased organisms. Furthermore, the study highlights the presence of an inflammatory response in tissues with bacterial colonies, offering crucial insights into understanding this sea urchin disease.


Resumen Introducción: Las enfermedades en los erizos de mar han sido descritas en muchas localidades alrededor del mundo, y se han asociado con la presencia de infecciones por bacterias, protozoarios, hongos y algas. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como finalidad investigar sobre los agentes patógenos que afectan a las poblaciones de Arbacia lixula y Paracentrotus lividus a lo largo de la costa de la Isla de Gran Canaria (Atlántico Centro-Oriental, España). Métodos: El muestreo fue llevado a cabo en la playa de San Cristóbal, al noreste de la isla, dónde los organismos fueron capturados entre 1-3 metros de profundidad, durante junio, julio y octubre del año 2022. Se tomaron muestras en la zona interna y externa de la lesión en cada organismo, y se cultivaron en varios medios de cultivo. Resultados: Fueron identificados ocho agentes patógenos diferentes, incluyendo bacterias y hongos, y siendo Vibrio alginolyticus la bacteria más frecuentemente observada en todas las muestras de erizos enfermos. Además, se observaron protozoarios ciliados dentro de los caparazones, actuando potencialmente como parásitos oportunistas. Conclusiones: Esta investigación proporciona una perspectiva única sobre la enfermedad del erizo desnudo al identificar un número significativo de patógenos asociados, incluida Candida, que no se había reportado previamente en organismos enfermos. Además, el estudio destaca la presencia de una respuesta inflamatoria en tejidos con colonias bacterianas, lo que ofrece información crucial para comprender esta enfermedad de los erizos de mar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria , Arbacia/pathogenicity , Fungi
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249472, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364512

ABSTRACT

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores. To study the genetic structure of the leaf rust population 20 RAPD primers were evaluated on 15 isolates samples collected in Pakistan. A total of 105 RAPD fragments were amplified with an average of 7 fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 to 12. GL Decamer L-07 and GL Decamer L-01 amplified the highest number of bands (twelve) and primer GL Decamer A-03 amplified the lowest number of bands i.e one. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different that confirms high genetic diversity within the leaf rust population. Rust spores can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor areas. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 74.9% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different areas. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Pakistani leaf rust populations were detected between the leaf rust population in NARC isolate (NARC-4) and AARI-11and the highest similarity was observed between NARC isolates (NARC-4) and (NARC-5). The present study showed the leaf rust population in Pakistan is highly dynamic and variable.


A ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, é a ferrugem mais comum do trigo. O fungo é um parasita obrigatório, capaz de produzir urediniósporos infecciosos. Para estudar a estrutura genética da população de ferrugem da folha, 20 primers RAPD foram avaliados em 15 amostras de isolados coletadas no Paquistão. Um total de 105 fragmentos RAPD foram amplificados com uma média de 7 fragmentos por primer. O número de fragmentos amplificados variou de 1 a 12. GL Decamer L-07 e GL Decamer L-01 amplificaram o maior número de bandas (doze), e o primer GL Decamer A-03 amplificou o menor número de bandas, ou seja, um. Os resultados mostraram que quase todos os isolados investigados eram geneticamente diferentes, o que confirma a alta diversidade genética na população de ferrugem da folha. Os esporos de ferrugem podem seguir o padrão de migração em distâncias curtas e longas para áreas vizinhas. Os resultados indicaram que a maior variabilidade foi revelada por 74,9% da diferenciação genética nas populações de ferrugem. Esses resultados sugeriram que cada população não era completamente idêntica e um alto fluxo gênico ocorreu entre a população de ferrugem da folha de diferentes áreas. A maior diferenciação e distância genética entre as populações de ferrugem da folha do Paquistão foram detectadas entre a população de ferrugem da folha no isolado NARC (NARC-4) e AARI-11 e a maior similaridade foi observada entre os isolados NARC (NARC-4) e (NARC-5). O presente estudo mostrou que a população de ferrugem da folha no Paquistão é altamente dinâmica e variável.


Subject(s)
Triticum/parasitology , Biomarkers , Agricultural Pests , Fungi/genetics , Puccinia/genetics
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251367, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355884

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of atmospheric plasma application on the inactivation of fungi on the surface of Erythrina velutina seeds and on isolated fungal colonies. Two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. First, plasma was applied to the surface of the seeds using helium gas and atmospheric plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min in addition to the control (untreated seeds), constituting seven treatments with five repetitions each. In the second experiment, Petri dishes containing the inoculum of different fungi were treated with atmospheric air plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min (Air-3, Air-6, and Air-9) and were compared with untreated fungi in Petri dishes without treatment (control), totaling four treatments and five repetitions each. We found that the application of atmospheric air plasma to E. velutina seeds for 9 min had an antimicrobial effect on the fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The formation of fungal colonies isolated from E. velutina seeds was also inhibited by 3 min of exposure to atmospheric air plasma, except for A. niger, whose inhibition occurred after 6 min of exposure to atmospheric plasma.


Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de plasma atmosférico na inativação de fungos na superfície de sementes de Erythrina velutina e em colônias fúngicas isoladas. Dois experimentos foram realizados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado: no primeiro, o plasma foi aplicado na superfície das sementes usando gás hélio e plasma atmosférico por três, seis e nove minutos, além do controle (sementes sem tratamento), constituindo sete tratamentos com cinco repetições cada; no segundo experimento, placas de Petri contendo o inóculo de diferentes fungos foram tratadas com plasma atmosférico por três, seis e nove minutos (Air-3, Air-6 e Air-9) e comparadas com fungos não tratados em placas de Petri sem tratamento (controle), totalizando quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições cada. Descobrimos que a aplicação de plasma atmosférico nas sementes de E. velutina por nove minutos teve efeito antimicrobiano sobre os fungos Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp. e Rhizopus sp. A formação de colônias fúngicas isoladas de sementes de E. velutina também foi inibida por três minutos de exposição à aplicação de plasma atmosférico, exceto para A. niger, cuja inibição ocorreu a partir de 6 minutos de exposição à aplicação de plasma atmosférico.


Subject(s)
Erythrina , Fungi
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Manihot , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Biodiversity , Endophytes , Fungi
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533992

ABSTRACT

Abstract For places where non-sterile drug production occurs, regulatory bodies recommend monitoring of the environmental bioburden. This procedure provides information regarding possible microbiological risks to which the products may be exposed, so that subsequent action measures may be implemented. The aim of the present work was to quantify and characterize the microorganisms present in Grade D (ISO 8) cleanrooms of a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, identifying any possible seasonal climatic influences on these environments. Sampling was performed by surface and air monitoring, over 12 months during the year 2019, in rooms that were in operation. For both sampling methods, no statistically significant differences in bacteria and fungi counts were found between months or seasonal periods. Microorganisms that presented higher incidence included Staphylococcus epidermidis (15%) and Micrococcus spp. (13%), common to the human microbiota, and the fungi Cladosporium sp. (23%) and Penicillium sp. (21%), typical of the external environment. The results showed that microbial contamination in the Grade D cleanrooms was within the permissible maximum levels and remained similar throughout the year. Microbiological quality control in the clean areas of the pharmaceutical industry investigated was considered effective, with regular maintenance being necessary to keep bioburden levels controlled.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Drug Industry/instrumentation , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Microbiota/immunology , Fungi/classification
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 461-464, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521869

ABSTRACT

En las últimas décadas ha existido un reordenamiento de los géneros y especies fúngicas de importancia médica debido a los constantes avances en la biología molecular. Desde la declaración de Amsterdam en el año 2011, se han ido abandonando la taxonomía de dos nombres (sexual y asexual) por cada especie, además se ha priorizado al primer nombre descrito. Dado que se recomienda comenzar a utilizar los nombres actualizados de los géneros y especies de levaduras y hongos filamentosos, se propone una transición utilizando el nombre actual, y el antiguo entre paréntesis escrito con minúscula, con el fin de evitar confusiones en los médicos clínicos ya acostumbrados a la nomenclatura previa.


In recent decades there has been a rearrangement of fungal genera and species of medical importance due to constant advances in molecular biology. Since the Amsterdam declaration in 2011, the taxonomy of two names (sexual and asexual) for each species has been abandoned, and the first name described has also been prioritized. Since it is recommended to start using the updated names of the genera and species of yeasts and filamentous fungi, a transition is proposed using the current name, and the old one in parentheses written with lower case, in order to avoid confusion in clinician physicians already accustomed to the previous nomenclature.


Subject(s)
Fungi/classification , Yeasts/classification
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 481-490, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521875

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las opacidades pulmonares en receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH) representan un desafío diagnóstico y son una causa de morbimortalidad. Existen grandes discrepancias con respecto a la sensibilidad diagnóstica del lavado broncoalveolar (LBA), sus complicaciones, y los factores asociados a la identificación microbiológica. OBJETIVO: Conocer la utilidad del estudio microbiológico del LBA en el diagnóstico, modificación de la conducta médica y estimar las complicaciones y mortalidad asociada al procedimiento, en receptores de TPH con opacidades pulmonares. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte, retrospectivo, en adultos receptores de TPH a los que se les realizó una broncoscopía con LBA por presentar opacidades pulmonares, en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires entre el 01/01/2011 y el 31/12/2020. RESULTADOS: De los 189 procedimientos analizados, en 79 se logró un hallazgo microbiológico (41,8%) y 122 permitieron modificar la conducta médica (64,6%). En 11 casos se observaron complicaciones graves dentro de las 12 horas (5,8%) de efectuado el LBA. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue de 16,8% (N = 21/125). El valor de neutrófilos en sangre previo al LBA (p = 0,037) y la presencia de nódulos pulmonares como lesión tomográfica predominante (p = 0,029) se asociaron independientemente al hallazgo microbiològico global. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestra investigación apoya la realización del LBA como herramienta diagnóstica en pacientes que reciben un TPH y presentan opacidades pulmonares.


BACKGROUND: Lung opacities are a cause of morbimortality in bone marrow transplant patients, and represent a diagnostic challenge. There are large discrepancies regarding the diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), its complications, and the factors associated with microbiological detection. AIM: To know the usefulness of the microbiological study of BAL in the diagnosis, in the modification in medical behavior and to estimate the complications and associated mortality of this diagnostic procedure in patients transplanted with hematopoietic progenitor cells with pulmonary opacities. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in bone marrow transplant adult patients who underwent bronchoscopy with BAL due to lung opacities at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires between 01/01/2011 and 12/31/2020. RESULTS: Of the 189 BAL analyzed, 79 presented a microbiological detection (41.8%) and 122 allowed to modify the medical behavior (64.6%). Severe complications were observed within 12 hours after the procedure in11 cases (5.8%). In-hospital mortality was 16,8% (N = 21/125). The value of blood neutrophils prior to bronchoalveolar lavage (p = 0.037) and the presence of pulmonary nodules as the predominant tomographic lesion (p = 0.029) were independently associated with global microbiological detection. CONCLUSION: Our research supports the performance of BAL as a diagnostic tool in bone marrow transplant patients with lung opacities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Viruses/isolation & purification , Multivariate Analysis , Cohort Studies , Immunocompromised Host , Transplant Recipients , Fungi/isolation & purification , Lung/microbiology
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 267-277, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533898

ABSTRACT

Natural and human-made disasters have long played a role in shaping the environment and microbial communities, also affecting non-microbial life on Earth. Disaster microbiology is a new concept based on the notion that a disaster changes the environment causing adaptation or alteration of microbial populations-growth, death, transportation to a new area, development traits, or resistance-that can have downstream effects on the affected ecosystem. Such downstream effects include blooms of microbial populations and the ability to colonize a new niche or host, cause disease, or survive in former extreme conditions. Throughout history, fungal populations have been affected by disasters. There are prehistoric archeological records of fungal blooms after asteroid impacts and fungi implicated in the fall of the dinosaurs. In recent times, drought and dust storms have caused disturbance of soil fungi, and hurricanes have induced the growth of molds on wet surfaces, resulting in an increased incidence of fungal disease. Probably, the anticipated increase in extreme heat would force fungi adaptation to survive at high temperatures, like those in the human body, and thus be able to infect mammals. This may lead to a drastic rise of new fungal diseases in humans.


Los desastres naturales o los causados por el hombre impactan la formación de ecosistemas y comunidades microbianas, y también afectan las formas de vida no microbianas. Este concepto es conocido como "microbiología de desastres", una subespecialización de la microbiología, basada en los cambios ambientales generados por un desastre y las posibles adaptaciones o alteraciones de las poblaciones microbianas -crecimiento, muerte, trasporte a una nueva región, o adquisición de resistencia o de nuevas características- que influirán en el moldeamiento del ecosistema transformado. Algunos de los efectos de estas adaptaciones pueden ser: el surgimiento de poblaciones microbianas, la habilidad de colonizar nuevos nichos u huéspedes, la generación de nuevas enfermedades, o el crecimiento de microorganismos en condiciones que antes eran "extremas" para ellos. A lo largo de la historia, varias poblaciones de hongos han sido afectadas por desastres. Existen registros arqueológicos prehistóricos que evidencian la presencia y el crecimiento de hongos luego del impacto de asteroides, y otros de hongos relacionados con la extinción de los dinosaurios. Actualmente, las sequías y las tormentas de polvo causan perturbaciones en las comunidades de hongos del suelo, y los huracanes inducen el crecimiento de hongos filamentosos en superficies húmedas, lo que aumenta la cantidad de enfermedades por hongos. Además, con el aumento de las temperaturas extremas es posible que los hongos puedan adaptarse para sobrevivir a temperaturas más altas, equivalentes a las temperaturas corporales, y nuevas especies puedan infectar mamíferos. Esto puede llevar a un aumento drástico de las infecciones fúngicas en humanos.


Subject(s)
Mycology , Natural Disasters , Climate Change , Fungi , Candida auris
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 278-287, ago. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533902

ABSTRACT

Candida auris has been recognized as an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen with a significant public health burden, causing cases of invasive infection and colonization due to its persistence on inanimate surfaces, ability to colonize skin of some patients, and high transmissibility in healthcare settings. The first sporadic report of the isolation of this species from the ear canal of a patient in Asia was in 2009 and reports from other regions of the world soon followed. However, it was not until 2015 that global epidemiological alerts were communicated as a result of an increasing number of reports of invasive infections caused by C. auris in several countries. Colombia was soon added to this list in 2016 after an unusual increase in the number of C. haemulonii isolates was reported, later confirmed as C. auris. Since the issuing of a national alert by the Colombian National Institute of Health together with the Ministry of Health in 2016, the number of cases reported reached over 2,000 by 2022. Colombian isolates have not shown pan resistance to available antifungals, unlike C. auris strains reported in other regions of the world, which leaves patients in Colombia with therapeutic options for these infections. However, increasing fluconazole resistance is being observed. Whole-genome sequencing of Colombian C. auris isolates has enhanced molecular epidemiological data, grouping Colombian isolates in clade IV together with other South American isolates. Data from Colombia showed that public health authorities, scientific community, and the general public need to be aware of fungal diseases as they present an often-deadly threat to patients.


Candida auris ha sido reconocido como un agente patógeno multirresistente emergente con una carga significativa en la salud pública. Genera casos de infección invasiva y colonización debido a su persistencia en superficies inanimadas, su capacidad para colonizar fácilmente la piel de algunos pacientes y su alta transmisibilidad en el ambiente hospitalario. El primer reporte esporádico de esta especie fue en Asia en el 2009 cuando se realizó su aislamiento a partir del conducto auditivo de un paciente, y pronto le siguieron reportes en otras regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, no fue hasta 2015 que se conocieron las alertas epidemiológicas a nivel mundial debido a un aumento en el número de casos de infecciones causadas por C. auris en varios países. Colombia se sumó a la lista en 2016 luego de un aumento inusual en el número de aislamientos de C. haemulonii informados, que luego se confirmaron como C. auris. Desde que el Instituto Nacional de Salud junto con el Ministerio de Salud emitieron la Alerta Nacional en el 2016, el número de casos reportados superó los 2.000 en el 2022. Los aislamientos colombianos no han mostrado resistencia generalizada a los antifúngicos disponibles, contrario a lo reportado para cepas de C. auris en algunas regiones del mundo, por lo que los pacientes en Colombia aún cuentan con opciones terapéuticas para estas infecciones. No obstante, se ha observado un aumento en la resistencia al fluconazol. La secuenciación del genoma completo agrupó los aislamientos colombianos en el Ciado IV, junto con otros sudamericanos de C. auris, y aportó al conocimiento de los datos epidemiológicos moleculares de esta especie. Los datos de Colombia evidencian que las autoridades de salud pública, la comunidad científica y el público en general deben ser conscientes de las enfermedades fúngicas, ya que a menudo representan una amenaza mortal para los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Candida auris , Drug Resistance , Colombia , Whole Genome Sequencing , Fungi , Infections
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 288-311, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533904

ABSTRACT

Los hongos son organismos polifacéticos presentes en casi todos los ecosistemas de la tierra, donde establecen diversos tipos de simbiosis con otros seres vivos. A pesar de ser reconocidos por los humanos desde la antigüedad -y de la cantidad de trabajos que han profundizado sobre su biología y ecología-, aún falta mucho por conocer sobre estos organismos. Algunos de los criterios que clásicamente se han utilizado para su estudio, hoy resultan limitados y hasta cierto punto permiten un agrupamiento de los aislamientos según algunas características, pero generan confusión en su clasificación y, más aún, cuando se pretende comprender sus relaciones genealógicas. Los caracteres fenotípicos no son suficientes para identificar una especie de hongos y, menos aún, para construir una filogenia amplia o de un grupo particular. Hay grandes vacíos que hacen que los árboles generados sean inestables y fácilmente debatidos. Para los profesionales de la salud, parece que la identificación de los hongos hasta niveles inferiores como género y especie es suficiente para elegir el tratamiento más adecuado para su control, comprender la epidemiología de los cuadros clínicos asociados y reconocer los brotes y los factores determinantes de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. No obstante, la ubicación taxonómica dentro del reino permitiría establecer relaciones filogenéticas entre los taxones fúngicos, facilitando la comprensión de su biología, su distribución en la naturaleza y la evolución de su potencial patogénico. Los avances de las técnicas de biología molecular y las ciencias de la computación en los últimos 30 años han permitido cambios importantes dirigidos a establecer los criterios para definir una especie fúngica y alcanzar una construcción filogenética más o menos estable. Sin embargo, el camino por recorrer aún es largo, y supone un trabajo mancomunado de la comunidad científica a nivel global y el apoyo a la investigación básica.


Fungi are multifaceted organisms found in almost all ecosystems on Earth, where they establish various types of symbiosis with other living beings. Despite being recognized by humans since ancient times, and the high number of works delving into their biology and ecology, much is still unknown about these organisms. Some criteria classically used for their study are nowadays limited, generating confusion in categorizing them, and even more, when trying to understand their genealogical relationships. To identify species within Fungi, phenotypic characters to date are not sufficient, and to construct a broad phylogeny or a phylogeny of a particular group, there are still gaps affecting the generated trees, making them unstable and easily debated. For health professionals, fungal identification at lower levels such as genus and species, is enough to select the most appropriate therapy for their control, understand the epidemiology of clinical pictures associated, and recognize outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance. However, the taxonomic location within the kingdom, information with apparently little relevance, can allow phylogenetic relationships to be established between fungal taxa, facilitating the understanding of their biology, distribution in nature, and pathogenic potential evolution. Advances in molecular biology and computer science techniques from the last 30 years have led to crucial changes aiming to establish the criteria to define a fungal species, allowing us to reach a kind of stable phylogenetic construction. However, there is still a long way to go, and it requires the joint work of the scientific community at a global level and support for basic research.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Fungi , Classification , Biological Evolution , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(4): 360-369, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521851

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección fúngica invasora (IFI) es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos y portadores de aplasia medular (AM) severa. OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de la IFI desde el año 2016 al 2020 en niños con cáncer y AM para evaluar la necesidad de profilaxis antifúngica. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo, multicéntrico, en pacientes pediátricos con cáncer y AM severa. Se incluyeron IFI probables y probadas. RESULTADOS: Se diagnosticaron 57 casos de IFI, mediana de edad 9 años, 70% probadas y 30% probables. Hubo 42% de infecciones por levaduras y 56% por hongos filamentosos. Los sitios de infección más frecuentes fueron pulmón 38%, sangre 36% y rinosinusal 21%. La frecuencia global fue 5,4%; de ellas 21% en AM severa, 10% en leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), 6,9% en recaída de LMA, 5,4% en recaída de leucemia linfática aguda (LLA), 3,8% en LLA. Las infecciones por hongos filamentosos predominaron en LMA, recaída de LMA. y AM severa. La mortalidad en pacientes con IFI fue de 11%. CONCLUSIÓN: La frecuencia de IFI concuerda con la literatura médica. Recomendamos profilaxis antifúngica contra hongos filamentosos en pacientes con AM severa, LMA y recaída de LMA. Considerar en recaída de LLA de alto riesgo en etapa de inducción.


BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric oncology patients and severe aplastic anemia (SAA). AIM: To describe the epidemiology of IFI from 2016 to 2020 in children with cancer and SAA to assess the indication of antifungal prophylaxis. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study of IFIs in pediatric oncology patients and SAA. Probable and proven IFIs were included. RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, 57 IFIs were found, median age 9 years, 70% were proven and 30% were probable. Yeast infections were 42% and mold infections 56%. The most frequent infection sites were lung 38%, blood 36% and rhinosinusal 21%. The total IFI frequency was 5.4%, 21% in SAA, 10% in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 6.9% in relapsed AML, 5.4% in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 3.8% in ALL. Mold infections were predominant in AML, relapsed AML, and SAA. IFIs mortality was 11%. CONCLUSION: Frequency of IFI was consistent with the literature. We strongly recommend antifungal prophylaxis against mold infections in patients with SAA, AML, and relapsed AML. Would consider in high risk ALL relapse in induction chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Multicenter Study , Chemoprevention/methods , Febrile Neutropenia/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/prevention & control , Fungi/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Anemia, Aplastic/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
12.
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008715

ABSTRACT

Excessive application of chemical fertilizer has caused many problems in Angelica dahurica var. formosana planting, such as yield decline and quality degradation. In order to promote the green cultivation mode of A. dahurica var. formosana and explore rhizosphere fungus resources, the rhizosphere fungi with nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, potassium solubilization, iron-producing carrier, and IAA-producing properties were isolated and screened in the rhizosphere of A. dahurica var. formosana from the genuine and non-genuine areas, respectively. The strains were identified comprehensively in light of the morphological characteristics and ITS rDNA sequences, and the growth-promoting effect of the screened strains was verified by pot experiment. The results showed that 37 strains of growth-promoting fungi were isolated and screened from the rhizosphere of A. dahurica var. formosana, mostly belonging to Fusarium. The cultured rhizosphere growth-promoting fungi of A. dahurica var. formosana were more abundant and diverse in the genuine producing areas than in the non-genuine producing areas. Among all strains, Aspergillus niger ZJ-17 had the strongest growth promotion potential. Under the condition of no fertilization outdoors, ZJ-17 inoculation significantly promoted the growth, yield, and accumulation of effective components of A. dahurica var. formosana planted in the soil of genuine and non-genuine producing areas, with yield increases of 73.59% and 37.84%, respectively. To a certain extent, it alleviated the restriction without additional fertilization on the growth of A. dahurica var. formosana. Therefore, A. niger ZJ-17 has great application prospects in increasing yield and quality of A. dahurica var. formosana and reducing fertilizer application and can be actually applied in promoting the growth of A. dahurica var. formosana and producing biofertilizer.


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Rhizosphere , Angelica/chemistry , Fungi/genetics , Phosphorus
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982395

ABSTRACT

Monascus is one of the most essential microbial resources in China, with thousands of years of history. Modern science has proved that Monascus can produce pigment, ergosterol, monacolin K, γ-aminobutyric acid, and other functionally active substances. Currently, Monascus is used to produce a variety of foods, health products, and pharmaceuticals, and its pigments are widely used as food additives. However, Monascus also makes a harmful polyketide component called citrinin in the fermentation process; citrinin has toxic effects on the kidneys such as teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity (Gong et al., 2019). The presence of citrinin renders Monascus and its products potentially hazardous, which has led many countries to set limits and standards on citrinin content. For example, the citrinin limit is less than 0.04 mg/kg according to the Chinese document National Standard for Food Safety Food Additive Monascus (GB 1886.181-2016) (National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China, 2016), and the maximum level in food supplements based on rice fermented with Monascus purpureus is 100 µg/kg in the European Union (Commission of the European Union, 2019).


Subject(s)
Citrinin , Dietary Supplements , Fungi , Monascus
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

ABSTRACT

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Feathers , Fermentation , Fungi , Industrial Waste , Keratins/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4927-4938, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008069

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the enzyme production mechanism of yak rumen-derived anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. YF3 under the induction of different carbon sources, anaerobic culture tubes were used for in vitro fermentation. 8 g/L of glucose (Glu), filter paper (Flp) and avicel (Avi) were respectively added to 10 mL of basic culture medium as the sole carbon source. The activity of fiber-degrading enzyme and the concentration of volatile fatty acid in the fermentation liquid were detected, and the enzyme producing mechanism of Orpinomyces sp. YF3 was explored by transcriptomics. It was found that, in glucose-induced fermentation solution, the activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, microcrystalline cellulase, filter paper enzyme, xylanase and the proportion of acetate were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the proportion of propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The results of transcriptome analysis showed that there were 5 949 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the Glu group and the Flp group, 10 970 DEGs between the Glu group and the Avi group, and 6 057 DEGs between the Flp group and the Avi group. It was found that the DEGs associated with fiber degrading enzymes were significantly up-regulated in the Glu group. Gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis identified that DEGs were mainly associated with the xylan catabolic process, hemicellulose metabolic process, β-glucan metabolic process, cellulase activity, endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity, cell wall polysaccharide metabolic process, carbohydrate catabolic process, glucan catabolic process and carbohydrate metabolic process. Moreover, the differentially expressed pathways associated with fiber degrading enzymes enriched by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were mainly starch and sucrose metabolic pathways and other glycan degradation pathways. In conclusion, Orpinomyces sp. YF3 with glucose as carbon source substrate significantly increased the activity of cellulose degrading enzyme and the proportion of acetate, decreased the proportion of propionate, butyrate and isobutyrate. Furthermore, the degradation ability and energy utilization efficiency of fungus in the presence of glucose were improved by means of regulating the expression of cellulose degrading enzyme gene and participating in starch and sucrose metabolism pathway, and other glycan degradation pathways, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of Orpinomyces sp. YF3 in practical production and facilitates the application of Orpinomyces sp. YF3 in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Neocallimastigales/metabolism , Anaerobiosis , Rumen/microbiology , Propionates/metabolism , Isobutyrates/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Fungi , Starch/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Acetates , Sucrose/metabolism , Cellulases , Cellulase
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-13, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468809

ABSTRACT

Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.


As interações entre fungos endofíticos (FEs) e suas plantas hospedeiras variam de positivas, neutras a negativas. Os resultados destas interações podem variar dependendo do órgão da planta hospedeira infectada. FEs isolados de folhas de algumas espécies de plantas têm potencial para serem usados como agentes inibidores da germinação de sementes e no controle de plantas invasoras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os FEs presentes nas folhas de Copaifera oblongifolia e avaliar o papel destes fungos na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Um total de 11 espécies de FEs foi isolado das folhas de C. oblongifolia e identificado através da sequência dos espaçadores internos transcritos do DNA ribossomal nuclear. As espécies de FEs isoladas são generalistas e provavelmente devem ser transmitidas horizontalmente. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que filtrados destes isolados fúngicos podem afetar diferentemente a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de C. oblongifolia. As espécies Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum e Phomopsis sp. afetaram negativamente a germinação das sementes de C. oblongifolia. Dentre estas espécies devemos destacar que N. parvum reduziu a germinação e a sobrevivência das plântulas em 89 e 222%, respectivamente. Além disso, Cochiliobolus intermedius afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Assim, o uso combinado de N. parvum e C. intermedius, ou de produtos do metabolismo destas espécies de fungos, têm potencial para serem usados no manejo de plantas invasoras.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal/analysis , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fungi/pathogenicity , Germination , Host Microbial Interactions , Seedlings/growth & development
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-6, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468830

ABSTRACT

Bats are important for the homeostasis of ecosystems and serve as hosts of various microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi with pathogenic potential. This study aimed to isolate fungi from biological samples obtained from bats captured in the city of Sinop (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), where large areas of deforestation exist due to urbanization and agriculture. On the basis of the flow of people and domestic animals, 48 bats were captured in eleven urban forest fragments. The samples were processed and submitted to microbiological cultures, to isolate and to identify the fungal genera. Thirty-four (70.83%) of the captured bats were positive for fungi; 18 (37.5%) and 16 (33.33%) of these bats were female and male, respectively. Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp., which may cause opportunistic infections, were isolated. The bat species with the highest number of fungal isolates was Molossus molossus: 21 isolates (43.8%). According to our results, bats captured in urban forest fragments in Sinop harbor pathogenic fungi, increasing the risk of opportunistic fungal infections in humans and domestic animals.


Os morcegos apresentam grande importância na homeostasia dos ecossistemas e são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de micro-organismos como bactérias, vírus e fungos com potencial patogênico. Portanto, este estudo visou isolar fungos presentes em amostras biológicas de morcegos na cidade de Sinop - MT, que possui grandes áreas de desmatamento devido à urbanização e agricultura. Foram capturados 48 morcegos de diferentes espécies, em onze fragmentos florestais urbanos definidos de acordo com fluxo de pessoas e animais domésticos, para obtenção de amostras biológicas. Essas amostras foram processadas e submetidas aos cultivos microbiológicos, para isolamento e identificação dos gêneros dos fungos. Dos 48 morcegos, 34 (70,83%) foram positivos para pelos menos um gênero de fungo, sendo 18 (37,5%) fêmeas e 16 (33,33%) machos, e os gêneros isolados a partir das amostras biológicas foram Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp. e Candida sp., que podem ser causadores de infecções oportunistas. Desse total, a espécie que apresentou maior positividade para pelo menos um gênero de fungo foi Molossus molossus com 21 (43,8%). Nossos resultados demonstram que os morcegos capturados nos fragmentos florestais urbanos na cidade de Sinop - MT, podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, aumentando assim o risco de exposição e aquisição de infecções fúngicas oportunistas por pessoas e animais domésticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fungi/pathogenicity , Chiroptera/microbiology , Chiroptera/blood , Alternaria , Aspergillus , Candida , Cryptococcus , Fusarium , Penicillium , Scopulariopsis , Trichosporon
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-12, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468876

ABSTRACT

Organo-mineral fertilizers supplemented with biological additives are an alternative to chemical fertilizers. In this study, thermoresistant microorganisms from composting mass were isolated by two-step procedures. First, samples taken at different time points and temperatures (33 days at 52 ºC, 60 days at 63 ºC, and over 365 days at 26 ºC) were pre-incubated at 80 oC for 30 minutes. Second, the microbial selection by in vitro culture-based methods and heat shock at 60 oC and 100 oC for 2h and 4h. Forty-one isolates were able to grow at 60 °C for 4h; twenty-seven at 100 °C for 2h, and two at 100 °C for 4h. The molecular identification by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal gene using universal primers revealed that thirty-five isolates were from eight Bacillus species, one Brevibacillus borstelensis, three Streptomyces thermogriseus, and two fungi (Thermomyces lanuginosus and T. dupontii). Data from amylase, phytase, and cellulase activity assays and the enzymatic index (EI) showed that 38 of 41 thermo-resistant isolates produce at least one enzyme. For amylase activity, the highest EI value was observed in Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 21C2, EI= 4.11), followed by Brevibacillus borstelensis (isolate 6C2, EI= 3.66), Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 3.52), and Bacillus paralicheniformis (isolate 20C2, EI= 3.34). For phytase, the highest EI values were observed for Bacillus cereus (isolate 18C2, EI= 2.30) and Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 3C1, EI= 2.15). Concerning cellulose production, B. altitudinis (isolate 6C1) was the most efficient (EI= 6.40), followed by three Bacillus subtilis (isolates 9C1, 16C2, and 19C2) with EI values of 5.66, 5.84, and 5.88, respectively, and one B. pumilus (isolate 27C2, EI= 5.78). The selected microorganisms are potentially useful as a biological additive in organo-mineral fertilizers and other biotechnological processes.


Os fertilizantes organo-minerais suplementados com aditivos biológicos são uma alternativa aos adubos químicos. Neste estudo, microrganismos termoresistentes foram isolados de compostagem por procedimentos de duas etapas. Inicialmente, as amostras tomadas em diferentes períodos e temperaturas (33 dias a 52 ºC, 60 dias a 63 ºC e mais de 365 dias a 26 ºC) foram pré-incubadas a 80 oC por 30 minutos. Posteriormente, a seleção microbiana foi conduzida por métodos baseados em cultura in vitro e choque térmico a 60 oC e 100 oC por 2h e 4h. Quarenta e um isolados foram capazes de crescer a 60 °C por 4h; vinte e sete a 100 °C por 2h e dois a 100 °C por 4h. A identificação molecular por sequenciamento parcial do gene ribossomal 16S usando primers universais revelou que trinta e cinco isolados eram de oito espécies de Bacillus, um Brevibacillus borstelensis, três Streptomyces thermogriseus e dois fungos (Thermomyces lanuginosus e T. dupontii). Os dados dos ensaios de atividade de amilase, fitase e celulase e o índice enzimático (IE) mostraram que 38 dos 41 isolados termorresistentes produziram pelo menos uma enzima. Para a atividade da amilase, o maior valor de IE foi observado em Bacillus licheniformis (isolado 21C2, IE = 4,11), seguido por Brevibacillus borstelensis (isolado 6C2, IE = 3,66), Bacillus cereus (isolado 18C2, IE = 3,52) e Bacillus paralicheniformis (isolado 20C2, IE = 3,34). Para a fitase, os maiores valores de IE foram observados para B. cereus (isolado 18C2, IE = 2,30) e B. licheniformis (isolado 3C1, IE = 2,15). Em relação à produção de celulose, B. altitudinis (isolado 6C1) foi o mais eficiente (IE = 6,40), seguido por três Bacillus subtilis (isolados 9C1, 16C2 e 19C2) com valores de IE de 5,66, 5,84 e 5,88, respectivamente, e um B. pumilus (isolado 27C2, IE = 5,78). Pode-se inferir que os microrganismos selecionados são potencialmente úteis como aditivos biológicos em fertilizantes organo-minerais e outros processos biotecnológicos.


Subject(s)
Bacillus , Brevibacillus/enzymology , Organic Chemicals , Fungi/enzymology , Microbiota/genetics , /ultrastructure , Streptomyces/enzymology
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